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Affects the liver
Symptomatic 2-6 weeks after exposure
Speaker notes: Hepatitis A is caused by a virus. Symptoms of hepatitis A include dark-colored urine, pale stools, chronic fatigue (with no other explanation), itching, anorexia (loss of appetite) and nausea, fever, vomiting, and jaundice. The symptoms usually present manifest 2-6 weeks after the initial exposure (Zieve 2011). To test for the disease, the doctor may test for raised IgM and IgG antibodies to hepatitis A and elevated liver enzymes through liver function tests (Zieve 2011). Persons in high-risk occupations may wish to be periodically tested.
Food and water
Stool and blood
Speaker notes: Disease reservoirs for hepatitis A include food that has been contaminated by the feces of carriers of the disease; contaminated water or ice; direct contact with stool or blood of persons with the disease; and sexual contact. To protect against…… [Read More]
hat is the leading cause of liver disease? hat could cause so many people to require liver transplants? Most people on the street today would think that the answer to those questions would be alcoholism. And, although alcohol does do its fair share of damage to livers around the world, there is a greater source causing chronic liver disease out there.
This term paper will attempt to shed light on the hepatitis virus. The correct pronunciation would be: (h-p ? t? t-s). There are several strains of the hepatitis virus with some being non-issues and others being incurable killers. This report focuses specifically on the Hepatitis C virus which falls under the incurable killer header. This strain of the viruses can never be taken lightly.
There are many ways for an individual to acquire the hepatitis C virus into their system; however, there is currently no cure once…… [Read More]
Hepatitis C Treatments: Their Link to Depression and Implications for the Social orker
The most commonly used treatment for patients suffering from Hepatitis C, a deadly liver disease, is the drug interferon combined with ribavirin. This treatment offers the most promise for a long-term positive prognosis. However, it has a known high rate for negative psychological side effects such as depression and other anxiety disorders. Clinical psychology can offer some solutions to this problem, both in assessing those patients who have increased risk factors for depression such as substance abuse or a history of depression, and in offering treatments to help ease the occurrence and severity of depression. This study will assess the risk for depression among the general population of Hepatitis C patients on interferon therapy.
Hepatitis C virus is the most common liver disease in the United States. Approximately 1.8% of the U.S. population are infected, with…… [Read More]
It is primarily transmitted from patients to healthcare workers through exposure to infected blood by mistakes in procedures involving sharp instruments and needles. For this reason, healthcare workers are routinely vaccinated against blood-borne
Hepatitis (Taylor, 2005).
It is also possible to acquire HBV infection through sexual intercourse and especially through injection of intravenous drugs because IV drug users often share needles. While there is no cure for HBV infection, diagnosis is crucial because antiviral agents are capable of managing its symptoms and minimizing its damaging effect on the liver compared to untreated HBV infection (CDC, 2006).
Hepatitis C is very similar to Hepatitis B, except that it is caused by a different virus, HCV. While it is possible to transmit HVC infection through sexual activity, it is much more often transmitted by blood-to-blood contact in medical settings where universal blood precautions are violated. The most common specific mode…… [Read More]
Hepatitis C and Cellular Biology
Hepatitis C is a virus that affects over 2% of the global population (Belon & Frick, 2009). It is a virus that leads to chronic liver disease, and has many complications, including cirrhosis, fibrosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (Belon & Frick, 2009), and it is the leading cause of liver transplantation among countries in the developed world (Whidby et al., 2009). Hepatitis C establishes and maintains a life-long infection in individuals despite the fact that the virus is detected and targeted by immune mechanisms of the host (Sharma, 2010). The virus survives and persists due to rapid mutations that allow the virus to escape surveillance by immune mechanisms (Sharma, 2010). The hepatitis C virus itself is a very small hepatotropic NA virus that is enveloped and spherical (Sharma, 2010). The only available treatment option for Hepatitis C is administration of a long-acting pegylated-interferon-alpha in combination with…… [Read More]
As the liver damage progresses, these symptoms may grow more severe. "The hepatitis C virus is linked to an increased risk of porphyria cutanea tarda, a condition that may cause a blistering rash, to cryoglobulinemia, which can cause a purplish rash (purpura) on…lower extremities, and may cause kidney damage" (Complications, 2009, The Mayo Clinic).
Many patients have no specific symptoms and the finding of abnormal hepatic transaminase levels on routine testing is what often prompts specific testing for hepatitis C (O'Shea 2009). Blood tests or a liver biopsy to determine the severity of the illness are usually used by doctors. "If test results indicate that you have HCV, your doctor may measure the quantity of the virus in your blood (viral load) and evaluate the genetic makeup of the virus (genotype). There are six known HCV genotypes. Knowing which genotype you have will help your doctor determine the best…… [Read More]
Antiviral treatment is used in some cases, especially for treating Hepatitis C, but many of the side effects of this treatment are similar to the symptoms of hepatitis itself, and can become so life threatening that such treatments must be discontinued in some cases. In cases where treatment is absolutely needed but antiviral treatments either will not adequately address the cause of the disease or is deemed too dangerous, the only real option for treatment is a liver transplant -- when symptoms are bad enough to cause immediate concerns for health and quality of life, the liver is often too damaged for the body to repair it. It is for this reason that hepatitis often goes untreated; the complications of a liver transplant can themselves be life-threatening and lead to ongoing health problems, making it hardly preferable to most mild cases of hepatitis despite the chronic nature of the disease.…… [Read More]
Hepatitis D, HDV is a subviral satellite that is not classified in a viral family. Dr. Mario Rizzeto identified in 1977 a nuclear antigen that was subsequently established to derive form what was named Hepatitis Delta Virus ()This is the only virus under the genus deltavirus (Hepatitis D Virus, 2005). The history of this interesting unique satellite small virus is short and therefore researches are still searching for possible new genotypes and prevention and treatment methods.
The new satellite virus was established to depend entirely on the Hepatitis Virus for its production and transmission. HDV depends on the Hepatitis surface antigen provided by the HV that the former uses to form its envelope of particles (Handa, Yamaguchi, 2006). Although HDV is considered as a satellite virus of HV, it does not present the same sequence as the later and it its replication is not dependent on the HV (Hepatitis D…… [Read More]
Hepatitis C virus infection Trends among MSM that attend clinics for sexually transmitted infections: 1995 to 2010
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) has been noted since 2000 as a "sexually-transmitted-infection" (STI) amid MSM that are HIV-positive. This paper seeks to cross-examine the HCV occurrence among MSM attending a big STI-clinic located in Netherlands. There is need to examine data, and down the time profile, on chronic and acute infection of HCV among the MSM that are both HIV negative and positive, so as to establish the state of the disease and the causes, and to plan how to prevent its spread, in addition to identifying affected cases.
In the course of the anonymous cross-sectional surveys that are conducted every two years from 1995 to 2010, people had been interviewed as well as checked for evidence of HCV and HIV antibodies. There is a standardized questionnaire that has questions to find out…… [Read More]
Anatomy of the Liver
The liver is found at the upper right hand portion of the abdominal opening just under the diaphragm, but over the stomach, right kidney and intestines. It is a cone shaped organ that weighs approximately 3 pounds and appears to be dark red in color (USC Liver Transplant Program and Center for Liver Disease, 2012).
(1) right lobe, (2) left lobe, (3) caudate lobe, (4) quadrate lobe, (5) hepatic artery and portal vein, (6) hepatic lymph nodes, (7) gall bladder
The liver has two main sources of blood; blood from the hepatic artery, which is oxygenated and nutrient-rich blood from the hepatic portal vein. The liver contains up to one pint of the host body's blood supply all the time. It has two main lobes comprising of myriad of lobules. These lobules are also linked to tiny ducts that are also linked to larger…… [Read More]
Hepatitis C: Brief Overview and Statistics
1. The nature of the problem
Hepatitis C refers to an infectious disease of the liver: it can manifest as either mild or severe and lasting in term for a few weeks or for as long as the infected individual might live (cdc.gov, 2018). It develops within the individual as a result of a contamination via the Hepatitis C virus, spread mainly via blood-to-blood contact (cdc.gov, 2018). This disease can be either acute or chronic, though acute infections often develop into chronic ones; around 75-85% of acute cases eventually develop into chronic cases (cdc.gov, 2018). This disease can cause long term liver damage that sometimes lasts a lifetime and leads to even more serious conditions such as scarring of the liver or cancer of the liver (cdc.gov, 2018).
By referring to Hepatitis C as a blood-to-blood illness, this refers to the way in which…… [Read More]
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a major public health problem across the globe as it contributes to nearly 1 million deaths annually. It is an infection that basically attacks the liver and has the potential to generate acute and chronic diseases. This communicable disease is mostly transmitted from mother to child during birth. Additionally, HBV is transmitted through contact with body fluids like blood. Since it is a life-threatening condition, the viral infection has received considerable attention in the healthcare sector. Healthcare professionals and other relevant stakeholders have developed various initiatives to help lessen the prevalence of this infection and mitigate its impacts worldwide. This paper analyzes this communicable disease, determinants of health relating to its development, epidemiological triad, and role of the nurse practitioner in the management of the infectious disease.
Analysis of the Communicable Disease
The World Health Organization (2019) defines hepatitis B virus as a…… [Read More]
Hepatitis C: New CDC Screening Recommendations
The objective of this study is to review the article written by Doug Campos-Outcalt entitled "Hepatitis C: New CDC Screening Recommendations" published in the Journal of Family Practice, Volume 61, Number 12 in December 2012.
Campos-Outcalt (2012) writes that the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) released new recommendations for Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection screening including a one-time screening for all individuals in the United States that were born between the year of 1945 and 1965 "regardless of risk." The new recommendations are reported to be rather than a replacement to be instead an enhancement of "the recommendations for HCV screening" stated in 1998 calling for those who were considered high-risk to be screened.
HCV results in a high level of morbidity and mortality in the United States. There are reported to be 17,000 new infections to have occurred in 2010 with…… [Read More]
hepatitis of the liver and how they are transmitted to how we can find a remedy to slow down the deterioration process if not cure it completely.
Causes of hepatitis B
Transmission of hepatitis B
Tests for hepatitis B
isk Factors for HCV Infection
Consequences of HCV Infection
Hepatitis is the disease connected with the inflammation of the liver. This disease was not discovered too long ago, however doctors and researchers have been able to find out the causes of hepatitis. There are several causes such as, viral, parasitic, infiltrative, drug or alcohol induced, or non-specific. Before a person is even diagnosed with this disease some of the prominent indications of the acute phase can be ranging from a symptomatic, where we may not even be able to notice we have hepatitis to feeling extremely tired, jaundice- where our skin…… [Read More]
Cure for Hepatitis C
The medical community continues to scramble to find a cure for Hepatitis C, a disease that threatens the liver and can often prove to be fatal to those who become infected with it.
Hepatitis C is a blood borne disease that can be acquired through shared needles, blood to blood contact and other contact with bodily fluids. Hepatitis C has symptoms that include fatigue, vomiting, jaundice, pain in right side going through to the back sometimes and elevated liver enzymes. Once one is infected with Hepatitis C there is no cure though current research is working to locate one.
Currently there is no cure for Hepatitis C and part of that is because of the mutating ability of the disorder. Even within the same patient the disorder can mutate and change many times. This presents a serious problem in the quest for a cure or vaccine…… [Read More]
Thus, a diagnosis of Hepatitis C might not warrant any treatment intervention other than close monitoring of liver function. hen the virus remains in the body, the disease progresses to its chronic phase. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, "chronic HCV infection develops in 70% -- 85% of HCV-infected persons." Of chronically infected individuals, 60% -- 70% "have evidence of active liver disease," (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). About 17% of chronically infected individuals will develop cirrhosis and about 2% will develop liver cancer (United States Department of Veteran's Affairs).
Treating chronic Hepatitis C usually entails pharmaceutical intervention. A combination of two antiviral drugs, peginterferon and ribavirin, is currently the most effective treatment intervention. Other methods include administering long-acting (pegylated) interferon by itself; or administering a short-acting version of interferon with ribarvirin (United States Department of Veteran's Affairs). Using these two drugs, peginterferon and ribavirin, the…… [Read More]
embrel.com) it was deemed safe to use in patients who had Hepatitis C Lab tests were ordered and conducted on the 60-year-old patient's liver, and the results indicated normal enzyme production in the liver. In August 2004, the patient was started on Enbrel 50 MG twice a week, and some immediate improvement was noted; but after 18 weeks, the patient, who was inconsistent in making appointments, showed a worsened psoriasis condition. The dosage was cut to 50 MG once a week, and patient was urged to visit his liver doctor to have PCR for his Hepatitis C titers (concentration), to repeat CBC and Liver Function Test (LFT) titers (which was normal in Aug. 2002). A mild elevation of LFTs was discovered, so the patient was worked up further with ultrasound and a liver biopsy. The patient was then started in IFN treatment and Enbrel was discontinued. By June, 2006, the…… [Read More]
Pharmacotherapy for Gastrointestinal and Hepatobiliary Disorders
While it is suspected that the patient HL is suffering from a possible GI/hepatobiliary disorder, more information is required before making a diagnosis of this nature. The patient’s personal history needs to be expanded upon and a physical examination should be conducted to verify any signs and symptoms in order to complete a diagnosis.
The patient is suffering from nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. The symptoms indicate that a diagnosis of gastrointestinal (GI) and hepatobiliary disorders are affecting the patient. Culver and Chapman (2016) indicate that hepatobiliary disease is commonly associated with extremely low CD4+ counts, typically < 20 cells/µL. In order to evaluate any disorder in the liver, exams should rule out HBV and HCV infection as a differential diagnosis. So those viral infections have to be tested for before proceeding to make a diagnosis.
The patient’s Hep C infection is quite likely, especially if…… [Read More]
Hepatitis C Exposure Incident Report
Recently eighty patients at the Norman Regional Hospital have tested positive for Hepatitis C Employee James Hill admitted to reusing needles up to 25 time a day while administering pain medication. At least 38 cases can be positively associated with exposure at the clinic, while another 35 may be associated. As acting Nurse Manager, I have been assigned the task of developing a strategy for dealing with this situation. The following will discuss the issues and policies involved in effectively dealing either the current situation and developing a plan to prevent future similar events from occurring.
This issue is multifaceted and there are several elements to consider when dealing with the issue. The first concern is the safety of the infected patients. The second is that there many be possible violations of Federal laws involved. The third issue is to analyze the situation from a…… [Read More]
According to Davis (2012), the hepatitis A virus occurs in the feces of people who carry the disease. The most common transmission is when people eat food that has been contaminated by infected feces (fecal-oral transmission). Food or water can be contaminated when there are poor sanitary conditions or when hands are not properly washed. aw or undercooked shellfish from sewage contaminated water can also carry the virus. Sexual contact can also cause transmission of the disease, especially when the contact is oral/anal. Very rarely, blood transfusions can infect a recipient of infected blood. Persons who are infected can start spreading the condition about one week after their exposure, even if there are no symptoms. The greatest risk of infection with this disease is in developing countries, where there are sometimes poor sanitary and personal hygiene standards. Daycare centers, prisons, and mental institutions tend to be at greater…… [Read More]
Ethics and Experimentation
Ethics and Medical Experimentation
On Staten Island there was an institution for the mentally disabled which operated from 1947 to 1987, but in the period from 1956 through 1971, children at the institution were used for experiments involving hepatitis. Although the experiments are considered to be successful, the involvement of mentally disabled children has brought many ethical considerations to the forefront. Dr. Saul Krugman, the man who ran the experiment, stated that his team took a number of ethical considerations into question before the experiment began. Firstly, Krugman rationalized the use of children by stating that "It is recognized that infectious hepatitis is a much milder disease in children." (obinson 81) Then, a mild form of the disease was inflicted upon the children under conditions that were the most favorable including special medical personnel and isolation quarters. Krugman specifically stated that only children who's parents consented were…… [Read More]
Moreover, recent legislation such as the Affordable Care Act is expected to create an even greater need for nurses who can take on more advanced responsibilities. As one nurse stated on National Public adio: "…with the passage of the Affordable Care Act, which was passed in March, we're going to see 32 million new patients accessing the health care delivery system which previously weren't accessing this system. And currently, we don't have the capacity to provide high-quality, patient-centered care for this new expanded population" (NP, 2010)
Careers in nursing have become vast and varied, particularly for the highly educated, and pay for many of these careers is above $60,000 annually. While a nurse with a BSN who becomes an N can still advance in her career, enter management, or become a nursing professor, an MSN is necessary for nurses to enter one of the more prestigious and specialized subfields (Sacks,…… [Read More]
The results revealed that this route did not lead to any needle stick injuries. The ESA worked as efficaciously as it would have if needles were used and this was proved by the maintenance of the hemoglobin levels. It was observed that 91% of the nursing staff was in favor of the needle free administration of ESA. This study therefore concluded that drugs with detached needles present further routes to prevent needle stick injuries in the future. (Chow et. al, 2009)
Seeing how needle stick injuries can lead to emotional, health related and financial dilemma, experts are working on ways to reduce their occurrence. The study by Chow et al. (2009) shows one way in which these incidences can be reduced. Molen et al. (2011) stated that education reduces the occurrence of needle stick injury. He conducted a study in which one group was educated in a workshop and given…… [Read More]
Kumar, G.B.S., Ganapathi, TR. Bapat, V.A. Revathi, C.J. & K.S.N. Prasad. (2002). Expression
of Hepatitis B surface antigen in transgenic banana plants and NT- I cell line of tobacco. BARC. Retrieved from: http://barc.gov.in/publications/nl/2003/200310-12.pdf
ne of the most difficult and intractable health issues worldwide is that of Hepatitis B The disease is difficult to treat and potentially deadly. "There are about 350 million chronic carriers in the world and it is estimated that 75- 100 million of them will die of liver cirrhosis and/or hepatocellular carcinoma" (Kumar, Ganapathi, Bapat, Revathi, Prasad 2002:85). Although vaccinations do exist, the injectable form of the vaccine is expensive and has been difficult to distribute throughout the developing world where Hepatitis B is most prevalent. Injectable vaccines also require trained healthcare professionals to disseminate. There is also the risk of needle contamination in unsanitary conditions, again, making vaccines in the developing world potentially more dangerous. Cold…… [Read More]
Immunizing Your Baby, Protecting or Harming?
Positives for Vaccinations
Recommended and Minimum Ages for Early Childhood Vaccinations
Negatives for Vaccinations
Vaccines against diphtheria, polio, pertussis, measles, mumps and rubella, hepatitis B and chicken pox, have given humans powerful immune guards to ward off unwelcome disease and sickness. Because of this the CDC works closely with public health agencies and private partners in order to improve and sustain immunization coverage and to monitor the safety of vaccines so that public health can be maintained and expanded in the future. Despite the good that vaccines appear to do there is a debate stirring in regards to the safety of vaccines and whether or not they are link to disorders such as autism. There are some studies that appear to link childhood vaccinations to autism but the evidence is very weak at best. But because of these types of studies…… [Read More]
In some countries, bed numbers began to drop before the introduction of the drugs. In others, bed numbers actually increased despite this introduction. The drugs also have been used on a variety of populations that were not deemed to be mentally ill (such as people with learning difficulties and older people). The drugs were only relevant in giving psychiatric staff more confidence in dealing with community-based patients; they do not explain the policy of deinstitutionalization. At the end of the twentieth century deinstitutionalization has become a dominant mental health policy goal in most Western democracies (Sax, 1984).
However, this formal goal has become clouded by evidence that the gradual reduction of large institutions has been replaced by a scattering of smaller ones 'in the community' (Roe, 1976). Also, most countries still have legal statutes to coercively remove madness from community set- tings. The extent of this continued coercive control…… [Read More]
Mary Jane's laboratory results show there is an elevated white blood count, with CBC with differential within normal limits. Proton and INR were normal. Pregnancy was negative. UA showed occasional bacteria, but normal otherwise. Drug screen was normal, and EKG showed sinus bradycardia, rate of 59 beats per minute. Renal and hepatic functions were within normal limits.
There are four sexual response cycles, marked by physiological and psychological changes. The first stages is excitement, which Mary Jane is not getting with her partners, which is triggered by psychological or physical stimulation, and is marked by emotional changes, and increased heart rate, and vaginal swelling. Second stage is plateau, Mary Jane states she doesn't have this stimulation. The third stage is orgasm, which Mary Jane doesn't getting during intercourse, or she doesn't remember because she in under the influence of alcohol. The final phase, resolution, involves a rush of blood away…… [Read More]
Collective behavior" and the tonewall Riots
The term "collective behavior" refers to behavior that militates against social norms and conventions regarding the way that individuals should behave in society and differing to the way that they normally behave when not in a crowd environment. A crowd environment causes certain spontaneity to actions and a certain animal emotion that is lacking in regular 'separate existence'. cholars have devoted considerable attention to assessing why such is the case, and have generated various theories that may explain the phenomena.
Examples of instances of collective behavior include religious revivalist meetings where individuals behave in unusual ways, oftentimes totally contradictory to their private persona; panic in a burning location; or the spectacle of Black Friday where frenzy climbs and swirls around bargain hunting. The phenomenon of collective behavior too was clearly evident in the debacle of the "The tonewall Riots" and we will, therefore, take…… [Read More]
Common risk factors for chronic liver problems include: intravenous drug use, overdosing on acetaminophen, engaging in risky sexual behaviors like having multiple sexual partners and unprotected intercourse, eating contaminated foods, traveling to an area where certain diseases are common, living in a nursing home or rehabilitation center, having a family member who recently had hepatitis a, using or abusing alcohol, being an organ transplant recipient, having HIV or AIDS, having received a blood transfusion before 1990, being a newborn of a mother with hepatitis B or C, being a health care worker, including dentist and dental hygienist, because of blood contact and receiving a tattoo (Hepatitis Health Article, 2010).
Eighty percent of those people who have Hepatitis C go on to develop chronic liver disease, liver failure or liver cancer. Hepatitis C is the number one reason that people received liver transplants in the United States. Permanent liver damage, liver…… [Read More]
Many of the electric gadgets we use today like the cell phones and the home computers were invented in the 80s. Many multinational corporations came into existence in the 80s this spur the growth to a record 3.2% per year (Bellis, 2012). This was the highest nine-year rate in American history. This was occasioned by a number of factors some of which were economic, financial, legislative, and regulatory frameworks. This unprecedented growth led to failure of a number of banking institutions. From these failures, a term "corporate greed" was coined. This essay seeks to enumerate how technology advanced in the 80s (Coppens, 2012).
In 1980, Hepatitis B Vaccine was invented by Baruch Blumberg. This research physician discovered an antigen that provoked antibody response against Hepatitis B Other took queue from this discovery to develop a vaccine against this viral hepatitis. Baruch together with Irving Millman invented a vaccine…… [Read More]
oral daclatasvir plus asunaprevir for hepatitis C virus genotype 1b
Overview of current therapy
The treatment setting for chronic hepatitis C has gone through an upheaval, above all in genotype 1. However, the exception is the continuity of interferon-based therapy and its related tolerability problems, insufficient reaction rates and several baseline factors that influence reaction to therapy (Gutierrez et al., 2015). The main concern undertaken in the current research study is that it attempts to obtain a new treatment combination that seems to be tolerable and necessitate a shorter time for therapy (Hunyady et al., 2014). Hepatitis C virus (HCV) drug development has given rise to treatment courses of therapy made up of interferon-free, all-oral combinations of direct-acting antivirals. Despite the fact that the new courses of therapy are compelling and extremely useful, the full medical influence of HCV drug resistance, its inferences for retreatment, and the impending role of…… [Read More]
Alcoholic Liver Disease
CAUSES AND IMPACT
Causes, Incidence, Risk Factors, Impact
Alcohol use has been linked with liver disease mortality and increased social and economic costs (NCI, 2014; ruha et al., 2009). Most recent statistics say that disorders in alcohol consumption afflict millions of people worldwide. The incidence has been increasing along with increasing alcohol consumption. Alcohol liver disease takes the form of acute alcoholic hepatitis and chronic liver disease, such as steatosis, steatohepatitis, fibrosis and cirrhosis. Seriousness and prognosis depend on the amount consumed, the pattern of drinking and the length of time of consumption, the presence of liver inflammation, diet and nutritional and genetic disposition. While steatosis is virtually benign, morbidity and mortality are both high in liver cirrhosis. Survival rate for advanced cirrhosis is 1 to 2 years and 50% mortality risk for those with severe acute alcoholic hepatitis have as much as 50% mortality (NCI, 2014).…… [Read More]
Management of Occupational Exposures to Bloodborne Pathogens:
Hepatitis B Virus, Hepatitis C Virus, and Human Immunodeficiency Virus
his paper is written specifically for health care professionals who may, at some point during the course of their workday, be exposed to certain bloodborne pathogens, potentially resulting in serious illness. herefore, it is important that these professionals create and maintain a plan to address key issues that may arise during the testing and care of potentially infected patients. By writing this article, the authors hope to establish a standard procedure for dealing with occupational exposure to the pathogens for healthcare workers while also reviewing much of the current information available.
he authors note that there have been many studied performed over the years that deal with exposure to bloodborne pathogens, but this article attempts to combine them into one coherent plan for all healthcare workers to follow. hey reference several studies that…… [Read More]
Edit Research Premarital Screening
Evaluating Premarital Screening Knowledge in Saudi Students
The purpose of this research was to investigate the impact of premarital screening (PMS) in Saudi Arabia. The use of PMS as a means to identify and approach both and infectious and hereditary disease was investigated in order to determine the impact of this practical approach.
A cross-sectional study was conducted at Jazan University from January to June 2014 to perform this research. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 1000 Jazan University Students, both males and females. The questionnaire consisted of 3 main parts. The first part was based on socio-demographic data, the second part dealt with the students' knowledge about the premarital screening program while the third part explored their attitudes towards the screening program.
The vast majority of the participants (922; 94%) believed that a PMS program was a preventive measure. More than two thirds of…… [Read More]
This is particularly the case in sub-Saharan Africa where clinicians have often come to rely on signs and symptoms alone to make diagnoses." (Nicoll, Walraven, Kigadye, Klokke, 1995)
The laboratory environment is critical to administering testing to determine population rates of HIV / AIDS throughout nations and perhaps continents where the lacking of resources facilitates a substandard environment for care. In the case of the African nation of Mozambique, which perhaps can be understood as a case indicative of the environmental assessment one would find throughout Africa and therefore, can be labelled to be a median statistical nation. A nation representing the median would indicate that half of the population nations that are categorized as resourced deficient, half would be above Mozambique in terms of resource allocation and half would fall below.
esearch into the quality of HIV / AIDS case-detection and case-reporting system in Mozambique was conducted by (Chilundo,…… [Read More]
Hispanics Living in Alabama
The United States has a large number of minority groups and the largest among them are the Hispanic population. According to the latest census, the Hispanic population in Alabama now number 75,830. The census authorities in U.S. had coined the term 'Hispanic' to denote specifically the people from 22 countries in Latin America, and living in the United States. The growth of population in this community has been very high during the last ten years - a growth of 247 per cent. They constitute a large consumer market worth $685 million annually, and contribute $251 million to the state and local authorities in taxes. It is obvious that the large growth is due to the classic reasons for migration - poverty. They had an expectation of a new and better life in the United States when they first set foot on U.S. soil.
Of all industries…… [Read More]
Emergency Action Plan
As a strict requirement of OSHA, the clinical laboratory science department must comply to this standard that is used in describing all the appropriate actions that must be taken by the facility in order to ensure that there is proper safety in case of any accidents such as fire outbreak.
As a strict requirement of OSHA, the facility must ensure that there is a proper Fire Prevention Plan that is necessary to avert any kind of loss of either life or property.
Medical and First Aid
All the employees who work in this department must have the necessary component of both medical and first-aid providers. This is in order to ensure that any emergency situation that arises can be met with the appropriate solution.
Personal Protective Equipment
Due to the high risk of infection that is associated with the samples in the laboratory, it is…… [Read More]
As to catheter straps, if fastened too tightly they can act as tourniquets, cutting off the needed flow of blood and presenting. And at least theoretically, use of straps brings about a risk of increasing the complications such as "…deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism" in those patients with "impaired lower extremity circulation" (Billington 504). Research presented in this article shows that the problem of infection due to poorly attached catheters can be reduced significantly through the use of a product called "Bard StatLock" -- which, the authors insist, is an effective stabilization device because it allows movement (through a swivel clip), because it is a "sterile latex-free, tug-resistant product" (Billington 504). An article in the journal RN, incidentally, states that treating "hemodialysis catheter-related bacteremia" can cost a hospital up to $45,000.
ashing "Bloody Hands": An article in the Australian Nursing Journal asserts, "…hand hygiene is the single most effective…… [Read More]
health related risks in association with addiction, the two greatest risks for Heroin Injectors is the risk of acquiring HIV or any number of the deadly and permanent Hepatitis viruses. The risks associated with addiction, poor nutrition, dehydration, reduced kidney and liver function as well as a few others increases the risk of an individual acquiring, nearly any communicable disease, yet those who are injecting Heroin also repeatedly directly open their circulatory system to massive deadly diseases like HIV and Hepatitis. ("The Menace of Heroin," 1999, p. 2)
In many places needle sharing has been decreased with awareness and availability campaigns yet it is clear that the sharing of needles still occurs, as the reduced mental functioning of the user, at the height of addictive need and in the throws of the high have a reduced sense of judgment, just as can be said about any mind altering drug. Yet.…… [Read More]
Based on etiologic differences, male-to-female ratio is 1.5-3:1. Primary biliary cirrhosis accounting for only 1.5% of deaths from cirrhosis is mostly found in females and ethanol-related cirrhosis is greatly found in males. Age-specific death rates in the United States tend to be greatest in the older age groups, topping at 49 per 100,000 males aged from 65-74 years and at 26.7 per 100,000 women of the age group from 75-84 years. (Cirrhosis: (www.emedicine.com)
Diagnosis and Imaging Modalities:
Ultrasound, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and angiography are suggested as imaging modalities for the diagnosis of liver cirrhosis. In cases of patients doubtful for diffuse liver disease, ultrasound of the liver is being used as a screening-imaging tool and it is useful in for follow-up examinations. In order to make the presence of liver disease to be clear, computed tomography is usually carried out and it is detected by ultrasound. Against this…… [Read More]
Chronic Liver Disease
With a number of functions -- including detoxification, protein synthesis, and the production of chemicals that are necessary for digestion -- the human liver is vital.
It is reddish brown and has four unequal sized lobes; usually weighs about 3.5 pounds and is the largest gland in the human body. It is located just below the diaphragm in the body's right upper abdominal quadrant.
The liver plays a major role in the body's metabolic processes as well -- glycogen storage, decomposition of red blood cells, some hormone production.
The liver produces bile -- which is an alkaline compound that helps in digestion by changing fat (lipid) molecules to a more digestible format.
The liver's detoxification and synthesis of micronutrients are vital -- short-term liver dialysis is possible, but a person cannot exist without a functioning liver (Virtual Liver, 2008).
Cirrhosis of the Liver
Cirrhosis is the result…… [Read More]
Give at least 3 examples of workers who are at risk of exposure to bloodborne pathogens.
2. List the three ways exposure to bloodborne pathogens commonly occurs.
3. Describe at least 5 key aspects of a Bloodborne Pathogen Exposure Control
4. Explain how properly used PPE and appropriate housekeeping methods protect against exposure to bloodborne pathogens.
5. List three important steps to take if exposed to a bloodborne pathogen
These are all very specific and measurable goals, which according to Bradshaw and Lowenstein is a vital part of a good lesson plan. The authors of the lesson plan could have stated much vaguer goals, such "the student will become more familiear with exposure to bloodborne pathogens." However, vague objectives like that cannot be accurately measured. So it is good that this lesson plan states exactly what the student should be able to learn.
What is expected of the learner?…… [Read More]
This allows the client to place their level of behavior on the continuum and assess the levels of risk associated with their behaviors. The continuum also allows the client to assess the ways in which their behaviors over time, by examining the ways in which their behaviors are now different to past behaviors. This may allow clients to recognize that they have already made some progress toward less harmful behaviors, or may allow them to identify specific events which led to developing more risky behaviors. The harm reduction model allows the client to assess their current situation and plan the actions which they wish to take to change their future behaviors.
Applications of the model
The harm reduction model has been applied predominantly to drug misuse issues, however it is also appropriate to apply the model for a wide range of social and health behavior changes. The model has been…… [Read More]
The viruses that cause AIDS (HIV) and hepatitis can be carried in clotting factors however there have been no documented cases of such transmission in about ten years. Prevention of viruses can be prevented by: careful screening of donors; testing of donated blood products; treating donated blood products with a detergent and heat to destroy viruses (Hemophilia 2006). Both preventive and as-needed therapy can be administered at home, thus resulting in quicker treatment, fewer doctor or emergency room visits, and less costs. Vein access devices can be surgically implanted to allow easier access to a vein however infections can result from such devices (Hemophilia 2006).
All patients with bleeding disorders may benefit at times from using aminocaproic acid, an oral antifibrinolytic medication that helps stabilize clots (Curry 2004). Aminocaproic acid is the only product available in the United States in oral form, however it is not user-friendly, with dosing every…… [Read More]
Diversity in Nursing: Synopsis of Multiple Perspectives
Tarrant & Gregory (2003) in their article "Exploring childhood immunization uptake with First Nations mothers in north-western Ontario, Canada" discusses childhood immunizations and preventive care. Specifically the researchers aimed to explore beliefs First Nations parents hold regarding childhood immunizations, and what factors may influence immunization uptake. Studies suggest that Native American children generally receive lower immunization coverage than children in Canada according to the study.
Using a qualitative descriptive design the researchers interviewed twenty-eight mothers within Native Indian communities in Canada regarding vaccine preventable illnesses. The results of the study suggests that First Nations parental beliefs regarding immunizations may positively or negatively influence a child's immunization uptake. The research also suggests that education may enable families to make better decisions regarding their child's health care and immunization uptake.
The researchers do point out in their work that other studies support that immunization uptake…… [Read More]
Food Poisoning in San Diego
There are more than 200 known microbes that can lead to food poisoning in people (Paredez, 2009). hile most people have heard of the more common E. coli and Salmonella, there are many others including certain bacterias that are found naturally in the soil. The common symptoms of food poisoning can be as minor as an upset stomach to actual fatality in serious cases. ith the hottest part of summer approaching in San Diego, it is only a matter of time until the amount of food poisoning cases begin increasing. This paper will discuss the trends of food poisoning within the community of San Diego, California and how, as a nurse, the trends associated with the statistics can be decreased.
Community: San Diego, California is a bustling and very old city. Most of the buildings are from the 1950's and earlier. Toxins such as lead…… [Read More]
Maryland Prison System
Crime is expensive. But so too is punishment. The state of Maryland, like the majority of states across the nation at the moment, is facing a period of slow economic growth and shrinking economic resources even as it continues to have to meet the needs of its citizens. This paper examines the effect on the state's overall budget of the cost of incarcerating prisoners.
The treatment of prisoners causes few legal problems for the government of a dictatorship. A government that refuses to acknowledge the human rights of even its law-abiding citizens is not likely to show too many qualms about shoving its criminals into overcrowded and unsafe prisons - or even to worry about whether the niceties of due process were considered in getting the person to prison to begin with. But the rule of constitutional law changes all that. Because we live in a country…… [Read More]
Exchange is a program designed to educate and promote health among drug-users. Needle Exchange, and similar programs that provide needles and syringes to drug-users are a harm-reducing motive whose aim is to enable access to sterile needles and syringes for individuals injecting drugs. This kind of action is recommended by The World Health Organization (WHO), whose experts suggest that each drug-user injecting drugs needs to be given access to two hundred clean needles and syringes on an annual basis as a way of tackling and preventing the transmitting of HIV and other blood-borne viruses through this method.
Overall, most programs similar to Needle Exchange are facilitated by pharmacies. Some of these programs work from fixed locations, while others are mobile, and some even employ strategically placed sites. The aim of most Needle Exchange programs is to alleviate and prevent the transmission of HIV, as well as other blood-borne viruses, through…… [Read More]
Experimental Study Design and Intention to Treat
Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) association with HIV Infection in Gay Men
The population for this research will comprise of persons enrolled in one out of five CPCA (Community Programs for Clinical esearch on AIDS) studies at sixteen CPCA facilities across America. The five researches will take the form of four randomized clinical trials (CTs) for antiretroviral (AV) therapy strategies and one natural history analysis of AV treatment-naive patients. During enrolment in the study, researchers will determine every participant's HCV serostatus. Past positive results for HCV antibody test will also be accepted. HCV serological examinations will be locally conducted at baseline in case of patients without recorded HCV antibody test results or those showing negative HCV antibody results from eleven years prior to randomization. The baseline characteristics outlined include ethnicity, gender, age, plasma HIV viral load, history of IDU (injection drug use), CD4+ count,…… [Read More]
Partial vaccination was not effective on children 6-23 months. This meant that full vaccination is necessary to optimally protect children of this age group from Influenza (Shueler et al.).
The results are consistent with those of other evaluative studies on children through randomized, controlled trials for efficacy and observational studies for effectiveness (Shueler et al., 2007). Vaccine effectiveness depends on the characteristics of the study population, specificity of the outcome, and the Influenza season. It was dissimilar to the findings of Ritzwoller and his team in that Shueler and team's subjects had more exposure to Influenza. The more specific outcome of laboratory-confirmed Influenza made the detection possible. And Shueler and his team's findings were similar to Ritzwoller and his team's in that the findings of both teams offered assurance that vaccination of young children would be beneficial, even in a year with sub-optimal match (Shueler et al.).
Vaccination Efficacy not…… [Read More]
(De Leon, 2010)
Finally, in recent years there has been a call for more stringent regulatory measured to be put in place in order to prevent this category of disease. Many experts refer to outdated laws and policies that are not successful in detecting and prevent problems along the entire food production process (Jessen). They also refer to restricted and inadequate legal tools to check the spread of the diseases. There is therefore a need not only to update present legislation but also for organizations and individuals to be become more aware of the need to prevent this type of disease from occurring.
De Leon D. ( 2010) Start at the Store: 7 Ways to Prevent Foodborne Illness. etrieved from http://www.foodsafety.gov/blog/7ways.html
Definition of Foodborne disease. etrieved from http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=25399Focus on Epidemiology. Houston Health (2001). etrieved from http://www.houstontx.gov/health/HoustonHealth/winter01.pdf
Foodborne diseases take heavy toll on public health. etrieved from http://www.google.co.za/url?sa=t&source=web&cd=18&ved=0CDgQFjAHOAo&url=http%3A%2F%2Fbioniche.com%2Fnewsroom_factsheet.cfm&ei=SJ7ITMX1LdDCswako7iPDg&usg=AFQjCNESQAvUohGiQZZN1L1TCFwwl-DYQ&sig2=bnOdvFEDnTPpuZO8D2blQ
Foodborne Illness.…… [Read More]
Brockton, Massachusetts: Use of the Adaptation Model, Nursing Process and Guidelines for a Comprehensive Community Assessment
This work in writing will utilize the Adaptation Model, nursing process and guidelines to complete a community assessment, analyze gathered data for implications for health care, formulate a nursing diagnosis for the community, and incorporate findings into the nursing process and formulate a care plan for a specific community problem.
According to the Public Health Nursing: Leadership Guide and esource Manual" published by the Massachusetts Association of Public Health Nurses (2005) nurses employed in public health nursing are constantly conducting assessments of the community's needs and resources both those available to the individual and groups. Public health nurses are focused on organization and working with a diverse network in promoting ensuring and strengthening the well-being and health in the community with goals for high standards of health care for the population. Public health is…… [Read More]
Scientific and Political Aspects
of Genetically Modified Foods
While there is little controversy over many aspects of biotechnology and its application, genetically modified (GM) foods have become the target of intense controversy. This controversy in the marketplace has resulted in a firestorm of public debate, scientific discussion, and media coverage. The countries most affected by this debate are Middle Eastern and third world countries, who stand to reap the benefits of solving widespread starvation, and countries such as the United States, as strong suppliers of genetically modified foods. The world's population is predicted to double in the next 50 years and ensuring an adequate food supply for this booming population is already a challenge. Scientists hope to meet that challenge through the production of genetically modified food plants that can help in warding off starvation as the world's population grows.
Although "biotechnology" and "genetic modification" commonly are used interchangeably, GM…… [Read More]
Risky Behaviors in Adolescents
Adolescents engage in a wide variety of risky behaviors in this day in age. Youth engage in activities that put them at risk for serious injury, sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV infection and chronic disease, such as heart disease and cancer ("Despite improvements," 2004). Risky behaviors that adolescents undertake can include but are not limited to substance use, unprotected sex and sexual promiscuity, failure to use seatbelts and helmets, violent behaviors, etc. On addition, problems with school work has been linked to cigarette smoking, alcohol use, involvement in weapon use and violence. Also, frequently "just hanging out" with friends has been associated with smoking and substance abuse. Having close friends who drink or smoke also puts youth at a higher risk factor for engaging in those behaviors (Carpenter, 2001). This paper will discuss how risky behaviors of adolescents can lead to serious diseases, a tragic accident,…… [Read More]
(SA AIDS Drugs Company Set for Africa Sales)
The immense market potential for anti-retrovirals will signify a huge bonus for the company and also its shareholders. 8% of the roughly 4 million people in Mozambique are in need of the treatment for HIV / AIDS and were getting it. The fact of the matter is that HIV / AIDS has long been noted for it potential capability for raking in more money and the SA Cabinet some years ago had already stated its strong interest in the lucrative local development of AIDS drugs in the abortive Virodene experiment. The company obtained sanction from the U.S. Federal Drug Administration for certain of its anti-AIDS medicines as was of late given the award for the biggest share of the South African government anti-retroviral drug tenders. This is in greater measure part because it possesses a good BEE profile, assuring the support of…… [Read More]
Management of Immunocompromised Patients
In beginning I writer specific nursing assignment. The Question: 2000 Words While clinical placement asked prepare a single room an admission. The patient requiring admission isolation room immunocompromised.
Immunocompromised patients usually require isolation in order to prevent them from becoming infected with infections from other patients which is known as protective isolation. For the immunocompromised patients, their immune system is unable to fight the infectious diseases. There are many diseases or conditions that lead to immunodeficiency in patients.
One is AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome). The pathophysiology of AIDS starts when the person's CD4+ T cell count begins to decrease as the disease kills these cells. This is HIV-induced cell lysis where the virus enters the CD4+ cells where it inserts its genetic information to the cell nucleus thus taking over the cell and replicating itself. The virus then mutates extremely rapidly thus making it more and…… [Read More]
Sociology -- Human Services
Governance and Leadership
Steven Ott (2001, p.1) defines governance as an "umbrella term that includes the ultimate authority, accountability, and responsibility for an organization." However, literature and several case studies have identified that leaders play a significant role in supporting governance (Lord et al., 2009) and there is a two-way link between leadership and governance. Leadership not only provides the direction for governance by promoting a shared understanding but also clarify the roles between the local and national actors (Craig, 2005). It also encourages interagency collaboration, team working and commitment at all levels of governance (obinson et al., 2008).
According to ANAO (2003, p.15), "Leadership sets the 'tone at the top', and is absolutely critical to achieving an organization-wide commitment to good governance."
This paper discusses the case of "Tainted Blood Scandal" in result of which public lost trust in the Canadian ed Cross. This trust…… [Read More]
Birth Problems: Expecting Mothers Taking Illicit Drugs
When women who are pregnant struggle with a drug problem, the drug use does not only affect the mother, it greatly affects the development of the fetus (Ornoy, 2002). This does not only stop during the fetal stage, it goes on until to after the child is born, and the child will then develop a number of physical and health problems during his or her lifetime. This is because the drugs which the mother is taking can cross the placenta, which is where the baby is and gets all his or her nourishments. These drugs can cause direct toxic affects to the fetus during the developmental stages.
A mother who is actively taking illicit drugs during her pregnancy can suffer from a number of high risk diseases, and this will contract to her unborn baby. These risks include: (1) Anemia, (2) Skin infections,…… [Read More]
Regulating Tattoo and ody Piercing Shops
In the United States, only 11 states have regulations and laws governing tattoo and body piercing licenses and training, while South Carolina and Oklahoma have banned tattooing in their states. Regulations help promote professionalism, and discourage "scratchers." This is important when considering disease transmission - HIV and Hepatitis in particular (Westbrook, 2003). States that have regulations promote not only professionalism but can guarantee to consumers that when they go into a tattoo or body piercing parlor that they are going to receive professional, and safe service. They can be assured that if buildings are not safe, clean and have adequate lighting that they are supported by their state and that particular parlor would be shut down.
More importantly they will know that a licensed tattoo artist has gone through proper training and an apprenticeship and all equipment and procedures in tattooing and body piercing…… [Read More]
Drugs in Federal Corrections
One of the issue faced by the criminal justice system is offenders with drug problems. esearch has indicated that almost 70% of criminals entering the correctional institutions have injected drugs 12 months prior to their incarceration (uiz, Douglas, Edens, Nikolova, & Lilienfeld, 2012). These patterns of drug abuse clearly demonstrate that many prisoners begin their prison terms with drug problems. If the problem is not recognized early, it results in demand for drugs within the correctional facility. This demand creates problems and challenges for prison administrators. Prisoners use of drugs results to increased safety risks, violence, corruption, and occupational health. There is also a risk of the prisoners resulting to extreme measures in order for them to access the drugs. They may commit acts of violence, or use threats. The issue of drug results in an increased risk of contracting diseases like HIV /…… [Read More]