Hepatitis of the Liver and How They Term Paper

Excerpt from Term Paper :

hepatitis of the liver and how they are transmitted to how we can find a remedy to slow down the deterioration process if not cure it completely.


Hepatitis A

Hepatitis B

Causes of hepatitis B

Transmission of hepatitis B


Tests for hepatitis B


Hepatitis C

Risk Factors for HCV Infection

Consequences of HCV Infection


Hepatitis is the disease connected with the inflammation of the liver. This disease was not discovered too long ago, however doctors and researchers have been able to find out the causes of hepatitis. There are several causes such as, viral, parasitic, infiltrative, drug or alcohol induced, or non-specific. Before a person is even diagnosed with this disease some of the prominent indications of the acute phase can be ranging from a symptomatic, where we may not even be able to notice we have hepatitis to feeling extremely tired, jaundice- where our skin or our eyes become yellow, nausea, vomiting, or even diarrhea.

When the concerned patients undergo proper laboratory tests and they are monitored, one of the first things the doctor will tell you is that there is definitely an increase in the level of the liver enzymes.

Before dive into what hepatitis is all about it is important to understand that this paper is contains information about the pathophysiology, its causes and also the various treatments available commercially or if they are under clinical trials for viral hepatitis A, B, and C, and drug/alcohol induced hepatitis.

Hepatitis A

Hepatitis A also abbreviated as 'HAV' is transmitted mainly through oral-fecal contact. This form of acute HAV persists for a shorter time period anywhere from 4-6 weeks and this could be with or without the basic symptoms of jaundice, fatigue and hepatomeglia. However, this can have extreme affects on those individuals who are suffering from this acute phase and also infected with human deficiency syndrome (HIV). The overall affect is to lower the number of T-cell counts that will recover in 6 to12 weeks after being diagnosed with the acute infection. With proper care and medication, the body can recover from HAV within 6 weeks but it can take up to several months to recover from acute HAV. [Hepatitis A-B-C]

Doctors advise that the best form of treatment for HAV is through ample bed-rest, good intake of water coupled with a good diet for quick and speedy recovery so that it doesn't relapse. Also patients are advised to discontinue drug therapy until the acute phase is completed, once it is completed therapies can be restarted. [Hepatitis A-B-C]

Recently, a new vaccination for HAV was distributed in pharmacies for those who are affected with the disease. This is a form of measure that is considered as preventive therapy for those patients suffering with chronic terminal infections, such as, HIV infection. Research shows that this vaccination can also shield patients from potential infections who may be suffering from HIV. In the West, some insurance companies, health care facilities or studies are offering the vaccination free of cost to patients. [Hepatitis A-B-C]

Hepatitis A has a worldwide distribution occurring in both epidemic and sporadic fashions. About 22,700 cases of hepatitis A representing 38% of all hepatitis cases (5-year average from all routes of transmission) are reported annually in the U.S. In 1988 an estimated 7.3% cases were food borne or waterborne. HAV is primarily transmitted by person-to-person contact through fecal contamination, but common-source epidemics from contaminated food and water also occur. Poor sanitation and crowding facilitate transmission. Outbreaks of HA are common in institutions, crowded house projects, and prisons and in military forces in adverse situations. In developing countries, the incidence of disease in adults is relatively low because of exposure to the virus in childhood. Most individuals 18 and older demonstrate an immunity that provides lifelong protection against reinfection. In the U.S., the percentage of adults with immunity increases with age (10% for those 18-19 years of age to 65% for those over 50). The increased number of susceptible individuals allows common source epidemics to evolve rapidly. [FDA/CFSAN Bad Bug Book Hepatitis A Virus]

[FDA/CFSAN Bad Bug Book Hepatitis A Virus]

Hepatitis B

Hepatitis B is also a liver disease, which causes the liver to inflammation just like hepatitis and this prevents the liver from functioning correctly. There are different cures that are being discovered and researched on everyday because it is mandatory for the liver to perform its functions accurately since a healthy liver does many things to keep a person alive. The liver has many functions but some of the most important are that it fights infections and stops bleeding, it also excretes drugs and other poisons from our blood. The liver also helps retain stored energy to make it available for our body when it needs it.

Causes of hepatitis B

The main cause of the disease hepatitis B is by a virus. A virus is defined as a germ that causes an illness. One example of an illness caused by a virus is the flu. Flue spreads between people through the virus, which is transmitted in the air. The virus that causes Hepatitis B is called the hepatitis B

Transmission of hepatitis B

Hepatitis B spreads by contact with an infected person's blood, semen, or other body fluid. Other ways of contracting the illness is through having sex with somebody who is already diagnosed with the illness without using any precautions such as condoms. Also drug addicts should not be using needles that have been used by other addicts, especially those infected with the disease. A person should be cautious when getting body piercing and tattoos done because if they are done by using infected tools the disease will spread to that person too. Used needles should be disposed off right away because if any health care worker or any one else accidentally pricks themselves they can get the disease this way too. Utensils, tooth brush, razors and other items that are used by an infected person living in the same house should be separated from the rest because this is also one way that can spread the disease. Also one should avoid traveling to countries where the incident of hepatitis B is a lot. Medical science indicates that an infected mother can even transfer the disease to her newborn child through breast-feeding.


Hepatitis B can make you feel like you have the flu.

You might

Feel tired

Feel sick to your stomach

Have a fever

Not want to eat

Have stomach pain

Have diarrhea

Some people have

Dark yellow urine

Light-colored stools

Yellowish eyes and skin

Some people don't have any symptoms.

If you have symptoms or think you might have hepatitis B, go to a doctor.

[Source: What I need to know about Hepatitis B]

Tests for hepatitis B

When a person is suspicious about having this type of hepatitis it is best to consult the doctor for the disease through a sample of your blood test. By analyzing the blood sample, the doctor can test for the presence of the disease and if it is present then to what degree is the seriousness of the disease. The other test is through a liver biopsy, whereby the doctor takes a sample of the liver through a needle and examines the piece taken for any indications and also to see if the liver has been damaged.

One of the ways of curing this disease is through regular shots of a drug called inferno. This treatment can cure people within four months. Another drug is called lamivudine; this drug is taken orally once in a day. The treatment is for almost a year. A drug called adefovir dipivoxil, is also taken orally once a day with the treatment lasting usually for one year.

If the condition worsens to such an extent where the liver stops working, the only solution then becomes surgery. The surgery is called a liver transplant, whereby the liver is transplanted by removing the old damaged one and replacing it with a new healthy liver taken from another person called a donor.


The best way to protect oneself is through the hepatitis B vaccination. This vaccine is a drug that keeps a person away from contracting this illness by keeping our immune system active towards this disease. This vaccination is given to a person in three installments of one shot each in a period of six months. Infants are given this shot 12 hours after their birth, the second shot is given at an age of one and two months, while the third shot is given between the ages of 6 and 18 months. [What I need to know about Hepatitis B]

Hepatitis C

HCV was discovered in 1989 by researchers at Chiron, Inc. They took parts of the HCV genome and secluded that portion by screening cDNA expression libraries made from RNA and DNA in chimpanzees infected with serum from a patient with post-transfusion non-A, non-B hepatitis. They called the new virus hepatitis…

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