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We have over 221 essays for "Hepatitis"

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Nursing Leadership

Words: 2128 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 40655683

Hepatitis C Exposure Incident Report

Recently eighty patients at the Norman Regional Hospital have tested positive for Hepatitis C Employee James Hill admitted to reusing needles up to 25 time a day while administering pain medication. At least 38 cases can be positively associated with exposure at the clinic, while another 35 may be associated. As acting Nurse Manager, I have been assigned the task of developing a strategy for dealing with this situation. The following will discuss the issues and policies involved in effectively dealing either the current situation and developing a plan to prevent future similar events from occurring.

This issue is multifaceted and there are several elements to consider when dealing with the issue. The first concern is the safety of the infected patients. The second is that there many be possible violations of Federal laws involved. The third issue is to analyze the situation from a…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bruning, S. And Ledingham, J.(1998) "Public Relations and Consumer Decisions: Effectively Managing the Relationships that Impact Consumer Behavior." Capital University. AEJMC PR Public Relations Educators Convention. 1998. New Orleans.

Dean, M. And Meyer, A., (2002). "Executive Coaching: In Search of a Model." Journal of Leadership. 21(2): 1-14.

Deci, E. (1971). "Effects of externally mediated rewards on intrinsic motivation." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 18, 105-115 ms, A.,and Savolainen, T. (2000) "The nature of managerial commitment to strategic change." Leadership and Organization Development Journal; 21(6):297-306.

Leonard, N.H. et al. (1995.) A self-concept-based model of work motivation. Paper presented at the 55th Annual Meeting of the Academy of Management, Vancouver, British Columbia.
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Bird Flu

Words: 654 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55448628

Hepatitis A

According to Davis (2012), the hepatitis A virus occurs in the feces of people who carry the disease. The most common transmission is when people eat food that has been contaminated by infected feces (fecal-oral transmission). Food or water can be contaminated when there are poor sanitary conditions or when hands are not properly washed. aw or undercooked shellfish from sewage contaminated water can also carry the virus. Sexual contact can also cause transmission of the disease, especially when the contact is oral/anal. Very rarely, blood transfusions can infect a recipient of infected blood. Persons who are infected can start spreading the condition about one week after their exposure, even if there are no symptoms. The greatest risk of infection with this disease is in developing countries, where there are sometimes poor sanitary and personal hygiene standards. Daycare centers, prisons, and mental institutions tend to be at greater…… [Read More]

References

Bazell, R. (2003, Nov. 21). Dirty Rotten Scallions. Slate. Retrieved from:  http://www.slate.com/articles/health_and_science/medical_examiner/2003/11/dirty_rotten_scallions.html 

Davis, C.P. (2012). Hepatitis A emedicinehealth. Retrieved from:  http://www.emedicinehealth.com/hepatitis_a/page2_em.htm#Hepatitis  A Symptoms
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Ethical Theories

Words: 796 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14149754

Ethics and Experimentation

Ethics and Medical Experimentation

On Staten Island there was an institution for the mentally disabled which operated from 1947 to 1987, but in the period from 1956 through 1971, children at the institution were used for experiments involving hepatitis. Although the experiments are considered to be successful, the involvement of mentally disabled children has brought many ethical considerations to the forefront. Dr. Saul Krugman, the man who ran the experiment, stated that his team took a number of ethical considerations into question before the experiment began. Firstly, Krugman rationalized the use of children by stating that "It is recognized that infectious hepatitis is a much milder disease in children." (obinson 81) Then, a mild form of the disease was inflicted upon the children under conditions that were the most favorable including special medical personnel and isolation quarters. Krugman specifically stated that only children who's parents consented were…… [Read More]

References

Rivers, Eunice, et al. "Twenty Years of Follow-up Experience in a Long-Range

Medical Study." Public Health Reports 68.4 (April 1953). Web. 30 Mar. 2013.

 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/pmc2024012/ 

Robinson, Walter, Brandon Unruh. "The Hepatitis Experiments and the Willowbrook
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Nursing Nurses' Risk for Occupational

Words: 1018 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 42863317

Moreover, recent legislation such as the Affordable Care Act is expected to create an even greater need for nurses who can take on more advanced responsibilities. As one nurse stated on National Public adio: "…with the passage of the Affordable Care Act, which was passed in March, we're going to see 32 million new patients accessing the health care delivery system which previously weren't accessing this system. And currently, we don't have the capacity to provide high-quality, patient-centered care for this new expanded population" (NP, 2010)

Careers in nursing have become vast and varied, particularly for the highly educated, and pay for many of these careers is above $60,000 annually. While a nurse with a BSN who becomes an N can still advance in her career, enter management, or become a nursing professor, an MSN is necessary for nurses to enter one of the more prestigious and specialized subfields (Sacks,…… [Read More]

References

AACN. (2010, 10). The Impact of Education on Nursing Practice. Retrieved 02-14, 2011, from AACN:  http://www.aacn.nche.edu/media/factsheets/impactednp.htm 

Allen, J. (1988). Health Care Workers and the Risk of HIV Transmission. The Hastings Center Report, 18 (2), 2+.

NPR. (2010). Talk of the Nation: Role of Nurses in Primary Care May Expand. Retrieved 02-14, 2011, from NPR:  http://www.npr.org/2010/11/16/131361359/role-of-nurses-in-primary-care-may-expand 

OSHA. (2011). Bloodborne Pathogens and Needlestick Prevention. Retrieved 02-14, 2011, from OSHA.gov:  http://www.osha.gov/SLTC/bloodbornepathogens/index.html
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Stick Injury Means That the

Words: 2478 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27188220

The results revealed that this route did not lead to any needle stick injuries. The ESA worked as efficaciously as it would have if needles were used and this was proved by the maintenance of the hemoglobin levels. It was observed that 91% of the nursing staff was in favor of the needle free administration of ESA. This study therefore concluded that drugs with detached needles present further routes to prevent needle stick injuries in the future. (Chow et. al, 2009)

Seeing how needle stick injuries can lead to emotional, health related and financial dilemma, experts are working on ways to reduce their occurrence. The study by Chow et al. (2009) shows one way in which these incidences can be reduced. Molen et al. (2011) stated that education reduces the occurrence of needle stick injury. He conducted a study in which one group was educated in a workshop and given…… [Read More]

References

Adams, D. 2012 Needle stick and sharps injuries: implications for practice. Nursing Standard. 26 (37), pp. 49-57.

Aziz, A.M., Ashton, H., Pagett, A., Mathieson, K., Jones, S., and Mullin, B 2009 Sharps

management in hospital: an audit of equipment, practice and awareness. Br J. Nurs 18(2), pp. 92 -- 8

Blenkharn, J. 2009. Sharps management and the disposal of clincal waste. British Journal of Nursing, 18 (14).
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Transgenic Plants and Oral Vaccine Development

Words: 616 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2460099

Kumar, G.B.S., Ganapathi, TR. Bapat, V.A. Revathi, C.J. & K.S.N. Prasad. (2002). Expression

of Hepatitis B surface antigen in transgenic banana plants and NT- I cell line of tobacco. BARC. Retrieved from: http://barc.gov.in/publications/nl/2003/200310-12.pdf

ne of the most difficult and intractable health issues worldwide is that of Hepatitis B The disease is difficult to treat and potentially deadly. "There are about 350 million chronic carriers in the world and it is estimated that 75- 100 million of them will die of liver cirrhosis and/or hepatocellular carcinoma" (Kumar, Ganapathi, Bapat, Revathi, Prasad 2002:85). Although vaccinations do exist, the injectable form of the vaccine is expensive and has been difficult to distribute throughout the developing world where Hepatitis B is most prevalent. Injectable vaccines also require trained healthcare professionals to disseminate. There is also the risk of needle contamination in unsanitary conditions, again, making vaccines in the developing world potentially more dangerous. Cold…… [Read More]

One possible solution is the development of oral vaccines. This proved to be a great advantage in the treatment of polio. Unlike injectable vaccines, "they can activate the mucosal immune system against many pathogens by oral delivery" and also because they do not contain whole pathogens, there is no risk of actually transmitting the disease by accident through the vaccination process (Kumar et al. 2002: 86). Plant-based vaccines have proven to be particularly effective in the developing world through the use of transgenic banana plants. At present, the surface antigen of Hepatitis B (HBsAg) has been successfully found to be expressed in transgenic tobacco plants as well. "The HBsAg derived from transgenic tobacco plants is physically, biochemically and immunologically similar to yeast derived rHBsAg" but is cheaper to produce (Kumar et al. 2002: 87). Both transgenic tobacco and banana plants, it is hoped, hold the potential to develop an effective oral vaccine.

The series of experiments conducted by the study's authors to support their exploratory research to find plant-based vaccines were promising. For the transgenic tobacco plants, "Western analysis confirmed the presence of HBsAg specific band corresponding to yeast derived rHBsAg in pHBs100 and pHER100 transformed tobacco cells whereas in the control non-transformed cells the same was absent…the denatured HBsAg expressed in plant cells showed 4 kDa peptides similar to yeast derived rHBsAg" (Kumar et al. 2002: 91). This antigen is not naturally occurring in tobacco plants, it should be noted: transgenic manipulation would be required for the vaccine to be generated, thus there still would be considerable expense in generating the vaccine initially. The hope would be, however, that once it was developed, it would be useful in the context of the developing world to provide treatment.

The most desirable and promising potential vaccine source, however, would still be to derive the vaccine from a banana plant, given the proliferation of the fruit in the tropics and also its palatability. "Expression of HBsAg in bananas may be advantageous as they are grown in most of the tropical and subtropical countries, where cost effective vaccines are required and their digestibility and palatability by infants makes it an attractive choice" (Kumar et al. 2002: 93). It must be noted that the development of the vaccine in any plant form is still very much in its nascent stages. At present, the closest to an oral vaccine that has been derived in a lab is an HBsAg prototype from a transgenic potato plant tested in mice. Still, the research indicates potentially promising developments in this area which should not be ignored.
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Health Immunizing Your Baby Protecting or Harming

Words: 1600 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 99685893

Health

Immunizing Your Baby, Protecting or Harming?

Positives for Vaccinations

Recommended and Minimum Ages for Early Childhood Vaccinations

Negatives for Vaccinations

Ethical Issues

Vaccines against diphtheria, polio, pertussis, measles, mumps and rubella, hepatitis B and chicken pox, have given humans powerful immune guards to ward off unwelcome disease and sickness. Because of this the CDC works closely with public health agencies and private partners in order to improve and sustain immunization coverage and to monitor the safety of vaccines so that public health can be maintained and expanded in the future. Despite the good that vaccines appear to do there is a debate stirring in regards to the safety of vaccines and whether or not they are link to disorders such as autism. There are some studies that appear to link childhood vaccinations to autism but the evidence is very weak at best. But because of these types of studies…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Carolyn Drews-Botsch, et al. "Timeliness of Childhood Immunizations: A State-

Specific

Analysis." American Journal Of Public Health 95.8 (2005): 1367-1374. Business

Source
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Video Crossing the Line the

Words: 1599 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96395088

In some countries, bed numbers began to drop before the introduction of the drugs. In others, bed numbers actually increased despite this introduction. The drugs also have been used on a variety of populations that were not deemed to be mentally ill (such as people with learning difficulties and older people). The drugs were only relevant in giving psychiatric staff more confidence in dealing with community-based patients; they do not explain the policy of deinstitutionalization. At the end of the twentieth century deinstitutionalization has become a dominant mental health policy goal in most Western democracies (Sax, 1984).

Conclusion

However, this formal goal has become clouded by evidence that the gradual reduction of large institutions has been replaced by a scattering of smaller ones 'in the community' (Roe, 1976). Also, most countries still have legal statutes to coercively remove madness from community set- tings. The extent of this continued coercive control…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Gale, F. 2007 A changing Aboriginal population. In F. Gale and G. Lawton (eds), Settlement and Encounter: Geographical studies presented to Sir Grenfell Price, Oxford University Press, Melbourne, 65-88.

Smith, L. 2006 The Aboriginal Population, The Australian National University Press, Canberra.

CDHHS 2004, The National Aboriginal Health Strategy: an evaluation, Commonwealth Department of Health and Human Services, Canberra.

Roe, M 1976, 'The establishment of the Australian Department of Health: its background and significance', Australian Historical Studies 17(67):176-92.
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Sexual Risk Assessment Mary Jane

Words: 1222 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88389946



Mary Jane's laboratory results show there is an elevated white blood count, with CBC with differential within normal limits. Proton and INR were normal. Pregnancy was negative. UA showed occasional bacteria, but normal otherwise. Drug screen was normal, and EKG showed sinus bradycardia, rate of 59 beats per minute. Renal and hepatic functions were within normal limits.

There are four sexual response cycles, marked by physiological and psychological changes. The first stages is excitement, which Mary Jane is not getting with her partners, which is triggered by psychological or physical stimulation, and is marked by emotional changes, and increased heart rate, and vaginal swelling. Second stage is plateau, Mary Jane states she doesn't have this stimulation. The third stage is orgasm, which Mary Jane doesn't getting during intercourse, or she doesn't remember because she in under the influence of alcohol. The final phase, resolution, involves a rush of blood away…… [Read More]

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Stonewall Riots Collective Behavior Collective Action

Words: 2172 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 86359385

Collective behavior" and the tonewall Riots

The term "collective behavior" refers to behavior that militates against social norms and conventions regarding the way that individuals should behave in society and differing to the way that they normally behave when not in a crowd environment. A crowd environment causes certain spontaneity to actions and a certain animal emotion that is lacking in regular 'separate existence'. cholars have devoted considerable attention to assessing why such is the case, and have generated various theories that may explain the phenomena.

Examples of instances of collective behavior include religious revivalist meetings where individuals behave in unusual ways, oftentimes totally contradictory to their private persona; panic in a burning location; or the spectacle of Black Friday where frenzy climbs and swirls around bargain hunting. The phenomenon of collective behavior too was clearly evident in the debacle of the "The tonewall Riots" and we will, therefore, take…… [Read More]

Sources

Armstrong, Elizabeth A., & Crage, SM. (2006) Movements and Memory: The making of the Stonewall Myth American Sociological Review 71. 724-751. SocINDEX with Full Text. Web. 14 Nov. 2011.

Baird, Robert M. (1995. ) Homosexuality: debating the issues. Amherst, N.Y.: Prometheus Books, Print. Notes on Stonewall (PGS 23-30)

Berk, Richard. (1974.). Collective Behavior W.C. Brown Co

Blumer, H. "Collective Behavior," in A.M. Lee, ed., Principles of Sociology, New York, Barnes & Noble, 1951
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Patient Who Walks Into the

Words: 596 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99013790



Common risk factors for chronic liver problems include: intravenous drug use, overdosing on acetaminophen, engaging in risky sexual behaviors like having multiple sexual partners and unprotected intercourse, eating contaminated foods, traveling to an area where certain diseases are common, living in a nursing home or rehabilitation center, having a family member who recently had hepatitis a, using or abusing alcohol, being an organ transplant recipient, having HIV or AIDS, having received a blood transfusion before 1990, being a newborn of a mother with hepatitis B or C, being a health care worker, including dentist and dental hygienist, because of blood contact and receiving a tattoo (Hepatitis Health Article, 2010).

Eighty percent of those people who have Hepatitis C go on to develop chronic liver disease, liver failure or liver cancer. Hepatitis C is the number one reason that people received liver transplants in the United States. Permanent liver damage, liver…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"Hepatitis Health Article." 2010. Healthline. Web. 24 May 2010.
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Technology Evolution Many of the Electric Gadgets

Words: 1461 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 93582067

Technology Evolution

Many of the electric gadgets we use today like the cell phones and the home computers were invented in the 80s. Many multinational corporations came into existence in the 80s this spur the growth to a record 3.2% per year (Bellis, 2012). This was the highest nine-year rate in American history. This was occasioned by a number of factors some of which were economic, financial, legislative, and regulatory frameworks. This unprecedented growth led to failure of a number of banking institutions. From these failures, a term "corporate greed" was coined. This essay seeks to enumerate how technology advanced in the 80s (Coppens, 2012).

In 1980, Hepatitis B Vaccine was invented by Baruch Blumberg. This research physician discovered an antigen that provoked antibody response against Hepatitis B Other took queue from this discovery to develop a vaccine against this viral hepatitis. Baruch together with Irving Millman invented a vaccine…… [Read More]

References

Bellis, M. (2012). The 80s -- the technology, science, and innovations. Retrieved October 3, 2012 from  http://inventors.about.com/od/timelines/a/modern_4.htm 

Coppens, T. (2012). Major Inventions Timelines: 20th Century. Retrieved October 3, 2012 from  http://teresacoppens.hubpages.com/hub/Major-Inventions-Timeline-20th-and-21st -

Centuries

Kotelinkova, S. (2012). History of Genetic Engineering. Retrieved October 3, 2012 from http://sgugenetics.pbworks.com/w/page/47775520/The%20History%20of%20Genetic%2
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Analyzing a Health Related Article

Words: 1775 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Article Review Paper #: 74494039

oral daclatasvir plus asunaprevir for hepatitis C virus genotype 1b

Overview of current therapy

The treatment setting for chronic hepatitis C has gone through an upheaval, above all in genotype 1. However, the exception is the continuity of interferon-based therapy and its related tolerability problems, insufficient reaction rates and several baseline factors that influence reaction to therapy (Gutierrez et al., 2015). The main concern undertaken in the current research study is that it attempts to obtain a new treatment combination that seems to be tolerable and necessitate a shorter time for therapy (Hunyady et al., 2014). Hepatitis C virus (HCV) drug development has given rise to treatment courses of therapy made up of interferon-free, all-oral combinations of direct-acting antivirals. Despite the fact that the new courses of therapy are compelling and extremely useful, the full medical influence of HCV drug resistance, its inferences for retreatment, and the impending role of…… [Read More]

References

Gutierrez, J. A., Lawitz, E. J., & Poordad, F. (2015). Interferon free, direct acting antiviral therapy for chronic hepatitis C. Journal of viral hepatitis, 22(11), 861-870.

Hunyady, B., Gervain, J., Horvath, G., Makara, M., Par, A., Szalay, F., ... & Tornai, I. (2014). Diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of hepatitis C-virus related liver disease. Hungarian national consensus guideline. Orvosi hetilap,155(Supplement 2), 3-24.

Kumada, H., Suzuki, Y., Ikeda, K., Toyota, J., Karino, Y., Chayama, K., ... & Izumi, N. (2014). Daclatasvir plus asunaprevir for chronic HCV genotype 1b infection. Hepatology, 59(6), 2083-2091.

Lontok, E., Harrington, P., Howe, A., Kieffer, T., Lennerstrand, J., Lenz, O., ... & Miller, V. (2015). Hepatitis C virus drug resistance -- associated substitutions: State of the art summary. Hepatology, 62(5), 1623-1632.
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Knowing More About Alcoholic Liver Disease

Words: 1658 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32626090

Alcoholic Liver Disease

CAUSES AND IMPACT

Causes, Incidence, Risk Factors, Impact

Alcohol use has been linked with liver disease mortality and increased social and economic costs (NCI, 2014; ruha et al., 2009). Most recent statistics say that disorders in alcohol consumption afflict millions of people worldwide. The incidence has been increasing along with increasing alcohol consumption. Alcohol liver disease takes the form of acute alcoholic hepatitis and chronic liver disease, such as steatosis, steatohepatitis, fibrosis and cirrhosis. Seriousness and prognosis depend on the amount consumed, the pattern of drinking and the length of time of consumption, the presence of liver inflammation, diet and nutritional and genetic disposition. While steatosis is virtually benign, morbidity and mortality are both high in liver cirrhosis. Survival rate for advanced cirrhosis is 1 to 2 years and 50% mortality risk for those with severe acute alcoholic hepatitis have as much as 50% mortality (NCI, 2014).…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Bruha, R., et al. (2009). Alcoholic liver disease. Vol. 110 # 3m Prague Medical Report:

PubMed Central. Retrieved on April 6, 2014 from  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19655694 

EASL (2012). EASL clinical practical guidelines: management of alcoholic liver disease. Vol. 51 # 1, Journal of Hepatology: European Association for the Study of the liver. Retrieved on April 6, 2014 from  http://www.easl.eu/assets/application/files/5e1b5512fb2cabb_file.pdf 

Frazier, T.H. (2011). Treatment of alcoholic liver disease. Vol. 4 # 1, Therapeutic
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Managing Occupational Exposure to Blood Borne Pathogens

Words: 649 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Article Review Paper #: 42656941

Management of Occupational Exposures to Bloodborne Pathogens:

Hepatitis B Virus, Hepatitis C Virus, and Human Immunodeficiency Virus

his paper is written specifically for health care professionals who may, at some point during the course of their workday, be exposed to certain bloodborne pathogens, potentially resulting in serious illness. herefore, it is important that these professionals create and maintain a plan to address key issues that may arise during the testing and care of potentially infected patients. By writing this article, the authors hope to establish a standard procedure for dealing with occupational exposure to the pathogens for healthcare workers while also reviewing much of the current information available.

he authors note that there have been many studied performed over the years that deal with exposure to bloodborne pathogens, but this article attempts to combine them into one coherent plan for all healthcare workers to follow. hey reference several studies that…… [Read More]

The authors do not present many controversial findings in this article, but the demand for zidovudine is growing as an immediate treatment after exposure. The authors find no evidence to support its efficacy and, therefore, do not condone its use. They also question the efficacy of using other antibodies in the wake of exposure since there is little evidence suggesting they have any effect at all. The authors have clearly been working with bloodborne pathogens for some time and have grown concerned about the exposure rate of many professional healthcare workers. They view the immediate influence of counseling as essential in helping a worker to overcome the emotional aspect of exposure and believe that every precaution must be taken to avoid such risks. While most people would readily agree with this position on the risks associated with treating infected patients, some would argue that these risks should not supersede the patient's privacy, a contention that the authors seem to find ineffectual. For them, the risks facing healthcare workers are far more important than any privacy issues that may present themselves.

Gerberding, Julie L. And David K. Henderson. "Management of Occupational Exposures to Bloodborne Pathogens: Hepatitis B Virus, Hepatitis C Virus, and Human Immuno-

Deficiency Virus." Clinical Infectious Diseases 14.6 (1992): 1179-1185. Print.
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Premarital Screening Program in Saudi Arabia

Words: 5506 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 71851874

Edit Research Premarital Screening

Evaluating Premarital Screening Knowledge in Saudi Students

The purpose of this research was to investigate the impact of premarital screening (PMS) in Saudi Arabia. The use of PMS as a means to identify and approach both and infectious and hereditary disease was investigated in order to determine the impact of this practical approach.

A cross-sectional study was conducted at Jazan University from January to June 2014 to perform this research. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 1000 Jazan University Students, both males and females. The questionnaire consisted of 3 main parts. The first part was based on socio-demographic data, the second part dealt with the students' knowledge about the premarital screening program while the third part explored their attitudes towards the screening program.

Results

The vast majority of the participants (922; 94%) believed that a PMS program was a preventive measure. More than two thirds of…… [Read More]

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Improving the Quality of Medical

Words: 4818 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 29120759

This is particularly the case in sub-Saharan Africa where clinicians have often come to rely on signs and symptoms alone to make diagnoses." (Nicoll, Walraven, Kigadye, Klokke, 1995)

The laboratory environment is critical to administering testing to determine population rates of HIV / AIDS throughout nations and perhaps continents where the lacking of resources facilitates a substandard environment for care. In the case of the African nation of Mozambique, which perhaps can be understood as a case indicative of the environmental assessment one would find throughout Africa and therefore, can be labelled to be a median statistical nation. A nation representing the median would indicate that half of the population nations that are categorized as resourced deficient, half would be above Mozambique in terms of resource allocation and half would fall below.

esearch into the quality of HIV / AIDS case-detection and case-reporting system in Mozambique was conducted by (Chilundo,…… [Read More]

References

Chappuis, F., Loutan, L., Simarro, P., Lejon, V., and Buscher, P. Options for Field Diagnosis of Human African Trypanosomiasis. Clinical Microbiology Reviews, January 2005, p. 133-146, Vol. 18, No.1

Chilundo, B., Sundeep S., Sundby J. The Quality of HIV / AIDS case-detection and case reporting systems in Mozambique. African Journal of AIDS Research 2004, 145-155. Copyright NISC Pty Ltd.

Clark. Blood Safety PPT. CDC, WHO

Loefler, I. Surgical wound infection in the Third World: the African experience. Journal of Medical Microbiology. Volume 47, 471-473. 1998. The Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland
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Hispanics Living in Alabama

Words: 2320 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 92063692

Hispanics Living in Alabama

The United States has a large number of minority groups and the largest among them are the Hispanic population. According to the latest census, the Hispanic population in Alabama now number 75,830. The census authorities in U.S. had coined the term 'Hispanic' to denote specifically the people from 22 countries in Latin America, and living in the United States. The growth of population in this community has been very high during the last ten years - a growth of 247 per cent. They constitute a large consumer market worth $685 million annually, and contribute $251 million to the state and local authorities in taxes. It is obvious that the large growth is due to the classic reasons for migration - poverty. They had an expectation of a new and better life in the United States when they first set foot on U.S. soil.

Of all industries…… [Read More]

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Aramco Health Center Is a

Words: 2752 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 50685287



Emergency Action Plan

As a strict requirement of OSHA, the clinical laboratory science department must comply to this standard that is used in describing all the appropriate actions that must be taken by the facility in order to ensure that there is proper safety in case of any accidents such as fire outbreak.

Fire Safety

As a strict requirement of OSHA, the facility must ensure that there is a proper Fire Prevention Plan that is necessary to avert any kind of loss of either life or property.

Medical and First Aid

All the employees who work in this department must have the necessary component of both medical and first-aid providers. This is in order to ensure that any emergency situation that arises can be met with the appropriate solution.

Personal Protective Equipment

Due to the high risk of infection that is associated with the samples in the laboratory, it is…… [Read More]

Bibliography

AIUM, (2009).Standards and Guidelines for the Accreditation of Ultrasound Practices

ARDMS (2010) Introducing...MY ARDMS

 http://www.ardms.org/default.asp?ContentID=30 

ASCP (2010).Certification
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Nurse's Knowledge Migrating Catheters Washing

Words: 2079 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 62610661



As to catheter straps, if fastened too tightly they can act as tourniquets, cutting off the needed flow of blood and presenting. And at least theoretically, use of straps brings about a risk of increasing the complications such as "…deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism" in those patients with "impaired lower extremity circulation" (Billington 504). Research presented in this article shows that the problem of infection due to poorly attached catheters can be reduced significantly through the use of a product called "Bard StatLock" -- which, the authors insist, is an effective stabilization device because it allows movement (through a swivel clip), because it is a "sterile latex-free, tug-resistant product" (Billington 504). An article in the journal RN, incidentally, states that treating "hemodialysis catheter-related bacteremia" can cost a hospital up to $45,000.

ashing "Bloody Hands": An article in the Australian Nursing Journal asserts, "…hand hygiene is the single most effective…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Aziz, a.M., Ashton, H., Pagett, a., Mathieson, K., Jones, S., & Mullin, B. (2009).

Sharps management in hospital: an audit of equipment, practice and awareness.

British Journal of Nursing, 18(2), 92-98.

Billington, a., Crane, C., Jownally, S., Kirkwood, L., & Roodhouse, a. (2008).
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Drug Use and Abuse

Words: 836 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 71814595

health related risks in association with addiction, the two greatest risks for Heroin Injectors is the risk of acquiring HIV or any number of the deadly and permanent Hepatitis viruses. The risks associated with addiction, poor nutrition, dehydration, reduced kidney and liver function as well as a few others increases the risk of an individual acquiring, nearly any communicable disease, yet those who are injecting Heroin also repeatedly directly open their circulatory system to massive deadly diseases like HIV and Hepatitis. ("The Menace of Heroin," 1999, p. 2)

In many places needle sharing has been decreased with awareness and availability campaigns yet it is clear that the sharing of needles still occurs, as the reduced mental functioning of the user, at the height of addictive need and in the throws of the high have a reduced sense of judgment, just as can be said about any mind altering drug. Yet.…… [Read More]

References

Brown, B.S. & Beschner, G.M. (Eds.). (1993). Handbook on Risk of AIDS: Injection Drug Users and Sexual Partners. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.

The Menace of Heroin in the U.S. . (1999, September 5). The Washington Times, p. 2. Retrieved October 25, 2004, from Questia database,  http://www.questia.com .

Riley, E.D., Wu, A.W., Junge, B., Marx, M., Strathdee, S.A., & Vlahov, D. (2002).

Health Services Utilization by Injection Drug Users Participating in a Needle
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Cirrohsis Liver Disease Cirrhosis When

Words: 1409 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 10116018

Based on etiologic differences, male-to-female ratio is 1.5-3:1. Primary biliary cirrhosis accounting for only 1.5% of deaths from cirrhosis is mostly found in females and ethanol-related cirrhosis is greatly found in males. Age-specific death rates in the United States tend to be greatest in the older age groups, topping at 49 per 100,000 males aged from 65-74 years and at 26.7 per 100,000 women of the age group from 75-84 years. (Cirrhosis: (www.emedicine.com)

Diagnosis and Imaging Modalities:

Ultrasound, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and angiography are suggested as imaging modalities for the diagnosis of liver cirrhosis. In cases of patients doubtful for diffuse liver disease, ultrasound of the liver is being used as a screening-imaging tool and it is useful in for follow-up examinations. In order to make the presence of liver disease to be clear, computed tomography is usually carried out and it is detected by ultrasound. Against this…… [Read More]

References

Cirrhosis. Retrieved October 7, 2005, from the World Wide Web http://www.gutdoc.org/Cirrohis.htm

Cirrhosis. Retrieved October 7, 2005, from the World Wide Web  http://www.healthcentral.com/ency/408/000255.html 

Cirrhosis Treatment. Retrieved October 7, 2005, from the World Wide Web  http://health.allrefer.com/health/cirrhosis-treatment.html 

Digestive System Organs. Retrieved October 7, 2005, from the World Wide Web  http://www.healthcentral.com/ency/408/ImagePages/8710.html
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Chronic Liver Disease With a Number of

Words: 1056 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10612941

Chronic Liver Disease

With a number of functions -- including detoxification, protein synthesis, and the production of chemicals that are necessary for digestion -- the human liver is vital.

It is reddish brown and has four unequal sized lobes; usually weighs about 3.5 pounds and is the largest gland in the human body. It is located just below the diaphragm in the body's right upper abdominal quadrant.

The liver plays a major role in the body's metabolic processes as well -- glycogen storage, decomposition of red blood cells, some hormone production.

The liver produces bile -- which is an alkaline compound that helps in digestion by changing fat (lipid) molecules to a more digestible format.

The liver's detoxification and synthesis of micronutrients are vital -- short-term liver dialysis is possible, but a person cannot exist without a functioning liver (Virtual Liver, 2008).

Cirrhosis of the Liver

Cirrhosis is the result…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Nutrition and Cirrhosis. (2010). HepCNet. Retrieved from:

Greenlee, H., et.al. (2007). "Clinical Applications of Silybum Marianum." Integrative

Cancer Therapies. 6(1): 158-65.

Huseini, H., et.al. (2006). "The Effects of Sulybum Marianum in the Treatment of Type II Diabetes." Phytotherapeutic Research. 20(1): 1036-39.
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Lesson Plan Appropriate for the

Words: 740 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 286328

Give at least 3 examples of workers who are at risk of exposure to bloodborne pathogens.

2. List the three ways exposure to bloodborne pathogens commonly occurs.

3. Describe at least 5 key aspects of a Bloodborne Pathogen Exposure Control

Plan

4. Explain how properly used PPE and appropriate housekeeping methods protect against exposure to bloodborne pathogens.

5. List three important steps to take if exposed to a bloodborne pathogen

These are all very specific and measurable goals, which according to Bradshaw and Lowenstein is a vital part of a good lesson plan. The authors of the lesson plan could have stated much vaguer goals, such "the student will become more familiear with exposure to bloodborne pathogens." However, vague objectives like that cannot be accurately measured. So it is good that this lesson plan states exactly what the student should be able to learn.

What is expected of the learner?…… [Read More]

References

Bradshaw, M.J. & Lowenstein, a.J. (2007) Innovative teaching strategies in nursing & related health professions. 4th ed. Jones & Bartlett Publishers
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Harm Reduction and Substance Abuse

Words: 4571 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 48858447

This allows the client to place their level of behavior on the continuum and assess the levels of risk associated with their behaviors. The continuum also allows the client to assess the ways in which their behaviors over time, by examining the ways in which their behaviors are now different to past behaviors. This may allow clients to recognize that they have already made some progress toward less harmful behaviors, or may allow them to identify specific events which led to developing more risky behaviors. The harm reduction model allows the client to assess their current situation and plan the actions which they wish to take to change their future behaviors.

Applications of the model

The harm reduction model has been applied predominantly to drug misuse issues, however it is also appropriate to apply the model for a wide range of social and health behavior changes. The model has been…… [Read More]

References

Amato, L., Davoli, M.A., Perucci, C., Ferri, M., Faggiano, F.P. And Mattick, R. (2005) an overview of systematic reviews of the effectiveness of opiate maintenance therapies: Available evidence to inform clinical practice and research. Journal Substitutes Abuse Treatment, 28, 321-329.

Bluthenthal, R.N., Kral, a.H., Erringer, E.A. And Edlin, B.R. (1998) Use of an illegal syringe exchange and injection-related risk behaviors among street-recruited injection drug users in Oakland, California, 1992 to 1995. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome Human Retrovirology, 18, 505-511.

Bradley-Springer, L. (1996) Patient education for behavior change: Help from the transtheoretical and harm reduction models. JANAC, 7(1), 23-33.

Des Jarlais, D.C. (1995) Harm reduction: A framework for incorporating science into drug policy. American Journal of Public Health, 85, 10-12.
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Hemophilia the Most Common Genetic

Words: 3476 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 95055081

The viruses that cause AIDS (HIV) and hepatitis can be carried in clotting factors however there have been no documented cases of such transmission in about ten years. Prevention of viruses can be prevented by: careful screening of donors; testing of donated blood products; treating donated blood products with a detergent and heat to destroy viruses (Hemophilia 2006). Both preventive and as-needed therapy can be administered at home, thus resulting in quicker treatment, fewer doctor or emergency room visits, and less costs. Vein access devices can be surgically implanted to allow easier access to a vein however infections can result from such devices (Hemophilia 2006).

All patients with bleeding disorders may benefit at times from using aminocaproic acid, an oral antifibrinolytic medication that helps stabilize clots (Curry 2004). Aminocaproic acid is the only product available in the United States in oral form, however it is not user-friendly, with dosing every…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Anderson, Gaylene. (2006 October 06). Promising Non-Viral Alternative for Gene Therapy

Involves 'Jumping Gene' From a Moth. Ascribe Higher Education News Service. Retrieved December 20, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.

Bayer Grant Promotes Groundbreaking Hemophilia Research and Education; Bayer Hemophilia

Awards Program Continues to Be a Critical Source of Funding for Hemophilia Research and Education. (2006 May 23). Business Wire. Retrieved December 20, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
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Child Immunization in First Nation Population

Words: 1056 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 75509897

Diversity in Nursing: Synopsis of Multiple Perspectives

Tarrant & Gregory (2003) in their article "Exploring childhood immunization uptake with First Nations mothers in north-western Ontario, Canada" discusses childhood immunizations and preventive care. Specifically the researchers aimed to explore beliefs First Nations parents hold regarding childhood immunizations, and what factors may influence immunization uptake. Studies suggest that Native American children generally receive lower immunization coverage than children in Canada according to the study.

Using a qualitative descriptive design the researchers interviewed twenty-eight mothers within Native Indian communities in Canada regarding vaccine preventable illnesses. The results of the study suggests that First Nations parental beliefs regarding immunizations may positively or negatively influence a child's immunization uptake. The research also suggests that education may enable families to make better decisions regarding their child's health care and immunization uptake.

The researchers do point out in their work that other studies support that immunization uptake…… [Read More]

References:

Hutchison, R.R. & Quartaro, E.G. (1993). "Training imperatives for volunteers caring for high-risk, vulnerable populations." Journal of Community Health Nursing, 10(2): 88-92.

Pulido, M.J., Alvarado, E.A., Berger, W., Nelson, A., Todoroff, C. (2001 - Summer).

"Vaccinating Asian Pacific Islander children against hepatitis B: ethnic-specific influences and barriers." Asian-American Pacific Islander Journal Health, 9(2): 211-20.

Purden, M. (2005 - May). "Cultural considerations in interprofessional education and practice." Journal of Interprofessional Care, 19(1): 224-34
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Food Poisoning in San Diego There Are

Words: 1140 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3308632

Food Poisoning in San Diego

There are more than 200 known microbes that can lead to food poisoning in people (Paredez, 2009). hile most people have heard of the more common E. coli and Salmonella, there are many others including certain bacterias that are found naturally in the soil. The common symptoms of food poisoning can be as minor as an upset stomach to actual fatality in serious cases. ith the hottest part of summer approaching in San Diego, it is only a matter of time until the amount of food poisoning cases begin increasing. This paper will discuss the trends of food poisoning within the community of San Diego, California and how, as a nurse, the trends associated with the statistics can be decreased.

Community: San Diego, California is a bustling and very old city. Most of the buildings are from the 1950's and earlier. Toxins such as lead…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Census Data (2010). Southern California Association of Governments. Accessed at  http://www.scag.ca.gov/census/index.htm 

Entis, Phyllis (2008). San Diego Hepatitis Cases Still on the Rise. EfoodAlert.com. Accessed at  http://efoodalert.blogspot.com/2008/04/san-diego-hepatitis-cases-still-on-rise.html 

Fitzpatrick's Dermatology in General Medicine (2012). Other Cutaneous Vibrio Infections.

Food Safety (2012). Healthy People. Accessed at  http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/overview.aspx?topicid=14
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Fiscal Impact of the Maryland Budgetary Crisis

Words: 5056 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 79562335

Maryland Prison System

Crime is expensive. But so too is punishment. The state of Maryland, like the majority of states across the nation at the moment, is facing a period of slow economic growth and shrinking economic resources even as it continues to have to meet the needs of its citizens. This paper examines the effect on the state's overall budget of the cost of incarcerating prisoners.

The treatment of prisoners causes few legal problems for the government of a dictatorship. A government that refuses to acknowledge the human rights of even its law-abiding citizens is not likely to show too many qualms about shoving its criminals into overcrowded and unsafe prisons - or even to worry about whether the niceties of due process were considered in getting the person to prison to begin with. But the rule of constitutional law changes all that. Because we live in a country…… [Read More]

References

Feely, M. And Edward, R. (1998). Judicial policy making and the modern state: How courts reformed. Cambridge: Cambridge University.

Hafetz, J. (1995). Tough justice. New York Empire State Report. http://216.239.57.104/search?q=cache:5haT4coRUqgJ:www.mdgreens.org/montgomery/pdf/schoolsnotprisons.pdf+maryland+state+budget+prison&hl=en&ie=UTF-8

 http://biotech.law.lsu.edu/cases/prisons/Estelle_v_Gamble.htm 

 http://www.caps.ucsf.edu/inmaterev.html
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Needle Exchange Policy Analysis

Words: 1807 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 26014247

Exchange is a program designed to educate and promote health among drug-users. Needle Exchange, and similar programs that provide needles and syringes to drug-users are a harm-reducing motive whose aim is to enable access to sterile needles and syringes for individuals injecting drugs. This kind of action is recommended by The World Health Organization (WHO), whose experts suggest that each drug-user injecting drugs needs to be given access to two hundred clean needles and syringes on an annual basis as a way of tackling and preventing the transmitting of HIV and other blood-borne viruses through this method.

Overall, most programs similar to Needle Exchange are facilitated by pharmacies. Some of these programs work from fixed locations, while others are mobile, and some even employ strategically placed sites. The aim of most Needle Exchange programs is to alleviate and prevent the transmission of HIV, as well as other blood-borne viruses, through…… [Read More]

References

Harris, Gardenia, Bernard I. Tamas, and Nancy S. Lind. Dynamics of Social Welfare Policy: Right vs. Left. Lanham [u.a.:Rowman & Littlefield, 2007. Print.

Brownstein, Joseph. "Opposition to Clean Needles for Addicts: Symbolism over Science? | Al Jazeera America." Opposition to Clean Needles for Addicts: Symbolism over Science? | Al Jazeera America. 18 Apr. 2014. Web. 10 Mar. 2015. .

"Needle Exchange Program - Alcohol Rehab." Alcohol Rehab. 27 Dec. 2011. Web. 10 Mar. 2015. .

Strike, C., et al. "Ontario Needle Exchange Programs: Best Practice Recommendations. 2006." Toronto: Ontario Needle Exchange Coordinating Committee.
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Analyzing Application Experimental Study Design and Intention to Treat

Words: 804 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33907747

Experimental Study Design and Intention to Treat

Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) association with HIV Infection in Gay Men

The population for this research will comprise of persons enrolled in one out of five CPCA (Community Programs for Clinical esearch on AIDS) studies at sixteen CPCA facilities across America. The five researches will take the form of four randomized clinical trials (CTs) for antiretroviral (AV) therapy strategies and one natural history analysis of AV treatment-naive patients. During enrolment in the study, researchers will determine every participant's HCV serostatus. Past positive results for HCV antibody test will also be accepted. HCV serological examinations will be locally conducted at baseline in case of patients without recorded HCV antibody test results or those showing negative HCV antibody results from eleven years prior to randomization. The baseline characteristics outlined include ethnicity, gender, age, plasma HIV viral load, history of IDU (injection drug use), CD4+ count,…… [Read More]

References

Abraha, I. & Montedori, A. (2010). Modified intention to treat reporting in randomized controlled trials: Systematic review. BMJ. 340:c2697.

Bradshaw, D., Matthews, G. & Danta, M. (2013). Sexually transmitted hepatitis C infection: the new epidemic in MSM? Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases. 26(1):66-72.

Gupta, S. K. (2011). Intention-to-treat concept: A review. Perspectives in Clinical Research, 2(3), 109-112. doi. 10.4103/2229-3485.83221

Schmidt, A.J., Falcato, L., Zahno, B., et al. (2014). Prevalence of hepatitis C in a Swiss sample of men who have sex with men: whom to screen for HCV infection? BMC Public Health. 14:3.
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Children Putting to a Test

Words: 2877 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 92746564

Partial vaccination was not effective on children 6-23 months. This meant that full vaccination is necessary to optimally protect children of this age group from Influenza (Shueler et al.).

The results are consistent with those of other evaluative studies on children through randomized, controlled trials for efficacy and observational studies for effectiveness (Shueler et al., 2007). Vaccine effectiveness depends on the characteristics of the study population, specificity of the outcome, and the Influenza season. It was dissimilar to the findings of Ritzwoller and his team in that Shueler and team's subjects had more exposure to Influenza. The more specific outcome of laboratory-confirmed Influenza made the detection possible. And Shueler and his team's findings were similar to Ritzwoller and his team's in that the findings of both teams offered assurance that vaccination of young children would be beneficial, even in a year with sub-optimal match (Shueler et al.).

Vaccination Efficacy not…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Ambrose, C.S., et al. (2008). Current status of live attenuated influenza vaccine in the United States for seasonal and pandemic influenza. Influenza Respiratory Viruses:

Blackwell Publishing. Retrieved on April 26, 2010 from  http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/588302 

Eisenberg K.W., et al. (2004). Vaccine effectiveness against laboratory-confirmed

Influenza on children 6 to 59 months of age during the 2003-2004 and 2004-2005
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Foodborne Illness Foodborne Diseases and

Words: 1547 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 84939334

(De Leon, 2010)

Finally, in recent years there has been a call for more stringent regulatory measured to be put in place in order to prevent this category of disease. Many experts refer to outdated laws and policies that are not successful in detecting and prevent problems along the entire food production process (Jessen). They also refer to restricted and inadequate legal tools to check the spread of the diseases. There is therefore a need not only to update present legislation but also for organizations and individuals to be become more aware of the need to prevent this type of disease from occurring.

eferences

De Leon D. ( 2010) Start at the Store: 7 Ways to Prevent Foodborne Illness. etrieved from http://www.foodsafety.gov/blog/7ways.html

Definition of Foodborne disease. etrieved from http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=25399Focus on Epidemiology. Houston Health (2001). etrieved from http://www.houstontx.gov/health/HoustonHealth/winter01.pdf

Foodborne diseases take heavy toll on public health. etrieved from http://www.google.co.za/url?sa=t&source=web&cd=18&ved=0CDgQFjAHOAo&url=http%3A%2F%2Fbioniche.com%2Fnewsroom_factsheet.cfm&ei=SJ7ITMX1LdDCswako7iPDg&usg=AFQjCNESQAvUohGiQZZN1L1TCFwwl-DYQ&sig2=bnOdvFEDnTPpuZO8D2blQ

Foodborne Illness.…… [Read More]

References

De Leon D. ( 2010) Start at the Store: 7 Ways to Prevent Foodborne Illness. Retrieved from  http://www.foodsafety.gov/blog/7ways.html 

Definition of Foodborne disease. Retrieved from  http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=25399Focus  on Epidemiology. Houston Health (2001). Retrieved from http://www.houstontx.gov/health/HoustonHealth/winter01.pdf

Foodborne diseases take heavy toll on public health. Retrieved from  http://www.google.co.za/url?sa=t&source=web&cd=18&ved=0CDgQFjAHOAo&url=http%3A%2F%2Fbioniche.com%2Fnewsroom_factsheet.cfm&ei=SJ7ITMX1LdDCswako7iPDg&usg=AFQjCNESQAvUohGiQZZN1L1TCRFwwl-DYQ&sig2=bnOdvFERDnTPpuZO8D2blQ 

Foodborne Illness. Retrieved from  http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/foodborneillness.html
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Brockton Massachusetts Use of the Adaptation Model

Words: 2911 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 202784

Brockton, Massachusetts: Use of the Adaptation Model, Nursing Process and Guidelines for a Comprehensive Community Assessment

This work in writing will utilize the Adaptation Model, nursing process and guidelines to complete a community assessment, analyze gathered data for implications for health care, formulate a nursing diagnosis for the community, and incorporate findings into the nursing process and formulate a care plan for a specific community problem.

According to the Public Health Nursing: Leadership Guide and esource Manual" published by the Massachusetts Association of Public Health Nurses (2005) nurses employed in public health nursing are constantly conducting assessments of the community's needs and resources both those available to the individual and groups. Public health nurses are focused on organization and working with a diverse network in promoting ensuring and strengthening the well-being and health in the community with goals for high standards of health care for the population. Public health is…… [Read More]

References

Challenges and Successes in Addressing the Health Care Needs of Underserved Populations in Southeastern Massachusetts - Needs Assessment Conducted by AHEC: The Area Health Education Center of Massachusetts - A Program of Health Care of Southeastern Massachusetts, Inc. In partnership with JSI Research and Training Institute, Inc. 44 Farnsworth Street, Boston MA Jan 2005. Retrieved from:  http://www.healthimperatives.com/ahec/pdf/needs%20assessment%20AHEC%20of%20SEM.pdf
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International Relations and Biology

Words: 7088 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 58334919

Scientific and Political Aspects

of Genetically Modified Foods

While there is little controversy over many aspects of biotechnology and its application, genetically modified (GM) foods have become the target of intense controversy. This controversy in the marketplace has resulted in a firestorm of public debate, scientific discussion, and media coverage. The countries most affected by this debate are Middle Eastern and third world countries, who stand to reap the benefits of solving widespread starvation, and countries such as the United States, as strong suppliers of genetically modified foods. The world's population is predicted to double in the next 50 years and ensuring an adequate food supply for this booming population is already a challenge. Scientists hope to meet that challenge through the production of genetically modified food plants that can help in warding off starvation as the world's population grows.

Although "biotechnology" and "genetic modification" commonly are used interchangeably, GM…… [Read More]

Bibliography

"A Rice Dilemma." Social Issues Research Center. 2002. Social Issues Research. 13 Dec. 2004



Bredahl, Lone. "Attitudes and Decision Making With Regard to Genetically Engineered Food

Products -- A Review of Literature and a Prescription of Models for Future Research." Journal
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Risky Behaviors in Adolescence

Words: 1010 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 48370402

Risky Behaviors in Adolescents

Adolescents engage in a wide variety of risky behaviors in this day in age. Youth engage in activities that put them at risk for serious injury, sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV infection and chronic disease, such as heart disease and cancer ("Despite improvements," 2004). Risky behaviors that adolescents undertake can include but are not limited to substance use, unprotected sex and sexual promiscuity, failure to use seatbelts and helmets, violent behaviors, etc. On addition, problems with school work has been linked to cigarette smoking, alcohol use, involvement in weapon use and violence. Also, frequently "just hanging out" with friends has been associated with smoking and substance abuse. Having close friends who drink or smoke also puts youth at a higher risk factor for engaging in those behaviors (Carpenter, 2001). This paper will discuss how risky behaviors of adolescents can lead to serious diseases, a tragic accident,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Axmaker, L. (2003-2004). Risky behaviors can lead to serious diseases. Retrieved April

24, 2005, from Wellsource Website: http://vanderbiltowc.wellsource.com/dh

Carpenter, S. (2001, January). Teens' risky behavior is about more than race and family resources. Monitor on Psychology, 32, 1. Retrieved April 24, 2005, from PsychNET database.

"Despite improvements, many high school students still engaging in risky health behaviors." (2004, May 20). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, p.1
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Mozambique Faces the Significant Problem

Words: 2571 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 86844001

(SA AIDS Drugs Company Set for Africa Sales)

The immense market potential for anti-retrovirals will signify a huge bonus for the company and also its shareholders. 8% of the roughly 4 million people in Mozambique are in need of the treatment for HIV / AIDS and were getting it. The fact of the matter is that HIV / AIDS has long been noted for it potential capability for raking in more money and the SA Cabinet some years ago had already stated its strong interest in the lucrative local development of AIDS drugs in the abortive Virodene experiment. The company obtained sanction from the U.S. Federal Drug Administration for certain of its anti-AIDS medicines as was of late given the award for the biggest share of the South African government anti-retroviral drug tenders. This is in greater measure part because it possesses a good BEE profile, assuring the support of…… [Read More]

References

Drug deals: Medicines, Development and HIV / AIDS. 2000. Retrieved at  http://www.vso.org.uk/Images/position_papers_drug_deals_tcm8-1597.pdf . Accessed 17 September, 2005

HIV / AIDS Situation in Mozambique. Retrieved at  http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/50875.pdf . Accessed 17 September, 2005

Marketing Medicine: Insider Secrets to online healthcare Marketing. March, 2002. Retrieved from  http://www.medic8.com/MarketingMedicine.htm . Accessed 18 September, 2005

Mozambique: fact file. Retrieved at  http://www.oxfam.org.uk/coolplanet/kidsweb/world/mozambique/mozfact.htm . Accessed 18 September, 2005
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Management of Immunocompromised Patients in Beginning I

Words: 2391 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85496540

Management of Immunocompromised Patients

In beginning I writer specific nursing assignment. The Question: 2000 Words While clinical placement asked prepare a single room an admission. The patient requiring admission isolation room immunocompromised.

Immunocompromised patients usually require isolation in order to prevent them from becoming infected with infections from other patients which is known as protective isolation. For the immunocompromised patients, their immune system is unable to fight the infectious diseases. There are many diseases or conditions that lead to immunodeficiency in patients.

One is AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome). The pathophysiology of AIDS starts when the person's CD4+ T cell count begins to decrease as the disease kills these cells. This is HIV-induced cell lysis where the virus enters the CD4+ cells where it inserts its genetic information to the cell nucleus thus taking over the cell and replicating itself. The virus then mutates extremely rapidly thus making it more and…… [Read More]

References

Agusti, C., & Torres, A. (2009). Pulmonary Infection in the Immunocompromised Patient: Strategies for Management. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Bodey, G.P. (2010). Managing Infections in the Immunocompromised Patient. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 40(Supplement 4), S239. doi: 10.1086/427328

Glauser, M.P., & Pizzo, P.A. (2009). Management of Infections in Immunocompromised Patients New York: Elsevier Health Sciences.

Hayden, R.T. (2008). Diagnostic Microbiology of the Immunocompromised Host. Washington, DC: ASM Press.
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HIV AIDS on American Society What

Words: 3463 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33384543

HIV / AIDS on American Society

hat is HIV and where did it come from? The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (a primary source) explains that HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus, and once a person acquires this virus, "…you have it for life" (CDC). There is no effective cure, that is the bad news; but the better news according to the CDC is that HIV "…can be controlled" because there is a treatment called antiretroviral therapy (ART) (CDC). In fact while just a few years ago a person with HIV could expect to have full-blown AIDS within a few years, but with the ART treatment, many HIV sufferers can expect to have "…a nearly normal life…" (CDC).

The source of HIV is believed to be chimpanzees in est Africa, and how this came about related to the fact that Africans hunted the chimpanzees for food and at…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Administration on Aging. (2011). Older Adults and HIV / AIDS. Retrieved August 26, 2013, from  http://www.aoa.gov .

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2010). What is HIV? Retrieved August 26, 2013,

From http://www.ced.gov/hiv/basics/whatishiv.html.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2011). What Persons Aged 50 and Older Can Do.
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Sociology -- Human Services Governance and Leadership

Words: 2401 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96890449

Sociology -- Human Services

Governance and Leadership

Steven Ott (2001, p.1) defines governance as an "umbrella term that includes the ultimate authority, accountability, and responsibility for an organization." However, literature and several case studies have identified that leaders play a significant role in supporting governance (Lord et al., 2009) and there is a two-way link between leadership and governance. Leadership not only provides the direction for governance by promoting a shared understanding but also clarify the roles between the local and national actors (Craig, 2005). It also encourages interagency collaboration, team working and commitment at all levels of governance (obinson et al., 2008).

According to ANAO (2003, p.15), "Leadership sets the 'tone at the top', and is absolutely critical to achieving an organization-wide commitment to good governance."

This paper discusses the case of "Tainted Blood Scandal" in result of which public lost trust in the Canadian ed Cross. This trust…… [Read More]

References

Abecassis, M., Benjamin, D., & Tessier, L. (2009). Clear Blood. Stanford Social Innovation Review, 7, 68+.

Retrieved January 1, 2012.

Australian National Audit Office (ANAO, 2003), Public Sector Governance, Volumes 1 & 2: Better Practice Guide,

Commonwealth of Australia, Canberra,
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Applied Projects

Words: 2110 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Dissertation or Thesis complete Paper #: 88837604

Birth Problems: Expecting Mothers Taking Illicit Drugs

When women who are pregnant struggle with a drug problem, the drug use does not only affect the mother, it greatly affects the development of the fetus (Ornoy, 2002). This does not only stop during the fetal stage, it goes on until to after the child is born, and the child will then develop a number of physical and health problems during his or her lifetime. This is because the drugs which the mother is taking can cross the placenta, which is where the baby is and gets all his or her nourishments. These drugs can cause direct toxic affects to the fetus during the developmental stages.

A mother who is actively taking illicit drugs during her pregnancy can suffer from a number of high risk diseases, and this will contract to her unborn baby. These risks include: (1) Anemia, (2) Skin infections,…… [Read More]

References

Drugs Of Abuse Present In 40% Of Newborns (2002). Aphrodite Women's Health. Retrieved from  http://www.aphroditewomenshealth.com/news/20020516234829_ 

health_news.shtml.

Jaudes, P.K., & Ekwo, E.E. (1997). Outcomes for Infants Exposed in Utero to Illicit Drugs, Child Welfare. 76(4).

Ornoy, A. (2000).The Effects of Alcohol and Illicit Drugs on the Human Embryo and Fetus. The Israel Journal of Psychiatry and Related Sciences, 39(2).
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Tattoo and Body Piercing Shops

Words: 808 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 4063187

Regulating Tattoo and ody Piercing Shops

In the United States, only 11 states have regulations and laws governing tattoo and body piercing licenses and training, while South Carolina and Oklahoma have banned tattooing in their states. Regulations help promote professionalism, and discourage "scratchers." This is important when considering disease transmission - HIV and Hepatitis in particular (Westbrook, 2003). States that have regulations promote not only professionalism but can guarantee to consumers that when they go into a tattoo or body piercing parlor that they are going to receive professional, and safe service. They can be assured that if buildings are not safe, clean and have adequate lighting that they are supported by their state and that particular parlor would be shut down.

More importantly they will know that a licensed tattoo artist has gone through proper training and an apprenticeship and all equipment and procedures in tattooing and body piercing…… [Read More]

Bibliography

DeLio M. The Darkside of Tattooing www.faqs.org/faqs/bodyart/tattoo-faq/part8/section-11.html

Investigates some of the harmful cases of tattooing, including sex-crimes and body disfigurement. Regulation and proper licensing measures would allow for law enforcement to be able to take action against these crimes as well as lower their occurrence.

Westbrook, B.U.S. Laws Regulating Tattooing www.faqs.org/faqs/bodyart/tattoo-faq/part8/section-12.html

Article outlines the states that have laws regulating tattooing and tattoo licensing, as well as laws in Florida that make it a unique state. The 11 states that have regulations on tattoo parlors have guidelines that would be beneficial to the other states to incorporate in their laws. They are simple and pretty much common sense that will supplement my argument.
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Correctional Issue of Drugs

Words: 1348 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 68200432

Drugs in Federal Corrections

Corrections issues

One of the issue faced by the criminal justice system is offenders with drug problems. esearch has indicated that almost 70% of criminals entering the correctional institutions have injected drugs 12 months prior to their incarceration (uiz, Douglas, Edens, Nikolova, & Lilienfeld, 2012). These patterns of drug abuse clearly demonstrate that many prisoners begin their prison terms with drug problems. If the problem is not recognized early, it results in demand for drugs within the correctional facility. This demand creates problems and challenges for prison administrators. Prisoners use of drugs results to increased safety risks, violence, corruption, and occupational health. There is also a risk of the prisoners resulting to extreme measures in order for them to access the drugs. They may commit acts of violence, or use threats. The issue of drug results in an increased risk of contracting diseases like HIV /…… [Read More]

References

Chak, E., Talal, A.H., Sherman, K.E., Schiff, E.R., & Saab, S. (2011). Hepatitis C virus infection in USA: an estimate of true prevalence. Liver international, 31(8), 1090-1101.

Exum, J.J. (2010). Sentencing, Drugs, And Prisons: A Lesson From Ohio. U. Tol. L. Rev., 42, 881.

MacDonald, M., Greifinger, R., & Kane, D. (2012). The impact of overcrowding. International Journal of Prisoner Health, 8(1).

Ruiz, M.A., Douglas, K.S., Edens, J.F., Nikolova, N.L., & Lilienfeld, S.O. (2012). Co-occurring mental health and substance use problems in offenders: Implications for risk assessment. Psychological assessment, 24(1), 77.