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Although there is a broad range of treatment options for heroin addiction, including medications and behavioral therapies, research indicates that when medication treatment is integrated with other supportive services, the addict is more often able to recover and return to a stable and productive lifestyle (NIDA). In 1997, a panel of national experts concluded that opiate drug addictions are diseases of the brain and medical disorders that can be treated effectively, and recommended broader access to methadone maintenance treatment programs, including the elimination of Federal and state regulation barriers impeding this access (NIDA). The panel also emphasized the importance of providing substance abuse counseling, psychosocial therapies, and other supportive services to enhance retention and successful outcomes (NIDA).
Methadone blocks the effects of heroin for approximately 24 hours and has a proven successful when prescribed at a high dosage level. Other medications include naloxone, which is used to treat overdoses, and…
From Flowers to Heroin. The Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved July 07, 2006 at http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/heroin/flowers_to_heroin.htm
Gupta, B.S. (1997, January 01). Personality characteristics of persons addicted to heroin. The Journal of Psychology. Retrieved July 07, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
Heroin. Street Drugs. Retrieved July 07, 2006 at http://www.streetdrugs.org/heroin.htm
NIDA InfoFacts: Heroin. (2006 April). National Institute on Drug Abuse. Retrieved July 07, 2006 at http://www.nida.nih.gov/Infofacts/heroin.html
According to NIDA: A range of treatments exist for heroin addiction, including medications and behavioral therapies. Science has taught us that when medication treatment is combined with other supportive services, patients are often able to stop using heroin (or other opiates) and return to stable and productive lives. (NIDA, August 2009, p. 2) Drug treatment options are used often in combination with traditional cognitive behavioral and social behavioral therapies to reduce the craving for the drug and include: Methadone Buprenorphine, Naltrexone. (NIDA August 2009, pp. 2-4)
The drug can appear as a white or brown powder or in the form of a brown sticky substance known on the street as "black tar heroin." (NIDA August 2009, p. 1)
There are many long-term effects of heroin, not including the life interruption process of treatment and recovery that include; cognitive impairment (Ornstein et al. 2000, p. 113) life…
Brezina, C. (2009) Heroin: The deadly addiction. New York, NY: Rosen Publishing Group.
Fernandez, H. (1998) Heroin. Center City, MN: Hazeldon.
Moraes, F. (2000) the little book of heroin. Berkley, CA: Ronin Publishing.
National Institute on Drug Abuse. (August 2009) Heroin: Infofacts Retreived February 15, 2010 from: http://www.drugabuse.gov/PDF/Infofacts/Heroin09.pdf
The drug known as heroin is a form of morphine, derived from poppy seeds. It is very easy to become addicted to heroin because of the euphoric feeling that it creates in the person who uses the drug. Morphine and its derivative heroin is a downer, this is the slang term for a depressant. It "affects the brain's pleasure systems and interferes with the brain's ability to perceive pain" (Drug 2011). The first dosage gives the person a high that alleviates all worry and releases endorphins. After this, the user must increase the dosage of heroin each time in order to achieve that same feeling. Each usage needs more of the drug and the amount of heroin that is injected or taken orally increases exponentially (Fernandez 2011). This is why so many heroin addicts overdose accidentally. Overcoming heroin addiction is very difficult and requires the assistance of strong…
Bourgois, Philippe (2011). "Righteous Dopefiend." American Ethnography Quasimonthly.
"Drug Guide: Heroin." (2011). Partnership for a Drugfree America.
Fernandez, Humberto. (2011). Heroin: Its History, Pharmacology, and Treatment. Hazelden:
Medication for heroin addiction includes Methadone, LAAM, Naloxone, Naltrexone, and Buprenorphine. Of these, methadone is the most widely used. Methadone is a legal drug that can only be obtained with a doctor's prescription. It allows the heroin addict to function normally, but its disadvantage comes with its being addicting as well (Simpson, 1997). In a study by Blanken, Hendriks, Koeter, van ee, & van den Brink (2005), they found that patients who had previously participated in abstinence-orientated treatment responded significantly better to treatment with medically prescribed heroin plus methadone than to standard methadone maintenance treatment, while patients without experience in abstinence-orientated treatment did equally well in heroin-assisted or methadone maintenance treatment. Among the behavioral therapies for heroin addiction, two have emerged successful: Contingency Management Therapy, and Cognitive-Behavioral Interventions (Parker & Parker, 2002). The Contingency Management Therapy utilizes a voucher-based system in which the patient can earn points for each of…
Gwinnell, E. & Adamec, C.A. (2006). The encyclopedia of addictions and addictive behaviors. New York: NY Facts on File, Inc.
Humberto, F. (1998). Heroin. Minnesota: Hazelden Publishing.
Parker, J.N. & Parker, P.M. (2002). The 2002 official patient's sourcebook on heroin dependence. California: Icon Group International, Inc.
Simpson, C. (1997). Methadone: drug abuse prevention library. New York: Rosen Publishing Group.
Heroin Abuse and Addiction
A drug can be any substance, which can modify the functions of every living organism that consumes it. In medical terms, drugs provide instant but temporary relief from several unhealthy symptoms. Drugs such as Heroin produce many unwanted side effects. They are extremely toxic and can lead to a very unhealthy dependency that has behavioral and physiological roots, both. Heroin has lasting health consequences; it can also lead to death. The purpose of this essay is to provide a literature review of causes and consequences of heroin abuse and addiction. Our culture surrounds abuse of the heroin substance that leads to diseases and other problems indirectly.
A Literature review on Heroin Abuse and Addiction
Excessive use of painkillers and other relief providing substances lead to addiction. There is a fine line between substance abuse and substance addiction. Addiction can be any inherited disease and it makes…
Connolly, S. (2000). Heroin: Need to Know. London: Heinemann Library.
Connolly, S. (2000). Steroids: Just the Facts. London: Heinmann/Raintree.
Fernandez, H. (1998). Heroin. New York: Hazelden Publishing.
Hawkins, D. (2008, July 14). The effects of heroin use on an unborn child. Retrieved April 17, 2012, from http://www.helium.com/items/1113374-the-effects-of-heroin-use-on-an-unborn-child
heroin addiction that St. Germain has as well as her relationship with her brother. The poem gives a vivid description of the entire injection process. There is personification when giving a description of the veins where the piercing is to be done so as to get the heroin into her system. The veins are described as being al blue and throbbing just wanting to be pierced. The use of the personification of the veins intensely brings out the message of the urge that he had to get the heroin into his system. The grip which the brother had on the opposite arm is likened to a grip which is as tight as death. This communicates the message that when piercing is being done there should be a tight grip probably so that the process can take place smoothly and also showing the serious needs of the process that is going…
Bookrags, (2013).How to Analyze a poem. Retrieved April 9, 2013 from http://www.bookrags.com/articles/18.html
Exchange in a Heroin Marketplace
In this chapter, the case study basically put the emphasis on exchange so as to reason that illicit drug marketplaces which were being produced and then reproduced by means of a dynamic and complex relations and social processes. This case study does give the understanding that contrasts with dominant conceptions of drug (and other) marketplaces that view them as driven by the mechanism of supply and demand, that mainly pay no attention to their constituent social relations and that have a habit of reifying the 'market' as an object to be measured instead of a process to be understood. This case study for this chapter likewise tests dominant and stigmatizing buildings of heroin users and sellers as degraded, abject 'others', showing that, in their day-to-day lives, they take part in similar practices and struggle with a lot of the same challenges as regular people do.…
Dwyer, R., 2014. The Drug Effect Health, Crime and Society. In: s.l.:Cambridge University Press, pp. 1-17.
Manderson, D., 1995. Metamorphoses: Clashing Symbols in the Social Construction of Drugs. The Journal of Drug Issues, 25(4), pp. 799-816.
Martin, J., 2013. Lost on the Silk Road: Online drug distribution and the 'cryptomarket. Criminology and Criminal Justice, 9(7), pp. 1-17.
Moore, D., 1993. Beyond Zinberg's 'social setting': a processural view of illicit drug use. Drug and Alcohol Review, Volume 12, pp. 413-421.
Heroin History -- San Diego
Brief Introduction to the History of Heroin
The drug known today as "heroin" is actually an opioid that was first synthesized into heroin in 1874. In fact heroin was also synthesized by the Bayer aspirin company in 1897 and sold as a legal pain-killer for years prior to its regulation in the United States. "The initial response to the launch of heroin by the Bayer Company was overwhelmingly positive," according to an article published in the Sunday Times (1998). The chemist for Bayer was Heinrich Dreser, and he wrote about heroin in several medical journals, and additional studies "…endorsed the view that heroin could be effective in treating asthma, bronchitis, phthisis and tuberculosis" (Sunday Times, p. 2).
By the year 1899 Bayer was making about "…a ton of heroin a year," and the company exported its brand of heroin to 23 countries; but the citizens…
Jorquez, J.S. (1984). Heroin use in the barrio: solving the problem of relapse or keeping the tecato gusano asleep. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 10(1), 63-75.
National Drug Intelligence Center. (2000). Heroin. Retrieved June 19, 2013, from http://www.justice.gov.
Loue, Sana. (2002). Case Studies in Forensic Epidemiology. New York: Springer.
NIDA International Program. (2012). Question 2: What is the history of opioid addiction in the United States? Retrieved June 19, 2013, from http://international.drugabuse.gov .
Heroin is a powerful, highly addictive drug that is derived from opium. It was first synthesized from morphine in the 1890s and was initially considered to be an effective pain killer and cough suppressant. Its harmful effects were, however, soon recognized and heroin's manufacture and sale is now illegal in most countries because of its widespread abuse and habit forming qualities. The number of heroin addicts in the United States alone is around 2 million and despite the restrictions and crack-down on the manufacturing and use of the drug, illicit heroin trade still thrives in many parts of the world due to the continuing demand for the drug and very high profits involved in its trade. This paper focuses on the effects of heroin and discusses:
Physical effects of heroin: short- and long-term
Psychological effects of heroin: short- and long-term
Sociological effects of heroin: short- and long-term
Observable signs and…
Goode, Erich (1972). "A Sociological Perspective on Drugs and Drug Use." From: Drugs in American Society, Chapter 1. Retrieved on October 10, 2003 from http://www.psychedelic-library.org/goode.htm
'Heroin Effects." (2003). Narconon Southern California Website. Retrieved on October 10, 2003 from http://www.heroinaddiction2.com/heroin-effects.htm
'Heroin Overdose." (2003).Narconon Southern California Website Retrieved on October 10, 2003 from http://www.heroinaddictiondrugrehab.com/h-overdose.htm
'Heroin Addiction." (2003) Gulf Coast Recovery Website. Retrieved on October 10, 2003 http://www.heroin-addiction.us/index.htm
If they stay connected to their program, to aftercare, and to a structured twelve step program, they have a chance for successful recovery.
ecently, there have been calls for insurance companies to cooperate in the treatment goals for addicts (Starr, Sonja, 2002, p. 2321). If the insurance carriers cooperate, there is every reason to believe that greater progress can be made in the treatment of heroin addiction. It would allow the patient the opportunity to pursue the treatment modalities that would help the patient learn to transition from an addiction behavior pattern, to a behavior pattern that excludes the addiction behavior pattern. Pursuing sobriety often requires a complete restructure of the client's personal life, friends, and even intimate relationships.
Treatment for heroin is physically and mentally challenging, but many of the former addicts have shared their stories of post addiction successes that serve to inspire and encourage others to seek…
Jodi is a 22-year-old Hispanic female. She is a single mother but does not live with her daughter who enrolled in the foster care system. She completed her general educational development (GED) tests, but her Certified Nursing Assistant Training Program is still pending. Her past medical history indicates that she gave birth prematurely but has no known allergies.
Assessment of Data
Jodi became pregnant and gave birth to a daughter after a raped ordeal. She patient has a five-year addiction to treatment. She administers the drug five to six times a day through the intravenous route. She enrolled in both the outpatient and inpatient detoxification programs but did not finish. She was treated with Suboxone for one month before she abandoned the pharmacological therapy and has a history of marijuana and alcohol abuse. Moreover, Jodi has depression that has led to a suicide attempt. Despite being diagnosed with…
Connors, G. J., DiClemente, C. C., Velasquez, M. M., & Donovan, D. M. (2013). Substance abuse treatment and the stages of change: Selecting and planning interventions. Guilford Press.
Dart, R. C., Surratt, H. L., Cicero, T. J., Parrino, M. W., Severtson, S. G., Bucher-Bartelson, B., & Green, J. L. (2015). Trends in opioid analgesic abuse and mortality in the United States. New England Journal of Medicine, 372(3), 241-248.
Galanter, M., Kleber, H. D., & Brady, K. (Eds.). (2014). The American Psychiatric Publishing textbook of substance abuse treatment. American Psychiatric Pub.
Kaminer, Y. (2013). Adolescent substance abuse: A comprehensive guide to theory and practice. Springer Science & Business Media.
Longmore, M., Wilkinson, I., Baldwin, A., & Wallin, E. (2014). Oxford handbook of clinical medicine. Oxford University Press.
Lewis, J. A., Dana, R. Q., & Blevins, G. A. (2014). Substance abuse counseling. Cengage Learning.
Straussner, S. L. A. (Ed.). (2012). Ethnocultural factors in substance abuse treatment. Guilford Press.
Whiteford, H. A., Degenhardt, L., Rehm, J., Baxter, A. J., Ferrari, A. J., Erskine, H. E., ... & Burstein, R. (2013). Global burden of disease attributable to mental and substance use disorders: findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. The Lancet, 382(9904), 1575-1586.
Heroin Affect a Caucasian Family?
Cicero, T., Ellis, M., Surratt, H., Kurtz, S. (2014). The changing face of heroin use in the United States. JAMA Psychiatry, 71(7): 821-826. doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2014.366.
The study is from a scholarly, peer-reviewed, academic journal: it shows that heroin use has changed over the past 50 years in terms of demographic affected. While it use to be a problem that largely impacted inner-city minorities, now it is being used primarily by "white men and women in their late 20s living outside of large urban areas" (p. 821). The consequence of this shift is that more Caucasian families are impacted by heroin use than ever before. The study hypothecates that a reason for the shift in demographic is the cheapness and availability of the drug; however, there is some social acceptance, as one subject notes, "All of my friends use heroin and I know multiple people who will…
Heroin Impact on Caucasian Family?
A large number of Caucasian families are plagued with the issue of heroin use, mostly consumed via injections. This is a major public health issue. Viral hepatitis, HIV and other dangers associated with heroin dependence, as well as social harm resulting from accompanying poverty and crime, exceed those of almost all other drugs used. A majority of Caucasian households are indirectly as well as directly impacted by the aforementioned diseases.
Increased pureness and decreased drug costs are potential factors contributing to the trend of decreased age of first-time consumption and increased initiation into habitual consumption in the Caucasian population. As heroin dependence can be successfully cured, primary care providers need to check their patients for this problem.
This paper serves two purposes. Firstly, it attempts to study substance abuse's socio-economic effects on Caucasian people. Secondly, depending on this analysis, it attempts to provide recommendations on…
S. residents over the age of 12 who have used heroin "at least once in their lifetime." (National Drug Intelligence Center, 2009, p.1) Heroin use among high school students is stated to be of particular concern and specifically reported is that approximately two percent of high school seniors have used heroin at least one time and that of those who have used heroin while in high school, approximately fifty percent have injected the drug.
Heroin may be injected, smoked or snorted. Many believe that smoking the drug will not lead to addiction however this is simply untrue. It is reported that both new and experienced users are at risk of overdosing on heroin since the purity of the heroin is an unknown.
The following table lists the street names for Heroin.
Street names for Heroin
Dead on arrival
Heroin Fast Facts - Questions and Answers (2009) National Drug Intelligence Center. Online available at: http://www.justice.gov/ndic/pubs3/3843/index.htm
Hopsicker, Daniel (2010) the Ultimate Hedge? Venice Airport has 60-Year -- history of Drug Trafficdking. 8 March. 2010. Madcow Morning News. Onlien avaialbel at: http://www.madcowprod.com/03082010.htm
Tsai, Michelle (2007) Heroin? The Art and Scinece fo the DEA's Drug Valuations. Online available at: http://www.slate.com/id/2166980/
Presidential Decision Directive PDD 44 Heroin Drug Control Policy (1995) November online available at: http://www.fas.org/irp/offdocs/pdd44.htm
Ecstasy vs. Heroin overdoses -- treatment and diagnosis
For many EMTs, depending on the city and time they are stationed in, one of the most common problems they will have to cope with is dealing with a drug overdose. However, although all drug overdoses are dangerous, not all illegal drug overdoses are the same, symptomatically or in their treatment. A great deal of misinformation exists regarding drug overdoses and their treatment in popular culture -- even the popular film "Pulp Fiction" which depicts a 'successful' treatment of snorted heroin is in fact inaccurate -- ephedrine to the heart would not have saved a victim of a heroin overdose in real life. (Kuhn, 2003)
hen dealing with any suspected drug overdose, the first thing to determine is in fact the victim's symptoms are indeed due to the ingestion of a drug, rather than of alternate cause. This is especially…
Ecstasy Overdose." (2004) Drug Overdose.Com. Retrieved on June 17, 2004 at http://www.drug-overdose.com/heroin.htm
Heroin Overdose." (2004) Drug Overdose.Com Retrieved on June 17, 2004 at http://www.drug-overdose.com/ecstasy.htm
Kuhn, Cynthia, et al. (2003) Buzzed: The Straight Facts about the Most Used and Abused Drugs from Alcohol to Ecstasy. Second Edition. New York: W.W. Norton & Co.
lack Tar Heroin Dealer
I am sitting in my ex-roommate's living room. The television casts the only light in the room. It dances on the coffee table and upon our faces; a dull placid light from some meaningless rerun on Nick at Nite. Sharon gets up from the sofa, murmuring something about popcorn and her 'stupid' boyfriend, Tony. They've been together for 4 weeks now, that's why she's my ex-roommate, and in a nutshell: I don't like him. Not because he took my roommate away -she still pays for her room there- and not because he greases back his hair with half a jar of rylcreem everyday I don't like Tony because he's scum. He's the kind of scum you tend to pull up your coat to avoid their stares penetrating the back of your neck as you walk past them on the street. The kind of scum…
Cooper, M.H. "Competition in the Heroin Industry"
The Business of Drugs
Washington DC Congressional Quarterly, 1990
Black Tar Heroin
They are the ones who handle jobs that require expertise. Their job itself is difficult that not everybody can accept the responsibility. With this continuously growing number of addicts and/or substance-abused people, indeed, we need to have more and more credible substance abuse counselors to somehow alleviate this problem.
Block I, Ghoneim. MM 1993. Effects of chronic marijuana use on human cognition. Psychopharmacology 100(1-2):219-228,
Brook JS, Balka EB, Whiteman M. 1999.: The risks for late adolescence of early adolescent marijuana use. Am J. Public Health 89(10):1549-1554
Fisher. Gary, Harrison, T. 2004. Substance Abuse: Information for School Counselors, Social Workers, Therapists, and Counselors (3rd Edition). Allyn and Bacon.
Gruber, AJ, Pope HG, Hudson HI, Yurgelun-Todd D. 2003. Attributes of long-term heavy cannabis users: A case control study. Psychological Medicine 33:1415-1422.
Lehman WE, Simpson DD. 1992. Employee substance abuse and on-the-job behaviors. Journal of Applied Psychology 77(3):309-321.
Marijuana and Health. 2001.…
Block RI, Ghoneim. MM 1993. Effects of chronic marijuana use on human cognition. Psychopharmacology 100(1-2):219-228,
Brook JS, Balka EB, Whiteman M. 1999.: The risks for late adolescence of early adolescent marijuana use. Am J. Public Health 89(10):1549-1554
Fisher. Gary, Harrison, T. 2004. Substance Abuse: Information for School Counselors, Social Workers, Therapists, and Counselors (3rd Edition). Allyn and Bacon.
Gruber, AJ, Pope HG, Hudson HI, Yurgelun-Todd D. 2003. Attributes of long-term heavy cannabis users: A case control study. Psychological Medicine 33:1415-1422.
Drug addiction has been the scourge of our times. Heroin and cocaine especially are the leading cause of imprisonment in the civilized world. (Johnson, 1973) The anti-drug lobbies aver with statistics that show that marijuana users often fall prey to more potent narcotics -- especially those that are seeking that perennial "high."
This essay will present a comprehensive picture of the factors -- physical, pharmacological, societal and epidemiological -- that surround heroin in Australia. (Hirst, 1979)
Heroin (Hulburd, 1952). Pharmacologically, heroin belongs to a class of drugs called depressants. This is because heroin use slows down the brain and central nervous system.
Heroin usually comes in powder form. In its pure form, heroin is white. ut depending on how it is "cut" or diluted, it can have different colors. In some third world countries, users are familiar with "brown sugar" (severely cut heroin, occasionally even with rat poison). (Charles,…
Ashbrook, D.L., & Solley, L.C. (1979). Women and heroin abuse: a survey of sexism in drug abuse administration. Palo Alto, Calif.: R & E. Research Associates.
Bucknall, A.B.V., & Robertson, J.R. (1986). Deaths of heroin users in a general practice. Journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners, 36, 120-122.
Burgess, M. (1998). Smack (1st American ed.). New York: Holt.
Charles, M., Nair, K.S., Britto, G., & National Addiction Research Centre (Bombay India). (1999). Drug culture in India: a street ethnographic study of heroin addiction in Bombay. Jaipur: Rawat Publications.
Public Hearing -- Heroin Epidemic
The hearing attended for this paper was on Tuesday, August 26, from 9:30 A.M. To twelve noon. It was held at the Penn State Schuylkill, which is a campus that is part of Pennsylvania State University in Schuylkill Haven, Pennsylvania. Schuylkill Haven is located in Schuylkill County in Pennsylvania.
The purpose of the hearing was to present a formal, public discussion on a serious and growing drug problem in the county. Specifically, the hearing was focused on the serious problem in the community of heroin and opioid addiction, and what can be done about it. Also the hearing was held to discuss not just the problems of addiction -- and evidence to support that issue -- but also to bring to the audience's attention preventative measures that can be taken, or are being taken, whether adequate or not in the present context.
This was an…
Pennsylvania House. (2014). Heroin: What you need to know about Pennsylvania's Good
Samaritan Law. Retrieved April 7, 2015, from http://www.pahouse.com .
Quinn, R. (2015). Wolf: Pennsylvania state troopers to carry Narcan. Montgomery News.
Retrieved April 7, 2015, from http://www.montgomerynews.com .
Female Substance Abusers and Addicts
Heroin is a highly addictive substance which is characterized by a rush of biophysiological symptoms such as a rush or feeling of euphoria, heaviness in one's extremities and a certain element of dry mouth (rehab-international.org). When it comes to heroin and gender, either gender can become addicted to it in a brief amount of time: "Addiction to heroin is characterized by the compulsion to use heroin despite an onset of negative consequences and despite the user's best attempts at stopping via willpower alone" (rehab-international.org). For women, one of the more common traits of heroin abuse is rather detrimental: the acquired tolerance means that greater doses of heroin have to be taken in order to get the original effects of the drug. When women are under the influence of the drug, they may engage in unsafe sexual activity, actions which can lead to STDs, unintended pregnancies…
Anderson, T. (2000). Drug Use and Gender . udel.edu, 286-292.
Beckerleg, S.'Women heroin users: Exploring the limitations of the structural violence approach,'
International Journal of Drug Policy, vol:16 2005, p183 -190
Cicero, T., Ellis, M., & Surratt, H. (2014). The Changing Face of Heroin Use in the United States. JAMA Psychiatry, 821-826.
The bulk of the Cuban community in exile in Miami focuses on its white contingency. Afro-Cubans have a second-class status there, and their patterns of migration have been much different than they have for white Cuban refugees and immigrants. As Newby & Dowling (2007) note, recent Afro-Cuban immigrants have settled in various other places in the United States including the Southwest, where there are already entrenched Chicano communities and African-American communities. Afro-Cubans do not fit into the Chicano communities, the communities with other white Latinos, or the African-American communities. Language presents one of the most significant cultural barriers and identity markers distinguishing the AfroCubans from the African-Americans. Although they share some common ethnic heritage and ancestral experiences of racism, slavery, and political oppression, centuries have passed since their cultures demonstrated divergent trajectories. With regards to white Latinos in the Southwest such as Austin and Albuquerque, race raises serious…
"Effects of Heroin Use." (n.d.). Retrieved online: http://www.heroinabuse.us/effects.html
National Institutes of Health's National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA 2010). InfoFacts: Heroin. Retrieved online: http://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/infofacts/heroin
health related risks in association with addiction, the two greatest risks for Heroin Injectors is the risk of acquiring HIV or any number of the deadly and permanent Hepatitis viruses. The risks associated with addiction, poor nutrition, dehydration, reduced kidney and liver function as well as a few others increases the risk of an individual acquiring, nearly any communicable disease, yet those who are injecting Heroin also repeatedly directly open their circulatory system to massive deadly diseases like HIV and Hepatitis. ("The Menace of Heroin," 1999, p. 2)
In many places needle sharing has been decreased with awareness and availability campaigns yet it is clear that the sharing of needles still occurs, as the reduced mental functioning of the user, at the height of addictive need and in the throws of the high have a reduced sense of judgment, just as can be said about any mind altering drug. Yet.…
Brown, B.S. & Beschner, G.M. (Eds.). (1993). Handbook on Risk of AIDS: Injection Drug Users and Sexual Partners. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
The Menace of Heroin in the U.S. . (1999, September 5). The Washington Times, p. 2. Retrieved October 25, 2004, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com .
Riley, E.D., Wu, A.W., Junge, B., Marx, M., Strathdee, S.A., & Vlahov, D. (2002).
Health Services Utilization by Injection Drug Users Participating in a Needle
The author mentioned that rather than only tying the drug consumption with unemployment, urban drug culture, and other factors, one needs to view the drug pervasiveness issues in light of distribution channels as well. The author mentioned that South East Asia's Golden Triangle was the hub of opium trade to the world. Thai-Burma border was used by the Yunnan province drug lords to change opium into marijuana and heroin. The long trail from Golden Triangle to New York was managed by Yunnan merchants and they exported the illicit drugs to Thai -- Burma border. After refinement into heroin, the drugs were then carried by the Chiu Chau Chinese drug traders. They transported these drugs to Bangkok, South Asia, America and Europe. ith loose organizational structures, these Chinese networks of drug trade were closely knit clans and fiercely ruthless in their trade practices as were the gangs of Versailles.
Chabat, Jorge. "Mexico's war on drugs: No margin for maneuver." The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 582.1 (2002): 134-148.
Grayson, George W. Mexico: Narco-violence and a failed state? Transaction Books, 2011.
drug use and abuse in the United States and presents differing approaches that are used (or proposed) to get a handle on the problem. There is no doubt that the drug abuse issue is not new and it is not being reduced by any significant amount. This paper presents statistics and scholarly research articles that delve into various aspects of the drug abuse issue in the United States, with particular emphasis on drugs that are abused in eastern Kentucky and generally in the Appalachian communities.
History of Drug Use & Availability
The history of illegal drug use in the United States goes back to the 19th Century, according to the U.S. Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA). The DEA has a Museum in Arlington, Virginia, that illustrates the history of drug discoveries, drug use, and drug abuse through the years. The DEA reports that morphine, heroin, and cocaine were "discovered" in the…
Bureau of Justice Statistics. (2008). Drugs and Crime Facts / Drug Use / Youth. Retrieved November 30, 2012, from http://bjs.ojp.usdog.gov.
Drug Enforcement Agency. (2012). Illegal Drugs in America: A Modern History. Retrieved November 30, 2012, from http://www.deamuseum.org .
Grant, Judith. (2007). Rural women's stories of recovery from addition. Addiction Research and Theory, 15(5), 521-541.
Havens, Jennifer R., Oser, Carrie B., and Leukefeld, Carl G. (2011). Injection risk behaviors
Furthermore, when his little brother starts playing the piano and gradually produces better music the narrator and all of the people in the club are captivated, making it obvious that Sonny believed that his passion could surpass heroin in putting his suffering behind.
The devastating news that the narrator's uncle was murdered has a somewhat beneficial effect on the narrator, given that he takes on the role of caring for himself and the rest of the family. Suffering and the diverse methods through which it can be subdued is the main theme of the short story. The suffering produced by the fact that society rejects him influences Sonny's passion for playing the piano. The drug bust makes the narrator aware that he does not know Sonny and that his brother is completely alone, inducing a feeling of remorse. Later on, with the narrator's daughter, Gracie, dying because of polio, the…
Baldwin, James. (1965). Going to Meet the Man -- "Sonny's Blues." Dial Press.
Please see "Stake Holder: The Taliban" for more information regarding virtue ethics.
The farmers who are growing poppy plants have a logical stake in this moral dilemma as well. If their crops are destroyed they will have no alternative but to join the Taliban to help settle their debts. They are in a precarious position where they are often forced to grow poppies because they are a very lucrative and traditional cash crop. Their history and culture will be severely affected if their livelihood is destroyed as well. If they functioned as utilitarians, the farmers would look for another alternative to growing poppies or perhaps request a government subsidy since their poppy production kills millions worldwide who abuse their drugs. The farmers likely do not have access to this information however, which makes their position even harder to justify.
The Afghan People
Utilitarianism- Principle. See "Stakeholder: The United States…
Medical Marijuana Legislation and Civil Liberties
When the historic passage of legislation permitting medical marijuana use in states like Arizona (2010), Delaware (2011) and Massachusetts (2012) is considered in conjunction with the fact that 13 other states have similar legislation or ballot measures pending, the traditional conception of marijuana ingestion as a criminal act is being reexamined on a societal level. Further bolstering this assertion is the legal situation in California, Colorado and Washington, where marijuana has been decriminalized entirely and permitted for recreational sale by licensed dispensaries, providing the platform for a restoration of basic rights in these jurisdictions. With approximately half of the states in the union already affording citizens with medical needs the liberty to seek relief in the form of marijuana, while the federal government's ostensible ban on the substance remains in effect, the stage has been set for a national debate over the merits of…
Mill, J.S., Smith, J.M., & Sosa, E. (1969). Mill's Utilitarianism: Text and criticism. Belmont, Calif: Wadsworth Pub. Co.
It suggests to current users that the government has accepted illegal drug use as part of society, rather than something to be opposed and eradicated. While in theory, harm reduction strategy may seem like a good idea, putting it into practice has proven difficult. Take the case of 'Needle Park' in Switzerland: "In the 1990s, Zurich experimented with what became known as Needle Park where addicts could openly purchase drugs and inject heroin without police intervention. Zurich became the mecca for drug addicts across Europe, who would travel to Needle Park. In 1992, when authorities decided to close Needle Park, the addicts moved to Letten railroad station until its closure in 1995" (Zurich, 2010, USDA). Innocent residents near the Park were plagued with the constant presence of drug addicts, and experienced a loss of quality of life as a result.
Harm reduction strategies are seldom pursued in a unified fashion,…
Priya, Kumar Ravi, Siddharth Singh, Jimmy Dorabjee, Suneet Varma, & Luke Samson. (2005).
How effective are harm reduction programs for drug users? Some insights from an evaluation of the program at Sharan in Delhi. Journal of Health Management. 7 (2):
Reducing harm: Treatment and beyond. (2010). Drug Policy Alliance Network (DPA).
Mapp V. Ohio
Over the centuries, there has been considerable debate as to the application of the Bill of ights when it comes to the states. This is because a series of court cases decided it was only relevant when it came to the federal government (i.e. Barron v. Baltimore and United States v. Cruickshank). However, with the passage of the Fourteenth Amendment, these states were obligated to follow them. This has shifted the debate as to if this aspect of the Constitution is relevant to state and local officials. To determine if this is correct requires examining a fictional case in contrast with Mapp V. Ohio. This will be accomplished by carefully studying the facts of the case, the Fruit of the Poisonous Tree Doctrine (under Mapp V. Ohio), the application of the rule of law and discussing how this would affect the ruling from the fictitious scenario. Together,…
Barron V. Baltimore. (2007). Constitution.org. Retrieved from: http://constitution.org/ussc/032-243a.htm
The Fourth Amendment and the Exclusionary Rule. (2012). Find Law. Retrieved from: http://criminal.findlaw.com/criminal-rights/the-fourth-amendment-and-the-exclusionary-rule.html
Mapp V. Ohio. (2010). Cornell School of Law. Retrieved from: http://www.law.cornell.edu/supct/html/historics/USSC_CR_0367_0643_ZO.html
US V. Cruickshank. (2010). Find Law. Retrieved from: http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/scripts/getcase.pl?court=us&vol=92&invol=542
Brand Names: Will 'iPad' Become Generic Word for Tablet?" was published by the U.S.A. Today, with the central premise concerning a relatively unknown yet ubiquitous phenomenon known as genericide. According to the article, which was compiled by the Associated Press (AP), Apple Inc. And its proprietary iPad tablet computing device is poised to alter the English lexicon through its supremacy within a particular market segment. Like the Band-Aid and Kleenex before it, the iPad has become so synonymous with a niche product that consumers invariably refer to competitor's offerings by the same name, and Apple Inc.'s executive management structure must now wade through the quagmire of intellectual property rights and trademark protection law to determine the course of action that preserves the company's duly earned domination of the market. The article presents the iPad's emergence as the standard bearer for tablet computing devices as a mixed bag of sorts for…
Associated Press. (2012, April 08). Brand names: Will 'iPad' become generic word for tablet?. USA Today. Retrieved from http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/money/companies/story/2012-04-07/apple-iPad-generic- name/54110024/1
Coverdale, J.F. (1984). Trademarks and Generic Words: An Effect-on-Competition Test. The University of Chicago Law Review, (51), 868-891. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/1599488?uid=3739552&uid=2&uid=4&uid=3739 256&sid=21101868846423
McKenna, M. (2007). The normative foundations of trademark law. Notre Dame Law Review, 82(5), 1839. Retrieved from http://www.inta.org/Academics/Documents/finalndlawreview.pdf
, and otjak, C. (2006). Cannabinoid CB1 Receptor Mediates Fear Extinction via Habituation-Like Processes. The Journal of Neuroscience 26(25): 6677-6686.
Kim, S., on, S., Mao, X., Ledent, C., Jin, K. And Greenberg, D. (2006). Role for Neuronal Nitric-Oxide Synthase in Cannabinoid-Induced Neurogenesis. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther., October 1, 2006; 319(1): 150-154
Kogan, N., Blazquez, C., Alvarex, L., Gallily, R., Schlesinger, M., Guzman, A., and Mechoulam, R. (2006). A Cannabinoid Quinone Inhibits Angiogenesis by Targeting Vascular Endothelial Cells. Mol Pharmacol 70:51-59.
Lundqvist, T. (2005). Cognitive Consequences of Cannabis Use: Comparison with use of Stimulants and heroin with regard to attention, memory and executive functions. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior. 81: 319-330.
Maccarrone, M., Lorenzon, T., Bari, M., Melino, G., and Finazzi-Agro, A. (2000). Anandamide Induces Apoptosis in Human Cells via Vanilloid Receptors
Evidence For A Protective Role Of Cannabinoid Receptors. J. Biol. Chem., 275 (41): 31938-31945.
Massi, P., Vaccani, A., Ceruti, S.,…
Bolla, K., Brown, K., Eldreth, D., Tate, B., and Cadet, J. (2002). Dose-related neurocognitive effects of marijuana use. Neurology 59:1337-1343.
Farthing, G. (1992) The Psychology of Consciousness. Prentice Hall
Gazzaniga, M., Ivry R., and Mangun, G. (1998) Cognitive Neuroscience: The Biology of the Mind W.W. Norton & Company.
Grant, I., Gonzalez, R., Carey, C., Natatajan, L., and Wolfson, T. (2003). Non-acute (residual) neurocognitive effects of cannabis use: A meta-analytic study.
This writer would like to know if Ms. Barr ever felt the need to cut down on drinking or to stop and couldn't. This writer would like to know if Ms. Barr takes any other drugs or medication in order to sleep or make her feel better and if so how much, and how often.
Mental Health Symptoms:
Mental Status: This writer would like to ask Ms. Barr if she ever thought of harming herself or someone else. If yes, did she have a plan and when was the last time she thought about harming herself or someone else? This writer would like to know if she has ever harmed anyone intentionally. If yes, does she have a plan and when was the last time she harmed someone else. This writer would observe if Ms. Barr's physical characteristics such as clothing, hair color, eye color, mannerisims, interaction with her and…
Psychoactive Substance Use and Abuse
A psychoactive substance refers to any chemical which both impacts the central nervous system and the way the brain functions. Psychoactive substances refer to stimulants (cocaine, methamphetamine, dextroamphetamine), sedatives and analgesics (alcohol, heroin), hallucinogens (PCP, psychoactive mushrooms). As stated in the DSM-III "psychoactive substance abuse is given the definition of being "a maladaptive pattern of use indicated by continued use despite knowledge of having a persistent or recurrent social, occupational, psychological or physical problem that is caused by the use [or by] recurrent use in situations in which it is physically hazardous" (Nordegren, 2002, p.11).
The social impact of psychoactive substance use and abuse on widespread scale is enormously detrimental to society. "In a 2005 report issued by the Department of Health and Human Services indicated that alcohol was associated with 100,000 preventable deaths each year and that it cost taxpayers nearly $185…
Aspen. (2011). The Impact of Trauma On Teenage Addiction. Retrieved from Crchealth.com: http://aspeneducation.crchealth.com/articles/article-trauma/
Becvar, D. (2013). Handbook of Family Resilience. New York: Springer Science Publishing.
Dennison, S. (2011). Handbook of the Dually Diagnosed Patient: Psychiatric and Substance Use. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins.
Dick, D., & Agrawai, A. (2008). The Genetics of Alcohol and Other Drug Dependence. Alcohol Research and Health, 111-118.
Family, Mass Media and Education as Socialization Factors
A growing body of evidence confirms that agents of socialization play crucial roles in the social development of an individual. Certain agents are identified as being more influential than others, with these agents being responsible for causing the most influence in our lives and playing a major role in the altering of our self-images over the course of our lives. Some of these agents include family (especially parents), schools and peers, work environment, gender and the mass media, among others. The development of a social life and the social relationships of an individual are inextricably related to the influence from these respective agents and how they are manifest in people's day-to-day lives (Henslin, 2013). There are several agents of socialization that have most significantly affected my life, including most especially family, mass media and education. These socialization agents were selected based on…
Henslin, J. (2013). Sociology: A down-to-earth approach. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.
Mexico faces an array of drug-related problems ranging from production and transshipment of illicit drugs to corruption, violence, and increased internal drug abuse. Powerful and well-organized Mexican organizations control drug production and trafficking in and through Mexico, as well as the laundering of drug proceeds. These organizations also have made a concerted effort to corrupt and intimidate Mexican law enforcement and public officials. In addition, the geographic proximity of Mexico to the United States and the voluminous cross-border traffic between the countries provide ample opportunities for drug smugglers to deliver their illicit products to U.S. markets. The purpose of this study was to develop informed and timely answers to the following research questions: (a) How serious is the trade in illicit drugs between Mexico and the United States today and what have been recent trends? (b) How does drug trafficking fund terrorist organizations in general and trade between Mexico and…
Delaware fact sheet. (2014). Friends of Narconon, International. Retrieved from http://www.friendsof narconon.org/drug_distribution_in_the_united_states/delaware_drug_facts/delaware_fact
Drug threats in Wilmington. (2014). Drug Enforcement Edu.org. Retrieved from http://www.
Patty's introduction to prostitution certainly reinforces this notion: it became a part of her life as a result of her social situation and a perceived necessity. Still, more fervent moral positions against prostitution, in the Untied States, often come from Christianity. Obviously, it violates the general principles of Christianity to pay for sexual intercourse; however, it is also a violation of Christian principles to engage in premarital sex, extramarital sex, homosexual sex, or even masturbation. Notably, none of these actions are illegal in the United States -- or at least the antiquated laws pertaining to them are not enforced -- and of them, only homosexuality is ever regularly regarded as a form of social deviance; though this too is a matter of debate. Ultimately, viewing prostitution as a moral crime from the standpoint of Christianity fails miserably, because doing so would require accepting that law should be solely determined by…
Brown, Stephen E. et al. (1991). Criminology: Explaining Crime and its Context. Cincinnati: Anderson Publishing.
Dash, Leon. (1996). Rosa Lee: a Mother and Her Family in Urban America. New York: Basic.
Pagliaro, Ann Marie and Louis A. Pagliaro. (2000). Substance Use among Women. Lillington: Brunner/Mazel.
Schlaadt, Richard G. (1992). Wellness: Drugs, Society, & Behavior. Guilford: Dushkin.
Drug Abuse in Long Island, New York
With more than seven and a half million residents, Long Island, New York is a major center of commerce and education, but like many other densely populated large urban centers, this city also has a significant drug abuse problem. To determine the facts about the problem, this paper reviews the relevant literature to provide epidemiological evidence concerning the incidence of drug abuse in Long Island, and what community-based resources are available to its resident. Finally, a review of a recent research study article concerning these issues is followed by a summary of the research and important findings concerning drug abuse in Long Island in the conclusion.
eview and Analysis
Epidemiological evidence concerning drug abuse in Long Island
Like many other major American urban centers, all types of drugs are abuse in Long Island, but heroin abuse in particular has become a serious problem…
About Long Island Addiction Resources. (2017). Long Island Addiction Resources. Retrieved from http://liaddictionresources.com/.
About Long Island Center for Recovery. (2017). Long Island Center for Recovery. Retrieved from http://www.longislandcenterrecovery.com/ .
About Outreach House. (2017). Outreach House. Retrieved from http://www.opiny.org/ outreach-treatment/adolescent-residential-svcs/brentwood-long-island.
About Seafield Center Alcohol and Substance Abuse Treatment. (2017). Seafield Center Alcohol and Substance Abuse Treatment. Retrieved from http://www.seafieldcenter.com/ about_us.
Sociology and Req. For a Dream
ARequiem for a [email protected] takes sociological deviation to the extreme. Deviation is defined as behaviors which do not conform to significant norms held by most members of a society or group. This movie uses drugs as the deviation and shows how it destroys the four main character's lives. Harry and his girlfriend start out as ambitious young adults with dreams of starting their own clothing store. Tyrone just wants happiness with his girlfriend. Lastly Sara Goldfarb, Harry's mom wants to be on television. The three friends end alone, with nothing but their addiction to heroin and Sara is committed to an asylum because of the effects of the speed she uses to lose weight in order to be on TV. There are many specific sociological principles that apply to things that happen within deviant subcultures. This movie illustrates a good many of them in…
economic impact of drug use in the United States might initially seem easy to measure. A legal trial is an expensive proceeding: police officers, prosecutors or public defenders, judges, stenographers, and bailiffs are employees of the state, and even if jurors are barely remunerated, defense attorneys are lavishly remunerated. To prosecute someone for dealing marijuana is an expensive undertaking, and to do so under a "three strikes" law, where the crime is suddenly elevated to a horrific felony with extreme penalties, is even more expensive. The greater expense comes with convictions: America has the largest imprisoned population in the world, with more people behind bars in this country than comprise the entire populations of other sovereign nations. Imprisonment is not a cheap proposition. We can then consider the further economic impact, legally and morally speaking, of drug use in the current extensive misuse of civil forfeiture laws. Ostensibly designed to…
Drug addiction is not merely a failure of will or weakness in character, however having this 'brain disease' does not absolve the addict of responsibility for his or her behavior, but it does explain why an addict feels compelled to continue using drugs (Leshner 2001). Environmental cues that surround an individual's initial drug use and development of the addiction, actually become "conditioned" to the drug use and thus are critical to the problem of addiction (Leshner 2001).
Therefore, when those cues are present at a later time, "they elicit anticipation of a drug experience and thus generate tremendous drug craving" (Leshner 2001). This type of cue-induces craving is one of the most frequent causes of drug use relapses, independently of whether drugs are available and even after years of abstinence (Leshner 2001).
In March 2006, it was reported that researchers from Liverpool, England discovered a gene that directly affects the…
Changeux, Jean-Pierre. (1998 March 22). Drug use and abuse. Daedalus. Retrieved November 06, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
Eaves, Lindon J. (2005 July 01). Familial influences on alcohol use in adolescent female twins: testing for genetic and environmental interactions. Journal of Studies on Alcohol. Retrieved November 06, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
Goldman, Erik. (2005 July 01). Genetic tests could improve future drug abuse treatment. Family Practice News. Retrieved November 06, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
Heroin Addiction Cuts Across All Social Boundaries, Caron Foundation Study Reports.
American Academy Pediatrics publication a critique a media portrayal substance, links made AAP statement material. The password EBook: apusstudent I uploaded rest material.
American Academy of Pediatrics' Policy Statement concerning media portrayal of substance abuse touches upon several important issues that arise along with the media products' influence on America's young population at large. The article's targeted list of open-access channels associated with messages of noxious substance use include advertisements, television shows, motion pictures, social websites and music. Attention is directed specifically towards the findings of broadly conducted research in the matter of harm inflicted on children and adolescents as a result of the entertainment industry's depictions of legal and illegal substances, such as alcohol, tobacco, marijuana and heroin. Based on these findings, Pediatrics proposes a set of familial, institutional and legislative measures designed to minimize or abolish the destructive influence that media effects on a child's and teenager's development…
American Academy of Pediatrics. (2010, October). Policy Statement -- Children, Adolescents, Substance Abuse and the Media. Pediatrics, Vol. 126, No. 4, pp. 791-799.
Levinthal, C.F. (2012). Drugs, Behavior, and Modern Society, Seventh Edition. New York: Allyn & Bacon.
Macdonald, A. (Producer), & Boyle, D. (Director). (1996). Trainspotting [Motion picture]. United Kingdom: Channel Four Films.
Roberts, D.F. et al. (1999). Substance Use in Popular Movies and Music. Office of National Drug Control Policy, Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (U.S.). Retrieved from www.ncjrs.gov
The current opium irradiation program in Afghanistan is failing to address the long-term challenges impacting the country (i.e. poverty, a lack of economic opportunities and corruption). This is resulting in the Taliban and organized crime utilizing it as an avenue to create greater amounts of instability. In the ten years, seizures of opium and heroin have declined by 57 and 77% respectively. This is problematic, as it is making it difficult for the country to move forward beyond the decades of civil war. (Ackerman, 2014)
To address these issues, a new approach must be used that are showing the way forward. This will be accomplished by providing policy recommendations and suggesting a future course of action which can reverse key trends. Together, these insights will enhance stability and decrease the influence of the Taliban / organized crime elements.
The opium trade and poverty are directly related…
Drug War? American Troops are Protecting Afghan Opium. (2014) Global Research. Retrieved from: http://www.globalresearch.ca/drug-war-american-troops-are-protecting-afghan - opium-u-s-occupation-leads-to-all-time-high-heroin-production/5358053
The Most Addictive Drugs. (2014). Rehabs. Retrieved from: http://luxury.rehabs.com/drug-addiction/most-addictive/
National Drug Policy. (2001). Canadian Parliament. Retrieved from: http://www.parl.gc.ca/content/sen/committee/371/ille/library/dolin1-e.htm#3 .
Ackerman, S. (2014). Afghan Opium Production Explodes. The Guardian. Retrieved from: http://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/apr/30/afghan-opium-production-explodes - billions-spent-us-report
The Scanning Analysis esponse Assessment (SAA) Model of problem-oriented policing is an effective guide that essentially takes the form of "action research" in the sense that police participate in the problem-identifying/problem-solving method of investigation and testing (Center for Problem-Oriented Policing, 2016). SAA can therefore be applied in a realistic setting with positive impact, thus meeting the need for police officers to take a structured approach to problem solving and delivering solutions.
This paper discusses the components of the SAA model, how the Crime Triangle works (according to outine Activities Theory), and how to focus on an outcome-based approach.
Crime is still a problem in the streets, even if crime rates are falling (Levitt, 2004). In many communities across the country heroin usage has exploded in recent years. One way to crack down on illegal drug use and drug trading is to employ the SAA model.
The SAA model…
Grafton, L. (2008). Law enforcement expert discusses differences between criminal and racial profiling. Shreveport Times. Retrieved from http://archive.shreveporttimes.com/article/99999999/NEWS01/801200303/Law-enforcement-expert-discusses-differences-between-criminal-racial-profiling
Irwin, A. (2008). Risk, Science and Public Communication. Handbook of Public
Communication of Science and Technology. NY: Routledge.
Levitt, S. (2004) Understanding Why Crime Fell in the 1990s. Journal of Economic
Psychology: Alcohol & Drug Abuse
The over-all focus of this paper is to show how alcohol, drug addictions and abuse is fundamentally a disease of the brain. It will focus on various psychological aspects of addiction, such as some theories as to why people get addicted to drugs or alcohol in the first place, and some theories for treatments of those addictions; some psychological processes of how certain drugs work; how those drugs shape addiction through their processes; and finally analyzing the understanding of addiction within the brain.
Some major theories for why people begin to use substance such as drugs (legal or not), and alcohol are the reward and reinforcement theory, recreational use, and the stress-reduction theory. Some theories for treatments include using combinations of cognitive/social support rehabilitation, or using some form of rehabilitation with medications as well. The types of drugs and their effects that will be discussed…
Anton, R. "Substance abuse is a disease of the human brain: focus on alcohol." Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics Winter 2010: 735+. Gale Student Resources In Context. Web. 21 Apr. 2011.
Feldman, R.S. (2009). Understanding psychology (9th ed.). Boston, MA: Mcgraw-Hill.
Drummond, D. (2001). Theories of drug craving, ancient and modern. Addiction, 96(1), 33-46. doi:10.1080/09652140020016941
Oltmanns, T.F., Emery, R.E. (2010). Abnormal psychology (6th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
flow of drugs into the United States, where the drugs are coming from, in what forms they come in and the general attitudes that are taken against the practice by both the United States law enforcement agencies in particular and the United Nations drug control treaties. The author of this report will answer all of those questions in detail and provide the proper sourcing and citations for the same. While some modest successes are made when it comes to the "war on drugs," the United States law enforcement collective is losing the battle and there is a difference of strategy when it comes to a comparison between the United Nations and the United States.
The first question is fairly specific and brief. For each of the five major illicit drugs that are available and that are used in the United States, there will be a summary of what each one…
DEA. (2011). Drugs of Abuse - 2011 Edition (pp. 1-79). Washington DC: Drug
Ferner, M. (2015). Colorado Introduces Major Shift In Its Marijuana Program. The Huffington Post. Retrieved 23 August 2015, from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2014/07/01/colorado-marijuana_n_5548620.html
Murphy, G. (2015). Have We Lost the War on Drugs?. WSJ. Retrieved 23 August 2015,
The drug seemed to have a different, less harmful effect that heroin and thus the Carter administration assumed that it was not as addicting as heroin.
One of their solutions to curb the use of cocaine was to limit its entry into the country while driving up the price. It was a matter of basic supply and demand. The administration needed to work with the officials of the countries where the supply came from to (for lack of a better term) strike a deal to restrict the amount of the drug that was being let into America. If the supply of the drug was limited, then naturally the price would sky rocket. Since the price of the drug was so high, it stands to reason that the use of it would be severely limited because only the wealthy people could afford it. The problem with this is that many countries…
Hemmens, C., & Walsh, A. (2010). Civil and Administrative Law. Law, Justice, and Society: A Sociolegal Introduction (2 ed., pp. 107-155). New York: Oxford University Press, USA.
Musto, D.F. (2002). The Ford Administration and the end of Accommodation. The Quest for Drug Control: Politics and Federal Policy in a Period of Increasing Substance Abuse, 1963-1981 (pp. 140-184). unknown: Unknown.
In this stanza, mainline and dragon are used as metaphors for his drug of preference, although these drugs can be seen as metaphors for the other addictive substances and behaviors that people can become dependent on regardless of if these substances are legal or illegal. The last two lines of this stanza insinuate that Nikki has come to an impasse and does not know what to next with his life, which is possibly why he turned to drugs. The last two lines state, "No regrets, you've got no goals/Nothing more to learn" (Queensryche). These concluding lines indicate that Nikki is waiting for some sort of direction, regardless of whether it is good or bad, simply to not be a slave to the drug.
The third stanza offers Nikki a solution for his dilemma and proposes that the doctor will give his life purpose, which ironically, is the price Nikki will…
Titus, Christa. "Queensryche Ink New Record Deal, Next Album Due June 11." Billboard Biz.
4 March 2013. Web. 18 March 2013.
Queensryche. "Operation: Mindcrime." Operation: Mindcrime. EMI America, 1988.
"Queensryche." Official Band Page. Web. 18 March 2013.
osa Lee Cunningham. Elements such as the subject's health history, legal history, psychosocial history, and diagnostic impressions will be covered.
osa Lee Cunningham
DOB/Age: October 7, 1936
Date of Interview: October 7, 1994
eason for Assessment: osa Lee Cunningham was discovered having a fit at Washington's Howard University Hospital, owing to over-consumption of heroin. In spite of being enrolled in an intervention for drug treatment, there did not appear to be any inclination in osa to quit drugs. In fact, she wished she could access methadone, a synthetic drug with heroin-like effects. Some days prior to being interviewed, osa awoke to find herself with fever; her condition had exacerbated. By noon, she was admitted to the emergency room (Dash, 1996 Prologue). osa states that her drug consumption levels hinge on the amount of money in her pocket and heroin accessibility. The subject also had Preludin-use history, a drug she…
Chapman, D., & Perry, G. (2008). Depression as a Major Component of Public Health for Older Adults. Preventing Chronic Disease, 5(1).Retrieved, from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2248771/
Dash, L. (1996). Rosa Lee: A Mother and Her Family in Urban America. New York: Basic Books. Retrieved from https://play.google.com/books/reader?printsec=frontcover&output=reader&id=cc8_CQAAQBAJ&pg=GBS.PA34.w.1.0.349
(n.d.). Drug Addiction Help. Family Therapy. Retrieved October 3, 2015, from http://www.addictions.com/family-therapy/
(n.d.). Drug and Alcohol Detox -- Body Cleansing -- Best Detox Diet Programs .Drug Detox Rehab Programs -- Drug Detoxification Centers .Retrieved October 3, 2015, from http://www.detox.net/articles/drug-detox-rehab-programs/
Davids purports that the MNF would operate under U.N. jurisdiction, with the Organization of American States as its head. (Saskiewicz, 2006) in his review of Davids' book, Saskiewicz (2006) notes that Davids " does not address the difficulties associated with sharing intelligence with foreign nations, nor does he prescribe a means by which this could be accomplished." In turn, he leaves the impression, based on interpersonal relationships and camaraderie, allied MNF members would merely cooperate and share intelligence. This potential "dream," Saskiewicz (2006) proposes would cause nightmares for personnel assigned to any special-security office.
In addition, Davids' assertion the MNF would ultimately fight narco-trafficking organizations, along with political considerations, coupled with logistical and manpower constraints, would most likely dissuade the majority of Latin American militaries from contributing forces to the MNF. MNF financing would also likely serve as an astronomical block to Davids' and/or similar proposed wars against narco terrorism.…
Chouvy, Pierre-arnaud. "Narco-Terrorism in Afghanistan." Terrorism Monitor, Volume 2, Issue 6 (March 25, 2004). Retrieved June 30, 2008, at http://www.jamestown.org/terrorism/news/article.php?articleid=23648 .
Hutchinson, Asa. Narco-Terror: The International Connection Between Drugs and Terror= (Speech). Institute for International Studies. Washington, DC., April 2, 2002. Retrieved June 30, 2008, at http://www.usdoj.gov/dea/speeches/s040202.html .
Manwaring, M.G. (2005). Street Gangs: The New Urban Insurgency. Carlisle Barracks, PA: Strategic Studies Institute.
Opium Can Be Described as "a Cancer" In Afghanistan
In 2014, an estimated 224,000 hectares (or between 200,000 and 250,500 hectares) of land in Afghanistan was utilized for cultivation of opium poppy -- a 7% increase from the previous year. Also, as per 2014 estimates, 98% of all opium farms in the country were found in Eastern (9%), Western (22%) and Southern (67%) Afghanistan. Southern Afghanistan's opium farms were concentrated in the provinces of Kandahar, Day Kundi, Zabul, Hilmand, and Uruzgan; Western Afghanistan's farms were concentrated in the provinces of Badghis, Nimroz, Farah, and Hirat; and Eastern Afghanistan's opium farms were concentrated in the provinces of Laghman, Kapisa, Nangarhar, and Kunar. The aforementioned provinces are the most vulnerable, with high to extreme security risk, according to the UNDSS (United Nations Department of Safety and Security). Furthermore, they are also largely inaccessible to non-government organizations and the UN. Day Kundi represents…
AHMED, A. (FEB. 15, 2016). Tasked with Combating Opium, Afghan Officials Profit from It. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2016/02/16/world/asia/afghanistan-opium-heroin-taliban-helmand.html?_r=0 on 5 March 2016
Azami, D. (26 February 2013). Why Afghanistan may never eradicate opium. BBC World Service. Retrieved from http://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-21548230 on 5 March 2016
Buddenberg, D. & Ruttig, T. (11 January 2016). On the Cultural History of Opium -- and how poppy came to Afghanistan, Afghanistan Analysts Network (AAN). Retrieved from https://www.afghanistan-analysts.org/on-the-cultural-history-of-opium-and-how-poppy-came-to-afghanistan / on 5 March 2016
CHELALA, C. (MAR 1, 2013). Opinion: Afghanistan's legacy of child opium addiction. The Japan Times. Retrieved from http://www.japantimes.co.jp/opinion/2013/03/01/commentary/world-commentary/afghanistans-legacy-of-child-opium-addiction/#.VtsHc1R96M9 on 5 March 2016
ouldn't the government need the same amount of money, or perhaps even more, to regulate the new drug system. I can' only imagine the bureaucracy necessary to manage the legal trade of things like heroin, crack cocaine and meth.
The other prong of Vidal's argument is that "forbidding people the things the like or think they might enjoy only makes them want those things all the more." He claims that this psychological insight is obvious and yet denied by our government. As evidentiary support, he points to prohibition, but his arguments about prohibition don't directly support his thesis. He argues, correctly, that crime increased because of the prohibition of alcohol, and that the law caused a general contempt for the government, but he does not prove that people wanted to drink more because alcohol was prohibited to them.
The analogy between alcohol and drugs also does not hold up to…
Caruso, David B. "Higher Cigarette Taxes Lure Buyers to Black Market." The Huffington Post. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2008/04/10/higher-cigarette-taxes-lu_n_96094.html April 10, 2008
"Number of Adult Smokers." Smoking from All Sides. http://smokingsides.com/docs/us_adults_bystate95 . November 8, 1996
"Richard M. Nixon." United States History. http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h1948.html .
Domestic Drug Trafficking
The illegal drug market in the United States is one of the most profitable in the world, and attracts the most sophisticated and aggressive drug traffickers (Drug pp). According to U.S. Customs Service, sixty million people enter the United States on more than 675,000 commercial and private flights, and another 6 million enter by sea, and some 370 million by land (Drug pp). Moreover, 116 million vehicles enter by crossing the Canadian and Mexican borders, and more than 90, 000 merchant and passenger ships dock at U.S. ports carrying more than 9 million shipping containers and 400 million tons of cargo, with an additional 157,000 smaller vessels docking at various coastal towns (Drug pp).
Amid all this trade, drug traffickers conceal cocaine, heroin, marijuana, and methamphetamine shipments for distribution into U.S. neighborhoods (Drug pp).
The traffic and distribution of illegal drugs involves diverse groups (Drug pp). Criminal…
Sesin, Carmen. Caring for 'drug mules' who perish on the job: Colombian aids forgotten victims. NBC News. May 25, 2994. Accessed from MSNBC.com web site on May 05, 2005.
Humbles, Andy. Dealers get creative when hiding their drugs. The Tennessean.
February 15, 2004. Accessed from The Tennessean web site on May 05, 2005.
Introduction to the Characteristics and Extent of Alcohol, Tobacco or Other Drug Use.
Addiction means physical dependence on a drug, with withdrawal symptoms when its use ceases, and in this sense, alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, cocaine, heroin, hashish, opiates and amphetamines are all addictive drugs. In addition, these drugs also cause psychological dependency since they enhance a person's sense of pleasure, sociability, sexuality and emotional satisfaction, and also mask pain, low self-esteem and anxiety (Wilson and Kolander, 2011, p. 6). Student surveys are "likely to underreport the overall level of substance use and abuse by young people," and since black and Hispanic students have higher dropout and absenteeism rates, this affects survey results as well (Mosher and Akins, 2007, p. 136). Hard drug users and addicts are also more likely to be homeless, which means that their true numbers are always unknown.
All studies and surveys confirm that marijuana…
Goldberg, R. (2010). Drugs across the Spectrum, 6th Edition. Wadsworth Cengage Learning.
Maisto, S.A. et al. (eds). (2010). Drug Use and Abuse, 6th Edition. Wadsworth Cengage Learning.
Mosher, C.M. And S. Akins. (2007). Drugs and Drug Policy: The Control of Consciousness Alteration. Sage Publications.
Wilson, R. And C.A. Kolander. (2011). Drug Abuse Prevention: A School and Community Partnership. Jones and Bartlett Publishers.
Criminal Procedure Law
This document outlines the proposed criminal justice system. Its aim is to prevent and control crime and criminal acts through punitive measures and penalties to those who violate the set laws. The paper is a suggested criminal justice system for a national jurisdiction, at the federal level. The jurisdiction has a population of about one million people who are equally dispersed in the urban cities and rural areas of the nation. The social and economic status of the residents in this jurisdiction ranges from the very poor to the very rich. The country has its fair share of illegal immigrants and the criminal acts perpetrated in the country do compare throughout all the regions of the country.
Murder is the termination of the life of a human being. The life of a human being starts at the point of conception. Murder is an act committed…
Adlerstein, Jo Anne C. "Felony-Murder in the New Criminal Codes." Am. J. Crim. L. 4 (1975): 249. Web.
Bubany, Charles P. "Texas Penal Code of 1974, The." Sw. LJ 28 (1974): 292. Web.
HEALTH AND SAFETY CODE, § CHAPTER 481-Sec. 481.001.-Sec. 481.354. (2013). Web.
Miller, Emily L. "(Wo) manslaughter: Voluntary Manslaughter, Gender, and the Model Penal Code." Emory LJ 50 (2001): 665. Web.
Ecstasy Use by Adolescents in Miami-Dade County, FL
Ecstasy, also known as MDMA, Methylenedioxymethamphetamine, has become popular as a club drug and at techno dance events, such as raves, trance scenes and private parties. Many who attend raves and trances do not use drugs, but those who do, may be attracted to their generally low cost and to the intoxicating highs that are said to deepen the rave or trance experience ("NIDA," 2004). It has gained the reputation as a "hug drug" promoting empathy, relaxation, and sexuality. Studies indicate an increase in abuse of this drug, especially among adolescents and/or teenagers. It is a human-made drug that acts as both a stimulant and a hallucinogen. It is taken orally, in the form of a capsule or a tablet. It has short-term effects including feelings of mental stimulation, emotional warmth, enhanced sensory perception, and increased physical energy.
Health effects can include,…
Chassin, L., Pitts, S.C., DeLucia, C., Todd, M. (1999). A longitudinal study of children of alcoholics: Predicting young adult substance use disorders, anxiety, and depression. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 108, pp.106-119
Director's report of the national advisory council on drug abuse. (1999). National
Institute on Drug Abuse. Retrieved April 22, 2005 from http://drugabuse.gov/DirReports
Drug facts. (2004). Office of National Drug Control Policy. Retrieved April 21, 2005
Though this story is very much from the male perspective (male writer and male protagonist), in very Japanese style, the story is very indirect, and it is indirectly feminist. Japan is a country that is known for his systemic, institutional, and cultural subordination of women. Thus, it is additionally strange that on top of being a strange story about a strange encounter with a magical woman, that this story is about the power that women have over men, whether they are passerbys on a train late one night in Tokyo, or whether they are devoted, prim housewives that tirelessly devote themselves to the pleasure of their husbands.
The primary characters in "Almost Transparent Blue" include Reiko, Ryu, and Okinawa. They all abuse heroin together. As aforementioned, a distinctive quality of this story is the involvement of the author as a character in the story. This is one of several ways…
Social Science esearch
Lab 4: Quantitative Data Analysis
Examine your data and complete the following:
EVE SMOKED A CIGAETTE
EVE HAD DINK OF ALCOHOLIC BEVEAGE
EVE USED MAIJUANA/HASHISH
EVE USED COCAINE
EVE USED CACK
EVE USED HEOIN
IMPUTATION EVISED GENDE
The sample in this study is __50____ % male and ____50__ % female.
Write a brief sentence describing the pattern of drug use by those surveyed in this study. Hint: Which drugs are more frequently used than others? Try using the data (%) in your description.
According to the results given above, many people are currently using illicit drugs of varying kinds. The statistics show that alcohol is the substance, which is most abused by a percentage of 81.6 out of 100 often in form of beverages. 36.9% of people used marijuana while cocaine, crack,…
National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, 2001 (2012, August 18). National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, 2001 . SDA 3.5: Tables. Retrieved August 16, 2012, from http://www.icpsr.umich.edu/cgi-bin/SDA/SAMHDA/hsda3
Soodeen, F. (2008, January 22). Men 'drink far more than women' . BBC News. Retrieved August 16, 2012, from http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/7201874.stm
Care of Vulnerable Populations
COMMUNITY ASSESSMENT, ANALYSIS, and NURSING INTERVENTION
• Week 1: Windshield Survey and Key Informant Interviews. Complete the First Section of the course template and submit. (Keep this section attached to Weeks 2 and 3 assignments.)
• Week 2: Statistical Analysis of Community Health Problem. Complete the Second Section of the course template and submit. (Keep this section attached to Weeks 1 and 3 assignments.)
• Week 3: Community Health Nursing Intervention. Complete the Third Section of the course template and submit. By now, you should have Sections 1-3 as one whole document.
• Each section of the course template is submitted on a WEEKLY basis, depending on which week you are working on. DO NOT wait to submit all three sections at the end of the third week.
• Please note that students are not to make any changes to the content of the course template,…
President Richard Nixon chose to ignore and through the whole report into the garbage. Instead, he had the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) created and were given authority enter homes without knocking and to use wiretaps and gather intelligence virtually on anyone Milestones. In the 1980's President Ronald Reagan continued the war by advocated his own war and it was estimated that due to these wars, someone was arrested on a violation of a marijuana law every 38 seconds.
Thankfully, these wars have become more focused on the real drug problems that are primarily synthetic or man made or used in ways never imagined. But heroin and methamphitamines are clearly not health regimens. They kill people every day, cause real crimes and ruin families, lives and destroys entire groups.
The first step in changing the view of marijuana began with the legalization for medical usage. The compassions for the ill allowed…
"42.0 Milestones in the History of Marijuana." N.p., 9 May 2010. Web. .
Buchanan, Wyatt. "State's Voters to Decide on Legalizing Pot." San Fransisco Chronicle, n.d. Web. 9 May 2010. .
"Campaigns That Matter - Legalizing Marijuana in California." Campaigns That Matter - California Politics, California Political News, California Legislative News, Public Policy Information, California State Elections, California Political Campaigns, California Propositions. N.p., n.d. Web. 9 May 2010. .
Gray, Jim. Judgejimgray.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 9 May 2010. .
everal authors like ullivan (2001) point out the hypocrisy in drawing arbitary lines around certain classes of drugs. In fact, all drugs are potentially harmful. Even caffeine is bad for health when abused. Legally acquired pharmaceutical drugs can be lethal, whereas marijuana has no known cases of overdose. The discrepancy in laws and sentencing policies should be eradicated in order to create a more just society. As Walsh & Hemmens (2008) point out in the chapter on "Law and ocial Change," the prohibition on drugs is no different than the prohibition on alcohol. Both have caused the proliferation of organized crime and neither solved the underlying issues related to mental and physical health. One of the main reasons to legalize drugs is to reduce the market power of organized crime syndicates. Prohibition of alcohol "literally kick-started organized crime in the United tates, and ushered in a decade of gang wars…
Sullivan, a. (2001). The Distinction betwen legal and illegal drugs is arbitrary. In Rolleff, Tamara L. 2004. The War of Drugs: Opposing Viewpoints. San Diego: Greenhaven Press.
Walsh, a. & Hemmens, C. (2008). Law and Social Change. Walsh & Hemmens.
Wisher, R. (2001) Illegal Drugs Should Not Be Legalized. In Rolleff, Tamara L. 2004. The War of Drugs: Opposing Viewpoints. San Diego: Greenhaven Press.