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The way in which we interpret things can depend on many factors. Our cultural background, our environment, and our upbringing among many other things shape the way we view the world and its surroundings. One of what many consider the greatest book ever written, the Bible, has many different stories with just as many interpretations. Some individuals believe that in order to understand the Bible, one must pray to God for understanding when interpreting it. Others take the Bible literally at face value. The purpose of hermeneutics is to aid us in the interpretation of such things as the Bible. There are different methods of hermeneutics: in front of the text, in the text, and behind the text. In reading the two stories by Samuel Cheon and Daniel Patte, we get a clear understanding of which hermeneutical method is used.
In Reconsidering Jephthah's Story in Asian Perspective, Samuel Cheon…
46). The postmodern world then focused on hermeneutics. A post-critical evangelical theological methodology seeks to grab hold of the best insights of all three approaches and uses them as a basis of conversation with contemporary theology (p. 30).
In Moltmann's concept of the Trinitarian Concept of God, he maintains that the trinitarian persons are not "modes of being" but are individual, non-interchangeable and subjects of the one common, divine substance, with consciousness and will. Each of the persons of the trinity possesses the divine nature and can stand alone by themselves alone even though they have a trinary coalescent existence (p.53). This can be problematic for extremists who have problems with the limitations of human language with regard to conceptions about God and find it patriarchal such as Sandra J. Schneiders at the Jesuit School of Theology who claim that it justifies socially and economically-based systems that oppress women and…
Mary Hinkle Shore and Sandra Hack Polaski both offer unique hermeneutical methods for New Testament interpretation. For Shore, the hermeneutical method is "imaginative engagement," (77). Imaginative engagement is the application of creative license to the original text for the purposes of gaining richer personal understanding. It seeks to place the reader squarely within the text, interacting intimately with its characters, stories, and themes. Imaginative engagement also offers readers a way of interpreting the text for themselves, without influence from preacher or scholar. Polaski uses a different type of hermeneutics: called "reader-response criticism." Reader-response criticism is not as loose as imaginative engagement. However, reader-response criticism serves similar goals of liberating the text from the tyranny of cold scholarship and dogmatic evangelism. Reader-response criticism aims to "recover" meaning from original Biblical texts for contemporary readers (Polaski 193). The process is undertaken "without ignoring the insights of historical-critical inquiry and theological reflection"…
Polaski, S.H. Identifying the unnamed disciple: An exercise in reader-response criticism.
Shore, M.E.H. People like us: Minor characters in Matthew's passion.
To the Jews I became like a Jew, to win the Jews. To those under the law I became like one under the law (though I myself am not under the law), so as to win those under the law…" (1 Cor 9:19-20). St. Paul himself reveals how both historical and literary context should shape our understanding: the history behind St. Paul's letters illustrates the grandeur of the Church's mission, and the literary style shows the passion and zeal with which they were composed -- not to win men through poetic style but through truth first -- St. Paul's style flows from the humbling knowledge that he is in possession of that truth.
Some of the basic hermeneutical principles then are as follows: 1) Historico-grammatical interpretation: For centuries the Church based all interpretation on the Latin Vulgate translation of the original texts by St. Jerome commissioned by Pope Damasus in…
Hermeneutics is the art of interpretation, closely taking apart a text, a discourse, or some other narrative in order to assess the underlying aspects to see what the author is 'really' telling us, or what we can discover about his life.
In general, hermeneutics is the study of theory and practice of interpretation. And then there are, at least, four sub-fields: (a) traditional hermeneutics (including Biblical hermeneutics) that refers to interpretation of texts such as of religion, literature, or law. (b) Contemporary or modern hermeneutics that extends beyond the written text and refers also to all forms of communication such as philosophy of language and semiotics. (c) Philosophical hermeneutics refers to Gadamer's theory of hermeneutics, and, occasionally, to that of Paul icoeur's. (e) Finally, hermeneutic consistency represents analysis of texts for coherent explanation.
In short, hermeneutics is the recognition that ideas are nested in linguistics, historical and cultural horizons of…
Abulad, J. (2007)
What is Hermeneutics? Kritike, 1, 11-23
Dalmayr, F. (2011) Beyond Orientalism: Essays on Cross-cultural Encounter
Once this happens, is when people will have a better understanding of the challenges they are dealing with. However, the intended audience is future generations that may not know or understand the teachings of Christ. In this aspect, there is an emphasis on taking the basic idea and demonstrating how it can be applied to everyone's lives. (Brown, 2007, pp. 20-54) (Holly Bible, 2004, pp. 1049
Myths and folklore
Myths and folklore is used to show how everyone is practicing similar traditions that are utilized in society. In John 12: 1- 8, this is taking place with the use of feet washing to show respect for Christ and the sense of mysticism that followed him. This helped him to appear to be larger than life. Yet, when he spoke his words, they were based on humble ideas. Once this happens, is the point that the reader will have a greater…
Gospel of John. (2012). Bible Study Tools. Retrieved from:
Holy Bible. (2004). Nashville,, TN: Gideon's International.
Passover. (2012). Bible Study Tools. Retrieved from:
Trible provides evidence that God is female -- if not literally, then certainly metaphorically. She primarily does so by referencing passages in which the reproductive power of women is akin to God's power of creation. As enlightening as this point is, it is perhaps even more so to realize that there was a considerable amount of effort undertaken to hide this fact. The author discusses how a certain passage in the Bible which may be interpreted as God gave humanity birth as covered up by "the totally incorrect translation in the Jerusalem Bible, "You forgot the God that fathered you")" (Trible). In denoting these points of translation, the author underscores how important it was for men to perpetuate patriarchy through the use of scriptures.
Perhaps the most convincing piece of evidence that Trible offers to support her thesis is the fact that there were women who made invaluable contributions to…
Trible, Phyllis. "Feminist Hermeneutics and Biblical Studies." www.religion-online.org. 1982. Web. http://www.religion-online.org/showarticle.asp?title=1281
Sacred Hermeneutics consists of eight lessons, which move the reader from a basic introduction to what hermeneutics is (the practice of interpreting the Bible) to a sense of how to use Scripture for devotional and doctrinal purposes. The main points that the text makes include: 1) Scripture contains the Word of God and should be studied carefully for that reason—for what God has said contains information of great significance for mankind; 2) Approaches to interpretation of the Bible have changed over the years: there is the allegorical approach, the literal approach, the devotional approach, the liberal approach and the neo-orthodoxy approach; 3) the need to understand the Protestant approach to Hermeneutics, which includes adopting 4) a literal, cultural and critical perspective; and which suggests that special focus be paid to the original languages used for the writing of the Bible, historical context, the context of Revelation, and a sense…
Hayes, J., Holladay, C. Biblical Exegesis: a beginner’s handbook. London:Westminster John Knox Press, 2007.
Goldsworthy, Graeme. Christ-Centered Biblical Theology: Hermeneutical Foundations and Principles. IL: InterVarsity Press, 2012.
Thomas, Robert L. “Literary Genre and Hermeneutics of the Apocalypse.” Revelation in the Wycliffe Exegetical Commentary. IL: Moody Press, 1992.
Sacred Hermeneutics, www.ntslibrary.com/PDF%20Books/Sacred%20Hermeneutics.pdf
Wellum, Stephen. “Book Review: Christ-Centered Biblical Theology: Hermeneutical Foundations and Principles, by Graeme Goldsworthy,” 9 Marks, 2012.
Christian and Jewish traditions have always been set apart by a keen interest in the correct ways to interpret the Bible. From the heated debates between the Antiochenes and the Alexandrians during the time of the ancient church to the debates pertaining the use of the Bible during the reformation period, the proper way of interpreting the scriptures has been a major source of concern. To biblical scholars in the late 19th and 20th centuries, biblical criticism appeared to have finally matured. However, modern biblical criticism seems much more effective in putting an end to the heated debates. For instance, the second half of the 20th century has witnessed a huge display of different interpretive theories, most of which were developed in response to the typical critical approach. Even a casual look at recent publications reveals that the debate on ways to interpret the bible has not stopped but the…
Kaiser, Walter C., and Moise-s Silva. 2007. Introduction to biblical hermeneutics: the search for meaning. Grand Rapids, Mich: Zondervan.
Moise-s Silva. 1994. Contemporary Theories of Biblical Interpretation. In New Interpreter's Bible, Vol. 1, 107-124. Nashville: Abingdon.
Phenomenology and Hermeneutics
Aside from positivism or quantitative research paradigm, two other paradigms are considered essential in the conduct of research or simply, knowing and understanding a particular event or phenomenon using a particular 'lens'or paradigm / perspective. These two (2) paradigms are qualitative in nature, namely the interpretive and critical paradigms. Critical paradigm is closely associated with the Marxist, feminist, and psychoanalytic schools of thought, while interpretive or symbolic interactionism paradigm is linked with hermeneutics and phenomenology. The focus of the discussions that follow will be on this second paradigm, interpretive paradigm, particularly exploring the hermeneutic and phenomenological schools of thought (Fossey, 2002, p. 719).
In order to understand these schools of thought, it is important to also understand the tradition from which these ideas emerged. Under the interpretive paradigm, truth is considered subjective and variable. In truth-seeking, the researcher recognizes that there are many "truths," and these…
Fossey, E., C. Harvey, F. McDermott, and L. Davidson. (2002). "Understanding and evaluating qualitative research." Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, Vol. 36.
Laverty, S. (2003). "Hermeneutic phenomenology and phenomenology: a comparison of historical and methodological considerations." International Journal of Qualitative Methods, Vol. 2(3).
Hermeneutics (interpretive) paradigm
This is a more complex approach to the explanation of the social events live poverty. Basically it deals with a detailed interpretation of written/oral histories to explain current social order and the social happenings like poverty among other factors. There are varies backgrounds that people come from, an in each community or society or even culture, there is always the stories of people and how they lived with each other. Therein are the details of the people who were once rich within that society as well as those who were poor (Joe eichertz, 2012).
The historical poverty within a given group of people is a thing that is found among all religions and all cultural groupings. Even in the Bible, there are those who were historically known to be from the richer tribes and those from the poorer tribes. It is on the same vain that the…
Haralambos and Holborn. Sociology: Themes and Perspective. 5th Edition, page 11). Collins
Joe Reichertz, (2012). Objective Hermeneutics and Hermeneutic Sociology of Knowledge.
Retrieved February 27, 2012 form https://www.uni-due.de/imperia/md/content/kowi/hermeneutikenglisch.pdf
Communicative Theory of Biblical Interpretation
Any theory is a composite of residual aspects of earlier theories and fresh compositions illuminated by the present context. The several theories that have been applied to the study of Scriptures are no exception, and this discussion will explore how several theories have come to coalesce in the communicative theory of Biblical interpretation. The relation of literary criticism, structural criticism, and reader-response criticism to the Biblical interpretation as seen through the lens of communicative theory will be discussed. Aspects of contextualization, relevance theory, and speech-act theory are explored with regard to the influence of these constructs on the development of modern communicative theory.
Communicative theory. The written word is a special form of communication -- a mysterious way for people to experience the inner thoughts of another being. The Bible, as a written record of the experiences and history of ancient Israelites and Christians, provides…
Allen, R. (1984). Contemporary Biblical interpretation for preaching. Valley Forge, PA: Judson Press.
Brown, J.K. (2007). Introducing Biblical hermeneutics: Scripture as communication. Ada, MI: Baker Academics.
Definition of reader response criticism. Critical Approaches. VirtuaLit - Interactive Poetry Tutorial. Retrieved http://bcs.bedfordstmartins.com/virtualit/poetry/critical_define/crit_reader.html
Fish, S. (1970). Literature in the reader: Affective stylistics. New Literary History, 2 (1), 123-162.
In order to gain insight into these it is necessary that they all be combined into one.
6) Miller states the rule that visions are always mentioned as being 'visions'.
7) the rule relating to determine when a word is used literally or physically and states that if the word makes good sense as it stands, and does not violence to the simple laws of nature, then it must be understood literally, if not, figuratively.";
8) Figures always have a figurative meaning, and are used much in prophecy to represent future things, times and events -- such as mountains, meaning governments, 9) to learn the meaning of a figure, trace the word through your ible, and where you find it explained, substitute the explanation for the word used; and if it makes good sense, you need not look further; if not, look again;
10) Figures sometimes have two or more…
Andrews, Allan. R. (2007)a Journalist's Online Glossary of Religion.
Joshua V. Himes (1842) on the Cleansing of the Sanctuary by William Miller Boston. Development of SDA Theology - Department of Theology, Newbold College. Online available at http://www.bics410.szm.com/l13/miller/index.htm
McCook, Matt (2005) Aliens in the World: Sectarians, Secularism and the Second Great Awakening. 2005. Online available at http://etd.lib.fsu.edu/theses/available/etd-08/unrestricted/McCook_Dissertation.pdf
Damsteegt, Foundations of the Seventh day Adventists: Message and Mission (1977); ES Gaustad, ed., the Rise of Adventism (1975); AA Hoekema, Seventh-day Adventism (1974); G. Land, ed., Adventism in America (1986); RL Numbers and JM Butler, eds., the Disappointed (1987); E. Sandeen, the Roots of Fundamentalism: British and American Millenarianism, 1800-1930 (1970).
, pp.69-70.] [5: Ibid., p.85.]
The rather stern critique offered of Fee and Stuart herein should not indicate that this book is entirely without value, merely that its presentation in title and chapter headings is somewhat misleading. There is plenty of common sense in what Fee and Stuart are doing here, but the difficulty is that very often an intelligent decision on their part is mingled with an overall failure to highlight many of the most important issues involved in the interpretation of a iblical text. Their last chapter on Revelation indicates both the best and worst of their method. In some sense, Fee and Stuart are going to be on their most careful behavior in this passage, as the idiotic handling of Revelation by any heretic with a penchant for paranoia has been well-evidenced over the past two millennia. ut the history of this particular iblical book, such as…
Fee, Gordon D. And Stuart, Douglas. How to Read the Bible for All Its Worth. Second Edition. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1993.
" (2009) Oguejiofor states that there is no understanding "exept if there is misunderstanding, a negativity that beomes the originative instane of hermeneutis…" (2009)
Oguejiofor writes that Senghor's onept of negritude is entered on the misunderstanding or misrepresentation of the Afrian and his heritage, a situation that has sine imposed enormous burden on all aspets of his life." (Oguejiofor, 2009) Oguejiofor states that negritude has been desribed "…as a philosophy of soial ation" and states additionally that in the view of Senghor "negritude was 'a weapon of defense and attak and inspiration." (2009) Speifially Senghor sates that negritude is the "sum total of the values of the ivilization of the Afrian world, it is not raialism, it is ulture." (Oguejiofor, 2009)
Oguejiofor writes that negritude as a philosophy "has the advantage of 'reognizing the situatedness of our lived historiity as the proper objet of refletion for Afrian philosophi thought. (Salhi…
cited in Quest, 2005)
When Senghor was imprisoned for the already mentioned two years period he composed poetry, read the work of Goethe and delved into Western philosophical works and as well reestablished his link with his fellow Africans and songs and tales were shared from Africa and this resulted in the "fostering [of] an alternative understanding of humanism and society." (Quest, 2005)
The Quest Journal editorial states that it seems nice to think that the prison experiences of Senghor as well as Senghor's knowledge spanning the intellectual traditions of the Western world and his admiration for values, traditions and cultures of Africa together resulted in a "subjectivity that was transcultural and transnational in it sympathies, accomplishments and aspirations." (Quest, 2005) Senghor set the stage for "a post-anthropological humanism, one that truly points to the possibilities for a democratic and cosmopolitan world." (Quest, 2005)
5. Poetry as 'Key' Outlet for Combating Cultural Alienation in for Africans
The work of Nyathi (2005) states that the work of Senghor influenced many and in fact that poetry "became a key outlet for Africans to combat cultural alienation." The work of Baaz and Palmberg (2001) entitled: "Same and Other: Negotiating African Identity in Cultural Production" relates the writings of Leopold Sedar Senghor "on negritude and the ideas of negritude which are "above all associated with the writings of Senghor and Aime Cesaire, were developed by African, Afro-American and Caribbean intellectuals in Paris in the 1930s." (Baaz and Palmberg, 2001) Negritude was defined by Senghor as "the sum of the cultural values of the black world." (Baaz and Palmberg, 2001)
Preacher and the Ancient Text
This was an extremely technical text which offers deeper insights for anyone who desires to have a deeper understanding of all biblical issues and literary themes. This is because this text is able to offer a more nuanced perspective of major biblical pillars in terms of their own historical and literary viewpoint, while interlacing it with strong theological content. One of the deeper insights that were gleaned from studying this text was the fact that this book offers a superb means of explaining some of these more intricate pillars.
One of the more lucid insights that were gained from studying this book was as a result of the fusion developed from the hermeneutics and homiletics and the holistic approach that was engaged in. All insights gain were as a result of the link that Greidanus is able to forge in regards to the different arenas…
Greidanus, S. (1988) The Modern Preacher and the Ancient Text. Eerdmans Publishing:
Revelation 20:1-6 describes the "thousand years" in which Satan is imprisoned and the martyrs for Christ are resurrected and placed upon thrones to judge and reign with Christ for a thousand years. The passage also makes reference to a "first resurrection" implying that there will be a second. Yet, because of the nature of the Scriptural verses is visionary and imagistic, they have been the source of contentious interpretations over the years. Do the verses refer to a time that is yet to come (premillennial) or a time that we are already in (postmillennial) or to no real time at all but rather to only a figurative sense of the spiritual dimensions of the Christian way to heaven (amillennial)?
Poythress states that Rev 20:1-6 contains several different "levels of communication" -- the linguistic, the visionary, the referential, and the symbolic.
Each of these levels offers a unique way of looking…
Frey, R. Introduction to the New Testament. New York, NY: Ave Maria, 1948.
Mayhue, Richard L. "Jesus: A Preterist or a Futurist?" The Master's Seminary Journal, vol. 14, no. 1 (Spring 2003), 9-22.
Patzia, Arthur G. The Making of the New Testament. IL: InterVarsity Press, 2011.
Poythress, Vern Sheridan. "Genre and Hermeneutics in Rev 20:1-6." JETS vol. 36, no. 1
Problems can arise from consequences of business rules that change due to external forces or a team member generates a new idea that creates a problem. This can create conflict with the values of the team members and overall team that can cause emotional behaviors to arise. The collective feedback from all team members helps build the knowledge of the manager. The combination of feedback from all team members and the manager's knowledge of the goals, assumptions, and experience helps enable the manager to express an opinion where all team members understand.
Openness, open to new experience, extraversion, outgoing and high spirited, and neuroticism, a general tendency to experience emotions, are correlated with emotional intelligence (Godse). If a manager is open to new experience, outgoing, and experiences their own emotions, emotional intelligence comes easier because it becomes a shared experience among team members. Openness allows the manager to learn about…
Godse, a. & . (n.d.). Perceived emotional intelligence and conflict resolution styles among infomraiton technology professionals: Tesing the mediating role of personalityp. Singapore Management Review, 32:1, 69-83.
Liu, C. & . (2010). A system maintenance process for facilitation requests management and conflict resolution. International Journal of Software Engineering and Knowledge Engineering, 20:7, 899-920.
Feminine Pedagogy and Critical Theory
Pedagogy of the Oppressed
"We are living in a period of profound challenges to traditional Western epistemology and political theory" that are in evidence in every aspect of modern life, and that are especially profound in the field of education (Weiler, 2003). The single most profound aspect of these epistemological, social, and political changes is based in the ironic history of postmodernist movements: An oppressed group may not understand the roots of their disenfranchised position, nor be able to conceptualize ways to address what appears to be a normative condition. Tacit agreement exists among powerful or influential contingents that their worldview is to be dominant. Although certainly not universal, there is an enduring social undercurrent that tolerates oppression when it benefits one class of people over another, particularly when the social majority identifies with or strives to become a member of the powerful group. Indeed,…
Brady, J. (2003). Critical literacy, feminism, and a politics of representation. In Lanshear, C. And McLaren, P. (Eds.) (2003). Politics of liberation: Paths from Freire. London, UK: Taylor & Francis, (pp. 142-153). Retreived http://www.amazon.com/Politics-Liberation-Paths -
Freire, P. (1970, 1973). Pedagogy of the oppressed. New York, NY: Seabury Press.
Giroux, H. (1983). Critical Theory and Educational Practice. Victoria, Australia: Deakin University.
Gaudino, E.G. And de Alba, A. (2003). Freire -- present and future possibilities. In Lanshear, C. And McLaren, P. (Eds.) (2003). Politics of liberation: Paths from Freire. London, UK: Taylor & Francis, (pp. 123-134). Retreived
This point-of-view makes sense. Stuart and Fee have already suggested that the point of iblical interpretation is not to look for a novel or unique interpretation, but to really try to understand the point of the passages being studied. Therefore, their idea that people should feel free to consult commentaries, so that they can understand how other people have interpreted the texts, is a good one. Moreover, they suggest that people own multiple commentaries, with their ownership of each commentary geared toward the specific books being studied. Again, this is an excellent suggestion. Much like reading multiple versions of the ible, reading multiple commentaries on specific books is likely to stimulate intelligent analysis of the books in question.
Stuart and Fee do a very good job of helping guide people on how one should approach the ible. In fact, their book would be helpful for novices as well…
Stuart, Douglas and Gordon D. Fee. How to Read the Bible for All its Worth. (Grand
Rapids: Zondervan, 2003).
Stuart, Douglas and Gordon D. Fee. How to Read the Bible for All its Worth. (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2003),
We will develop a set of questions to guide the inquiry. The questions will be open-ended covering certain themes such as level of friendship with their neighbors; condition of daily living -- the security, or tension that they may feel; their confidence with entering the neighboring town / village; their sense of security with police / government protection; the level of security that their children feel in their lives; thoughts about the future: the way that they and their families cope with the emotions and stress. The broad question that I will want answered is " what is the meaning of your lived experience" or "what is your lived experience as you see it"
Whilst focusing on whether participants feel any slackening in tension within the last ten years, I would also be interested in peripheral effects of terrorism and thus would gain a more complete picture, from their response,…
Crotty, M. (1998) The foundations of social research. Allen & Unwin.
Moustakas, C. (1994). Phenomenolgoical research methods. Sage Pub. CA
With St. Paul, Luke traveled to several different destinations including Samothrace and Philippi -- where he appears to have lingered to guide the Church. The duo then reunite in Troas and Luke is with St. Paul during the latter's stay in a oman jail. As Paul says: "Only Luke is with me" (2 Timothy 4:11).
Exactly what Luke did with Paul during this time is debated: "St. Jerome thinks it is most likely that St. Luke is 'the brother, whose praise is in the gospel through all the churches' (2 Corinthians 8:18), and that he was one of the bearers of the letter to Corinth" (Knight, 2011).
Luke also brings special awareness to the importance of mercy and forgiveness, with the parable of the Prodigal Son and the tale of the woman whose sins were forgiven because she bathed Christ's feet in her tears.
But this special awareness is also…
Allen, R. (1984). Contemporary Biblical Interpretation for Preaching. MI: Judson
Barla J.B. (1999). Christian Theological Understanding of Other Religions. Rome:
Editrice Pontificia Universita Gregoriana.
Analysis How clear is the argument? Does it flow logically? Are there gaps, inconsistencies, or contradictions in the discussion or argument?
The author's argument that the Bible was inspired by the Holy Spirit, of course, cannot be proved or disproved. However, their use of exegetical techniques, and information about the historical context of when the Bible was written is valuable, and persuasively made. Merely because the Bible was affected by history does not mean that it cannot teach lessons for all time, provided one understands how historical context may give certain words or teachings a meaning present for today, that did not exist in the past.
Conclusion: Of what value is book? What does it add to the discourse?
Every chapter is helpful because of its focus on specific passages and genres for advancing the author's argument. The author's willingness to focus on differences in the Bible in terms of…
William F. Albright
A Study of W.F. Albright and How iblical Archeology Helped Shape His
William Foxwell Albright was first and foremost a believer in the religion of Christianity, a fact that greatly influenced his role as a iblical archeologist, or "historian of religion," according to critical scholars like J. Edward Wright and David Noel Freedman.
Yet Albright himself never claimed to be anything more than dedicated to interpreting "the unfolding scroll of history," in which he saw the Revelation of Christianity -- the fulfillment of the prophets of the Old Testament.
Or, more appropriately, as Albright himself wrote in 1940, the purpose of his work was "to show how man's idea of God developed from prehistoric antiquity to the time of Christ, and to place this development in its historical context."
In other words, Albright sought to illustrate in a real, contextual way the truth of the Christian…
Albright, William F. From the Stone Age to Christianity: Monotheism and the Historical Process. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1940.
Albright, William F. From the Stone Age to Christianity, 3rd edn. NY: Doubleday,
Albright, William F. "How Well Can We Know the Ancient Near East?" Journal of the American Oriental Society, vol. 56, no. 2 (June, 1936), 121-144.
Dr. Asma Barlas. "Does the Qur'an Support Gender Equality? Or, Do I have the autonomy to answer this question?"
Questions about issues raised by the author of the dossier
The author gives a talk about whether the Qur'an supports gender equality and before the speaker delves in the matter, she decides to look at the pre-structure of understanding because it reflects on things that people encounter. The speaker reiterates why the poster includes the picture of a veiled woman that shows that the burqa has been used to define the lives of Muslim women. Therefore, the underlying question seeks to resolve whether Orientalism is supported. Her arguments are in line with the words of the immigration minister who asserted that they want to see the individual they are communicating with: she asserted the veiled woman's face should be her face on the poster. From this poster, they are showing that…
Barlas, A. (2006). Does the Qur'an Support Gender Equality? Or, Do I Have the Autonomy to Answer this Question? Keynote Address. Workshop on Islam and Autonomy at the University of Groningen.
Barlas, A. (2005). Globalizing Equality: Muslim Women, Theology, and Feminisms in on Shifting Ground, Ed. Fera Simone. New York: Feminist Press.
Crouch, G. (2006). Dutch Consider Banning Burqas In Public. NYT.
Hidayatullah, A. A. (2014). Feminist Edges of The Qur'an. New York: Oxford University Press.
Otherwise, one field risks becoming subordinate to the other; although it's likely that Coyne's theology is extraordinarily sophisticated, the brief excerpt of it that Bill Maher uses leads the viewer to suspect that if these precepts are followed to their logical conclusion, religion will always give way to science as John Paul II gave way to the certainty that organisms evolve over time.
If so, then efforts to restore faith to a more equal footing are naturally vulnerable to claims that they are reactionary attempts to usurp science's rightful and supreme interpretative role in modern life. It is easy to understand Richard Dawkins' profound revulsion over what he sees as resurgent religiosities surrounding Islamic fundamentalism on the one hand and Christian fundamentalisms on the other: These faith-oriented responses to world events pose an implicit challenge to his own conviction that all aspects of experience are the product of physical entities…
Good researchers tend to pull methods out of a tool kit as they are needed" (2006, p. 54). Notwithstanding these criticisms and constraints, though, most social researchers seem to agree that classification by some type of research paradigm is a useful approach based on the need to determine which approach is best suited for a given research enterprise. In this regard, Corby concludes that, "The contested nature of research makes it impossible and unhelpful to ignore the different aims and purposes of various research projects and the methods and approaches being used to carry them out" (2006, p. 54). Therefore, the different aims and purposes of the positivist research paradigm, the constructivist research paradigm and the pragmatic research paradigm are discussed further below.
Positivist Research Paradigm
The positivist research paradigm is a quantitative-based approach that generally seeks to identify trends and patterns that can be used to formulate predictions concerning…
Ames, S.L., Gallaher, P.E., Sun, P. & Pearce, S. (2005). A Web-based program for coding open-ended response protocols. Behavior Research Methods, 37(3), 470-471.
Authors provide a description of a Web-based application that provides researchers with the ability to analyze participant-generated and open-ended data. Authors note that the application was developed in order to take advantage of online surveying based on its ease of use and flexibility. Authors note that this application may be of particular value to researchers who are employing large sample sizes that are frequently needed for projects in which frequency analyses are required. The application uses a grid-based set of criteria to establish codes for participant-generated and open-ended data collected from online surveys and can be applied for scoring results from stem completion,-word or picture associations, and comparable purposes in which such participant-generated responses require categorization and coding. Authors advise that they use this application for their professional online surveying purpose in experimental psychology to examine substance abuse patterns derived from participant-generated responses to various verbal and nonverbal associative memory problems, but that the application is also appropriate for other research areas as well. Authors also note that the application helps improve survey reliability by providing a systematic approach to coding participant-generated responses as well as evaluating the quality of coding and interjudge reliability by researchers with little or no specific training for the purposes. Authors conclude that the coding application is helpful for survey research that uses open-ended responses in virtually any research area of interest.
Austin, T.M., Richter, R.R. & Reinking, M.F. (2008). A primer on Web surveys. Journal of Allied Health, 37(3), 180-181.
Authors report that survey research has become a widely accepted research methodology that has been facilitated through the introduction of computer-based and online survey methods. Authors also emphasize that although electronic survey methods are useful in a wide range of settings for a variety of purposes, they are not appropriate in every situation. Online surveys involve various technologies that have not been available (or required) for paper-and-pencil surveys and require special considerations involving their design, pilot testing, and response rates. Authors present the results of their empirical observations and professional experience in using Web-based surveys to illustrate some of the advantages and disadvantages of the approach, including security and confidentiality issues (they make the point that electronic surveys are particularly vulnerable to compromise and that survey data must be protected as the research progresses) as well as the special considerations that must be taken into account as they apply to this surveying approach. Authors also discuss issues such as sampling error, a "how-to" guide to writing survey questions for online media, and how to order questions to ensure that respondents answer accurately and faithfully. All in all, this was a very timely guide for researchers for identifying when Web-based surveys are most appropriate and what factors should be taken into account in the design, posting and analysis of online surveys.
An empty self wishes for nothing more than to e guided and taken care of, easy prey for an abuse therapist, or even one who is not intentionally abusive but is not trained to recognize and understand the underlying issues. Wide and varied research supports Cushman's theory on this point, proving that decontextualization of the individual, the devaluation of the patience, a belief in the universality of a therapeutic technology and the encouragement of idealization can all lead to therapeutic abuse (608). Cushman compares patients who are exploited by life-style therapy to people who are victimized by cults. Their empty selves make them susceptible to feeling "transformed" because they cannot see themselves within a larger communal matrix. Cushman argues that a main component of preventing this kind of abuse is part of what he is after in writing this article -- straightforward talk about life-style solutions and their possible dangers.…
Cushman, P. (1990). "Why the Self is Empty: Toward a historically Situated Psychology." American Psychologist. Vol. 45 (5), 599-611. doi: 003-066X/90
But it can be used to elucidate a specific phenomenon and capture aspects of lived human experience statistical tabulations cannot. This is not to say that qualitative research must lack a theoretical basis, but that theories must be used creatively, to illuminate rather than limit thought. The voices of the participants should not be subsumed to theories. One good self-check regarding the appropriate use of theory is to ask one's self the question: "Does the research participant's voice dominate? Or does the researcher's voice dominate" the summary and analysis (Weber, 2003, x).
This does not mean that the subject must agree with everything that the researcher says, but if the researcher renders the subject into an object and does not present the subject's own perspective, in the subject's own words, the accuracy of the final report might be questionable. This problem is not limited to qualitative approaches, however: "even using…
Weber. (2003, December). The reflexive researcher. MIS Quarterly. 27 (4).
Time and time again, Jesus emphasizes humility as a necessary ingredient of not merely living a life that God wishes His people to live, but also as a means of better understanding the scriptures with which the same spirit and intentions of the authors originally mirrored that of humility. With this said, the briefest interpretation of this passage is that the lawyer is asking Jesus which is the greatest commandment, to try to trick Him into stating something inaccurate. But Jesus uses this as an opportunity to make a point about what the very commandments mean and 'why' they were written in the first place; which is to convey the message of God's love for His people and His wish that His people love one another.
In short, the hermeneutical interpretation of Matthew's 22nd chapter, in the verses 34 to 38, is to employ the same standards as any good…
More importantly, our appreciative and participatory stance with our co-researchers has allowed us to witness and learn about the cutting edge of leadership work in such a way that is and feels qualitatively different from other research traditions we have used in the past, because it is built on valuing. Even though it is challenging at times (Ospina et al. 2002), our inquiry space is enhanced by our collaboration with the social change leaders. (Schall, Ospina, Godsoe and Dodge, nd)
Qualitative Research Methods
Qualitative research methods are those of:
(1) Phenomenology -- this is a form of qualitative research in which the researcher focuses on gaining understanding of how an individual or individuals experience a phenomenon.
(2) Ethnography -- qualitative research that focuses on the culture of a group and describing that culture.
(3) Case Study Research -- form of qualitative research that provides a detailed account of a case…
Betts, Dion E. (2008) Professional Learning Communities and Special education: We Are Gathering Student Performance Data, Now What? PA Administrator.
Blaydes, John (2004) Survival skills for the principalship: a treasure chest of time-savers, short-cuts, and strategies to help you keep a balance in your life. Corwin Press, 2004.
Condelli, Larry and Wrigley, Heide Spruck (2004) Real World Research: Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Research for Adult ESL paper was presented at the National Research and Development Centre (NRDC) Second International Conference for Adult Literacy and Numeracy, Loughborough, England, March 25-27, 2004.
Cotton, K. (1996). School size, school climate, and student performance (School Improvement Research Series, Close-Up #20). Portland, OR: Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory. Retrieved September 30, 2006, from http://www.nwrel.org/scpd/sirs/10/c020.html
Nietzsche's ideas center on the will-to-power to escape the triviality of the society. Nietzsche argued against the "slave mentality" that permeates society causing the people to live lives devoid of joy and grandeur (ibid).
Phenomenology, on the other hand, focuses on the "essential structures found within the stream of conscious experience -- the stream of phenomena -- as these structures manifest themselves independently of the assumptions and presuppositions of science" (faxed material, date, p. 174).
Edmund Husserl, who is considered as the first great phenomenologist, developed transcendental phenomenology which very purpose is to investigate the phenomena of the world without making assumptions. This requires the exclusion of one's presupposition about the existence of the external, physical, and objective world. Phenomenology's end is to be able to describe the conscious experiences of human's "lifeworld" (ibid).
Heidegger, having heard Husserl's call for a need to develop a philosophical system which understands…
Faxed material author. (date). Title of the book. Location: Publisher.
Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia (2008a). Idealism. Retrieved from http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761575556/Idealism.html on April 4, 2009
Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia (2008b). Dialectic. Retrieved from http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761551873/Dialectic.html on April 4, 2009
Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (2006). Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel. Retrieved from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/hegel / on April 4, 2009.
Not only is a challenge present for Muslim teachers in attempting to standardize this curriculum but as well "this is compounded by the fact that curriculum materials related to teaching about Islam produced overseas - even for Arabic language studies - are viewed as irrelevant or unsuited to young students' lives and culture in the U.S. And Europe." (Douglass and Shaikh, 2004)
Guidelines have been provided in recent years concerning teaching religion in public schools in the U.S. And it is stated by Douglass and Shaikh that "general adherence to the guidelines and their implementation in textbook development has done more than anything else to improve the accuracy of textbook depictions of the basic beliefs and practices, origin stories and subsequent cultural and institutional history of various religions." (Douglass and Shaikh, 2004) Stated as primary among the changes is "the consistent use of attributive phrases, combined with greater factual accuracy."…
Akhir, Jamadil (2008) Islamic education after independence and the impact of National Educational Policy. Social Issues. Online available at http://www.hijrahmedia.com/proto/iidl2/artikel/edu4.php
Coulson, Andrew (2004) Education and Indoctrination in the Muslim World - Is There a Problem? What Can We Do about it? Policy Analysis 11 Mar 2004. No. 511.
Delic, Zijad)(2001) Hermeneutics of Islamic Education and the Construction of New Muslim Cultures in the West: Faithful by t Reformed. University of Oregon (2006)
Douglass, Susan L. And Shaikh, Munir a. (2004) Defining Islamic Education: Differentiation and Applications. Current Issues in Comparative Education Vol. 7(1) Teachers College, Columbia University.
The one odd detail of the painting is the blazon that appears in the lower half in the center. It is cut off at the bottom of the painting, so we are unable to see the whole thing, but we can tell that it is shaped like a diamond and black with red and yellow tracings on the inside. This gives it almost an occult-like appearance. According to Krajewski, the blazon hanging from the window displays an emblem of a particular rederijker group. The emblem [not visible in this image of the painting] consists of crossed pipes and a wineglass, which are underneath an inscription that reads, "the green laurel shoot." The emblem tells us that the rederijkers were "as much social as literary."
The rhetoricians played a major role in entertaining the populace of Holland in the 1600s. This is one of many paintings Steen produced in homage to…
Krajewski, Bruce. Traveling with Hermes: Hermeneutics and Rhetoric. Boston: University of Massachusetts Press, 1992.
Teachers will continue to lead the educational process, but they need to be very sensitive about the issues facing the society as a whole and the children as individuals in this society. Then, education becomes a means of identifying the issues in the life of the students and gaining knowledge and understanding about them. Education in this global society also has to acknowledge that cultural diversity is valued and preserved (Tozer, Violas, & Senese, 2002, p. 190). Teachers have to ensure that their students are taught in ways that respond to cultural groups without bias (Tozer, Violas, & Senese, 2002, p. 420). In education, there is a responsibility for students to gain a respect for other races, religions and gender that are different from their own. This is the only way that a diverse society can successfully survive.
Best, S. And Douglas, K. (1991) Postmodern Theory: Critical Interrogations, New…
Best, S. And Douglas, K. (1991) Postmodern Theory: Critical Interrogations, New York, the Guilford Press.
Byrne, a. (1998). Interpretivism. In Roberto Casati (ed.), European Review of Philosophy. Stanford: CSLI Publications
Dewey, J. (1997). Experience and education. New York: Touchstone Books.
Giroux, H. (1997) 'Crossing the Boundaries of Educational Discourse: Modernism, post-modernism, and Feminism' in a.H. Halsey, H. Lauder, P. Brown and a.S. Wells (eds.) Education: Culture, Economy, and Society, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
For example, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, Texas will need over 82,000 new teachers by 2008 (as noted in Justice & Espinoza, 2007). Many teachers are leaving the profession within five years of being employed. In order to reduce these numbers, schools are now looking more seriously at teacher preparation programs. In one study described by Justice and Espinoza (2007), 160 beginning teacher candidates were surveyed using the Emotional Skills Assessment Process. According to the Emotional Intelligence Scale, the candidates needed to strengthen skills in assertion, comfort, empathy, decision making, drive strength, time management, commitment ethic, self-esteem, stress management and deference. The skills leadership, aggression, and change orientation were current strengths. To face the challenges of a diverse classroom, teachers needed to develop or strengthen specific skills if they were going to have a longer teaching career.
Goleman (1995) is credited in Emotional Intelligence with encouraging many educators…
Calderhead, J. & Shorrock, S. (1997) Understanding Teacher Education. London: Falmer
Creswell, J.W. (2003). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage
Dunlop, F. (1984) the Education of Feeling and Emotion. London: Allen & Unwin.
ased on the guiding research question, a deductive approach was deemed best suited for the purposes of the study proposed herein.
The selection of an appropriate research strategy is important to the successful outcome of a study (Maxwell 1996). ased on a review of the available research strategies, the research strategy to be used in the proposed study will be to use a qualitative analysis of the secondary literature to develop a custom survey to collect relevant quantitative primary data. This research strategy is highly congruent with the guidance provided by Poggenpaul, Myburgh and Van Der Linde who report, "There is a strong argument for qualitative research strategies as a prerequisite for quantitative strategies" (2001, 408). The use of both qualitative and quantitative data is also congruent with Neuman's observation that, "oth qualitative and quantitative research use several specific research techniques (e.g., survey, interview, and historical analysis), yet…
Batra, R., & Homer, P. (2004) The situational impact of brand image beliefs. Journal of Consumer Psychology 14(3) 318-330
Benz, C.R., & Newman, I. (1998). Qualitative-quantitative research methodology: Exploring the interactive continuum. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press.
Burton, S., & Steane, P. (2004). Surviving your thesis. New York: Routledge.
Costabile, M. (2000), A Dynamic Model of Customer Loyalty. Presented to 16th Annual IMP Conference, September 7th-9th, Bath (UK). [online] http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&source=web&cd=2&ved=0CBwQFjAB&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.impgroup.org%2Fuploads%2Fpapers%2F43.pdf&ei=5q-sTarLD4W10QH2tfj4CA&usg=AFQjCNGRQdbe1PJHk7dPAY23xvIzBf2rvg&sig2=pNYCgID7L4yz5rihCh0chA
The interpretation of "spiritual truths" can largely influence how a disseminator selects a particular message, and can also be a particular lesson taught to disciples -- to aid them in their own ability to interpret spiritual understanding. This intrinsic sense of what is necessary to be communicated to an audience (Mitchell, 2010) should also be taught to an audience itself, so that it can understand and become closer to the spirit of God -- which is one of the main goals of virtually any disciple-maker's message.
y utilizing the aforementioned sources to impart this particular message -- to help further the understanding of the voice and spirit of God for disciples, so that they may heed and live a life in accordance to it -- it then becomes necessary to utilize the proper form to communicate this message. Of the four most widely used forms of communicating a message (the…
Barna, George. Growing True Disciples: New Strategies for Producing Genuine Followers of Chris.t Colorado Springs: WaterBrook Press. 2001.
Bloomberg, Craig, 1st Corinthians NIV Application Commentary. Michigan: Zondervan. 1995.
ESV Bible. "1 Corinthians 1-2, 2 Peter 1, and Romans 15-18." Crossway. http://www.esvbible.org / (accessed November 10, 2011).
Mitchell, Dr. Michael. Leading, Teaching, and Making Disciples. (Kindle Locations 6432-6459). Bloomington: CrossBooks. 2010. Kindle Edition. Chapter 9
Empathy and rapport with subject has to be profound, particularly where the researcher may have a priori thoughts or personal stakes with the matter at hand. If the latter exists, it may be better that she not do the research.
Analysis of the research can be somewhat daunting given the vast amount of material (interview notes, tape-recording, jottings etc.) generated by the interviews. The way one goes about this is via a brief cursory reading of the material, roughly identifying key themes and points. One then aggregates these key themes in a set of notes and organizes them with the aid of (for instance) a mind-map or post-it notes so that they become points that one then uses to review the original material again and add to or modify in order to assess whether what one has noted is correct and complete (Hycner, 1985).
Nonetheless, analysis can still be tricky…
Moustakas, C. (1994). Phenomenolgoical research methods. Sage Pub. CA
Shea, C. (1999). The practical art of suicide assessment. Hoboken, U.S.
Wann, TW. (1964). Behaviorism and phenomenology. Univ. Chicago: Chicago.
Consequently, his observations concerning the business climate in Saudi Arabia with respect to the significance of religion in the Kingdom can be considered authentic. According to Indris, with respect to the perception of performance and contractual obligations among Saudis, "It should be noted that the issue is not with the belief itself but rather with people's misguided interpretations of the belief and Islam teachings. While Islam teaches that ultimate control is in the hands of God, it also teaches that people should exert their utmost efforts to better their lives" (p. 38). These issues have special salience for foreign direct investors who may experience disputes based on such misinterpretations that cannot be predicted but must be expected. In this regard, Idris concludes that, "Misguided interpretations have a strong impact on the business environment and the commitment to setting and meeting goals and targets in the kingdom. Accountability in running businesses…
Aleisa, Eisa A. & Dibooglu, S. Sources of Real Exchange Rate Movements in Saudi Arabia.
26 Journal of Economics and Finance 1, 101-103 (2007).
Applications & Procedures, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: Ministry of Commerce and Industry,
[online] available: http://mci.gov.sa/english/moci.aspx?PageObjectId=814 (2011).
Traditional Chinese Beliefs that played a part if Taoism and Confucianism
Taoism and Confucianism both have their roots in the ancient beliefs of Chinese people. The core of Taoism and Confucianism is still based in the ancient Chinese beliefs. Taoism emphasizes the significance of being compatible with nature by balancing the forces of yin and yang. In reference to the traditional Taoist cosmology, matter and force are contemplated to be ruled by five movements. Earth exerts its presence strongly before the beginning of every season.
Taoism is in favour of a simple life. It is a strong follower of acquiring spiritual harmony by incorporating positive attitude, compliance, and serenity in our lives. The simplest way of life is the ideal one. A wise person always complies with to the rhythm of the world.
Taoism is about accepting life and everything associated with it in its natural form. Taoists…
Chow K., Ng O.C. & Henderson J.B. (1999) Imagining boundaries: changing Confucian doctrines, texts, and hermeneutics. New York. United States of America. University of New York Press.
Wiesner M.E. (2001) Gender in history. United Kingdom. Blackwell Publishers.
Wong. E (1997) The Shambhala guide to Taoism. United States of America. Shambhala Publishers.
Yang J-M. (1997) The Essence of Taiji Qigong: The Internal Foundation of Taijiquan. Canada. YMAA Publication Center In
Nursing Culture: Overcoming Barriers to Change
Introduction and Theoretical Framework
This program of study continues personal research and professional practice in the field of nursing within the area of public and private health systems. In an era characterized by increasing calls for more efficient approaches to healthcare delivery and accountability on the part of healthcare providers, there is a growing need for identifying opportunities to overcome organizational barriers to change that facilitate the implementation and sustainment of evidence-based practices over time. In order to accomplish this challenging enterprise, the nature of existing organizational barriers must be better understood, an issue that directly relates to the problem to be considered by the study proposed herein and which is discussed further below.
Statement of the Problem
According to Mannion, Davies and Marshall et al. (2005), the results of much of the research to date have identified a relationship between nursing culture and…
Banyard, V.L., & Miller, K.E. (1998). The powerful potential of qualitative research for community psychology. American Journal of Community Psychology, 26(4), 485.
Burton, S., & Steane, P. (2004). Surviving your thesis. New York: Routledge.
Dennis, C., & Harris, L. (2002). Marketing the e-business. London: Routledge.
Department of Health. (2000). The NHS plan: A plan for investment, a plan for reform. London:
The last century has seen an increase in the level of international purchases which has been supported by the developments in transportation and technology. Goods can move faster than before with developments in logistics. The negotiation and forming contracts for purchase with companies and communicate with potential suppliers in distant countries is also easier than in the past with the internet and tools such as video conferencing and emails. This facilitates the use of international suppliers. However, other firms may choose local suppliers believing strategy will best suit their needs. Local suppliers may be able to provide where there is an increase in the transparency of the supply chain, less exposure to risks such as interruption and exchange rate risks and proximity may allow closer collaborative relationships to develop. Both procurement strategies are viable, to assess the advantages associated with each approach the procurement from international and local suppliers can…
'Automotive and Auto Parts Industry in Turkey.' (2012). Turkish Ministry of Economy. [online] available: http://blog.tcp.gov.tr/?p=2632 .
"Automotive Industry Trends Affecting Component Suppliers.' (2005). International Labour Review, vol. 144, no. 1, pp. 130-133.
Borrus, M., Ernst, D. & Haggard, S. (2001). International Production Networks in Asia: Rivalry or Riches. London: Routledge.
Burton, S., & Steane, P. (2004). Surviving Your Thesis. New York: Routledge.
STYLE OF RITING AND TEACHING METHODS IN PILGRIM'S PROGRESS
Teaching and preaching have always been considered cornerstones of Christian beliefs. For devout Christians, teaching others about various things of value is what their entire religion is based upon as Gospel of Matthew mentions that Jesus is believed to have instructed his disciples to "Go ye therefore, and teach all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost: Teaching them to observe all things whatsoever I have commanded you: and, lo, I am with you always, even unto the end of the orld" (Matthew 28: 19-20). Teaching has thus been considered an important part of religious beliefs and it is one responsibility that Christians must shoulder. For this prominent Christian figures with authority over the subject have also upheld the responsibility of teaching. Saint Augustine for example maintained that it was…
Augustine. On Christian Doctrine. Trans D.W. Robertson, Jr. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1958.
Batson, E. Beatrice. John Bunyan: Allegory and Imagination. London: Croom Helm, 1984.
Bunyan, John. Grace Abounding to the Chief of Sinners. 1666. Ed. Roger Sharrock. Oxford: Clarendon, 1962.
Bunyan, John. The Pilgrim's Progress. 1678. Ed N.H. Keeble. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1984.
While there were students of color in the community, their race was rarely, if ever, a source of conflict. The unfortunate outcome, however is that in being "Color Blind," and believed that everyone is being treated the same. In reality, the outcome does not celebrate the uniqueness of those same ethnic groups. The bigger implication in my work will be the study of the blending of economic classes. Prior to the consolidation of the schools, ainier had numerous rural one to four room schoolhouses. Each school had its own distinct area of the county and each group was resistant to blending with the others. This was an area of generational poverty. Families were land rich and money poor.
In the early 1970's, when Portland General Electric began construction on the Trojan Nuclear Power Plant, there were the beginnings of a local population explosion. The first group to come to…
Bolman, L.G. & Deal, T.E. (2000). Escape from cluelessness: A guide for the organizationally challenged. New York: American Management Association.
Burton, S., & Steane, P. (2004). Surviving your thesis. New York: Routledge.
Dennis, C., & Harris, L. (2002). Marketing the e-business. London: Routledge.
Feagin, J.R., Orum, a.M. & Sjoberg, G. (1991). A case for the case study. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press.
An Exegesis of Daniel 9:24-27
Various approaches to Daniel 9:24-27 reveal a iblical prophecy that divides iblical scholars upon the matter of exact meaning. The most common understanding from the days of early Christianity to modern times has been that the text is one that prophecies the coming of Christ; but other interpretations, like the eschatological interpretation, view the prophecy as one that concerns the end times. This paper will show how a synthesis of the traditional interpretation and the eschatological interpretation provides what may be called a fuller, or perhaps more complete, view of Daniel 9:24-27.
As Francis Gigot notes, "linguistics, the context, and the ancient translations of Daniel are most of the time insufficient guides towards the sure restoration of the primitive reading"; however, exegetes are able to form a limited idea of a possible meaning to Daniel 9:24-27 by familiarizing themselves with the ook of…
Ford, Desmond. In the Heart of Daniel: An Exposition of Daniel 9:24-27. Lincoln, NE:
Gigot, Francis. "Book of Daniel." The Catholic Encyclopedia, vol. 4. NY: Robert
Appleton Company, 1908.
High Tech Computer Corporation, known almost universally by the acronym HTC, is a Taiwan-based designer and manufacturer of smartphone devices. The company generally creates a base design, gives it a "codename," such as Hermes, and then offers the devices to be sold rebranded by other companies, such as i-mate, or networks, such as T-Mobile or Orange. In 2006 HTC started offering devices in some markets under their own HTC brand (Benou, 2007). The company has long used its own Dopod house brand to sell devices directly in Asia. HTC anticipates continued growth in the smartphone sector (Colombo, 2010). The convenience and excitement delivered by the plethora of mobile digital applications available such as location-based services, multimedia entertainment, social networking services, and e-books continue to push smartphones to the fore of mobile phone purchase choices and increase penetration of smartphones in the mobile phone market (Butler, 2009). One of the…
Barry, F., 2005. The politics of high-tech growth: Developmental network states in the global economy.. The Economic and Social Review, 36(2), pp. 179-183.
Benou, G.G.K.C. & M.J., 2007. Impact of visibility and investment advisor credibility on the valuation effects of high-tech cross-border acquisitions.. Financial Management, 80(17), pp. 69-89.
Butler, D., 2009. Hard time for high tech.. Nature, 222(100), p. 413.
Colombo, M.G. & G.L., 2010. Funding gaps? access to bank loans by high-tech start-ups.. Small Business Economics, 12(5), pp. 455-67.
Art and Public Space
ho 'owns' public space? Public space is never neutral, even though it is theoretically owned 'in common,' but rather reflects the particular ideology of those who construct it. Thus, in a sense we all own public because we have a hand in how it is used and we are all owned by public space in the sense that the locations in which we dwell limit and define our social interactions. "One of the main trends in philosophy is to see the public sphere as a form of social reality, and less as an act of creation whose results would be negotiated intersubjectively" (Gheorghe 317).
Marxists see the demarcation of spaces into public and private arenas as a way to negotiate power relationships. Anyone who doubts this should consider the extent to which desirable real estate is determined by proximity to privileged social spaces: an apartment with…
"Chapter 3: A critical overview of public art." Temple University.
http://astro.temple.edu/~ruby/wava/alex/chap3.pdf [15 Mar 2013]
Gheorgh, C. "Theories and Uses in Common: Responses of Art in the Public Sphere."
Meta Research in Hermeneutics and Practical Philosophy, 2.2 (2010): 316-27.
esponses may be 'coded' so that some numerical data can be amassed but overall, the most important part of the research is the lived 'experience' that is recorded. In contrast, with quantitative research, it is the data that is more significant. However, quantitative studies can provide the springboard for qualitative studies, as they point out phenomena in the general population that needs to be studied in more 'micro-level' detail. Similarly, qualitative studies can act as early fact-finding expeditions that provide the basis for quantitative analysis, to see if the study of the smaller population is reflective of a larger phenomenon. Neither one type of research needs to come before the other.
A good example of a comparison of qualitative and quantitative research from translation studies can be found in the field of "research in second language learning that identifies learners' problems in composition and attempts to explain them by referring…
Connor, Ulla. (1996). Contrastive rhetoric: Cross-cultural aspects of second-language writing.
Cambridge University Press. ERIC Database. Retrieved: http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/detailmini.jsp?_nfpb=true&_&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED401754&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=no&accno=ED401754
Lund, Thorleif. The qualitative -- quantitative distinction: Some comments. Scandinavian Journal
of Educational Research, 49 (2): 115 -- 132
Bible esoteric and dated. Fee and Stuart in How to Read the Bible for All Its Worth, however, show the applicability of the Bible and provide readers with the tools of applying the Bible to their contemporary lives. For them there is no "then and there" to the text, rather than "then and there" of the text can equitably be applied to the "here and now" of contemporaneous living. The authors in effect build two bridges; there is the bridge between Church and lay man and the bridge between Church and exegetical scholar. Whilst the exegetical scholar approaches the text from the past trying to see 'what it meant," the author tell us that the text is far more than that: it is applicable not only for the "then" but also for the "now" and, therefore, people should approach it with the intent of 'what does it mean" and "what…
Qutb, S. (1988). In the shade of the Koran. Beirut: The Holy Koran Publishing House
Swearer, D.K. (1991). Fundamentalistic movements in Therevada Buddhism. In Fundamentalisms Observed, ed. M.E. Marty, R.S. Appleby, pp. 628-691. Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press.
Voll, J. (1991). Fundamentalism in the Sunni Arab world. In Fundamentalisms Observed, ed. M.E. Marty, R.S. Appleby, pp. 345-403. Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press.
Jesus through the Old Testament
Christopher J.H. Wright's Knowing Jesus Through the Old Testament is a book written to connect the two halves of scripture, in a way that helps Christians better understand that "…it is Jesus that gives meaning and validity to the events of Israel's Old Testament history."[footnoteRef:0] Wright is an Old Testament scholar -- an Ulsterman whose own parents had been Presbyterian missionaries in razil, although he would convert and become ordained in the Anglican church, and now resides in London where he directs an international ministry. His academic background is in historical study of the Old Testament, and his first full-length book was a study of economic ethics in the Old Testament. (He confesses endearingly, but unnecessarily, in the present work that he feels much less at ease with the New Testament as a scholar.) Knowing Jesus through the Old Testament is his second work, first…
Alexander, Paul. "Book Review: Knowing Jesus Through the Old Testament." IX Marks, http://www.alliancenet.org/CC/article/0,,PTID314526_CHID598026_CIID2438290,00.html (accessed 15 April 2011).
David Murray, "Jesus never read the New Testament." The Gospel Coalition, http://thegospelcoalition.org/blogs/tgc/2010/04/21/jesus-never-read-the-new-testament / (accessed 15 April 2011).
O'Collins, Gerald and Jones, Michael Keenan. Jesus Our Preist: A Christian Approach to the Priesthood of Christ. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010.
Wright, Christopher J.H. 1992. Knowing Jesus Through the Old Testament. Downers Grove, Illinois: InterVarsity Press.
Jesus fulfill symbolism underly
Jesus fulfills the symbolism apparent in the Feast of Tabernacles in many different ways, although most of these ways are related to one another. During this feast, Jesus was able to feed 500 people (who had gathered for the upcoming Passover feast) while only utilizing the substance of two fish and five relatively diminutive loaves of bread. There is important symbolism in this fact, which is related to nourishment. In a literal sense, Jesus was able to feed the bodies of this great number of people. In a figurative sense, however, he was providing spiritual nourishment, since he was the son of Christ (a fact which would soon become apparent after his ensuing crucifixion and resurrection) (Musser, 2013). Thus, this action symbolizes the fact that believing in and following Christ will lead to spiritual fulfillment.
Jesus was able to fulfill this symbolism by providing spiritual nourishment…
Jamerson, F. (2005). The apostles and hermeneutics. North Charlottesville Church of Christ. Retrieved from http://www.cvillechurch.com/Articles/Article_TheApostlesAndHermeneutics.htm
Morris, L. (2012). Jesus is the Christ: Studies in the theology of John. Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company.
Musser, M. (2013). The historicity of the resurrection of Christ. American Thinker. Retrieved from http://www.americanthinker.com/2013/03/the_historicity_of_the_resurrection_of_christ.html
Towns, E.L. (2002). The gospel of John: Believe and live. Chattanooga: AMG Publishers.
Charleston Insurrection Conspiracy as Interpreted by M. Johnson, E. Pearson, D. Egerton, and D. obertson
In its October 2001 issue, the history journal William and Mary Quarterly featured a review essay in its Forum section entitled, "The Making of a Slave Conspiracy, Part I." This feature focused on the historical issues about black slavery in America particularly the Denmark Vesey insurrection conspiracy in Charleston, South Carolina in 1822. A review essay penned by Michael Johnson, a professor of history at the Johns Hopkins University, which is entitled, "Denmark Vesey and His Co-Conspirators," offered a new interpretation of the famous (and foiled) uprising of the Negroes in Charleston in the early 19th century.
Johnson started his essay with a brief background information on some significant events that occurred before the planned uprising was discovered, and he also included a brief biography of Denmark Vesey, the suspected leader of the black slaves,…
Egerton, Douglas. "Forgetting Denmark Vesey; Or, Oliver Stone Meets Richard Wade." William and Mary Quarterly January 2002. 6 April 2002 www.historycooperative.org/journals/wm//59.1/egerton.html.
Johnson, Michael. "Denmark Vesey and His Co-Conspirators." William and Mary Quarterly October 2001. 6 April 2002 www.historycooperative.org/journals/wm//58.4/johnson.html.
Pearson, Edward. "Trials and Error: Denmark Vesey and His Historians." William and Mary Quarterly January 2002. 6 April 2002 www.historycooperative.org/journals/wm//59.1/pearson.html.
Robertson, David. "Inconsistent Contextualism: The Hermeneutics of Michael Johnson." William and Mary Quarterly January 2002. 6 April 2002 www.historycooperative.org/journals/wm//59.1/robertson.html.
Miguel de Cervantes' 'Hero' Concept in Don Quixote
The novel Don Quixote, written by Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra in 1605 (Volume 1) and 1615 (Volume 2), chronicles the life of Alonzo Quixano, popularly known in his village as Don Quixote. Quixano is a Spanish nobleman who assumes the role of the idealistic and chivalrous Don Quixote to help people who are 'in distress,' or dire need of help. In the novel, Quixano chooses his sidekick in the person of his servant Sancho Panza, labeled as the squire of Don Quixote.
Cervantes' depiction of Don Quixote/Quixano in the novel illustrates how he deviates from the usual characteristics, stereotypes, and image of a hero or a knight, which was a popular image of males during Spain's period of chivalry as a form of 'holy war.' In Don Quixote, the protagonist is portrayed not as a hero that is morally and physically courageous,…
Allen, J. (1979). Don Quixote, Hero or Fool: Part II. Florida: University Press of Florida.
Cervantes, M. Don Quixote. Trans. By John Ormsby. Project Gutenberg Etext, July 1997.
Dudley, E. (1997). Endless Text: Don Quixote and Hermeneutics of Romance. New York: Albany University of New York Press.
Defining Post positivism:
definitional exercise in identity politics, in expanding cultural and semiotic discourse, and reinterpreting the continuing the literary effort of the 20th and 21st century to deconstruct human life and society
Postmodernism, the literary buzzword of the past century, is often considered to be a 'liberal' form of hermeneutics, in the sense that rather than attempting to define what makes the canon great, it attempts to expand the notion of what is a literary canon, what is great literature in general. However, many liberal political activists have accused the deconstructionit movement and the postmodern aesthetic for its tendency towards reductionism and relativism. In other words, by stressing that everything, including identity, is a construction, there is little ground for feminist and Marxist critics to stand on, politically, speaking, to make a material critique of oppressive structures within a society. If all definitions are contextually based, how…
Moya, Paula. Learning from Experience: Minority Identities, Multicultural Struggles. University of California Press, 2002.
speak for themselves' rather than to allow the research to be guided by an overarching conceptual design. "Phenomenology is concerned with the study of experience from the perspective of the individual, 'bracketing' taken for granted assumptions and usual ways of perceiving. Epistemologically, phenomenological approaches are based in a paradigm of personal knowledge and subjectivity, and emphasise the importance of personal perspective and interpretation" (Lester 1999:1). When studying subjects from the Middle East in an American context it is particularly important to let the participants speak for themselves given the extent to which persons from Middle Eastern cultures have been objectified and essentialized in the past.
The focus of phenomenology is descriptive in contrast to, for example, grounded theory, which attempts to empirically derive a theory from the amassed information and imposes a system of 'coded' responses upon the respondent's information. For this type of research, rather than attempting to narrow…
Blake, J. (2012). Intuitive inquiry research methods. Social Mindfulness.
Calman, L. (n.d.). What is grounded theory? The University of Manchester. Retrieved from:
Feminist Hermeneutics and Biblical Studies
Terry Mortenson's "The origins of old-earth geology…" is quite an interesting read. The author covers a fair amount of both scientific and religious history in a relatively short amount of text. He writes with a certain scholarly flair, and is discussing pivotal information about the history of the earth and how that has been interpreted by men of different religious convictions. Typically, articles that address these two concepts diametrically oppose them. To Mortenson's credit he actually bridges these two concepts, and elucidates little known history in the process.
Mortenson's work largely details the history of the time-honored debate between what he terms "old-world geologists" and "scriptural geologists" (Mortenson, 2003) regarding an accounting of the earth's history and point of origination. The several men who encompass the former group tended to believe that the earth is much older than the age ascribed to it in the…
Mortenson, T. (2003). The origins of old-earth geology and its ramifications for life in the 21st century. www.answersingenesis.org. Retrieved from http://www.answersingenesis.org/articles/tj/v18/n1/old-earth-geology
Soul: Why Only Christian Psychologists Can Practice "True Psychology"
Today, there are more than one hundred thousand licensed psychologists practicing in the United States. These mental health professionals are in a unique position to provide individuals, groups, and American society with valuable counseling services for a wide range of mental health issues and mental disorders. This study uses a triangulated research approach to demonstrate that true psychology can be done only by Christians since only Christians have the resources that are needed to understand and transform the soul in healing ways. The first leg of the research approach consists of a review of the relevant literature, the second leg consists of a custom survey of 25 practicing American psychologists, and the final leg of the triangulated research approach consists of an exegetical analysis of relevant biblical verses concerning the human soul and its relevance for mental health professionals. Finally, a…
American people and society. (2015). CIA world factbook. Retrieved from https://www.cia. gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/us.html.
Bassett, R.L. (2013, Winter). An empirical consideration of grace and legalism within Christian experience. Journal of Psychology and Christianity, 32(1), 43-49.
Black's law dictionary. (1990). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.
Bobgan, M. & Bobgan, D. (1987). PsychoHeresy: The psychological seduction of Christianity.
When I think about the question, "What is the other?" there are three main things that come to mind. First, I believe that defining "the other" is highly dependent on others. That is, we are in relationships constantly. We are not just in relationships to people but also to everything else around us. We are always in a state of needing each other. For example, we are engaged in different states of relationship like me needing my professor for education, and my professor needing me for money. There are also physical needs like needing water. This is why I support the notion that the other is simply yourself from the perspective of the other person. You create yourself based on what other people want you to be. We then abide to a fixed set of categorical norms that in part cause a lot of our actions. For instance, holding…
The closest thing to a universally-accepted definition of human rights comes from the United Nations High Commissioner for Human ights (OHCH). That body's definition is founded on the principle that human rights are inalienable and universal. That is, they apply to all human beings and that all are entitled to these rights without discrimination. The UN definition also holds that human rights are "interrelated, interdependent and indivisible" (OHCH, 2016). The OHCH cites such rights as the right to work, the right to self-determination, to social security and education, to equality before the law and to freedom of expression (OHCH, 2016). How these broad concepts are to be operationalized is not specified by the OHCH. Indeed, there are some inherent contradictions immediately apparent between the definition set forth by the OHCH and the Universal Declaration of Human ights, the foundational document for the modern neoliberal concept. As an example,…
Abu-Lughod, L. (2011). Do Muslim women really need saving? Anthropological reflections on cultural relativism and its others. Ethics Forum: September 11 and Ethnographic Responsibility. Retrieved March 30, 2016 from http://internationalhumanrightslaw.net/wp-content/uploads/2011/01/Do-Muslim-Women-Really-Need-Saving-Anthropological-Reflections-on-Cultural-Relativism-and-Its-Others.pdf
Baghramanian, M. & Carter, J. (2015). Relativism. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved March 30, 2016 from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/relativism/#CoVarDef
Basnet, G. & Albalooshi, M. (2012). Human rights debate: Universalism versus relativism. Eurasia Review. Retrieved March 30, 2016 from http://www.eurasiareview.com/27062012-human-rights-debate-universalism-versus-relativism-oped/
Bernstein, R. (1983) Beyond objectivism and relativism: Science, hermeneutics and praxis. University of Pennsylvania Press: Philadelphia.