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High isk Family Type: Healthy People 2010
Homelessness: Health isks and Prevention
For the purpose of national census statistics and for clarification of this discussion, a homeless person is defined as one living on the street, in deserted apartment buildings or one who spends nights at a homeless shelter. Due to the difficulty of counting the homeless, statistics in recent years have been variable. According to the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, there were 643,067 sheltered and unsheltered homeless persons nationwide as of January 2008. (Preston, 2008). Another approximation stems from a study conducted by the National Law Center on Homelessness and Poverty, which estimates that 3.5 million people, 1.35 million of them children, are likely to experience homelessness in a given year. (2007). These numbers are likely underrepresentative because they rely heavily on data from homeless shelters, which do not account for people living in deserted apartments…
Healthy People 2010. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.healthypeople.gov .
Hibbs, J.R., Benner, L., Klugman, L., Spencer, R., Macchia, I., Mellinger, A. (1994). Mortality in a cohort of homeless adults in Philadelphia. New England Journal of Medicine, 331, 304, 309.
Lawrence, R.S., Gootman, J.A., Sim, L.J., editors. (2009). Adolescent health services: Missing opportunities. National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. Committee on Adolescent Health Care Services and Models of Care for Treatment, Prevention, and Healthy Development. Washington: National Academies Press, 2009. Retrieved from: http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?recordid=12063&page=1 .
Morrison, D.S. (2009). Homelessness as an independent risk factor for mortality: results from a retrospective cohort study. International Journal of Epidemiology, 38, 877-883.
The prison gangs that emerged in the late 1960s have maintained their identity for more than a decade and they remain a major source of violence in... prisons. A quasi-military type of organization continues to provide the continuity that the old-style predatory alliances lacked and to allow transfer of power when gang leaders are killed or segregated. The tight organization and discipline of these groups enable them to dominate much larger groups of unorganized inmates. Inmates continue to be the primary victims of the gangs, whose activities are the largest source of assaults and deaths in the California system. A major development in recent years has been an escalation of gang activities in several...communities, and there have been more gang-related homicides outside of jails and prisons than inside.
The reasons having been established for why violence so frequently occurs in prison environments this work will now go on to discuss…
Carter, Robert Melvin, and Daniel Glaser, eds. Correctional Institutions. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott, 1977.
Champion, Dean J. A Criminal Justice Sourcebook. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1994.
Park, James W.L. "19 the Organization of Prison Violence." Correctional Institutions. Ed. Robert Melvin Carter and Daniel Glaser. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott, 1977. 277-284.
high-isk families? How can they be helpful?
The different techniques that can identify high risk families include: intake, investigation, case planning and continuing services. Intake is when there is a focus on gathering information and understanding the problems. Investigation occurs after there are possible signs that someone could be in a high risk environment (i.e. physical marks and the person becomes withdrawn in social situations). Case planning is when different resources are gathered, to intervene and limit the impact of these conditions on the individual / family members. Continuing services is the point that health care workers are consistently monitoring the situation (to determine if there are any kinds of changes with the patient). ("Family Assessment in Child Welfare Services," 2005)
These tools are helpful in determining if a high risk situation exists. At the same time, they are focusing on identifying possible abuses and quickly rectifying them (utilizing a…
Family Assessment in Child Welfare Services. (2005). University of California at Berkeley. Retrieved from: http://cssr.berkeley.edu/bassc/public/BASSC_FamilyAssessment_FULL_REPORT091406.pdf
Health Promotion Model. (2012). Nursing Planet. Retrieved from: http://nursingplanet.com/health_promotion_model.html
Friedman, M. (2003). Family nursing: Research, Theory and Practice. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall
Pender, N. (2011). The Health Promotion Model. University of Michigan. Retrieved from: http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/85350/1/HEALTH_PROMOTION_MANUAL_Rev_5-2011.pdf
The authors do not indicate why they decided to exclude sexual violence from their study.
In their analysis, Button and Gealt (2010) use several variables independently. These are: substance abuse, delinquency, aggression, and sibling violence. To measure independent variables, they used several dependant variables for each. For example, to measure substance abuse (which refers to the use of cigarettes, marijuana, and alcohol in the past thirty days), they asked respondents to indicate frequency of abuse, ranging from 0 to 31 times during thirty-day period (0 = none, 1 = less than one, 2 = 1 to 5, etc.). To measure delinquency, they scaled the frequency of six items that ranged from never to almost every day (0 = never, 1 = before but not in the past, up to 7 = almost every day). These items were: stealing something from a store without paying for it; breaking into a car,…
Button, D., & Gealt, R. (2010). High Risk Behaviors Among Victims of Sibling Violence. Journal of Family Violence, 25(2), 131-140. doi:10.1007/s10896-009-9276-x
Hoffman, K.L., & Edwards, J.N. (2004). An Integrated Theoretical Model of Sibling Violence and Abuse. Journal of Family Violence, 19(3), 185-200.
Hoffman, K.L., Kiecolt, K., & Edwards, J.N. (2005). Physical Violence Between Siblings: A Theoretical and Empirical Analysis. Journal of Family Issues, 26(8), 1103-1130. doi:10.1177/0192513X05277809
Liddle, a. (1989). Feminist contributions to an understanding of violence against women: Three steps forward, two steps back. Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology, 26(5), 759-775.
High-isk Family Health Promotion: Teen Pregnancy
Teen pregnancy is a problem in the United States which has enormous consequences for both the individuals who are immediately concerned with the pregnancy and the public at large. The role of family nursing in assisting young mothers cannot be understated, but prevention and education are the primary goals of family nursing. Nurses must realize the adverse consequences that can occur when a teen becomes pregnant, understand how to advocate for the teen and have the personal skills to positively affect the patient.
The United States continues to have an epidemic of teen pregnancies. The United States leads the world in all categories of teen pregnancy. In 2006 more than 750,000 women below the age of 2o became pregnant (Gutmacher Instittute, 2010, 2). This is actually a low number as the birth rate per 1,000 representative women was only 71.5. However, this…
Friedman, M., Bowden, V., & Jones, E. (2003). Family nursing: Research, theory, and practice (5th ed.). Connecticut: Prentice Hall Inc.
Guttmacher Institute. (2010). U.S. teenage pregnancies, births and abortions: National and state trends by race and ethnicity. Retrieved November 13, 2010 from http://www.guttmacher.org/pubs/USTPtrends.pdf
Healthy People. (2010). Healthy people 2010. Retrieved November 15, 2010 from http://www.healthypeople.gov /About/hpfactsheet.pdf
Pregnant Teen Help. (2010). Teen pregnancy consequences. Retrieved November 23, 2010 from http://www.pregnantteenhelp.org/facts/teen-pregnancy-consequences/
If police, along with others in society, perceive high risk sex offenders as humans who possess the potential to be rehabilitated, then incidences of possible discrimination against these individuals might decrease. This in turn, the researcher contends, could contribute to incidences of sexual offences being prevented and/or reduced. Even though the researcher never generally cared about how high risk sex offenders felt, the conviction that discrimination is wrong over-rode the researcher's non-committal, and in turn, spurred the determination to expose the problem of discrimination in this area. Not only does the researcher hope to expose the problem of discrimination shrouding a population the majority in society would prefer not to deal with, the researcher also hopes to perhaps offer a possible solution; a tinge of hope for a brighter future of fewer incidents of sexual offences against young ones in society.
esearch Design and Methodology
The following five chapters constitute…
Auston, Ione, MLS, Cahn, Marjorie a., MA, & Selden, Catherine R., MLS. (2004). United States National Library of Medicine. National Institutes of Health. Retrieved November 29, 2008, at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/nichsr/litsrch.html www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5009817744
Brown, a.H., & Benson, B. (2005). Making sense of the capstone process: Reflections from the front line. Education, 125(4), 674+. Retrieved December 3, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5009817744
Capstone projects. (n.d). Brigham Young University. Retrieved December 3, 2008, at http://www.physics.byu.edu/Undergraduate/Capstone.aspx
California high risk sex offender and sexually violent predator task force. (2006).2 Retrieved December 6, 2008, at http://www.chhs.ca.gov/Documents/HRSO%20Layout%20Final%20for%20Print.pdf www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5022392399
Education and Counseling for at-isk Youths in Los Angeles
The challenges of addressing the needs of youths leading critical/high risk lifestyles in Los Angeles are essential in the role of educators and counselors. Educational and community resources exist but in terms of addressing the demographic they may not always be in the most efficient or adequate condition. This can be caused by a failure of leadership (both in terms of style and theory) within the educational system and/or the community. It can also be caused by a failure of an adequate family support or home life structure to facilitate the needs of the at-risk youths. Likewise, social situations and theories such as Social Strain Theory can play a part in the development of youths and in identifying what needs to be done to address their needs on a more effective front.
In Los Angeles, the challenges facing youths leading high…
Marques, M., Ressa, N. (2013). The Sexuality Education Initiative: a programme involving teenagers, schools, parents and sexual health services in Los Angeles, CA, USA. Reproductive Health Matters, 21(41): 124-135.
As the percentage of older Americans continues to increase, the need for timely and accurate assessment screens and the formulation of effective clinical interventions will become even more pronounced. Fortunately, the research also showed that there are a number of assessment tools that are available to facilitate the process, including sophisticated multifactor instruments with proven validity and reliability. One of the more important issues to emerge from the research concerned the need for individualized interventions that draw on strengths and interests in order to minimize the risk factors that are involved.
Faber, M., Bosscher, .J. & Van Wieringen, P.C. (2006). Clinimetric properties of the performance-oriented mobility assessment. Physical Therapy, 86(7), 944-954.
Functional assessment. (2012). NursingLink. etrieved from http://nursinglink.monster.com / training/articles/331-functional-assessment-the-key-to-geriatric-care-in-the-21st-
Gates, S. & Smith, L., Fisher, J.D. & Lamb, S.E. (2008, October 1). Systematic review of accuracy of screening instruments for predicting fall risk among independently living older…
Faber, M., Bosscher, R.J. & Van Wieringen, P.C. (2006). Clinimetric properties of the performance-oriented mobility assessment. Physical Therapy, 86(7), 944-954.
Functional assessment. (2012). NursingLink. Retrieved from http://nursinglink.monster.com / training/articles/331-functional-assessment-the-key-to-geriatric-care-in-the-21st-
Gates, S. & Smith, L., Fisher, J.D. & Lamb, S.E. (2008, October 1). Systematic review of accuracy of screening instruments for predicting fall risk among independently living older adults. Journal of Rehabilitation Research & Development, 45(8), 1105-1113.
isk, eturn and Their Evaluation
isk & Performance Indicators
Since this is a small business, therefore raising equity capital through public stock issue is less likely than debt or whatever form of paper issued to angel or venture investors. Therefore while a larger, publicly traded firm would consider the return on equity version of the short form DuPont equation, a small, more closely-held concern would focus on return on assets (OA). If OA is net income over sales times sales over total assets, i.e. net income over total assets, then any action that could increase the numerator, total income, or shrink the denominator(s) should increase OA compared to past performance within the firm and the competition outside it. If competitors all use the same (best) plant, then maximizing efficiency of the same assets through process or brand innovation; input cost reductions, and also financial performance like minimizing payables days over…
Investopedia (2011). How to calculate required rate of return. Forex. 25 Feb. 2011. Retrieved
from http://www.investopedia.com /articles/fundamental-analysis/11/calculating-required-rate-of-return.asp#axzz1wxIzjR6l
Risks of Climate Change
THE RISK OF CLIMATE CHANGE: IMPLICATIONS FOR ARCHITECTS AND ENGINEERS
Climate Change Impacts on Engineering Infrastructure
Key Impacts on Water and Resources
Risk Management Analysis Coping Methods Possibility And Probability
Recommendations And Guidelines For The Vulnerability Of Climate
Change Impacts Using Risk Management Methods And Analysis
THE RISK OF CLIMATE CHANGE: IMPLICATIONS FOR ARCHITECTS AND ENGINEERS
This work examines climate change in relation to impacts upon infrastructure, utilities, and water in relation to the affects from projected sea level rise, flooding, and other related impacts expected to result from climate change. This work also reviews models used for risk assessment and analysis and examines their usefulness and the associated limitations with these models. Knowledge and expertise is growing in the risk-assessment and analysis field of study and reliable models are being developed although the primary effective and appropriate use for the majority of these models…
Adapting to Climate Change Impacts on Water Management: A Guide for Planner (2006) AEA Technology - Prepared for the South East England Regional Assembly. May 2006. Online available at http://www.southeastra.gov.uk/our_work/planning/sust_nat_res/planners_adaptation_guide/planners_adaptation_guide.pdf
Sandell, 2007) ABC News Report Online available at http://www.abcnews.go.com/Technology/GlobalWarming/story?id=3582433&page=1
Blakemore, Bill (2007) Greenland: Where Towering Icebergs Raise Sea Levels. 9 Sept 2007. ABC News Online available at http://www.abcnews.go.com/WN/story?id=3579084&page=1
Cities Should Plan Now for Effects of Global Warming on Infrastructure (2005) University of Maryland 21 Feb 2005 Science and Technology Online available at http://www.newsdesk.umd.edu/scitech/release.cfm?ArticleID=1036
isk Management in Family Owned Businesses
A family business can be simply described as "any business in which a majority of the ownership or control lies within a family, and in which two or more family members are directly involved" (Bowman-Upton, 1991). In other words, it is a multifaceted, twofold structure consisting of the family and the business meaning that the involved members are both the part of a job system and of a family system (Bowman-Upton, 1991).
Most families seek stability, intimacy, a sense of community, and belonging through the family business (Hess, 2006). On the other hand, whenever family and business are mentioned together, a majority of people think of continuous conflict, competition and contention (Crenshaw, 2005). However, "successful family businesses do not let the family destroy the business or the business destroy the family" (Hess, 2006).
The family-owned businesses are the backbone of the world financial system.…
Barrese, J., & Scordis, N. (2003). Corporate Risk Management. Review of Business, 24 (3), Retrieved August 17, 2012 from http://www.questia.com/read/1G1-111508707/corporate-risk-management
Bodine, S.W., Anthony, P., & Walker, P.L. (2001). A Road Map to Risk Management: CPAs Can Help Companies Manage Risk to Create Value. (Consulting). Journal of Accountancy, 192 (6), Retrieved August 17, 2012 from http://www.questia.com/read/1G1-80750205/a-road-map-to-risk-management-cpas-can-help-companies
Bowman-Upton, N. (1991). Transferring Management in the Family-Owned Business. Retrieved August 14, 2012 from http://archive.sba.gov/idc/groups/public/documents/sba_homepage/serv_sbp_exit.pdf
Caspar, C., Dias, A.K., & Elstrodt, H. (2010, January).The Five Attributes of Enduring Family Businesses. Retrieved August 15, 2012 from http://www.businessfamily.ca/cert_register_files/Web Downloads/McKinsey Quarterly - Jan 2010.pdf
This increases the risk of heart disease in adulthood. Those ingesting the highest added sugars had lower levels of good cholesterol and higher levels of bad cholesterol. High-density lipoprotein levels are the good cholesterol, while the low-density lipoproteins are the bad cholesterol. There was a 9% difference between those who consumed sugar at the highest levels at 54 mg/dL of HDL levels and those with the lowest levels at 54 mg/dL. Research says that sugary beverages contribute the largest amount of added sugars. Examples are sodas, fruit drinks, coffee and tea (Welsh).
Combining its findings with the sugar content data from the U.S. Department of Agriculture My Pyramid equivalent databases, the survey team found a higher risk of cardiovascular disease in adding sugar and replacing the energy requirement from less than 10% to more than 30% (Welsh et al. 2011). The study involved 646 adolescents as volunteers. It found that…
Bray, George a. Consumption of High Fructose Corn Syrup in Beverages May Play a Role in the Epidemic of Obesity. Vol 79 # 4 American Journal of Clinical Nutrition:
American Society for Clinical Nutrition, 2004. Retrieved on January 30, 2011 from http://www.ajcn.org/conent/79/4/537.full
Green, Aleisha. Sugar Effects in Your Health. Associated Content: Yahoo, Inc., 2011.
Retrieved on February 1, 2011 from http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/1899250/sugar_effects_on_your_health.html
However, bowel movements were more frequent during the high-fiber than during the control diet." (Nutrition Research Newsletter, 2002)
The work of Ruixing, et al. (2007) entitled: "Comparison of Demography, Diet, Lifestyle, and Serum Lipid Levels between the Guangxi ai Ku Yao and Han Populations" states that dyslipidemia is a condition "...in which there is an abnormal lipid or lipoprotein concentration. It is well-known that dyslipidemia is determined by genetic, demographic, and lifestyle factors." (Ruixing, et al., 2007)
It is reported that "...High levels of plasma total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TGs), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and apolipoprotein (apo) and low levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) are correlated with the progression of atherosclerosis and a higher incidence of coronary artery disease (CHD). To prevent the development of these diseases, a great deal of research has been focused on determining the relationship between these lipid phenotypes and dietary intake and…
Ballesteros, Martha N. (2001) Dietary Fiber and Lifestyle Influence Serum Lipids in Free Living Adult Men. Journal of the American College of Nutrition. Vol. 20, No. 6. 2001. Online available at: http://www.jacn.org/cgi/content/full/20/6/649
Cater, Nilo B. And Garg, Abhimanyu (2007) The effect of dietary intervention on serum lipid levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Journal of Current Diabetes Reports. Vol. 2 No. 3 May 2002.
Dietary Fiber Health Claims and Serum Lipids -- Cardiovascular Disease (2002) Nutrition Research Newsletter, June 2002. Online available at: http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0887/is_6_21/ai_87852135/
Gangi, Vijay and Kuo, Jennifer (2008) Serum Lipid Responses to Psyllium Fiber: Differences Between Pre and Post-Menopausal, Hypercholesterolemic Women. Nutrition Journal 2008. Vol. 7, Issue 22. 26 Aug 2008.
Although "one would expect higher quality assessment instruments that produce better information to make education decisions given NCLB-imposed penalties for districts associated with poor performance on the test...many states struggle with budget deficits and funding restrictions. They cannot allocate the funds necessary to improve the testing programs. States are forced to rely on large-scale assessments with too few questions and a narrow focus on skills and knowledge that are easily measured....representatives from the NJDOE [New Jersey Department of Education] have admitted publicly that finances, not technical integrity, drive the state's assessment program... [Their] current philosophy is 'do the best with what we have'" and is based upon the assumption that some testing, of whatever kind, is better than not testing at all (Tienken & ilson, 2007, p.16)
The irony is palpable -- the high-stakes nature of testing requires teachers, operating under finite limitations of time and money, to focus…
Lee, Jaekyung. (2008). Is test-driven external accountability effective? Synthesizing the evidence from cross-state causal-comparative and correlational studies. Review of Educational Research. 78(3). 608-644. Retrieved February 24, 2009, from Research
Library database. (Document ID: 1580752961).
Marchant, Gregory J. (2004, April). What is at stake with high stakes testing? A discussion of issues and research. The Ohio Journal of Science. Retrieved from FindArticles.com. February 24, 2009. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0HQW/is_2_104/ai_n25092071
Tienken, Christopher H. & Michael J. Wilson. (2007, December 17). Technical characteristics of state assessments of skills and knowledge. Report retrieved February 24, 2009, from Fair
Small usiness' Need for a CPA
One of the critical investments a small business can make to mitigate loss and risk is hiring a CPA and putting that CPA on the 'management team.' As Wells notes in his groundbreaking research, "Denise, a bookkeeper for a small trucking firm in irmingham, Alabama, wishes she had never heard of Ralph Summerford, CPA. ecause of his thoroughness, Denise is facing several years in prison for embezzling $550,000 from her employer. At least she will look good standing before the sentencing judge: Denise spent a great deal of her illegal loot on head-to-toe cosmetic surgery. She blew the rest on a shiny new Lexus, luxury vacations, clothing and jewelry. And, of course, Denise had to have a big house to store all of her finery." (Wells, 2003)
Surprisingly, it was not at all the fancy standard of living that made her employer suspicious. "The…
Wells, Joseph. 2003. Protect small business: small companies without adequate internal controls need CPAs to help them minimize fraud risk. Journal of Accountancy.
Small Business Administration. 2005. www.sba.gov.
Federal Reserve Bank. 2004. www.federalreserve.gov.
AICPA. 2005. At www.aicpa.org/antifraud/training/homepage/htm.
ISK Management - CAPM and APT
Capital Asset Pricing Model and Arbitrage Pricing Theory
The contemporaneous business community is extremely competitive, meaning as such that the organizational leaders strive harder than ever to overcome the competitive forces. Virtually, they have to hire and retain the best skilled staff members; they have to develop and offer the best quality products and services and they must be able to raise the interest of a vast and large customer base. All these constitute competitive advantages.
Yet, another element which has to be granted the adequate attention is that of the management of assets. The specialized literature offers a multitude of definitions of the concept of asset, yet the underlying idea is basically the same. Stickey, Weil and Schipper (2009) for instance argue that an asset is "a probable future economic benefit that a firm controls because of a past event or transaction" (p.108).…
Bailey, R.E., 2006, The Economics of Financial Markets, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 052184827X
Cheng, B., Tong, H., 2008, Asset Pricing: A Structural Theory and Its Applications, World Scientific, ISBN 9812704558
Fabozzi, F.J., Markowitz, H., 2002, The Theory and Practice of Investment Management, John Wiley and Sons, ISBN 0471228990
Fabozzi, F.J., Focardi, S., Kolm, P.N., 2006, Financial Modelling of the Equity Market: From CAPM to Cointegration, John Wiley and Sons, ISBN 0471699004
High ate of Incarceration of the Mentally Ill
Mental illnesses are among the most serious health concerns facing administrators and policymakers in America today. With the declining availability of both mental health community treatment programs and inpatient psychiatry beds in the few facilities available, more and more mentally ill persons are going without treatment and the essential services needed to enable them cope effectively with their conditions. Often times, police are the first responders whenever a mentally ill patient experiences a relapse and acts out due to symptoms of their mental condition; worryingly, however, rather than be taken to mental health facilities for treatment, most of these end up in jails and prisons. From the very onset, our prison and correctional systems had not been designed to respond to the needs of people with mental health problems, so when such people are housed here, they become more vulnerable to abuse,…
Aufderheide, D. (2014). Mental Illness in America's Jails and Prisons: towards a Public Safety/Public Health Model. Health Affairs. Retrieved 11 March 2015 from http://healthaffairs.org/blog/2014/04/01/mental-illness-in-americas-jails-and-prisons-toward-a-public-safetypublic-health-model/
Busfield, J. (2011). Mental Illness. Cambridge, UK: Polity Press
Mitchell, A. (2013). Medicaid Disproportionate Share Hospital Payments. The Congressional Research Service. Retrieved 11 March 2015 from https://fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/R42865.pdf
NAMI. (n.d.). Criminalization of People with Mental Illnesses is a Significant Problem. National Alliance on Mental Illnesses (NAMI). Retrieved 12 March 2015 from http://www2.nami.org/Template.cfm?Section=CIT&Template=/ContentManagement/ContentDisplay.cfm&ContentID=57465
isk management is aimed at determining possible problems beforehand in order to plan and invoke risk-handling activities, as required, across the project's or product's life, for mitigating negative effects on attaining objectives. The process of risk management constitutes a key part of technical and business management systems; it is constant and forward-thinking. isk management must deal with problems that threaten the attainment of key aims. A constant risk management strategy is adopted for successfully predicting and reducing risk elements, which critically affect a venture. A sound risk management plan entails timely and forceful risk identification by way of participation and collaboration of concerned stakeholders. Effective leadership is required across all concerned stakeholders for cultivating an environment conducive to honest and uninhibited discovery and analysis of risk. While technical problems constitute a major concern in the early stages as well as all through the course of the project, risk management has…
Allnutt, S., O'Driscoll, C., Ogloff, J. R., Daffern, M., & Adams, J. (2010). Clinical risk assessment and management: a practical manual for mental health clinicians.
Andrews, D. A., & Bonta, J. (2010). Rehabilitating criminal justice policy and practice.Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 16(1), 39.
Andrews, D. A., Bonta, J., & Wormith, J. S. (2011). THE RISK-NEED-RESPONSIVITY (RNR) MODEL Does Adding the Good Lives Model Contribute to Effective Crime Prevention?. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 38(7), 735-755.
Douglas, K. S., Hart, S. D., Webster, C. D., Belfrage, H., Guy, L. S., & Wilson, C. M. (2014). Historical-Clinical-Risk Management-20, Version 3 (HCR-20V3): Development and Overview. International Journal of Forensic Mental Health, 13(2), 93-108.
. Research Design Rationale
1. Question format: In order to allow the research study to become embedded in the field of economics, the research question will use an applied question format. The purpose of the study is to develop a predictive method regarding player choices in the Prisoner's dilemma. It will explore the association of risk and cooperation or defection in the Prisoner's
2. Research design: The research will use a deductive approach where the theory will be presented and tested through the methodology. The research will use quantitative research methods, which are suited for research where the information can be reduced to a numerical format. This is the case in the proposed study as both risk tolerance and the decisions made in the Prisoner's Dilemma can be reduced to numerical data and standard statistical methods applied.
III. Data/Information from Previous research
A. Literature Review
The literature review for…
Agarwal, J. & Feils, D. (2007). Political Risk and the Internationalization of Firms: an Empirical
Study of Canadian-based Export and Fdi Firms. Canadian Journal of Administrative
Sciences. 24 (3): 165+. Questia Database.
Ansell, C. & Gash, a. (2008). Collaborative Governance in Theory and Practice. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory. 18 (4): 543+. Questia Database.
isk Analysis and the Security Survey
The following risk analysis and security survey report will be centered on the hospital as an organization. Vulnerabilities can be classified as crime opportunities, opportunities for breaking rules and regulations, opportunities for profiting and also for loss. By definition, vulnerability can be a gap or a weakness inside a security program that might be exploited by opponents to acquire unlawful access. Vulnerabilities include procedural, human, structural, electronic as well as other elements that offer opportunities to damage assets (Vellani and Owles, 2007).
A vulnerability assessment can be classified as a systematic method utilized to evaluate an organization's security position, assess the efficiency of current security infrastructure, as well as, recognize security limitations. The basic approach of a Vulnerability Assessment (VA) first measures what precise assets require protection. Subsequently, VA recognizes the protection measures previously being used to protect those assets, as well as what…
Brandon Region Hospital. (2012). Evacuation plan.
Brandon Region Hospital. (2012). Risk management plan.
Chung, S., & Shannon, M. (2005). Hospital planning for acts of terrorism and other public health emergencies involving children. Archives of disease in childhood, 90(12), 1300-1307.
Code Green Networks. (2009). Protecting Healthcare Organizations from Patient Data Loss. Retrieved from: www.codegreennetworks.com/resources/downloads/wp_patient_dlp.pdf
The video game industry forms a significant part of the leading companies worldwide currently. The huge diffusion of the internet and associated information technologies over the recent years has raised the need of increased security. Advancement in technology consequently leads to the advancement of video games as well as associated security risks. Some of the common threats and vulnerabilities involving this industry include: misuse by human, hacking, fraud, virus attacks, among others. Such factors can facilitate adversities such as information loss and alteration, and unauthorized access. This paper identifies and assesses potential threats, malicious attacks, and vulnerabilities expected by the organization. It also gives the control procedures to mitigate the mentioned risks and vulnerabilities.
The Threats and Vulnerabilities
There are a number of dominant security threats involving technology and information that affect the organization. Such threats poise a serious disruption to the business continuity planning (BCP) cycle of…
Syed, R and Morh, S. (2011). IT Security Issues within the Video Game Industry. The International Journal of Computer Science and Information Technology. Vol. 3, No. 5.
risks that BP faces is with respect to ethics. The company's pursuit of profits over safety on the Deepwater Horizon is perhaps the most obvious example of this risk. Ethically, safety would have been the more important concern, but BP pushed profit as a primary motive despite what it would do to worker safety. The end result, of course, cost the company over $40 billion as the result of the damage that was caused by the accident that occurred as a result of that ethical lapse (earden, 2010).
Ethics continue to be a risk at BP because the unethical practices that led to Deepwater Horizon. Instead of learning from Deepwater Horizon, BP is still believed to lack transparency with respect to its practices. As a reflection of how ingrained the company's lack of ethics is, the chair of safety, ethics and environment had 43% of shareholders vote against him in…
Maharaj, A. (2011). Transparency still a slippery issue at BP. Corporate Secretary. Retrieved December 7, 2011 from http://www.corporatesecretary.com/articles/boardrooms/11923/transparency-still-slippery-issue-bp/
O'Brien, M. (2010). HR lessons flow from BP's crisis. Human Resource Executive. Retrieved December 7, 2011 from http://www.hreonline.com/HRE/story.jsp?storyId=448983661
Wearden, G. (2010). BP oil spill cost to hit $40 bn. The Guardian. Retrieved December 7, 2011 from http://www.guardian.co.uk/business/2010/nov/02/bp-oil-spill-costs-40-billion-dollars
As a means to gain access to several million people who live a estern lifestyle, South Africa can be a good country to enter, but as a growth story it is much less exciting. Only when the GDP per capita of black and mixed-race South Africans begins to grow rapidly will the country be a truly attractive one for most companies. Arguably, the Human Development Index is a better measure, because it can reflect the overall potential of a nation like South Africa, where the development of one segment of the population is more critical to the market's potential than GDP, which is driven by another segment of the population.
A fourth reason why average per-capita income is not always the best indicator of an emerging market's potential lies in the Gulf States. Many Gulf States have very high average GDP per capita figures, driven by oil revenues. The lifestyle…
Gibson, K. (2002). A case for the family-owned conglomerate. McKinsey Quarterly. Retrieved October 18, 2012 from http://www.mckinseyquarterly.com/A_case_for_the_family-owned_conglomerate_1238
Rajwani, S. (2011). How should firms deal with political risk? Cranfield University. Retrieved October 18, 2012 from http://www.som.cranfield.ac.uk/som/p16495/Think-Cranfield/2011/May-2011/How-Should-Firms-Deal-with-Political-Risk
Sargeant, N. (2006). What risks do organizations face when engaging in international finance activities? Investopedia. Retrieved October 18, 2012 from
Comparable products or systems and their rankings in these areas should also be identified and discussed during these closeout meetings, to determine the degree of congruence a specific IA-CMM assessment has with expected norms and standards. Methods for addressing any low rankings and improving scores n areas assessed as poor would also be useful components of discussion.
Different types of reporting are more effective for different situations, with quantitative assessments more appropriate when delivering reports to less technically-minded individuals or those not familiar with the processes of the system, while quantitative reports are fitting for those more directly knowledgeable regarding the specific workings of IT systems and security (Kashman 2011). The assessments of an IA-CMM are applied to a set of five components or common features: Commitment to Perform, Ability to Perform, Activities Performed, Measurement and Analysis, and Verifying Implementation (Kashman 2011). Through such compartmentalized reporing, a comprehensive assessment…
Foster, J. (2005). Buffer Overload Attacks. Rockland, MA: Syngress Publishing.
Kashman, P. (2011). CMM: An Introduction. Accessed 18 November 2011. http://homepages.com.pk/kashman/CMMIntro.htm
Stoneburner, A., Goguen, A. & Feringa, A. (2002). Risk Management Guide for Information Technology Systems. Falls Church, VA: Booz Allen Hamilton, Inc.
It is a sound practice for companies to perform an assessment on a regular basis to determine any possible threats that can harm the company internally or externally. There are many different facets to risk analysis from assessing on a regular basis which leads to identifying risks and determining what measures should be taken for each risk. All companies should go through this process so that they know how to manage any risk that their company might face. Not only should companies know what their risks are, they should also know which risk poses high and low threats. This will help them to determine what is considered an acceptable risk and what isn't. Because the business environment is ever-changing and information is constantly flowing globally, risk analysis is a necessity (Startiene and emeikiene, 2007).
Organizations should take risk analysis to protect what they value. This could be employees,…
Day, G.S. (2007). Is it real? Can we win? Is it worth doing? Managing risk and reward in an innovation portfolio. Harvard Business Review, 85(12), 110-120.
Startiene, G., & Remeikiene, R. (2007). Methodology of business risk analysis and its practical application in the enterprises working in the global market. Engineering Economics, 3(53), 7-16.
Operational risks tend to focus on employees, and finding ways to ensure that employees are not a source of reduction in the wealth of the company. Among the operational risks that were identified in Horcher (2005) were those related to training, fraud, theft, as well as managing exposures to certain risks that arise in the course of operations. There have been many examples of operational failures over the years. While most fraud is going to occur at the highest levels of the organization (i.e. Enron), in other companies operating issues have been the problem.
One such instance was with Subway, which faced a salmonella outbreak in the UK (Poulter, 2008) in a major outbreak, but has also faced similar situations in Canada (Mickleburgh, 2011), and the U.S. As well (Blau, 2012; Falkenstein, 2010). Food poisonings increase the risk of legal action that could devastate franchisees and can have…
Blau, R. (2012). Subway restaurants have been closed for health violations more than any other chain in the city. New York Daily News. Retrieved December 12, 2014 from http://www.nydailynews.com/new-york/subway-restaurants-closed-health-violations-chain-city-article-1.1063271?localLinksEnabled=false
CDC. (2014). Overview of attribution of foodborne illness. Center for Disease Control. Retrieved December 12, 2014 from http://www.cdc.gov/foodborneburden/attribution/overview.html
Falkenstein, D. (2010). Subway lawsuits and food poisoning claims. Food Poison Journal. Retrieved December 12, 2014 from http://www.foodpoisonjournal.com/foodborne-illness-outbreaks/subway-lawsuits-and-food-poisoning-claims/
Horcher, K. (2005). Essentials of Financial Risk Management John Wiley & Sons: Hoboken, NJ.
isk Management Plan for Exxon Mobil
A risk management process is a systematic application of management policies for the purpose of identifying, analyzing, evaluating and mitigating any possible risks within an organization. The following paper focuses on formulation of risk management plan for Exxon Mobil, one of the world's most renowned oil and gas companies. The risks would be identified and selected applicable to this firm and after their evaluation, a risk treatment plan would be advised.
Establish the isk Context
Identifying the Context for isk Assessment
eviewing current organizational processes
Being in the gas and power marketing department of the company, there are certain risks applicable within my area of operation. In order to clearly determine those risks, first, a comprehensive look at Exxon Mobil's organizational processes along with a SWOT analysis is presented. The firm is dedicated to create and maintain an environmental policy that would protect the…
Bastian, B.L. & Tucci, C. (2010). An empirical investigation on the effects of political risk on technology strategies of firms, presented at Summer Conference 2010, London, 2010. London: Imperial College London Business School. Retrieved from http://www2.druid.dk/conferences/viewpaper.php?id=501908&cf=43
Exxon Mobil. (n.d.). About us: How we operate. Retrieved from http://lubes.ExxonMobil.com/Lubes/about_how.aspx
Green Peace. (2011). Risks and potential impacts of oil exploration in the Arctic. Retrieved from http://www.greenpeace.org/international/Global/international/publications/climate/2011 / FinalArcticBriefing2011.pdf
Hirsch, A. (2011, June 17). Exxon Mobil accused of 'fraud' in Jacksonville gas spill trail. The Baltimore Sun. Retrieved from http://www.baltimoresun.com/news/maryland/baltimore - county/bs-md-co-exxon-trial-closing-20110617-story.html
In addition, it is not apparent whether the injections may relieve pain, but for those without surgical lesions the injections may delay requisite surgery and result to permanent neurological deficits. It is evident that some risks associated with infectious epidural steroid injections result to fatal meningitis, but those performing epidural do not make pregnant women opting for epidural aware. I feel that such risks are matters of life and death and women must know them before considering epidurals. In addition, there are common risks of these injections. They include; increased neurological deterioration, paralysis, and quadriplegia Epstein (2013, p. 74-93).
All these researches provide information on the risks of epidurals in different aspects. The epidural procedure may also affect the child. The drugs administered to the mother directly enter the child. The levels may be as high as those of the mother may, and because of the immature liver of the…
Akbas, Mert and Akcan, a Baris, "Epidural analgesia and lactation," Eurasian Journal of Medicine 43, (2010): 45-49.
Wilson, M. J, MacArthur, C, and Shennan, a. "Catheterization in labor with high dose vs. mobile Epidural analgesia: a randomized controlled trial." British Journal of Anesthesia 102, no. 2 (2009): 97-103.
Epstein, Nancy, "The risks of epidural and transforominal steroid injections in the spine: commentary and a comprehensive review of literature," Surgical Neurology International 4, (2013): 74-93.
Gwen Lewis, "Epidurals and child cancer," Journal of Childbirth and Medical Research, (2010): 30.
Howeve, befoe giving the medicine, anesthesiologist caefully examines the condition of the pegnant woman to whom anesthesia is to be given. Epidual anesthesia duing labo and nomal delivey does not cause unconsciousness; thus, patients do not lose thei psychological aletness (Halpen and Douglas 2008).
Accoding to (Oebaugh 2011), epidual anesthesia is commonly administeed by injecting the medicine in the lumba egion of the back, specifically in the epidual egion. The detailed pocedue egading the administation of epidual anesthesia has aleady been discussed in the pevious section of the pape. Howeve, the anesthetic dug injected in the epidual space inteupts the passage of neve impulses that oiginate in epoductive ogans and tavel though neves to lowe spine and then to bain. This hindes the feeling of sensation/pain that is poduced in the lowe pats of the body.
The degee of insensitivity induced depends on few factos that include the…
This can cloud your judgment, which as a trader or investor it is imperative to think with a clear head. When you are placing the hedge, it is set at a logical point that is determined without emotions. This increases the chances that you have reduced your risks by eliminating the emotionalism that accompanies the markets. (Carr, 2002)
Another reason why hedging is effective, is it allows you to protect your downside using as little working capital as possible. ecause hedging involves using options, means that the overall amounts of upfront costs are low. This means, that going into the hedge you know what your maximum down side will be (the premium). You can also reduce the amounts of risk by purchasing the options with expirations that are coming up, within the next 30 to 60 days. This is important, because the closer the option moves to the expiration date,…
Carr, P. (2002, October 1). Static Hedging of Standard Options. Retrieved February 27, 2010 from Fordham
University website: http://www.bnet.fordham.edu/crif/WorkingPapers/crifwp02010.pdf
Maynard, M (2008, October 1). Southwest Has First Loss in 17 Years. Retrieved February 26, 2010 from New York
Times website: http://www.nytimes.com/2008/10/17/business/17air.html?_r=1
To rebuild their image, the company would try a number of different strategies, none of which would prove to be successful. This would hurt the market share of Gap to the point that many analysts now believe that it may be advantageous to spin off the company's: Old Navy, anana Republic and Gap stores. What this shows, is how a company can begin to lose its way when it is not focused on adjusting to changes in consumer tastes and trends. In the case of Ann Taylor, they need to be aware of this hazard, as it can have an adverse impact on the long-term viability of their business. (Reingold)
A second challenge that Ann Taylor can be wrestling with is a lack of focus on the part of management. In this case, managers must understand the role that their decisions will have on their organization. Where, executives must clearly…
10Q. Ann Taylor, 2010. Print.
Ann Taylor Stores. Yahoo Finance, 2010. Web. 31 Oct. 2010
Ann Taylor Stores. Yahoo Finance, 2010. Web. 31 Oct. 2010
Ann Taylor Stores. Yahoo Finance, 2010. Web. 31 Oct. 2010
This was because they were seeing one of their primary competitors (Travelers) merging with Citicorp (which created a juggernaut of: insurance, banking and brokerage activities). At which point, executives at AIG felt that in order to: maintain their dominance in the industry and offer new products they should become involved in similar activities. The difference was that they would grow the company by expanding into areas that were considered to be speculative to include: commodities, stocks, options and credit default swaps. The way that this was accomplished is by purchasing a host of businesses that were involved in these activities. This is significant, because it meant that a shift would take place in: how managers were accounting for risks and the kinds of activities that they were becoming involved in. With the newly acquired companies; bringing over executives that did not practice the same kind of strategies for dealing with…
Travelers, Citigroup Unite. (1998). CNN. Retrieved from: http://money.cnn.com/1998/04/06/deals/travelers/
US saw 13 Bank Failures Every Month in 2010. (2011). Economic Times. Retrieved from: http://articles.economictimes.indiatimes.com/2011-01-02/news/28424370_1_medium-banks-bank-failures-problem-banks
Baum, C. (2009). The Impact of Macro Economic Uncertainty. Boston College, Boston, MA.
Byoun, S. (2007). Financial Flexibility. Baylor University, Waco, TX.
Administrative and political distance risk is most seen from the standpoint
of legal and financial institutions, the monetary systems and political
associations and the role of foreign governments in defining the barriers
to entry for foreign businesses. Geographic distance risks have more to do
with the physical distance and varying climates. The geographic distance
set of risks also capture the lack of potential infrastructure due to
remoteness. The economic distance risk assessments include the different
information or knowledge process workflows throughout a culture and the
blind-spots this causes for many companies in creating the strategies to
move into another company. There are many risks also present in the
economic distance of given foreign nation, emanating from the differences
in consumer incomes and wide variations in costs and quality of natural,
financial, and human resources.
In assessing the risks of global expansion, it is critical to consider the
use of analytical…
Ghemawat (2001) - Distance Still Matters: The Hard Reality of Global
Expansion. Harvard Business Review. Pankaj Ghemawat. Harvard Business
School Press. Cambridge, MA September, 2001.
isk Management Plan
A&D High Tech
Introduction to the Plan
Charter, Scope, Plan, and WBS
Scope of the isk Management Plan
102.2 isk Management Plan Components
112.4 Expected Monetary Value Analysis
isk Management Identification
123.1 Determine the isks
133.2 Evaluate and Access the isks
133.3 Qualitative and Quantitative Processes
143.4 Compare and Contrast Techniques
144.1 Major and Minor isks for the isk Matrix
144.2 isk Matrix Template
Corrective Action and Monitoring
155.1 Type of Corrective isk Management
155.2 Corrective Plan
155.3 Corrective Action for isks
Section 6 -- esults, Conclusion, and Follow-Up
Section 7 - eferences
Section 1 -- Introduction
Introduction to the Plan
This project involves a company named A&D High Tech which operates within the computer products industry and sells computer products, accessories, and services to consumers and small businesses. The…
Government bonds are called risk-free because they will be paid back. he underlying assumption is that the U.S. reasury can always print more money in order to finance the payback of these bonds. hat does not by any means make the bonds truly risk-free, but they are guaranteed to return face value. here are actually a few different ways in which government bonds are risky.
A recent change to the more orthodox view of government bond risk is that U.S. government bonds were downgraded in 2011, something that had never happened previously. his has not changed the market view of U.S. government paper, but it does imply that, according to one rating agency at least, the bonds of some other governments are less risky than the bonds of the U.S. government. hat said, the risk conditions of U.S. bonds have not changed. hey are still considered risk free because…
The risk of default in U.S. government bonds, aside from political shenanigans like the debt ceiling debacle in the summer of 2011, lies largely with the federal budget. This is known as sovereign risk. The sovereign risk of the United States, and several other developed nations, is very low. With other countries, however, there are genuine budget issues that make default a possibility. In the Eurozone, for example, nations like Greece are struggling to meet their debt payments. With Greece, there is no ability for the government to print more money in order to cover its obligations, and that increases the sovereign risk. Nations that have their own currencies do not have this type of risk, but still have sovereign risk to the extent that they could find themselves one day without enough cash to pay their obligations.
It should be noted that part of the reason that government bonds give a return is not related as much to risk as it is to providing the incentive to invest. Governments issue debt because they need to raise funds. If there was no return given on that debt, nobody would invest. Therefore, there must be some sort of return offered, in order to entice investors. The rate is typically set in regard to the opportunity cost of capital, and the market yield will reflect the market's views about the sovereign risk associated with debt.
Thus, risk free securities are not truly risk free. There is the risk of default, although this risk is very minor. There is the risk as well that the value of the investment will not be much. In the event of hyperinflation, for example, the value of the money might be very low. However, the value will always be paid out because the Treasury can print that money. The interest rate reflects, in addition to an enticement to invest, the combined risk of default and the risk associated with expected future interest rate moves.
This is equity risk. Equity risk can be measured -- either with standard deviation or more typically with the beta coefficient. This risk must be addressed, because the upside movement of the stock was something that was paid for with the lower rate of interest payments.
Diversification of any equity portfolio can be done on a number of other variables. The diversified portfolio will contain exposure to a wide range of firms and industries, and preferably a high level of geographic diversification as well. Modern portfolio theory holds that as few as three companies can result in a diversified portfolio but ideally the portfolio would have at least thirty. The portfolio should include a wide range of types of instruments as well, so that the risk inherent in the convertible is offset by the performance of other instruments, companies and products in the portfolio. ith the market, the CAPM beta…
isk and Insurance Management
isk is believed to be a newly coined word of assurance (for example, Ewald, 1991: 198). One of the broadly shared suppositions regarding insurance is that it spins around an instrumental concept of risk. Possibility and the amount of influence make up a technical concept of hazard/risk and hazard administration is chiefly worried about reviewing these possibilities and influences (for an overview see Gratt, 1987). For instance, external profits of financial or political occurrences lay down thresholds for the availability of associated risk guesstimates or reckonings (Huber, 2002).
So, the range of the risk groups cannot be clarified by risk judgment single-handedly; peripheral circumstances that could be political, financial or inclusive of image, arts and manners, are also required to be taken into account. Therefore, if risks are not be present, per se, but are deliberately selected, we can go a step ahead and presume them…
Douglas, M. And Wildavsky, A. (1982) Risk and Culture. An Essay on the Selection of Technical and Environmental Dangers. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Evers, A. And Nowotny, H. (1987) Uber den Umgang mit Unsicherheit. Die Entdeckung der Gestaltbarkeit von Gesellschaft. Frankfurt / Main: Suhrkamp.
Ewald, F. (1991) 'Insurance and Risk' in Burchell, G., Gordon, C. And Miller, P. (eds.) The Foucault Effect: studies in governmentality . London: Harvester Wheatsheaf.
Gratt, L.B. (1987) 'Risk Analysis or Risk Assessment: a proposal for consistent definitions' in Covello, V. And Lave, L. (eds.) Uncertainty in Risk Assessment, Risk Management and Decision Making, Advances in Risk Analysis (4). New York: Plenum Press.
Risk workshops allow for a strong modeling process of any project management problem. Risk workshops, when conducted effectively produce a prioritized list of risks that has an assigned action and stakeholders attached to that risk. As a project manager all risks rely on the details of the project. I would always expect to be briefed on any changes in budget, deadline or change in objective. Identifying risks that address these issues is important in assessing the value of risk workshops.
Prioritization of key principles and objectives is imperative in the project management way of business. Understanding the difference between a threat and a priority is essential for success. High-priority opportunities should always be addressed first since they compose the main objectives and goals for that project. Threats are important but should not cause the project to come off the tracks.
When disaster strikes in the middle of a…
Europe's more liberal drug policies are not the right model for America.
Most non-violent drug users get treatment, not jail time. (Legalization, 2010).
There are no benefits for society in the legalization of marijuana. The money from the taxing of the marijuana will end up being use to regulate and enforce the dispensaries. The money to treat the addiction will be another source of lost revenues from the taxation.
Increased usage by underage teens will be the same as cigarettes and alcohol and will increase as the price drops as it did in the Dutch experiment. Kids will be introduced onto the drug culture that leads to the use of the harder narcotics as a result of the increased access to the marijuana. The benefits will be just moved from one area to other areas of criminalization.
DEA website. 2010. etrieved on May 10,…
DEA website. 2010. Retrieved on May 10, 2010 from http://www.pbs.org/newshour/extra/features/jan-june01/drugs_marijuanaharm.html
"Feature: Hundreds of Los Angeles Medical Marijuana Dispensaries Face Closure Under New Rules Passed by Council" 2010. Retrieved on May 10, 2010 from http://stopthedrugwar.org/chronicle/618/los_angeles_medical_marijuana_dispensary_ordinance_approved
Joffe, a. & Yancy, W. "Legalization of Marijuana: Potential Impact on Youth." 2004. PEDIATRICS Vol. 113 No. 6 June 2004, pp. e632-e638. Retrieved on May 10, 2010 from http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/113/6/e632
"Legalization- Arguments Pro and Con." 2010 Retrieved on May 10, 2010 from http://www.libraryindex.com/pages/2395/Legalization-ARGUMENTS-PRO-CON.html
These were being make, passiveness or unassertiveness, and a father who avoids conflict with a teenage child. Parental guidance on safer sexual practices, skillful assertion, negotiation and resolution of conflicts all help improve dating communication between teenagers. ut parents' strategies in solving everyday conflicts and issues with teenage children may be the true basis for the safe-sex negotiations in their dating. Parents who actively engage in open disagreement with their teenage children may induce confidence in their children to assert themselves and communicate their preference with a sexual partner regarding the use of condoms. These strategies are likely to develop from safe-sex communication with parents (Feingold).
Parental Processes and Style
The Kaiser Family Foundation surveys suggested that teenagers whose parents monitor their children's whereabouts and particular behaviors tend to have only one sexual partner or avoid unprotected sex (Howell, 2001). A combination of high-level communication and parental monitoring works well…
Aspen (2009). Sexual promiscuity in adolescents. Fact Sheets. Aspen Education Group.
Retrieved on July 21, 2011 from http://www.aspeneducation.com/factsheetpromiscuity.html
Feingold, A. (2006). Parents can help reduce sexual risk-taking. PsychCentral:
PsychCentral.com. Retrieved on July 21, 2011 from http://psychcentral.com/lib/2006/parents-can-help-teens-reduce-sexual-risk-taking
Risks From International Business
What are some risks of international business that may not exist for local business?
There are many risks inherent in competing on a global or internal level compared to being a local business. As the chapter suggests, there is a much greater level of economic and socio-political pressure on governments to work together for the common good of the global economy. Despite these best intentions, global macroeconomic factors often cause nations to restrict or unnecessarily increase the cost of transactions and trade based on fear over the trading partner's economies. Such is the case for American companies attempting to gain sales within China, whose government holds nearly $1.1 trillion in U.S.-based debt. China and the United States are two of the more powerful economic forces in the global economy, and as their economies go, so goes the world. What this means for international businesses is that…
isk Management Consultant Proposal
Event: The Global Event for Biotechnology in Chicago, Illinois
In brief, this event will bring together professionals from not only the academia but also from government and the industry. The convention will in this case provide participants with a unique opportunity to explore, describe, and probe the various global challenges we are faced with today, and the most appropriate measures that can be adopted to rein in the said challenges.
isk assessment in the words of Dampsey (2007) "is the process of identifying potential areas of security and loss, and the development and implementation of effective measures or countermeasures to deal with these problems." This particular risk assessment for the aforementioned event will take into consideration not only the hazards but also the nature of risks, and the measures that should be taken to control them. In this particular case, a hazard…
Dampsey, J.S. (2007). Introduction to Private Security. Belmont, CA: Thomson Higher Education.
Wells, G. (1996). Hazard Identification & Risk Assessment. Rugby, Warwickshire: Institute of Chemical Engineers.
Risk Management 
If you believe a stock will appreciate and want to risk little to speculate that the stock will rise what are your option?
Holding a call option is fairly low risk because it would allow me to buy future stocks at a current price. An increase in stock value would limit my losses and allow me to profit by means of leveraged speculation. As a holder exercising a call option, I would be able to benefit from the same profit in underlying stock by paying only a minimal amount of money. By risking only a small percentage of my capital towards an insurance premium, I am potentially able to benefit from trends and hedge away risks within the call-option deadline.
Potential losses can be offset against either long-or-short stock portfolios by means of trading call strategies. A Fiduciary call would allow for a reduced capital outlay by…
They were just so intense, so focused, so transaction-driven, there literally wasn't time for people to put ideas out and discuss and debate them."
These constraints to effective management oversight and innovation were further exacerbated when the company went private in 2001. According to Stopper, "ARAMARK went from a leveraged buyout situation in 1984, with only some 50 people having equity in the company, to an initial public offering (IPO) in 2001 with 97% ownership by employees. It was a huge cultural shift. Many employees incurred debt in order to have ownership in the company. In his view, HR's power and influence came from performance and creating value, not from advancing or acceding to personal agendas."
To their credit, though, Hayes reports that the company finally took action to remedy this situation by creating an action project team to assess the potential threats involved in retaining the status quo and…
About ARAMARK." (2007). ARAMARK Corporation. [Online]. Available: http://www.aramark.com/MainLanding.aspx?PostingID=336&ChannelID=187 .
Alleyne, Sonia (2007, July). "40 Best Companies for Diversity: In Our Third Annual Survey, We Focus on Supplier Diversity and Senior Management Representation-How Much Companies Spend with Black Suppliers and Who They Let into the Corporate Suite." Black Enterprise 37(12): 106
Caddell, Cathy L. (2004, October). "Taste of Chicago." Corrections Today 66(6): 46
Goldberg, Karen (1996, July 18). "How to Feed 10,800 Athletes." The Washington Times 13.
Risk Sales Forecast
Budgeting, Sales Forecasts, and Ethical Consideration
Sales forecasts and the budget preparation process in general, serves as a cornerstone for effective operations management. hen this practice is performed with strict adherence to good business ethics it is one of the key components of the entire business planning process. ith reliable estimates the organization can plan appropriates. Financial planning and estimation includes forecasted sales and revenues, expenses, and required cash flow to operate the business.
The budget will then combine all of the different estimates into a comprehensive document that can be used to plan for the future and to make business decision. The first activity in the budgeting process is usually a sales forecast. Once an organization determines what their projected levels of sales will be for any period, they can then estimate the other expenses based on this forecast. Accuracy of the sales forecast therefore is…
Decker, R., & Gnibba-Yukawa, K. (2010). Sales Forecasting in High-Technology Markets: A Utility-Based Approach. The Journal of Product Innovation Management, 115-129.
Todd, S., Crook, T., & Lachowetz, T. (2013). Agency Theory Explanations of Self-Serving Sales Forecast Inaccuracies. Sciedu Press, 13.
High Speed II (HS2) in an initiative by the British government to invest in the future of the country's rail network in order to transform its economic geography. The project is aimed at helping businesses to function more productively, bring key cities closer together, and foster the growth of employment and regeneration. Moreover, the high speed II rail initiative is for the purpose of providing alternatives to domestic aviation and developing a platform that supports long-term and sustainable prosperity and economic growth. As part of the strategy, the British government has set up the High Speed Two Limited Company (HS2 Ltd.) to consider the feasibility of the rail services between London and the West Midlands.
Problems Associated with High Speed II Strategy:
While the strategy is geared towards accomplishing several goals that will transform the rail network, there are various problems associated with the high speed II initiative. Some of…
Aizlewood, K. & Wellings, R (2011), High Speed 2: The Next Government Project Disaster?
Institute of Economic Affairs, viewed 9 December 2011,
Existing Funding Infrastructure
Education financing in Florida is at a crisis point. The current system for K-12 financing in Florida features a combination of state and local funds. Approximately $7.75 billion is contributed by the state. This comes from general revenues, which puts this financing at risk should there be significant changes to state revenue levels. There have been stories in the news media in the past year where different bodies of expressed concern about the sustainability of Florida's ability to finance its K-12 system (Times-Union, 2012). The education system has seen its funding cut several times in recent years. As a result, the performance of Florida's schoolchildren has been poor.
At the state level, the Florida Education Finance Program (FEFP) is "the primary mechanism for funding the operating costs of Florida school districts (FLDOE, 2012). The formula on which Florida state financing is organized is based on…
FLDOE. (2012). 2012-2013 funding for Florida school districts. Florida Department of Education. Retrieved November 13, 2012 from www.fldoe.org/fefp/pdf/fefpdist.pdf
Stiefel, L. & Schwartz, A. (2010). Financing K-12 education in the Bloomberg years, 2002-2008. Wagner and Steinhardt Schools, NYU. Retrieved November 13, 2012 from https://steinhardt.nyu.edu/scmsAdmin/media/users/lah431/StiefelSchwartz_AIR_Nov2010_presentation.pdf
Times-Union. (2012). Florida's education funding still lags. Jacksonville Times-Union. Retrieved November 13, 2012 from http://jacksonville.com/opinion/editorials/2012-04-20/story/funding-floridas-education-still-lags
Thus, students faced with fear and stress, are overwhelmed, concentrating on the test rather than on the goals of learning. They cannot concentrate on school work, understanding the importance of learning and education, because of stress that forces some to focus only on the test and others to drop out.
III. High stakes testing disadvantages those with learning disabilities.
In addition to lowering the teaching capacity of some teachers and students' focus on the value of education, many scholars argue that high stakes testing can be harmful to those with learning disabilities. First, many argue that students with learning disabilities receive different curriculum than students without learning disabilities, making it impossible for students with learning disabilities to do well on the same tests given to their peers. Furthermore, many students do not receive the aid that they need when taking tests, such as hearing aids or visual aids, and some…
Amrein, a.L. & Berliner, D.C. (2002, March 28). High-stakes testing, uncertainty, and student learning Education Policy Analysis Archives, 10(18). Retrieved February 22, 2009, at http://epaa.asu.edu/epaa/v10n18
Appropriate Use of High-Stakes Testing in Our Nation's Schools" (2001, May).
Retrieved February 22, 2009, from the American Psychological Association. Web Site: http://www.apa.org/pubinfo/testing.html
Cortiella, C. (2004, June). Implications of High-Stakes Testing for Students with Learning Disabilities. Retrieved February 22, 2009, from Great Schools. Web Site: http://www.greatschools.net/cgi-bin/showarticle/2846
Finally the security plan must include periodic yet random simulated attacks and audits of security levels to ensure that both the DaaS software platforms and clients' data remains secure over time. All of these areas of the security plan must also be actively monitored within an online scorecard that clients can see on a 24/7 basis over their systems from anywhere in the world there is an Internet connection. A key aspect of any successful data center security plan is accountability for performance and transparency as well.
Systems Implementation Plan
Defining how the specific servers and their respective operating systems, applications, and data virtualization algorithms are optimized is defined in the systems implementation plan. The intent of this plan is to also define the points of integration between the systems themselves in addition to defining software integration points critical for the entire DaaS platform to run effectively. Further, this aspect…
Creeger, M.. (2009). CTO Roundtable: Cloud Computing. Association for Computing Machinery. Communications of the ACM, 52(8), 50.
Desai, R., & McGee, R.. (2010). Is Outsourced Data Secure? The CPA Journal, 80(1), 56-59.
Ferrara, L., Foltz, D., & Turisco, F.. (2009). Information as a Strategic Asset. Applied Clinical Trials, 18(8), 38-40.
Goo, J. (2010). Structure of service level agreements (SLA) in it outsourcing: The construct and its measurement. Information Systems Frontiers, 12(2), 185-205.
"Schools will not be able to attract high-quality teachers to a system that stifles richness and creativity and emphasizes a narrow band of knowledge and a very restricted set of tests to measure it." Consequently, struggling schools will get worse as teachers move to more affluent public or private schools to teach. The students will suffer the consequences of inadequate instruction the most.
In the end, High Stakes Testing does not appear to be benefiting anyone except those who like to study data. The tests generate information from and about students and schools. However, that information is probably not very accurate due to the way the information is manipulated and the limitations of the tests themselves. The reality is that a better system of promoting student achievement and evaluating schools needs to be found. That system may include testing as one of its elements, but due to the negative impact…
Amrein, A.L. & Berliner, D.C. (2002, December). An Analysis of Some
Unintended and Negative Consequences of High-Stakes Testing. Great Lakes Center - Michigan Live. Retrieved July 13, 2006 at http://greatlakescenter.org/pdf/H-S%20Analysis%20final.pdf
Battaglieri, T. (2006, April). MEAP's March Madness debunks value of high stakes testing. Great Lakes Center - Michigan Live. Retrieved July 13, 2006, at http://www.greatlakescenter.org/Center_Funded_Research_2005.php
Goldberg, M. (2005, March). Losing Students to High-Stakes Testing. Education Digest, 70 (7), 10-19. Retrieved July 13, 2006 from EBSCOhost online database.
Being a high voltage engineer has its ups and downs. We work in a highly charged social network and working environment, requiring teamwork and trust. A high voltage engineer like me learns quickly how to feel comfortable in positions of power and leadership. As I broaden my horizons and climb a Jacob's ladder to new career heights, I stand poised and ready to help my community. It is with a spirit of altruism and ambition that I embark on this next phase of my life and career. My education has strengthened and solidified my vision as an electrical engineer, as I contemplate the broader implications of my work and the potential for growth in the field.
My background has prepared me for this moment, as generations ago our family was involved in the electrical engineering industries. My grandmother worked alongside my grandfather as technicians, and they passed on…
Most developed economies, however, allow the market to set exchange rates, only influencing currency values through indirect means such as the increased or reduced sale of bonds to foreign entities and individuals, or through other means of international wealth exchange. Essentially, all manipulations of exchange rates and actions based on predictions of exchange rates are focused on the forward exchange rate, or the predicted rate of exchange between two currencies at a future point in time.
The spot exchange rate, on the other hand, is the rate of exchange at the current moment in time. It is through a comparison of the spot rate and the forward rate of exchange -- inasmuch as it can be predicted with any accuracy -- that companies and businesses make decisions that affect either the exchange rate itself (in the case of some governments, notably China in the modern period), or more often make…
Christofferson, Peter F. Elements of Financial Risk Management. San Diego: Elsevier Sciences, 2003.
Comptroller of the Currency Administrator of National Banks. Interest Rate Risks. 1997. Accessed 19 March 2010. http://www.occ.treas.gov/handbook/irr.pdf
Cusatis, Patrick and Martin R. Thomas. Hedging Instruments and Risk Management. New York: McGraw Hill, 2005.
Dun & Bradstreet. Financial Risk Management. New Delhi: McGraw Hill, 2008.
hile many articles tend to deal with the fact that victims of child abuse tend to become abusers, I wanted to go in another direction, looking at how child abuse can actually affect the life of the abused. In order to consider this, I contemplated Belik et al.'s study, "Relation Between Traumatic Events and Suicide Attempts in Canadian Military Personnel." In this article, the authors' purpose wanted to "determine whether exposure to particular types of traumatic events was associated with suicide attempts in a representatives ample of active military personnel" (Beilik et al. 93). In order to test the connection between certain traumatic events and suicide attempts, the authors drew data from the Canadian Community Health Survey, which asked respondents to mark whether they had been victims of 28 different traumatic events during their lives. One of these events was child abuse. The survey was representative of such variables including…
Belik, S., Stein, M.B., Amudson, G. JG., and Sareen, J. "Relation Between Traumatic
Events and Suicide Attempts in Canadian Military Personnel." La Revue canadienne de psychiatre. 54.2. (2009): 93-104.
Kim, Min Jung. Tajima, Emiko A., Herrenkohn, Todd I., and Huang, Bu. "Early Child
Maltreatment, Runaway Youths, and Risk of Delinquency and Victimization in Adolescence: A Mediational Model." Social Work Research. 13.1 (2009): 19-28.
A nuclear meltdown would be a local catastrophe requiring evacuation (and likely permanent abandonment) of the surrounding communities, but that risk is not substantially different in magnitude from a burst hydroelectric dam, or from the aggregate harm of continuing to pollute our atmosphere with fossil fuel waste products..
Certainly, nuclear energy requires strict regulation, careful facilities planning, and myriad other equally important practical considerations for administrating the industry safely so that its risks are minimized. However, the emotional objection to peaceful uses of nuclear power is based on incorrect assumptions about what those risks actually are, as well as on the illogical association of the beneficial uses of the technology with its destructive potential used in weapons of war.
In the case of nuclear power, the ethical considerations are closely related to the logical analysis. Once it is established that the emotional objection to nuclear power on overall…
Gundersen, P. (1999) the Handy Physics Answer Book.
Barnes & Noble: New York
Rennie, R. (2003) the Facts on File Dictionary of Atomic and Nuclear Physics.
Checkmark Books: New York
isk of Committing Violence Among Individuals Suffering From Bipolar Disorder
Several studies argue that most psychiatric symptoms are closely correlated with criminality, since such symptoms impair judgment and violate societal norms. In this regard, several studies have been conducted regarding the risk of violence among individuals suffering from mental illnesses but few have highlighted the possibility of bipolar individuals engaging in criminal behavior. The common disorders known to be highly related to criminality include antisocial personality disorder, kleptomania, voyeurism and schizophrenia. Therefore, this study is meant to examine the possibility of bipolar individuals engaging in criminal behavior.
This paper aims at analyzing the likelihood of committing violence among individuals suffering from bipolar disorder as well as the factors that are likely to influence the degree to which these individuals are likely to commit violent acts.
Past studies have hinted that individuals suffering from bipolar disorder have…
Belfrage, H. (1998). A ten-year follow-up of criminality in Stockholm mental patients. British Journal of Criminology, 38, 145-155.
Fazel, S., Lichtenstein, P., Grann, M., Goodwin, G.M., & Langstrom, N. (2010). Bipolar Disorder and Violent CrimeNew Evidence From Population-Based Longitudinal Studies and Systematic Review. Archives of General Psychiatry, 67(9), 931-938.
Feldmann, T.B. (2001). Bipolar Disorder and Violence. Psychiatric Quarterly, 72(2), 119-129.
Link, B.G., Monahan, J., Ann, S., & Cullen, F.T. (1999). Real in Their Consequences: A Sociological Approach to Understanding the Association between Psychotic Symptoms and Violence. American Sociological Review, 64(2), 316-332.
Fuel prices are a major contributor to the profitability of an airline, as they tend to be more volatile than ticket prices. In response to this variability, airlines typically engaging in fuel price hedging strategies. On the operational level, many airlines rely on a focus on shorter average flight distances. This keeps the fuel cost down relative to passenger revenue. However, the most common method of dealing with fuel price volatility is to utilize a financial hedge, typically a series of either futures or forwards to lock in the price of fuel.
The first thing to realize is that the company cannot perfectly hedge the top end of the fuel price range. At some point, the price paid is going to have to be lower than the top price or the airline will lose a lot of money when the price drops again. During a major run-up, like…
Bachman, J. (2008). Southwest sees fuel hedges' pesky side. Business Week. Retrieved January 19, 2012 from http://www.businessweek.com/lifestyle/travelers_check/archives/2008/10/southwest_sees.html
, 2007). The results of that research indicates that light users of MDMA do exhibit mild cognitive impairment during the short-term in which they occasionally use the drug but that after six months or more of abstinence, their performance on the same cognitive tests used to identify those changes returns to being indistinguishable from the performance of those who have never been exposed to the drug (Golding, Groome, ycroft, et al., 2007).
The Short-Term and Long-Term Consequences of Heavy MDMA Use
Animal studies have conclusively established that MDMA causes permanent destruction of neurons and synaptic processes that are essential to the physiological mechanisms of neurotransmitter secretion, response, and reuptake by virtue of the selectively neurotoxic properties of the drug on 5-HT neurons in rats (Verrico, Miller, & Madras, 2007). Those findings are consistent with anecdotal evidence collected from clinical human data in connection with the long-term cognitive, behavioral, and mood…
Golding, J.F., Groome, DH, Rycroft, N., and Denton, Z. "Cognitive Performance in Light Current Users and Ex-Users of Ecstasy (MDMA) and Controls." The
American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, Vol. 33 (2007): 301 -- 307.
Koprich, J.B., Chen, E.Y., Kanaan, N.M., Campbell, N.G., Kordower, J.H., and Lipton, J.W. "Prenatal 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (ecstasy) alters exploratory behavior, reduces monoamine metabolism, and increases forebrain tyrosine hydroxylase fiber density of juvenile rats." Neurotoxicology and Teratology, Vol. 25, No. 5 (2003): 509 -- 517.
Roiser, J.P., Rogers, R.D., and Sahakian, B.J. "Neuropsychological function in ecstasy
This is one of the destructive sources of stress. Employees often consider background noise as a distractive element experienced in various working environments. However, it is difficult to control most of the noise in organizations, for instance, telephone ringing in an open office and loud conversations. When the intensity of noise is very high in the office, some employees lack concentration and eventually produce low quality work (Ozcelik, Langton & Aldrich, 2008).
Loud noise may also reduce their motivation level. In controlling the intensity of noise generated from within the organization, the organization should encourage employees to close their office doors and focus in their tasks. A closed door reduces the distractions coming from the outside environment. Lack of concentration caused by loud noise increases the intensity of stress. This may alter the concentration and attitude of works towards their work. The employee in this case is unable to execute…
Bakker AB, Demerouti E (2007). The job demands-resources model: state of the art. Journal of Managerial Psychology 22, 309 -- 328.
Bond SA, Tuckey MR, Dollard MF (2010). Psychosocial safety climate, workplace bullying, and symptoms of posttraumatic stress. Organization Development Journal 28, 37 -- 56.
Folk man, S. (2011). Stress, health, and coping: Synthesis, commentary, and future directions. In S. Folk man (Ed.), the Oxford handbook of stress, health, and coping (pp. 453 -- 462). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Ozcelik H, Langton N, Aldrich H (2008). Doing well and doing good; the relationship between leadership practices that facilitate a positive emotional climate and organizational performance. Journal of Managerial Psychology 23, 186 -- 203.
" And the third category was, c) a combination of the two earlier-mentioned approaches, with "early childhood education services provided in centers supplemented by parental education delivered in the same setting" or through visits by teachers into the homes.
hat were the verified benefits of these RAND-surveyed programs? At least one of the following "domains" showed benefits that were demonstrated to be "significant" and/or "sizable"; "cognition and academic achievement"; "emotional and behavioral "competencies"; "educational progression and attainment"; "child maltreatment"; health, delinquency and crime; social welfare programs; and "labor market successes."
The evidence from RAND's research indicated that longer-lasting benefits from high quality preschool opportunities include "substantial gains in outcomes" such as quality special education placement and grade retention; improved high school graduation rates; reduced crime incidents; job success; and also, parents often benefit in their own lives and careers from early intervention programs for their children.
Effective preschool programs also…
Capizzano, Jeffrey, & Main, Regan. (2005). Many Young Children Spend Long Hours in Child
Care. Urban Institute, Retrieved June 5, 2006, at http://www.urban.org/url.cfm?ID=311154 .
Hodgkinson, Harold L. (2003). Leaving Too Many Children Behind: A Demographer's View
On the Neglect of America's Youngest Children. The Institute for Educational Leadership,
HIGHE SALAY vs. BETTE BENEFITS
Would you rather have better benefits and a modest salary or high salary and lower levels of benefits?
When comparing the choice of selecting better benefits and a modest salary (such as working for the government in the civil service or as a teacher) versus a high salary and few benefits (such as working as a commission salesperson), overall I would prefer to work for a higher salary. This choice suits my naturally independent personality. I would prefer to have the money to invest as I saw fit and to use it for a variety of personally fulfilling goals, such as traveling or a down payment on a house, versus having my benefits and how I should use the additional revenue dictated to me by my employer.
Of course, by taking this choice, I assume certain responsibilities for myself. I might have to buy my…
Job hunting: Higher pay vs. better benefits. (2009). Investopedia. Retrieved: