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Affects the liver
Symptomatic 2-6 weeks after exposure
Speaker notes: Hepatitis A is caused by a virus. Symptoms of hepatitis A include dark-colored urine, pale stools, chronic fatigue (with no other explanation), itching, anorexia (loss of appetite) and nausea, fever, vomiting, and jaundice. The symptoms usually present manifest 2-6 weeks after the initial exposure (Zieve 2011). To test for the disease, the doctor may test for raised IgM and IgG antibodies to hepatitis A and elevated liver enzymes through liver function tests (Zieve 2011). Persons in high-risk occupations may wish to be periodically tested.
Food and water
Stool and blood
Speaker notes: Disease reservoirs for hepatitis A include food that has been contaminated by the feces of carriers of the disease; contaminated water or ice; direct contact with stool or blood of persons with the disease; and sexual contact. To protect against…
Hepatitis A (2013). World Health Organization (WHO). Retrieved:
Zieve, David. (2011). Hepatitis A PubMed Health. A.D.A.M. Medical Encyclopedia.
hat is the leading cause of liver disease? hat could cause so many people to require liver transplants? Most people on the street today would think that the answer to those questions would be alcoholism. And, although alcohol does do its fair share of damage to livers around the world, there is a greater source causing chronic liver disease out there.
This term paper will attempt to shed light on the hepatitis virus. The correct pronunciation would be: (h-p ? t? t-s). There are several strains of the hepatitis virus with some being non-issues and others being incurable killers. This report focuses specifically on the Hepatitis C virus which falls under the incurable killer header. This strain of the viruses can never be taken lightly.
There are many ways for an individual to acquire the hepatitis C virus into their system; however, there is currently no cure once…
Askari, Fred K., and Cutler, Daniel S. Hepatitis C, the Silent Epidemic: The Authoritative Guide. Cambridge, MA: Perseus Publishing, 1999.
Bacteriology. Ed. IUSM Microbiology Core. IUSM Microbiology Core. 12 Apr. 2004 http://users.ipfw.edu/merkel/MicroCore.html.
Burke, William M., Vasant P. Dhopesh, and Taylor, Keitha R. "Survey of Hepatitis B and C. In Addiction Treatment Unit" American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse Vol. 26. (2000).
Hepatitis. Ed. hepatitis-central.com. hepatitis-central.com. 12 Apr. 2004 http://www.hepatitis-central.com/hbv/hepbfaq/other.html .
Hepatitis C Treatments: Their Link to Depression and Implications for the Social orker
The most commonly used treatment for patients suffering from Hepatitis C, a deadly liver disease, is the drug interferon combined with ribavirin. This treatment offers the most promise for a long-term positive prognosis. However, it has a known high rate for negative psychological side effects such as depression and other anxiety disorders. Clinical psychology can offer some solutions to this problem, both in assessing those patients who have increased risk factors for depression such as substance abuse or a history of depression, and in offering treatments to help ease the occurrence and severity of depression. This study will assess the risk for depression among the general population of Hepatitis C patients on interferon therapy.
Hepatitis C virus is the most common liver disease in the United States. Approximately 1.8% of the U.S. population are infected, with…
Adams, F, Quesada JR, Gutterman JU. (1984) Neuropsychiatric manifestations of human leukocyte interferon therapy in patients with cancer. Journal of the American Medical Association. Volume 252, pp. 938-941 [Medline Database].
Alter, MJ, Kruszon-Moran D, Nainan OV, McQuillan GM, Gao F, Moyer LA, Kaslow RA, et al. (1999) the prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection in the United States, 1988 through 1994. New England Journal of Medicine. Volume 341, pp. 556-562 [Medline Database].
Boutiler, Alan and Hosein, Sean. (2000) Combination therapy for hepatitis C 7th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections, January 30 to February 2, 2000, San Francisco - TreatmentUpdate. The Community AIDS Treatment Information Exchange (CATIE) CATIE News: February 4, 2000. Retrieved at http://www.CATF-N20000202.html. July 22, 2002.
Brown, RR, Ozaki Y, Datta SP, Borden EC, Sondel PM, Malone DG. (1991) Implications of interferon-induced tryptophan catabolism in cancer, autoimmune diseases and AIDS. Advanced Experimental Medical Biology Volume 294, pp.425-435 [Medline Database].
It is primarily transmitted from patients to healthcare workers through exposure to infected blood by mistakes in procedures involving sharp instruments and needles. For this reason, healthcare workers are routinely vaccinated against blood-borne
Hepatitis (Taylor, 2005).
It is also possible to acquire HBV infection through sexual intercourse and especially through injection of intravenous drugs because IV drug users often share needles. While there is no cure for HBV infection, diagnosis is crucial because antiviral agents are capable of managing its symptoms and minimizing its damaging effect on the liver compared to untreated HBV infection (CDC, 2006).
Hepatitis C is very similar to Hepatitis B, except that it is caused by a different virus, HCV. While it is possible to transmit HVC infection through sexual activity, it is much more often transmitted by blood-to-blood contact in medical settings where universal blood precautions are violated. The most common specific mode…
The Bantam Medical Dictionary. (2003) New York: Bantam
U.S.D.H.H.S. (2006) Centers for Disease Control: Viral Hepatitis.
Accessed October 14, 2007, at http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/diseases/hepatitis/
Taylor, C., Lillis, C., Lemone, P. (2005) Fundamentals of Nursing: The Art and Science of Nursing Care. New York: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins
Hepatitis C and Cellular Biology
Hepatitis C is a virus that affects over 2% of the global population (Belon & Frick, 2009). It is a virus that leads to chronic liver disease, and has many complications, including cirrhosis, fibrosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (Belon & Frick, 2009), and it is the leading cause of liver transplantation among countries in the developed world (Whidby et al., 2009). Hepatitis C establishes and maintains a life-long infection in individuals despite the fact that the virus is detected and targeted by immune mechanisms of the host (Sharma, 2010). The virus survives and persists due to rapid mutations that allow the virus to escape surveillance by immune mechanisms (Sharma, 2010). The hepatitis C virus itself is a very small hepatotropic NA virus that is enveloped and spherical (Sharma, 2010). The only available treatment option for Hepatitis C is administration of a long-acting pegylated-interferon-alpha in combination with…
Belon, C.A. & Frick, D.N. (2009). Helicase inhibitors as spciefically targeted antiviral therapy for hepatitis C Future Virology, 4(3), 277-93.
Sharma, S.D. (2010). Hepatitis C virus: Molecular biology and current therapeutic options. Indian Journal of Medical Research, 131, 17-34.
Whidby, J., Mateu, G., Scarborough, H., Demeler, B., Grakoui, A., Marcotrigiano, J. (2009). Blocking hepatitis C virus infection with recombinant form of envelope protein 2 ectodomain. Journal of Virology, 83(21), 11078-89.
As the liver damage progresses, these symptoms may grow more severe. "The hepatitis C virus is linked to an increased risk of porphyria cutanea tarda, a condition that may cause a blistering rash, to cryoglobulinemia, which can cause a purplish rash (purpura) on…lower extremities, and may cause kidney damage" (Complications, 2009, The Mayo Clinic).
Many patients have no specific symptoms and the finding of abnormal hepatic transaminase levels on routine testing is what often prompts specific testing for hepatitis C (O'Shea 2009). Blood tests or a liver biopsy to determine the severity of the illness are usually used by doctors. "If test results indicate that you have HCV, your doctor may measure the quantity of the virus in your blood (viral load) and evaluate the genetic makeup of the virus (genotype). There are six known HCV genotypes. Knowing which genotype you have will help your doctor determine the best…
Complications. (2009). Hepatitis C The Mayo Clinic. Retrieved April 22, 2009 at http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/hepatitis-c/DS00097 /DSECTION=complications
Hepatitis C: An epidemic for anyone. (2009). Dartmouth Medical School. Retrieved April 22,
2009 at http://www.epidemic.org/theFacts/hepatitisC/anatomy/
O'Shea, Robert. (2009). Hepatitis C The Cleveland Clinic. Retrieved April 22, 2009 at http://www.clevelandclinicmeded.com/medicalpubs/diseasemanagement/hepatology/hepatitis-C/#cesec2
Antiviral treatment is used in some cases, especially for treating Hepatitis C, but many of the side effects of this treatment are similar to the symptoms of hepatitis itself, and can become so life threatening that such treatments must be discontinued in some cases. In cases where treatment is absolutely needed but antiviral treatments either will not adequately address the cause of the disease or is deemed too dangerous, the only real option for treatment is a liver transplant -- when symptoms are bad enough to cause immediate concerns for health and quality of life, the liver is often too damaged for the body to repair it. It is for this reason that hepatitis often goes untreated; the complications of a liver transplant can themselves be life-threatening and lead to ongoing health problems, making it hardly preferable to most mild cases of hepatitis despite the chronic nature of the disease.…
Mayo Clinic. (2010). http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/hepatitis-c/DS00097
Medline Plus. (2010). http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/001154.htm
Web MD. (2010). http://www.webmd.com/hepatitis/default.htm
Hepatitis D, HDV is a subviral satellite that is not classified in a viral family. Dr. Mario Rizzeto identified in 1977 a nuclear antigen that was subsequently established to derive form what was named Hepatitis Delta Virus ()This is the only virus under the genus deltavirus (Hepatitis D Virus, 2005). The history of this interesting unique satellite small virus is short and therefore researches are still searching for possible new genotypes and prevention and treatment methods.
The new satellite virus was established to depend entirely on the Hepatitis Virus for its production and transmission. HDV depends on the Hepatitis surface antigen provided by the HV that the former uses to form its envelope of particles (Handa, Yamaguchi, 2006). Although HDV is considered as a satellite virus of HV, it does not present the same sequence as the later and it its replication is not dependent on the HV (Hepatitis D…
Background on HDV Replication. Retrieved: Nov. 5, 2009. Available at: http://www.stanford.edu/group/virus/delta/2005/newresearcha.html
Hepatitis D Foundation. Retrieved: Nov 5, 2009. Available at: http://www.hepb.org/hepb/hepdconinfection.htm
Viral Zone. Retrieved: Nov 5, 2009. Available at: http://www.expasy.org/viralzone/all_by_species/175.html
Hepatitis C virus infection Trends among MSM that attend clinics for sexually transmitted infections: 1995 to 2010
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) has been noted since 2000 as a "sexually-transmitted-infection" (STI) amid MSM that are HIV-positive. This paper seeks to cross-examine the HCV occurrence among MSM attending a big STI-clinic located in Netherlands. There is need to examine data, and down the time profile, on chronic and acute infection of HCV among the MSM that are both HIV negative and positive, so as to establish the state of the disease and the causes, and to plan how to prevent its spread, in addition to identifying affected cases.
In the course of the anonymous cross-sectional surveys that are conducted every two years from 1995 to 2010, people had been interviewed as well as checked for evidence of HCV and HIV antibodies. There is a standardized questionnaire that has questions to find out…
Lacombe, K. & Rockstroh, J. (2012). HIV and viral hepatitis coinfections: advances and challenges. Gut, 61 (Suppl 1): i47 -- i58.
Urbanus, A.T., Van De Laar, T.J.W., Geskus, R., Vanhommerig, J.W., Van Rooijen, M.S., Schinkel, J. ... & Prins, M. (2014).Trends in hepatitis C virus infections among MSM attending a sexually transmitted infection clinic; 1995-2010, AIDS, 28:781-790
Anatomy of the Liver
The liver is found at the upper right hand portion of the abdominal opening just under the diaphragm, but over the stomach, right kidney and intestines. It is a cone shaped organ that weighs approximately 3 pounds and appears to be dark red in color (USC Liver Transplant Program and Center for Liver Disease, 2012).
(1) right lobe, (2) left lobe, (3) caudate lobe, (4) quadrate lobe, (5) hepatic artery and portal vein, (6) hepatic lymph nodes, (7) gall bladder
The liver has two main sources of blood; blood from the hepatic artery, which is oxygenated and nutrient-rich blood from the hepatic portal vein. The liver contains up to one pint of the host body's blood supply all the time. It has two main lobes comprising of myriad of lobules. These lobules are also linked to tiny ducts that are also linked to larger…
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2008, June 23). Hepatitis C FAQs for the Public. Retrieved November 17, 2012, from www.cdc.gov.
USC Liver Transplant Program and Center for Liver Disease. (2012). About the Liver. Retrieved November 17, 2012, from http://www.surgery.usc.edu/divisions/hep/abouttheliver.html
Hepatitis C: Brief Overview and Statistics
1. The nature of the problem
Hepatitis C refers to an infectious disease of the liver: it can manifest as either mild or severe and lasting in term for a few weeks or for as long as the infected individual might live (cdc.gov, 2018). It develops within the individual as a result of a contamination via the Hepatitis C virus, spread mainly via blood-to-blood contact (cdc.gov, 2018). This disease can be either acute or chronic, though acute infections often develop into chronic ones; around 75-85% of acute cases eventually develop into chronic cases (cdc.gov, 2018). This disease can cause long term liver damage that sometimes lasts a lifetime and leads to even more serious conditions such as scarring of the liver or cancer of the liver (cdc.gov, 2018).
By referring to Hepatitis C as a blood-to-blood illness, this refers to the way in which…
Cdc.gov. (2018, April 23). Hepatitis C FAQs for the Public | Division of Viral Hepatitis | CDC. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/hepatitis/hcv/cfaq.htm
Mohamed, A. A., Elbedewy, T. A., El-Serafy, M., El-Toukhy, N., Ahmed, W., & El Din, Z. A. (2015). Hepatitis C virus: A global view. World journal of hepatology, 7(26), 2676.
Petruzziello, A., Marigliano, S., Loquercio, G., Cozzolino, A., & Cacciapuoti, C. (2016). Global epidemiology of hepatitis C virus infection: An up-date of the distribution and circulation of hepatitis C virus genotypes. World journal of gastroenterology, 22(34), 7824.
Who.int. (2017, October 2). Hepatitis C. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/hepatitis-c
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a major public health problem across the globe as it contributes to nearly 1 million deaths annually. It is an infection that basically attacks the liver and has the potential to generate acute and chronic diseases. This communicable disease is mostly transmitted from mother to child during birth. Additionally, HBV is transmitted through contact with body fluids like blood. Since it is a life-threatening condition, the viral infection has received considerable attention in the healthcare sector. Healthcare professionals and other relevant stakeholders have developed various initiatives to help lessen the prevalence of this infection and mitigate its impacts worldwide. This paper analyzes this communicable disease, determinants of health relating to its development, epidemiological triad, and role of the nurse practitioner in the management of the infectious disease.
Analysis of the Communicable Disease
The World Health Organization (2019) defines hepatitis B virus as a…
Hepatitis C: New CDC Screening Recommendations
The objective of this study is to review the article written by Doug Campos-Outcalt entitled "Hepatitis C: New CDC Screening Recommendations" published in the Journal of Family Practice, Volume 61, Number 12 in December 2012.
Campos-Outcalt (2012) writes that the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) released new recommendations for Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection screening including a one-time screening for all individuals in the United States that were born between the year of 1945 and 1965 "regardless of risk." The new recommendations are reported to be rather than a replacement to be instead an enhancement of "the recommendations for HCV screening" stated in 1998 calling for those who were considered high-risk to be screened.
HCV results in a high level of morbidity and mortality in the United States. There are reported to be 17,000 new infections to have occurred in 2010 with…
It is reported that the two groups at the highest risk for HCV are those who are users of illegal drugs, which they injected, and those who received blood transfusions prior to 1992 when HCV blood screening began. There are other risk factors, which include having been incarcerated, having sex with someone infected with HCV, and the acquisition of a tattoo at an establishment that was unregulated, among others risk factors for contracting HCV. According to Campos-Outcalt, sustained virological response following treatment was demonstrated in individuals exhibiting a "reduction in all-cause mortality >50% compared with nonresponders." (Campos-Outcalt, 2012) Individuals born between 1988 and 1994 are much more likely to have contracted HCV than those born between 1999 and 2002.
Observational Studies and Reported Outcomes
Twelve observational studies are reported that examined treatment effects on the incidence of HCC and are reported to have shown a "75% reduction in HCC rates in those who achieved viral clearance compared with those who did not." (Campos-Outcalt, 2012) Physicians are advised that if there is a positive on a confirmatory test that the patient should be assumed to have HCV infection. The patient must decide if treatment is to be initiated and must undergo additional assessment to check for chronic liver disease. Measures should be taken to protect their liver from receiving additional damage including alcohol consumption reduction, medication avoidance and use of herbal products that result in liver damage. Patients infected with HCV should focus on the maintenance of an optimal weight and should receive vaccines against hepatitis A and B. AS well, patients should be instructed on how to avoid spreading the HCV infection to other people. There is noted by Campos-Outcalt (2012) to be controversies on HCV screening in regards to improvements in outcomes. For this reason the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force is presently conducting a revisement of the HCV recommendations for screening.
hepatitis of the liver and how they are transmitted to how we can find a remedy to slow down the deterioration process if not cure it completely.
Causes of hepatitis B
Transmission of hepatitis B
Tests for hepatitis B
isk Factors for HCV Infection
Consequences of HCV Infection
Hepatitis is the disease connected with the inflammation of the liver. This disease was not discovered too long ago, however doctors and researchers have been able to find out the causes of hepatitis. There are several causes such as, viral, parasitic, infiltrative, drug or alcohol induced, or non-specific. Before a person is even diagnosed with this disease some of the prominent indications of the acute phase can be ranging from a symptomatic, where we may not even be able to notice we have hepatitis to feeling extremely tired, jaundice- where our skin…
A Commitment to Global Health - Text version, available at:
http://www.niaid.nih.gov/director/usmed/1999/usmed99text.htm , accessed on:
February 9, 2004
BioE: News and Press Releases, available at: http://www.bioe.com/news.html, accessed on: February 9, 2004
Cure for Hepatitis C
The medical community continues to scramble to find a cure for Hepatitis C, a disease that threatens the liver and can often prove to be fatal to those who become infected with it.
Hepatitis C is a blood borne disease that can be acquired through shared needles, blood to blood contact and other contact with bodily fluids. Hepatitis C has symptoms that include fatigue, vomiting, jaundice, pain in right side going through to the back sometimes and elevated liver enzymes. Once one is infected with Hepatitis C there is no cure though current research is working to locate one.
Currently there is no cure for Hepatitis C and part of that is because of the mutating ability of the disorder. Even within the same patient the disorder can mutate and change many times. This presents a serious problem in the quest for a cure or vaccine…
Thus, a diagnosis of Hepatitis C might not warrant any treatment intervention other than close monitoring of liver function. hen the virus remains in the body, the disease progresses to its chronic phase. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, "chronic HCV infection develops in 70% -- 85% of HCV-infected persons." Of chronically infected individuals, 60% -- 70% "have evidence of active liver disease," (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). About 17% of chronically infected individuals will develop cirrhosis and about 2% will develop liver cancer (United States Department of Veteran's Affairs).
Treating chronic Hepatitis C usually entails pharmaceutical intervention. A combination of two antiviral drugs, peginterferon and ribavirin, is currently the most effective treatment intervention. Other methods include administering long-acting (pegylated) interferon by itself; or administering a short-acting version of interferon with ribarvirin (United States Department of Veteran's Affairs). Using these two drugs, peginterferon and ribavirin, the…
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. "Viral Hepatitis." Retrieved June 17, 2010 from http://www.cdc.gov/hepatitis /' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
embrel.com) it was deemed safe to use in patients who had Hepatitis C Lab tests were ordered and conducted on the 60-year-old patient's liver, and the results indicated normal enzyme production in the liver. In August 2004, the patient was started on Enbrel 50 MG twice a week, and some immediate improvement was noted; but after 18 weeks, the patient, who was inconsistent in making appointments, showed a worsened psoriasis condition. The dosage was cut to 50 MG once a week, and patient was urged to visit his liver doctor to have PCR for his Hepatitis C titers (concentration), to repeat CBC and Liver Function Test (LFT) titers (which was normal in Aug. 2002). A mild elevation of LFTs was discovered, so the patient was worked up further with ultrasound and a liver biopsy. The patient was then started in IFN treatment and Enbrel was discontinued. By June, 2006, the…
Enbrel. "Important Product Information: What do I need to know about Enbrel?" Retrieved 12 November, 2006, at http://www.enbrel.com/important-product-information.jsp .
Vaccine # 1
Name of Vaccine
Type of vaccination
· The previous dose of the Rotavirus vaccine was suspected of having a life-threatening allergic reaction.
· Any component of the rotavirus vaccine was suspected of having a severe allergic effect.
· Rotavirus vaccine was suspected of having Severe immunodeficiency (SCID).
Anyone taking the Rotavirus vaccine should take several precautions, which include: pre-existing acute gastrointestinal conditions such as short gut syndrome or Hirschsprung’s disease and congenital malabsorption syndrome. Another precaution to take is
chronic gastroenteritis. (Salvadori & Saux, 2010).
Adverse Drug Reactions
Some of the reactions that might be triggered by the vaccine include swelling on both throat and face, increased heartbeat, drowsiness, and breathing complications (CDC, 2019).
Minimum Age to Receive Vaccine
All Rotavirus vaccine doses should be given to children between 15 weeks and 8 months. (CDC, 2019).
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Routine vaccine recommendations. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/vpd/rotavirus/hcp/recommendations.html
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Special situations. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/
Mayo Clinic. (2020). Hepatitis B vaccine (Intramuscular route). Retrieved from https://www.mayoclinic.org/
Otsuka-Ono, H., Hori, N., Ohta, H., Uemura, Y., & Kamibeppu, K. (2019). A childhood immunization education program for parents delivered during late pregnancy and one-month postpartum: a randomized controlled trial. BMC Health Services Research, 19. Retrieved from https://bmchealthservres.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12913-019-4622-z
Rogers, K. (2019). Immunization noncompliance: Gauging the cause, effect, and management in the school setting. NASN School Nurse, 34(3). https://doi.org/10.1177/1942602X18799868
Salvadori, M., & Saux, N. (2010). Recommendations for the use of rotavirus vaccines in infants. Paediatr Child Health, 15(8), 519-523. DOI: 10.1093/pch/15.8.519.
Sjogren, E., Ask, L., Ortqvist, A., & Asp, M. (2017). Parental conceptions of the rotavirus vaccine during implementation in Stockholm: A phenomenographic study. Journal of Child Health Care, 21(4). https://doi.org/10.1177/1367493517734390
VAERS. (2020). Report an adverse event to VAERS. Retrieved from https://vaers.hhs.gov/
Pharmacotherapy for Gastrointestinal and Hepatobiliary Disorders
While it is suspected that the patient HL is suffering from a possible GI/hepatobiliary disorder, more information is required before making a diagnosis of this nature. The patient’s personal history needs to be expanded upon and a physical examination should be conducted to verify any signs and symptoms in order to complete a diagnosis.
The patient is suffering from nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. The symptoms indicate that a diagnosis of gastrointestinal (GI) and hepatobiliary disorders are affecting the patient. Culver and Chapman (2016) indicate that hepatobiliary disease is commonly associated with extremely low CD4+ counts, typically < 20 cells/µL. In order to evaluate any disorder in the liver, exams should rule out HBV and HCV infection as a differential diagnosis. So those viral infections have to be tested for before proceeding to make a diagnosis.
The patient’s Hep C infection is quite likely, especially if…
Hepatitis C Exposure Incident Report
Recently eighty patients at the Norman Regional Hospital have tested positive for Hepatitis C Employee James Hill admitted to reusing needles up to 25 time a day while administering pain medication. At least 38 cases can be positively associated with exposure at the clinic, while another 35 may be associated. As acting Nurse Manager, I have been assigned the task of developing a strategy for dealing with this situation. The following will discuss the issues and policies involved in effectively dealing either the current situation and developing a plan to prevent future similar events from occurring.
This issue is multifaceted and there are several elements to consider when dealing with the issue. The first concern is the safety of the infected patients. The second is that there many be possible violations of Federal laws involved. The third issue is to analyze the situation from a…
Bruning, S. And Ledingham, J.(1998) "Public Relations and Consumer Decisions: Effectively Managing the Relationships that Impact Consumer Behavior." Capital University. AEJMC PR Public Relations Educators Convention. 1998. New Orleans.
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Deci, E. (1971). "Effects of externally mediated rewards on intrinsic motivation." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 18, 105-115 ms, A.,and Savolainen, T. (2000) "The nature of managerial commitment to strategic change." Leadership and Organization Development Journal; 21(6):297-306.
Leonard, N.H. et al. (1995.) A self-concept-based model of work motivation. Paper presented at the 55th Annual Meeting of the Academy of Management, Vancouver, British Columbia.
According to Davis (2012), the hepatitis A virus occurs in the feces of people who carry the disease. The most common transmission is when people eat food that has been contaminated by infected feces (fecal-oral transmission). Food or water can be contaminated when there are poor sanitary conditions or when hands are not properly washed. aw or undercooked shellfish from sewage contaminated water can also carry the virus. Sexual contact can also cause transmission of the disease, especially when the contact is oral/anal. Very rarely, blood transfusions can infect a recipient of infected blood. Persons who are infected can start spreading the condition about one week after their exposure, even if there are no symptoms. The greatest risk of infection with this disease is in developing countries, where there are sometimes poor sanitary and personal hygiene standards. Daycare centers, prisons, and mental institutions tend to be at greater…
Bazell, R. (2003, Nov. 21). Dirty Rotten Scallions. Slate. Retrieved from: http://www.slate.com/articles/health_and_science/medical_examiner/2003/11/dirty_rotten_scallions.html
Davis, C.P. (2012). Hepatitis A emedicinehealth. Retrieved from: http://www.emedicinehealth.com/hepatitis_a/page2_em.htm#Hepatitis A Symptoms
Ethics and Experimentation
Ethics and Medical Experimentation
On Staten Island there was an institution for the mentally disabled which operated from 1947 to 1987, but in the period from 1956 through 1971, children at the institution were used for experiments involving hepatitis. Although the experiments are considered to be successful, the involvement of mentally disabled children has brought many ethical considerations to the forefront. Dr. Saul Krugman, the man who ran the experiment, stated that his team took a number of ethical considerations into question before the experiment began. Firstly, Krugman rationalized the use of children by stating that "It is recognized that infectious hepatitis is a much milder disease in children." (obinson 81) Then, a mild form of the disease was inflicted upon the children under conditions that were the most favorable including special medical personnel and isolation quarters. Krugman specifically stated that only children who's parents consented were…
Rivers, Eunice, et al. "Twenty Years of Follow-up Experience in a Long-Range
Medical Study." Public Health Reports 68.4 (April 1953). Web. 30 Mar. 2013.
Robinson, Walter, Brandon Unruh. "The Hepatitis Experiments and the Willowbrook
Moreover, recent legislation such as the Affordable Care Act is expected to create an even greater need for nurses who can take on more advanced responsibilities. As one nurse stated on National Public adio: "…with the passage of the Affordable Care Act, which was passed in March, we're going to see 32 million new patients accessing the health care delivery system which previously weren't accessing this system. And currently, we don't have the capacity to provide high-quality, patient-centered care for this new expanded population" (NP, 2010)
Careers in nursing have become vast and varied, particularly for the highly educated, and pay for many of these careers is above $60,000 annually. While a nurse with a BSN who becomes an N can still advance in her career, enter management, or become a nursing professor, an MSN is necessary for nurses to enter one of the more prestigious and specialized subfields (Sacks,…
AACN. (2010, 10). The Impact of Education on Nursing Practice. Retrieved 02-14, 2011, from AACN: http://www.aacn.nche.edu/media/factsheets/impactednp.htm
Allen, J. (1988). Health Care Workers and the Risk of HIV Transmission. The Hastings Center Report, 18 (2), 2+.
NPR. (2010). Talk of the Nation: Role of Nurses in Primary Care May Expand. Retrieved 02-14, 2011, from NPR: http://www.npr.org/2010/11/16/131361359/role-of-nurses-in-primary-care-may-expand
OSHA. (2011). Bloodborne Pathogens and Needlestick Prevention. Retrieved 02-14, 2011, from OSHA.gov: http://www.osha.gov/SLTC/bloodbornepathogens/index.html
The results revealed that this route did not lead to any needle stick injuries. The ESA worked as efficaciously as it would have if needles were used and this was proved by the maintenance of the hemoglobin levels. It was observed that 91% of the nursing staff was in favor of the needle free administration of ESA. This study therefore concluded that drugs with detached needles present further routes to prevent needle stick injuries in the future. (Chow et. al, 2009)
Seeing how needle stick injuries can lead to emotional, health related and financial dilemma, experts are working on ways to reduce their occurrence. The study by Chow et al. (2009) shows one way in which these incidences can be reduced. Molen et al. (2011) stated that education reduces the occurrence of needle stick injury. He conducted a study in which one group was educated in a workshop and given…
Adams, D. 2012 Needle stick and sharps injuries: implications for practice. Nursing Standard. 26 (37), pp. 49-57.
Aziz, A.M., Ashton, H., Pagett, A., Mathieson, K., Jones, S., and Mullin, B 2009 Sharps
management in hospital: an audit of equipment, practice and awareness. Br J. Nurs 18(2), pp. 92 -- 8
Blenkharn, J. 2009. Sharps management and the disposal of clincal waste. British Journal of Nursing, 18 (14).
Kumar, G.B.S., Ganapathi, TR. Bapat, V.A. Revathi, C.J. & K.S.N. Prasad. (2002). Expression
of Hepatitis B surface antigen in transgenic banana plants and NT- I cell line of tobacco. BARC. Retrieved from: http://barc.gov.in/publications/nl/2003/200310-12.pdf
ne of the most difficult and intractable health issues worldwide is that of Hepatitis B The disease is difficult to treat and potentially deadly. "There are about 350 million chronic carriers in the world and it is estimated that 75- 100 million of them will die of liver cirrhosis and/or hepatocellular carcinoma" (Kumar, Ganapathi, Bapat, Revathi, Prasad 2002:85). Although vaccinations do exist, the injectable form of the vaccine is expensive and has been difficult to distribute throughout the developing world where Hepatitis B is most prevalent. Injectable vaccines also require trained healthcare professionals to disseminate. There is also the risk of needle contamination in unsanitary conditions, again, making vaccines in the developing world potentially more dangerous. Cold…
One possible solution is the development of oral vaccines. This proved to be a great advantage in the treatment of polio. Unlike injectable vaccines, "they can activate the mucosal immune system against many pathogens by oral delivery" and also because they do not contain whole pathogens, there is no risk of actually transmitting the disease by accident through the vaccination process (Kumar et al. 2002: 86). Plant-based vaccines have proven to be particularly effective in the developing world through the use of transgenic banana plants. At present, the surface antigen of Hepatitis B (HBsAg) has been successfully found to be expressed in transgenic tobacco plants as well. "The HBsAg derived from transgenic tobacco plants is physically, biochemically and immunologically similar to yeast derived rHBsAg" but is cheaper to produce (Kumar et al. 2002: 87). Both transgenic tobacco and banana plants, it is hoped, hold the potential to develop an effective oral vaccine.
The series of experiments conducted by the study's authors to support their exploratory research to find plant-based vaccines were promising. For the transgenic tobacco plants, "Western analysis confirmed the presence of HBsAg specific band corresponding to yeast derived rHBsAg in pHBs100 and pHER100 transformed tobacco cells whereas in the control non-transformed cells the same was absent…the denatured HBsAg expressed in plant cells showed 4 kDa peptides similar to yeast derived rHBsAg" (Kumar et al. 2002: 91). This antigen is not naturally occurring in tobacco plants, it should be noted: transgenic manipulation would be required for the vaccine to be generated, thus there still would be considerable expense in generating the vaccine initially. The hope would be, however, that once it was developed, it would be useful in the context of the developing world to provide treatment.
The most desirable and promising potential vaccine source, however, would still be to derive the vaccine from a banana plant, given the proliferation of the fruit in the tropics and also its palatability. "Expression of HBsAg in bananas may be advantageous as they are grown in most of the tropical and subtropical countries, where cost effective vaccines are required and their digestibility and palatability by infants makes it an attractive choice" (Kumar et al. 2002: 93). It must be noted that the development of the vaccine in any plant form is still very much in its nascent stages. At present, the closest to an oral vaccine that has been derived in a lab is an HBsAg prototype from a transgenic potato plant tested in mice. Still, the research indicates potentially promising developments in this area which should not be ignored.
Immunizing Your Baby, Protecting or Harming?
Positives for Vaccinations
Recommended and Minimum Ages for Early Childhood Vaccinations
Negatives for Vaccinations
Vaccines against diphtheria, polio, pertussis, measles, mumps and rubella, hepatitis B and chicken pox, have given humans powerful immune guards to ward off unwelcome disease and sickness. Because of this the CDC works closely with public health agencies and private partners in order to improve and sustain immunization coverage and to monitor the safety of vaccines so that public health can be maintained and expanded in the future. Despite the good that vaccines appear to do there is a debate stirring in regards to the safety of vaccines and whether or not they are link to disorders such as autism. There are some studies that appear to link childhood vaccinations to autism but the evidence is very weak at best. But because of these types of studies…
Carolyn Drews-Botsch, et al. "Timeliness of Childhood Immunizations: A State-
Analysis." American Journal Of Public Health 95.8 (2005): 1367-1374. Business
In some countries, bed numbers began to drop before the introduction of the drugs. In others, bed numbers actually increased despite this introduction. The drugs also have been used on a variety of populations that were not deemed to be mentally ill (such as people with learning difficulties and older people). The drugs were only relevant in giving psychiatric staff more confidence in dealing with community-based patients; they do not explain the policy of deinstitutionalization. At the end of the twentieth century deinstitutionalization has become a dominant mental health policy goal in most Western democracies (Sax, 1984).
However, this formal goal has become clouded by evidence that the gradual reduction of large institutions has been replaced by a scattering of smaller ones 'in the community' (Roe, 1976). Also, most countries still have legal statutes to coercively remove madness from community set- tings. The extent of this continued coercive control…
Gale, F. 2007 A changing Aboriginal population. In F. Gale and G. Lawton (eds), Settlement and Encounter: Geographical studies presented to Sir Grenfell Price, Oxford University Press, Melbourne, 65-88.
Smith, L. 2006 The Aboriginal Population, The Australian National University Press, Canberra.
CDHHS 2004, The National Aboriginal Health Strategy: an evaluation, Commonwealth Department of Health and Human Services, Canberra.
Roe, M 1976, 'The establishment of the Australian Department of Health: its background and significance', Australian Historical Studies 17(67):176-92.
Mary Jane's laboratory results show there is an elevated white blood count, with CBC with differential within normal limits. Proton and INR were normal. Pregnancy was negative. UA showed occasional bacteria, but normal otherwise. Drug screen was normal, and EKG showed sinus bradycardia, rate of 59 beats per minute. Renal and hepatic functions were within normal limits.
There are four sexual response cycles, marked by physiological and psychological changes. The first stages is excitement, which Mary Jane is not getting with her partners, which is triggered by psychological or physical stimulation, and is marked by emotional changes, and increased heart rate, and vaginal swelling. Second stage is plateau, Mary Jane states she doesn't have this stimulation. The third stage is orgasm, which Mary Jane doesn't getting during intercourse, or she doesn't remember because she in under the influence of alcohol. The final phase, resolution, involves a rush of blood away…
Collective behavior" and the tonewall Riots
The term "collective behavior" refers to behavior that militates against social norms and conventions regarding the way that individuals should behave in society and differing to the way that they normally behave when not in a crowd environment. A crowd environment causes certain spontaneity to actions and a certain animal emotion that is lacking in regular 'separate existence'. cholars have devoted considerable attention to assessing why such is the case, and have generated various theories that may explain the phenomena.
Examples of instances of collective behavior include religious revivalist meetings where individuals behave in unusual ways, oftentimes totally contradictory to their private persona; panic in a burning location; or the spectacle of Black Friday where frenzy climbs and swirls around bargain hunting. The phenomenon of collective behavior too was clearly evident in the debacle of the "The tonewall Riots" and we will, therefore, take…
Armstrong, Elizabeth A., & Crage, SM. (2006) Movements and Memory: The making of the Stonewall Myth American Sociological Review 71. 724-751. SocINDEX with Full Text. Web. 14 Nov. 2011.
Baird, Robert M. (1995. ) Homosexuality: debating the issues. Amherst, N.Y.: Prometheus Books, Print. Notes on Stonewall (PGS 23-30)
Berk, Richard. (1974.). Collective Behavior W.C. Brown Co
Blumer, H. "Collective Behavior," in A.M. Lee, ed., Principles of Sociology, New York, Barnes & Noble, 1951
Common risk factors for chronic liver problems include: intravenous drug use, overdosing on acetaminophen, engaging in risky sexual behaviors like having multiple sexual partners and unprotected intercourse, eating contaminated foods, traveling to an area where certain diseases are common, living in a nursing home or rehabilitation center, having a family member who recently had hepatitis a, using or abusing alcohol, being an organ transplant recipient, having HIV or AIDS, having received a blood transfusion before 1990, being a newborn of a mother with hepatitis B or C, being a health care worker, including dentist and dental hygienist, because of blood contact and receiving a tattoo (Hepatitis Health Article, 2010).
Eighty percent of those people who have Hepatitis C go on to develop chronic liver disease, liver failure or liver cancer. Hepatitis C is the number one reason that people received liver transplants in the United States. Permanent liver damage, liver…
"Hepatitis Health Article." 2010. Healthline. Web. 24 May 2010.
Many of the electric gadgets we use today like the cell phones and the home computers were invented in the 80s. Many multinational corporations came into existence in the 80s this spur the growth to a record 3.2% per year (Bellis, 2012). This was the highest nine-year rate in American history. This was occasioned by a number of factors some of which were economic, financial, legislative, and regulatory frameworks. This unprecedented growth led to failure of a number of banking institutions. From these failures, a term "corporate greed" was coined. This essay seeks to enumerate how technology advanced in the 80s (Coppens, 2012).
In 1980, Hepatitis B Vaccine was invented by Baruch Blumberg. This research physician discovered an antigen that provoked antibody response against Hepatitis B Other took queue from this discovery to develop a vaccine against this viral hepatitis. Baruch together with Irving Millman invented a vaccine…
Bellis, M. (2012). The 80s -- the technology, science, and innovations. Retrieved October 3, 2012 from http://inventors.about.com/od/timelines/a/modern_4.htm
Coppens, T. (2012). Major Inventions Timelines: 20th Century. Retrieved October 3, 2012 from http://teresacoppens.hubpages.com/hub/Major-Inventions-Timeline-20th-and-21st -
Kotelinkova, S. (2012). History of Genetic Engineering. Retrieved October 3, 2012 from http://sgugenetics.pbworks.com/w/page/47775520/The%20History%20of%20Genetic%2
oral daclatasvir plus asunaprevir for hepatitis C virus genotype 1b
Overview of current therapy
The treatment setting for chronic hepatitis C has gone through an upheaval, above all in genotype 1. However, the exception is the continuity of interferon-based therapy and its related tolerability problems, insufficient reaction rates and several baseline factors that influence reaction to therapy (Gutierrez et al., 2015). The main concern undertaken in the current research study is that it attempts to obtain a new treatment combination that seems to be tolerable and necessitate a shorter time for therapy (Hunyady et al., 2014). Hepatitis C virus (HCV) drug development has given rise to treatment courses of therapy made up of interferon-free, all-oral combinations of direct-acting antivirals. Despite the fact that the new courses of therapy are compelling and extremely useful, the full medical influence of HCV drug resistance, its inferences for retreatment, and the impending role of…
Gutierrez, J. A., Lawitz, E. J., & Poordad, F. (2015). Interferon free, direct acting antiviral therapy for chronic hepatitis C. Journal of viral hepatitis, 22(11), 861-870.
Hunyady, B., Gervain, J., Horvath, G., Makara, M., Par, A., Szalay, F., ... & Tornai, I. (2014). Diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of hepatitis C-virus related liver disease. Hungarian national consensus guideline. Orvosi hetilap,155(Supplement 2), 3-24.
Kumada, H., Suzuki, Y., Ikeda, K., Toyota, J., Karino, Y., Chayama, K., ... & Izumi, N. (2014). Daclatasvir plus asunaprevir for chronic HCV genotype 1b infection. Hepatology, 59(6), 2083-2091.
Lontok, E., Harrington, P., Howe, A., Kieffer, T., Lennerstrand, J., Lenz, O., ... & Miller, V. (2015). Hepatitis C virus drug resistance -- associated substitutions: State of the art summary. Hepatology, 62(5), 1623-1632.
Alcoholic Liver Disease
CAUSES AND IMPACT
Causes, Incidence, Risk Factors, Impact
Alcohol use has been linked with liver disease mortality and increased social and economic costs (NCI, 2014; ruha et al., 2009). Most recent statistics say that disorders in alcohol consumption afflict millions of people worldwide. The incidence has been increasing along with increasing alcohol consumption. Alcohol liver disease takes the form of acute alcoholic hepatitis and chronic liver disease, such as steatosis, steatohepatitis, fibrosis and cirrhosis. Seriousness and prognosis depend on the amount consumed, the pattern of drinking and the length of time of consumption, the presence of liver inflammation, diet and nutritional and genetic disposition. While steatosis is virtually benign, morbidity and mortality are both high in liver cirrhosis. Survival rate for advanced cirrhosis is 1 to 2 years and 50% mortality risk for those with severe acute alcoholic hepatitis have as much as 50% mortality (NCI, 2014).…
Bruha, R., et al. (2009). Alcoholic liver disease. Vol. 110 # 3m Prague Medical Report:
PubMed Central. Retrieved on April 6, 2014 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19655694
EASL (2012). EASL clinical practical guidelines: management of alcoholic liver disease. Vol. 51 # 1, Journal of Hepatology: European Association for the Study of the liver. Retrieved on April 6, 2014 from http://www.easl.eu/assets/application/files/5e1b5512fb2cabb_file.pdf
Frazier, T.H. (2011). Treatment of alcoholic liver disease. Vol. 4 # 1, Therapeutic
Management of Occupational Exposures to Bloodborne Pathogens:
Hepatitis B Virus, Hepatitis C Virus, and Human Immunodeficiency Virus
his paper is written specifically for health care professionals who may, at some point during the course of their workday, be exposed to certain bloodborne pathogens, potentially resulting in serious illness. herefore, it is important that these professionals create and maintain a plan to address key issues that may arise during the testing and care of potentially infected patients. By writing this article, the authors hope to establish a standard procedure for dealing with occupational exposure to the pathogens for healthcare workers while also reviewing much of the current information available.
he authors note that there have been many studied performed over the years that deal with exposure to bloodborne pathogens, but this article attempts to combine them into one coherent plan for all healthcare workers to follow. hey reference several studies that…
The authors do not present many controversial findings in this article, but the demand for zidovudine is growing as an immediate treatment after exposure. The authors find no evidence to support its efficacy and, therefore, do not condone its use. They also question the efficacy of using other antibodies in the wake of exposure since there is little evidence suggesting they have any effect at all. The authors have clearly been working with bloodborne pathogens for some time and have grown concerned about the exposure rate of many professional healthcare workers. They view the immediate influence of counseling as essential in helping a worker to overcome the emotional aspect of exposure and believe that every precaution must be taken to avoid such risks. While most people would readily agree with this position on the risks associated with treating infected patients, some would argue that these risks should not supersede the patient's privacy, a contention that the authors seem to find ineffectual. For them, the risks facing healthcare workers are far more important than any privacy issues that may present themselves.
Gerberding, Julie L. And David K. Henderson. "Management of Occupational Exposures to Bloodborne Pathogens: Hepatitis B Virus, Hepatitis C Virus, and Human Immuno-
Deficiency Virus." Clinical Infectious Diseases 14.6 (1992): 1179-1185. Print.
Edit Research Premarital Screening
Evaluating Premarital Screening Knowledge in Saudi Students
The purpose of this research was to investigate the impact of premarital screening (PMS) in Saudi Arabia. The use of PMS as a means to identify and approach both and infectious and hereditary disease was investigated in order to determine the impact of this practical approach.
A cross-sectional study was conducted at Jazan University from January to June 2014 to perform this research. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 1000 Jazan University Students, both males and females. The questionnaire consisted of 3 main parts. The first part was based on socio-demographic data, the second part dealt with the students' knowledge about the premarital screening program while the third part explored their attitudes towards the screening program.
The vast majority of the participants (922; 94%) believed that a PMS program was a preventive measure. More than two thirds of…
This is particularly the case in sub-Saharan Africa where clinicians have often come to rely on signs and symptoms alone to make diagnoses." (Nicoll, Walraven, Kigadye, Klokke, 1995)
The laboratory environment is critical to administering testing to determine population rates of HIV / AIDS throughout nations and perhaps continents where the lacking of resources facilitates a substandard environment for care. In the case of the African nation of Mozambique, which perhaps can be understood as a case indicative of the environmental assessment one would find throughout Africa and therefore, can be labelled to be a median statistical nation. A nation representing the median would indicate that half of the population nations that are categorized as resourced deficient, half would be above Mozambique in terms of resource allocation and half would fall below.
esearch into the quality of HIV / AIDS case-detection and case-reporting system in Mozambique was conducted by (Chilundo,…
Chappuis, F., Loutan, L., Simarro, P., Lejon, V., and Buscher, P. Options for Field Diagnosis of Human African Trypanosomiasis. Clinical Microbiology Reviews, January 2005, p. 133-146, Vol. 18, No.1
Chilundo, B., Sundeep S., Sundby J. The Quality of HIV / AIDS case-detection and case reporting systems in Mozambique. African Journal of AIDS Research 2004, 145-155. Copyright NISC Pty Ltd.
Clark. Blood Safety PPT. CDC, WHO
Loefler, I. Surgical wound infection in the Third World: the African experience. Journal of Medical Microbiology. Volume 47, 471-473. 1998. The Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland
Hispanics Living in Alabama
The United States has a large number of minority groups and the largest among them are the Hispanic population. According to the latest census, the Hispanic population in Alabama now number 75,830. The census authorities in U.S. had coined the term 'Hispanic' to denote specifically the people from 22 countries in Latin America, and living in the United States. The growth of population in this community has been very high during the last ten years - a growth of 247 per cent. They constitute a large consumer market worth $685 million annually, and contribute $251 million to the state and local authorities in taxes. It is obvious that the large growth is due to the classic reasons for migration - poverty. They had an expectation of a new and better life in the United States when they first set foot on U.S. soil.
Of all industries…
Emergency Action Plan
As a strict requirement of OSHA, the clinical laboratory science department must comply to this standard that is used in describing all the appropriate actions that must be taken by the facility in order to ensure that there is proper safety in case of any accidents such as fire outbreak.
As a strict requirement of OSHA, the facility must ensure that there is a proper Fire Prevention Plan that is necessary to avert any kind of loss of either life or property.
Medical and First Aid
All the employees who work in this department must have the necessary component of both medical and first-aid providers. This is in order to ensure that any emergency situation that arises can be met with the appropriate solution.
Personal Protective Equipment
Due to the high risk of infection that is associated with the samples in the laboratory, it is…
AIUM, (2009).Standards and Guidelines for the Accreditation of Ultrasound Practices
ARDMS (2010) Introducing...MY ARDMS
As to catheter straps, if fastened too tightly they can act as tourniquets, cutting off the needed flow of blood and presenting. And at least theoretically, use of straps brings about a risk of increasing the complications such as "…deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism" in those patients with "impaired lower extremity circulation" (Billington 504). Research presented in this article shows that the problem of infection due to poorly attached catheters can be reduced significantly through the use of a product called "Bard StatLock" -- which, the authors insist, is an effective stabilization device because it allows movement (through a swivel clip), because it is a "sterile latex-free, tug-resistant product" (Billington 504). An article in the journal RN, incidentally, states that treating "hemodialysis catheter-related bacteremia" can cost a hospital up to $45,000.
ashing "Bloody Hands": An article in the Australian Nursing Journal asserts, "…hand hygiene is the single most effective…
Aziz, a.M., Ashton, H., Pagett, a., Mathieson, K., Jones, S., & Mullin, B. (2009).
Sharps management in hospital: an audit of equipment, practice and awareness.
British Journal of Nursing, 18(2), 92-98.
Billington, a., Crane, C., Jownally, S., Kirkwood, L., & Roodhouse, a. (2008).
health related risks in association with addiction, the two greatest risks for Heroin Injectors is the risk of acquiring HIV or any number of the deadly and permanent Hepatitis viruses. The risks associated with addiction, poor nutrition, dehydration, reduced kidney and liver function as well as a few others increases the risk of an individual acquiring, nearly any communicable disease, yet those who are injecting Heroin also repeatedly directly open their circulatory system to massive deadly diseases like HIV and Hepatitis. ("The Menace of Heroin," 1999, p. 2)
In many places needle sharing has been decreased with awareness and availability campaigns yet it is clear that the sharing of needles still occurs, as the reduced mental functioning of the user, at the height of addictive need and in the throws of the high have a reduced sense of judgment, just as can be said about any mind altering drug. Yet.…
Brown, B.S. & Beschner, G.M. (Eds.). (1993). Handbook on Risk of AIDS: Injection Drug Users and Sexual Partners. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
The Menace of Heroin in the U.S. . (1999, September 5). The Washington Times, p. 2. Retrieved October 25, 2004, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com .
Riley, E.D., Wu, A.W., Junge, B., Marx, M., Strathdee, S.A., & Vlahov, D. (2002).
Health Services Utilization by Injection Drug Users Participating in a Needle
Based on etiologic differences, male-to-female ratio is 1.5-3:1. Primary biliary cirrhosis accounting for only 1.5% of deaths from cirrhosis is mostly found in females and ethanol-related cirrhosis is greatly found in males. Age-specific death rates in the United States tend to be greatest in the older age groups, topping at 49 per 100,000 males aged from 65-74 years and at 26.7 per 100,000 women of the age group from 75-84 years. (Cirrhosis: (www.emedicine.com)
Diagnosis and Imaging Modalities:
Ultrasound, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and angiography are suggested as imaging modalities for the diagnosis of liver cirrhosis. In cases of patients doubtful for diffuse liver disease, ultrasound of the liver is being used as a screening-imaging tool and it is useful in for follow-up examinations. In order to make the presence of liver disease to be clear, computed tomography is usually carried out and it is detected by ultrasound. Against this…
Cirrhosis. Retrieved October 7, 2005, from the World Wide Web http://www.gutdoc.org/Cirrohis.htm
Cirrhosis. Retrieved October 7, 2005, from the World Wide Web http://www.healthcentral.com/ency/408/000255.html
Cirrhosis Treatment. Retrieved October 7, 2005, from the World Wide Web http://health.allrefer.com/health/cirrhosis-treatment.html
Digestive System Organs. Retrieved October 7, 2005, from the World Wide Web http://www.healthcentral.com/ency/408/ImagePages/8710.html
Chronic Liver Disease
With a number of functions -- including detoxification, protein synthesis, and the production of chemicals that are necessary for digestion -- the human liver is vital.
It is reddish brown and has four unequal sized lobes; usually weighs about 3.5 pounds and is the largest gland in the human body. It is located just below the diaphragm in the body's right upper abdominal quadrant.
The liver plays a major role in the body's metabolic processes as well -- glycogen storage, decomposition of red blood cells, some hormone production.
The liver produces bile -- which is an alkaline compound that helps in digestion by changing fat (lipid) molecules to a more digestible format.
The liver's detoxification and synthesis of micronutrients are vital -- short-term liver dialysis is possible, but a person cannot exist without a functioning liver (Virtual Liver, 2008).
Cirrhosis of the Liver
Cirrhosis is the result…
Nutrition and Cirrhosis. (2010). HepCNet. Retrieved from:
Greenlee, H., et.al. (2007). "Clinical Applications of Silybum Marianum." Integrative
Cancer Therapies. 6(1): 158-65.
Huseini, H., et.al. (2006). "The Effects of Sulybum Marianum in the Treatment of Type II Diabetes." Phytotherapeutic Research. 20(1): 1036-39.
Give at least 3 examples of workers who are at risk of exposure to bloodborne pathogens.
2. List the three ways exposure to bloodborne pathogens commonly occurs.
3. Describe at least 5 key aspects of a Bloodborne Pathogen Exposure Control
4. Explain how properly used PPE and appropriate housekeeping methods protect against exposure to bloodborne pathogens.
5. List three important steps to take if exposed to a bloodborne pathogen
These are all very specific and measurable goals, which according to Bradshaw and Lowenstein is a vital part of a good lesson plan. The authors of the lesson plan could have stated much vaguer goals, such "the student will become more familiear with exposure to bloodborne pathogens." However, vague objectives like that cannot be accurately measured. So it is good that this lesson plan states exactly what the student should be able to learn.
What is expected of the learner?…
Bradshaw, M.J. & Lowenstein, a.J. (2007) Innovative teaching strategies in nursing & related health professions. 4th ed. Jones & Bartlett Publishers
This allows the client to place their level of behavior on the continuum and assess the levels of risk associated with their behaviors. The continuum also allows the client to assess the ways in which their behaviors over time, by examining the ways in which their behaviors are now different to past behaviors. This may allow clients to recognize that they have already made some progress toward less harmful behaviors, or may allow them to identify specific events which led to developing more risky behaviors. The harm reduction model allows the client to assess their current situation and plan the actions which they wish to take to change their future behaviors.
Applications of the model
The harm reduction model has been applied predominantly to drug misuse issues, however it is also appropriate to apply the model for a wide range of social and health behavior changes. The model has been…
Amato, L., Davoli, M.A., Perucci, C., Ferri, M., Faggiano, F.P. And Mattick, R. (2005) an overview of systematic reviews of the effectiveness of opiate maintenance therapies: Available evidence to inform clinical practice and research. Journal Substitutes Abuse Treatment, 28, 321-329.
Bluthenthal, R.N., Kral, a.H., Erringer, E.A. And Edlin, B.R. (1998) Use of an illegal syringe exchange and injection-related risk behaviors among street-recruited injection drug users in Oakland, California, 1992 to 1995. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome Human Retrovirology, 18, 505-511.
Bradley-Springer, L. (1996) Patient education for behavior change: Help from the transtheoretical and harm reduction models. JANAC, 7(1), 23-33.
Des Jarlais, D.C. (1995) Harm reduction: A framework for incorporating science into drug policy. American Journal of Public Health, 85, 10-12.
The viruses that cause AIDS (HIV) and hepatitis can be carried in clotting factors however there have been no documented cases of such transmission in about ten years. Prevention of viruses can be prevented by: careful screening of donors; testing of donated blood products; treating donated blood products with a detergent and heat to destroy viruses (Hemophilia 2006). Both preventive and as-needed therapy can be administered at home, thus resulting in quicker treatment, fewer doctor or emergency room visits, and less costs. Vein access devices can be surgically implanted to allow easier access to a vein however infections can result from such devices (Hemophilia 2006).
All patients with bleeding disorders may benefit at times from using aminocaproic acid, an oral antifibrinolytic medication that helps stabilize clots (Curry 2004). Aminocaproic acid is the only product available in the United States in oral form, however it is not user-friendly, with dosing every…
Anderson, Gaylene. (2006 October 06). Promising Non-Viral Alternative for Gene Therapy
Involves 'Jumping Gene' From a Moth. Ascribe Higher Education News Service. Retrieved December 20, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
Bayer Grant Promotes Groundbreaking Hemophilia Research and Education; Bayer Hemophilia
Awards Program Continues to Be a Critical Source of Funding for Hemophilia Research and Education. (2006 May 23). Business Wire. Retrieved December 20, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
Food Poisoning in San Diego
There are more than 200 known microbes that can lead to food poisoning in people (Paredez, 2009). hile most people have heard of the more common E. coli and Salmonella, there are many others including certain bacterias that are found naturally in the soil. The common symptoms of food poisoning can be as minor as an upset stomach to actual fatality in serious cases. ith the hottest part of summer approaching in San Diego, it is only a matter of time until the amount of food poisoning cases begin increasing. This paper will discuss the trends of food poisoning within the community of San Diego, California and how, as a nurse, the trends associated with the statistics can be decreased.
Community: San Diego, California is a bustling and very old city. Most of the buildings are from the 1950's and earlier. Toxins such as lead…
Census Data (2010). Southern California Association of Governments. Accessed at http://www.scag.ca.gov/census/index.htm
Entis, Phyllis (2008). San Diego Hepatitis Cases Still on the Rise. EfoodAlert.com. Accessed at http://efoodalert.blogspot.com/2008/04/san-diego-hepatitis-cases-still-on-rise.html
Fitzpatrick's Dermatology in General Medicine (2012). Other Cutaneous Vibrio Infections.
Food Safety (2012). Healthy People. Accessed at http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/overview.aspx?topicid=14
Maryland Prison System
Crime is expensive. But so too is punishment. The state of Maryland, like the majority of states across the nation at the moment, is facing a period of slow economic growth and shrinking economic resources even as it continues to have to meet the needs of its citizens. This paper examines the effect on the state's overall budget of the cost of incarcerating prisoners.
The treatment of prisoners causes few legal problems for the government of a dictatorship. A government that refuses to acknowledge the human rights of even its law-abiding citizens is not likely to show too many qualms about shoving its criminals into overcrowded and unsafe prisons - or even to worry about whether the niceties of due process were considered in getting the person to prison to begin with. But the rule of constitutional law changes all that. Because we live in a country…
Feely, M. And Edward, R. (1998). Judicial policy making and the modern state: How courts reformed. Cambridge: Cambridge University.
Hafetz, J. (1995). Tough justice. New York Empire State Report. http://220.127.116.11/search?q=cache:5haT4coRUqgJ:www.mdgreens.org/montgomery/pdf/schoolsnotprisons.pdf+maryland+state+budget+prison&hl=en&ie=UTF-8
Exchange is a program designed to educate and promote health among drug-users. Needle Exchange, and similar programs that provide needles and syringes to drug-users are a harm-reducing motive whose aim is to enable access to sterile needles and syringes for individuals injecting drugs. This kind of action is recommended by The World Health Organization (WHO), whose experts suggest that each drug-user injecting drugs needs to be given access to two hundred clean needles and syringes on an annual basis as a way of tackling and preventing the transmitting of HIV and other blood-borne viruses through this method.
Overall, most programs similar to Needle Exchange are facilitated by pharmacies. Some of these programs work from fixed locations, while others are mobile, and some even employ strategically placed sites. The aim of most Needle Exchange programs is to alleviate and prevent the transmission of HIV, as well as other blood-borne viruses, through…
Harris, Gardenia, Bernard I. Tamas, and Nancy S. Lind. Dynamics of Social Welfare Policy: Right vs. Left. Lanham [u.a.:Rowman & Littlefield, 2007. Print.
Brownstein, Joseph. "Opposition to Clean Needles for Addicts: Symbolism over Science? | Al Jazeera America." Opposition to Clean Needles for Addicts: Symbolism over Science? | Al Jazeera America. 18 Apr. 2014. Web. 10 Mar. 2015. .
"Needle Exchange Program - Alcohol Rehab." Alcohol Rehab. 27 Dec. 2011. Web. 10 Mar. 2015. .
Strike, C., et al. "Ontario Needle Exchange Programs: Best Practice Recommendations. 2006." Toronto: Ontario Needle Exchange Coordinating Committee.
Experimental Study Design and Intention to Treat
Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) association with HIV Infection in Gay Men
The population for this research will comprise of persons enrolled in one out of five CPCA (Community Programs for Clinical esearch on AIDS) studies at sixteen CPCA facilities across America. The five researches will take the form of four randomized clinical trials (CTs) for antiretroviral (AV) therapy strategies and one natural history analysis of AV treatment-naive patients. During enrolment in the study, researchers will determine every participant's HCV serostatus. Past positive results for HCV antibody test will also be accepted. HCV serological examinations will be locally conducted at baseline in case of patients without recorded HCV antibody test results or those showing negative HCV antibody results from eleven years prior to randomization. The baseline characteristics outlined include ethnicity, gender, age, plasma HIV viral load, history of IDU (injection drug use), CD4+ count,…
Abraha, I. & Montedori, A. (2010). Modified intention to treat reporting in randomized controlled trials: Systematic review. BMJ. 340:c2697.
Bradshaw, D., Matthews, G. & Danta, M. (2013). Sexually transmitted hepatitis C infection: the new epidemic in MSM? Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases. 26(1):66-72.
Gupta, S. K. (2011). Intention-to-treat concept: A review. Perspectives in Clinical Research, 2(3), 109-112. doi. 10.4103/2229-3485.83221
Schmidt, A.J., Falcato, L., Zahno, B., et al. (2014). Prevalence of hepatitis C in a Swiss sample of men who have sex with men: whom to screen for HCV infection? BMC Public Health. 14:3.
Partial vaccination was not effective on children 6-23 months. This meant that full vaccination is necessary to optimally protect children of this age group from Influenza (Shueler et al.).
The results are consistent with those of other evaluative studies on children through randomized, controlled trials for efficacy and observational studies for effectiveness (Shueler et al., 2007). Vaccine effectiveness depends on the characteristics of the study population, specificity of the outcome, and the Influenza season. It was dissimilar to the findings of Ritzwoller and his team in that Shueler and team's subjects had more exposure to Influenza. The more specific outcome of laboratory-confirmed Influenza made the detection possible. And Shueler and his team's findings were similar to Ritzwoller and his team's in that the findings of both teams offered assurance that vaccination of young children would be beneficial, even in a year with sub-optimal match (Shueler et al.).
Vaccination Efficacy not…
Ambrose, C.S., et al. (2008). Current status of live attenuated influenza vaccine in the United States for seasonal and pandemic influenza. Influenza Respiratory Viruses:
Blackwell Publishing. Retrieved on April 26, 2010 from http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/588302
Eisenberg K.W., et al. (2004). Vaccine effectiveness against laboratory-confirmed
Influenza on children 6 to 59 months of age during the 2003-2004 and 2004-2005
(De Leon, 2010)
Finally, in recent years there has been a call for more stringent regulatory measured to be put in place in order to prevent this category of disease. Many experts refer to outdated laws and policies that are not successful in detecting and prevent problems along the entire food production process (Jessen). They also refer to restricted and inadequate legal tools to check the spread of the diseases. There is therefore a need not only to update present legislation but also for organizations and individuals to be become more aware of the need to prevent this type of disease from occurring.
De Leon D. ( 2010) Start at the Store: 7 Ways to Prevent Foodborne Illness. etrieved from http://www.foodsafety.gov/blog/7ways.html
Definition of Foodborne disease. etrieved from http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=25399Focus on Epidemiology. Houston Health (2001). etrieved from http://www.houstontx.gov/health/HoustonHealth/winter01.pdf
Foodborne diseases take heavy toll on public health. etrieved from http://www.google.co.za/url?sa=t&source=web&cd=18&ved=0CDgQFjAHOAo&url=http%3A%2F%2Fbioniche.com%2Fnewsroom_factsheet.cfm&ei=SJ7ITMX1LdDCswako7iPDg&usg=AFQjCNESQAvUohGiQZZN1L1TCFwwl-DYQ&sig2=bnOdvFEDnTPpuZO8D2blQ
De Leon D. ( 2010) Start at the Store: 7 Ways to Prevent Foodborne Illness. Retrieved from http://www.foodsafety.gov/blog/7ways.html
Definition of Foodborne disease. Retrieved from http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=25399Focus on Epidemiology. Houston Health (2001). Retrieved from http://www.houstontx.gov/health/HoustonHealth/winter01.pdf
Foodborne diseases take heavy toll on public health. Retrieved from http://www.google.co.za/url?sa=t&source=web&cd=18&ved=0CDgQFjAHOAo&url=http%3A%2F%2Fbioniche.com%2Fnewsroom_factsheet.cfm&ei=SJ7ITMX1LdDCswako7iPDg&usg=AFQjCNESQAvUohGiQZZN1L1TCRFwwl-DYQ&sig2=bnOdvFERDnTPpuZO8D2blQ
Foodborne Illness. Retrieved from http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/foodborneillness.html
Scientific and Political Aspects
of Genetically Modified Foods
While there is little controversy over many aspects of biotechnology and its application, genetically modified (GM) foods have become the target of intense controversy. This controversy in the marketplace has resulted in a firestorm of public debate, scientific discussion, and media coverage. The countries most affected by this debate are Middle Eastern and third world countries, who stand to reap the benefits of solving widespread starvation, and countries such as the United States, as strong suppliers of genetically modified foods. The world's population is predicted to double in the next 50 years and ensuring an adequate food supply for this booming population is already a challenge. Scientists hope to meet that challenge through the production of genetically modified food plants that can help in warding off starvation as the world's population grows.
Although "biotechnology" and "genetic modification" commonly are used interchangeably, GM…
"A Rice Dilemma." Social Issues Research Center. 2002. Social Issues Research. 13 Dec. 2004
Bredahl, Lone. "Attitudes and Decision Making With Regard to Genetically Engineered Food
Products -- A Review of Literature and a Prescription of Models for Future Research." Journal
Risky Behaviors in Adolescents
Adolescents engage in a wide variety of risky behaviors in this day in age. Youth engage in activities that put them at risk for serious injury, sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV infection and chronic disease, such as heart disease and cancer ("Despite improvements," 2004). Risky behaviors that adolescents undertake can include but are not limited to substance use, unprotected sex and sexual promiscuity, failure to use seatbelts and helmets, violent behaviors, etc. On addition, problems with school work has been linked to cigarette smoking, alcohol use, involvement in weapon use and violence. Also, frequently "just hanging out" with friends has been associated with smoking and substance abuse. Having close friends who drink or smoke also puts youth at a higher risk factor for engaging in those behaviors (Carpenter, 2001). This paper will discuss how risky behaviors of adolescents can lead to serious diseases, a tragic accident,…
Axmaker, L. (2003-2004). Risky behaviors can lead to serious diseases. Retrieved April
24, 2005, from Wellsource Website: http://vanderbiltowc.wellsource.com/dh
Carpenter, S. (2001, January). Teens' risky behavior is about more than race and family resources. Monitor on Psychology, 32, 1. Retrieved April 24, 2005, from PsychNET database.
"Despite improvements, many high school students still engaging in risky health behaviors." (2004, May 20). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, p.1
(SA AIDS Drugs Company Set for Africa Sales)
The immense market potential for anti-retrovirals will signify a huge bonus for the company and also its shareholders. 8% of the roughly 4 million people in Mozambique are in need of the treatment for HIV / AIDS and were getting it. The fact of the matter is that HIV / AIDS has long been noted for it potential capability for raking in more money and the SA Cabinet some years ago had already stated its strong interest in the lucrative local development of AIDS drugs in the abortive Virodene experiment. The company obtained sanction from the U.S. Federal Drug Administration for certain of its anti-AIDS medicines as was of late given the award for the biggest share of the South African government anti-retroviral drug tenders. This is in greater measure part because it possesses a good BEE profile, assuring the support of…
Drug deals: Medicines, Development and HIV / AIDS. 2000. Retrieved at http://www.vso.org.uk/Images/position_papers_drug_deals_tcm8-1597.pdf . Accessed 17 September, 2005
HIV / AIDS Situation in Mozambique. Retrieved at http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/50875.pdf . Accessed 17 September, 2005
Marketing Medicine: Insider Secrets to online healthcare Marketing. March, 2002. Retrieved from http://www.medic8.com/MarketingMedicine.htm . Accessed 18 September, 2005
Mozambique: fact file. Retrieved at http://www.oxfam.org.uk/coolplanet/kidsweb/world/mozambique/mozfact.htm . Accessed 18 September, 2005
Management of Immunocompromised Patients
In beginning I writer specific nursing assignment. The Question: 2000 Words While clinical placement asked prepare a single room an admission. The patient requiring admission isolation room immunocompromised.
Immunocompromised patients usually require isolation in order to prevent them from becoming infected with infections from other patients which is known as protective isolation. For the immunocompromised patients, their immune system is unable to fight the infectious diseases. There are many diseases or conditions that lead to immunodeficiency in patients.
One is AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome). The pathophysiology of AIDS starts when the person's CD4+ T cell count begins to decrease as the disease kills these cells. This is HIV-induced cell lysis where the virus enters the CD4+ cells where it inserts its genetic information to the cell nucleus thus taking over the cell and replicating itself. The virus then mutates extremely rapidly thus making it more and…
Agusti, C., & Torres, A. (2009). Pulmonary Infection in the Immunocompromised Patient: Strategies for Management. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Bodey, G.P. (2010). Managing Infections in the Immunocompromised Patient. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 40(Supplement 4), S239. doi: 10.1086/427328
Glauser, M.P., & Pizzo, P.A. (2009). Management of Infections in Immunocompromised Patients New York: Elsevier Health Sciences.
Hayden, R.T. (2008). Diagnostic Microbiology of the Immunocompromised Host. Washington, DC: ASM Press.
Sociology -- Human Services
Governance and Leadership
Steven Ott (2001, p.1) defines governance as an "umbrella term that includes the ultimate authority, accountability, and responsibility for an organization." However, literature and several case studies have identified that leaders play a significant role in supporting governance (Lord et al., 2009) and there is a two-way link between leadership and governance. Leadership not only provides the direction for governance by promoting a shared understanding but also clarify the roles between the local and national actors (Craig, 2005). It also encourages interagency collaboration, team working and commitment at all levels of governance (obinson et al., 2008).
According to ANAO (2003, p.15), "Leadership sets the 'tone at the top', and is absolutely critical to achieving an organization-wide commitment to good governance."
This paper discusses the case of "Tainted Blood Scandal" in result of which public lost trust in the Canadian ed Cross. This trust…
Abecassis, M., Benjamin, D., & Tessier, L. (2009). Clear Blood. Stanford Social Innovation Review, 7, 68+.
Retrieved January 1, 2012.
Australian National Audit Office (ANAO, 2003), Public Sector Governance, Volumes 1 & 2: Better Practice Guide,
Commonwealth of Australia, Canberra,
Birth Problems: Expecting Mothers Taking Illicit Drugs
When women who are pregnant struggle with a drug problem, the drug use does not only affect the mother, it greatly affects the development of the fetus (Ornoy, 2002). This does not only stop during the fetal stage, it goes on until to after the child is born, and the child will then develop a number of physical and health problems during his or her lifetime. This is because the drugs which the mother is taking can cross the placenta, which is where the baby is and gets all his or her nourishments. These drugs can cause direct toxic affects to the fetus during the developmental stages.
A mother who is actively taking illicit drugs during her pregnancy can suffer from a number of high risk diseases, and this will contract to her unborn baby. These risks include: (1) Anemia, (2) Skin infections,…
Drugs Of Abuse Present In 40% Of Newborns (2002). Aphrodite Women's Health. Retrieved from http://www.aphroditewomenshealth.com/news/20020516234829_
Jaudes, P.K., & Ekwo, E.E. (1997). Outcomes for Infants Exposed in Utero to Illicit Drugs, Child Welfare. 76(4).
Ornoy, A. (2000).The Effects of Alcohol and Illicit Drugs on the Human Embryo and Fetus. The Israel Journal of Psychiatry and Related Sciences, 39(2).
Regulating Tattoo and ody Piercing Shops
In the United States, only 11 states have regulations and laws governing tattoo and body piercing licenses and training, while South Carolina and Oklahoma have banned tattooing in their states. Regulations help promote professionalism, and discourage "scratchers." This is important when considering disease transmission - HIV and Hepatitis in particular (Westbrook, 2003). States that have regulations promote not only professionalism but can guarantee to consumers that when they go into a tattoo or body piercing parlor that they are going to receive professional, and safe service. They can be assured that if buildings are not safe, clean and have adequate lighting that they are supported by their state and that particular parlor would be shut down.
More importantly they will know that a licensed tattoo artist has gone through proper training and an apprenticeship and all equipment and procedures in tattooing and body piercing…
DeLio M. The Darkside of Tattooing www.faqs.org/faqs/bodyart/tattoo-faq/part8/section-11.html
Investigates some of the harmful cases of tattooing, including sex-crimes and body disfigurement. Regulation and proper licensing measures would allow for law enforcement to be able to take action against these crimes as well as lower their occurrence.
Westbrook, B.U.S. Laws Regulating Tattooing www.faqs.org/faqs/bodyart/tattoo-faq/part8/section-12.html
Article outlines the states that have laws regulating tattooing and tattoo licensing, as well as laws in Florida that make it a unique state. The 11 states that have regulations on tattoo parlors have guidelines that would be beneficial to the other states to incorporate in their laws. They are simple and pretty much common sense that will supplement my argument.
Drugs in Federal Corrections
One of the issue faced by the criminal justice system is offenders with drug problems. esearch has indicated that almost 70% of criminals entering the correctional institutions have injected drugs 12 months prior to their incarceration (uiz, Douglas, Edens, Nikolova, & Lilienfeld, 2012). These patterns of drug abuse clearly demonstrate that many prisoners begin their prison terms with drug problems. If the problem is not recognized early, it results in demand for drugs within the correctional facility. This demand creates problems and challenges for prison administrators. Prisoners use of drugs results to increased safety risks, violence, corruption, and occupational health. There is also a risk of the prisoners resulting to extreme measures in order for them to access the drugs. They may commit acts of violence, or use threats. The issue of drug results in an increased risk of contracting diseases like HIV /…
Chak, E., Talal, A.H., Sherman, K.E., Schiff, E.R., & Saab, S. (2011). Hepatitis C virus infection in USA: an estimate of true prevalence. Liver international, 31(8), 1090-1101.
Exum, J.J. (2010). Sentencing, Drugs, And Prisons: A Lesson From Ohio. U. Tol. L. Rev., 42, 881.
MacDonald, M., Greifinger, R., & Kane, D. (2012). The impact of overcrowding. International Journal of Prisoner Health, 8(1).
Ruiz, M.A., Douglas, K.S., Edens, J.F., Nikolova, N.L., & Lilienfeld, S.O. (2012). Co-occurring mental health and substance use problems in offenders: Implications for risk assessment. Psychological assessment, 24(1), 77.
Epidemiology of HIV
Epidemiology & Communicable Disease
Description of HIV
HIV is short for human immunodeficiency virus, and it the viral infection that can lead to AIDS or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The HIV virus remains in the body for life as the human body cannot rid itself of the virus; this is true even if the overt symptoms of HIV are absent ("CDC," 2015). The HIV virus spreads through body fluids, affecting specific cells (CD4 or T cells) associated with the immune system ("CDC," 2015). HIV destroys many CD4 cells over time to a degree that compromises the body's overall immune system leaving it incapable of fighting off infections and disease: this end stage of HIV infection is referred to as AIDS ("CDC," 2015). The CD4 cell count is fundamental to monitoring people living with HIV ("CDC," 2015).
HIV progresses through several stages with the first stage often -- but…
Osmond, DH (2003, March). Epidemiology of HIV / AIDS in the United States. HIV InSite Knowledge Base Chapter, University of California at San Francisco. Retreived from http://hivinsite.ucsf.edu/InSite?page=kb-01-03#S2X
____. (2013). Global Health Observatory (GHO) Data. World Health Organization (WHO). Retreived from http://www.who.int/gho/hiv/en/
____. (2012). Epidemiology of HIV Infection through 2012. National Center for HIV / AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD & TB Prevention. Division of HIV / AIDS Prevention. Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Retrieved from ____. (2015). HIV 101. Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).
Retreived from http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/basics/index.html