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Actions and morality are considered of secondary importance to the initial act of faith that functions as the basis for these (Miller, 2009).
Christian morality functions on the basis of faith. Like Hindus, Christians honor their connection to the divine by means of actions, but they do not see actions as a pathway to bliss; this is the role of faith. In other words, Christians live morally laudable lives because they are faithful rather than in the hope of gaining anything from this. As such, there is a fundamental separation between actions and their consequences; actions are based upon the connection with the divine, rather than the other way around. Actions, in other words, are the result of faith. Faith paves the way to moral action, rather than action being a vehicle towards bliss (Miller, 2009).
While both Hinduism and Christianity are therefore focused upon morality as divinely inspired and…
Facts for Faith (2002). "Do all Religions Lead to God?" Facts for Faith 52-8. ProQuest Research Library. Web. 27 Nov. 2011.
Fisher, M. (2011) Living Religions, 8th ed. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall.
Miller, L. (2009). "We are all Hindus Now." Newsweek Aug 31: ProQuest. Web. 27 Nov. 2011.
Hinduism and Buddhism
Historical Context of Hinduism
Ontario Consultants on eligious Tolerance list a number of areas in which Hinduism differs from other more monotheistic religions in that Hinduism does not have the following:
A single founder
A central religious authority
A singles concept of deity
A specific theological system
A single system of morality
The concept of a prophet
They further explain that Hinduism should not be considered a religion in the same way that Christianity is, that Hinduism is more correctly considered to be an all encompassing way of life, in much the same way as Native American spirituality (Hinduism, 2011).
Hinduism is generally considered to be the world's oldest organized religion, consisting of numerous different religious groups that evolved in India since around 1500 BCE. Hinduism ranks as the world's third largest religion, following Christianity and Islam. Hinduism followers make up approximately 14% of the world's population,…
Hinduism: The world's third largest religion. (2011). Religious Tolerance.org Web site. Retrieved June 18, 2011 from http://www.religioustolerance.org/hinduism.htm
Fast Facts on Buddhism. (2007). Religion Facts Web site. Retrieved June 18, 2011 from http://www.religionfacts.com/buddhism/fastfacts.htm
Flood, G. (2009). History of Hinduism. BBC Web site. Retrieved June 18, 2011 from
Hinduism is among the world's oldest religion that has no beginning it was there before recorded history. Unlike most other religions, it cannot be linked to a single founder as it is formed from diverse traditions. It is a predominant religion in the Indian subcontinent and is one of its indigenous religions (Sen, 2005) Due to the fact that it cannot be clearly defined and does not have rigid guidelines various forms of religious expressions coexist in Hinduism. It is actually a way of life since there are no set customs or rituals that make a person a Hindu if followed. It has four main denominations or sects which are Saivism, Shaktism, Vaishnavism and Smartism.
Within Hinduism there is the belief of a supreme God whose qualities are represented by deities which emanate from him. The Supreme Being is all-pervasive that is both immanent and transcendent and is also…
Shattuck, C.T. (1999). Hinduism. London: Routledge.
Sen, K.M. (2005). Hinduism. London: Penguin. (Chapter1 and 2)
Kumar, V., (2003). Hinduism Beliefs: Facts About Hinduism. Retrieved October 15, 2012 from http://www.godrealized.com/hinduism_beliefs.html
Pushatak M., (2006).The Philosophy of Hinduism: Four Objectives of Human Life; Dharma (Right Conduct), Artha (Right Wealth), Kama (Right Desire), Moksha (Right Exit (Liberation)
Hinduism, Buddhism, And Jainism
Hinduism is among the world's oldest faiths, and is regarded as a total way of life, or dharma, which evolved by the great sages and seers of ancient India (Hinduism pp). ith traditions dating back before recorded history, the early phase of the Verdic tradition in India is generally dated between 10,000 -- 7,000 BCE. (Hinduism pp). However, in spite of the fact that Hinduism evolved more than 5,000 years ago, it is also very much a living tradition, and thus, Hindus are certainly one of the most intensely religious people in the world (Hinduism pp). India has been a veritable laboratory of religion for thousands of years, with numerous sects emerging, however, the country remains predominantly Hindu (Hinduism pp).
Buddhism is a religion and philosophy that was founded in India around 525 B.C, by Siddhartha Gautama, called the Buddha (Buddhism pp). One of the world's…
Jainism. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition; 2/24/2005; pp.
Buddhism. AllRefer.com; pp.
Hinduism. Spiritual-Path; pp. http://www.spiritual-path.com/hinduism.htm
The idea of destiny in the Hindu religion is thus related to the religion's purpose, which is to come finally to union with God. Karma and the unending cycle -- samsara -- hold great sway with the Hindus. The entire religion may be viewed from this aspect.
The question and origin of Christian on the other hand comes from the history of Jesus Christ himself, who life story is preserved in the narrative of the New Testament, and predicted in the narrative of the Old Testament. Followers of Christ, who preaches charity above all things (according to the Pauline gospel), strive to live their lives in accordance with the message of salvation, redemption and charity that Christ taught through his life.
By becoming "like Christ" as St. Paul says to do, followers of Christianity can effect for themselves a new identity. Their religion is meant to transform them into better…
New Testament. (2011.) Retrieved from http://www.devotions.net/bible/00new.htm
Sikora, J. (2002). Religions of India. Lincoln, NE: Writer's Club Press.
In response to the question of who social order is determined, Lord Krishna said, "Birth is not the cause, my friend; it is virtues which are the cause of auspiciousness. Even a candala observing the vow is considered a brahmana by the gods" (Caste pp). Stated in the Bhagavad Gita, "The fourfold caste has been created by Me according to the differentiation of Guna (attributes) and Karma" (Caste pp).
Hinduism believes in behavior, rather than belief and experience over authority, and recognizes no intermediary or prophet as standing between man and God (Tribute pp). The first principal of Hindu Dharma is that "the Reality is one without a second," and since it is beyond description by human mind, it is indicated by a single word, "Brahman" (Tribute pp). The distinguishing feature of Hinduism is pluralism combined with freedom of choice, one is free to choose, question and reject, even to…
Tribute to Hinduism: Introduction. http://www.atributetohinduism.com/introduction_to_hinduism.htm
Hindu Cosmology. http://www.atributetohinduism.com/Hindu_Cosmology.htm
The Caste System. http://www.atributetohinduism.com/Caste_System.htm#No%20Religious%20Sanction%20in%20Hindu%20Scriptures :
Hindu1 Rituals and Myths. http://www.hindubooks.org/essence_of_hinduism/hindu_rituals_and_myths/page5.htm
The responsibilities of one's current caste also constitute the dharma which will further advance or punish one in your next life. In other words, exceeding one's dharma in not only unnecessary, but in all probability will hurt your dharma, causing you to fall into a lower caste in your next life. This intertwining of social strata with religion creates a fatalism derived from inevitable destiny, guilt complexes of past life caste determination, a philosophy of acceptance, and fear of punishment for transcending one's dharma.. Both religions maintain a broad perspective of religious worship; however,. Hinduism is polytheistic while Buddhism maintains no structured belief in an independent, sentient god-like entity (especially in human form).
Both religions believe in a system of reincarnation, and both religions emphasize the community over the self. The major rift between the two religions seems to stem from the role of social structure in the two religions.…
Smith, Huston. The World's Religions: Our Great Wisdom Traditions. New York: Harper Collins. 1958.
Hinduism as a whole, including its extensive literature, complex rituals, and rich culture, allows its followers to have whatever they want. Of course, this is not as simple as it seems, as many people do not actually understand what they really want. Thus, India has examined this question for centuries, finally listing the four main things that people want.
For starters, people want pleasure. Human beings have a natural tendency to seek pleasure, and are biologically created with pleasure-pain reactors. For this reason, Hinduism does not ask its followers to give up pleasure, as there is a natural impulse to seek it. Still, this does not mean that India allows its people to seek pleasure above all else. "To the person who wants pleasure, India says in effect: Go after it -- there is nothing wrong with it; it is one of the four legitimate ends of life (p. 14)."…
Hinduism is a complex and seemingly contradictory religion. It is also a way of life. The key concepts of Karma, The Caste System, the four permissible goals, the ways of salvation, and the infinite manifestations of God combine to create a culture immersed in ritual. Karma binds the belief in the transmigration of the soul and the hope of reaching Moksha (salvation) to right behavior. The Caste System, as delineated in the Vedas 1, serves to stratify society and eventually leads to discrimination and social strife. The Four Permissible Goals of the Hindu Religion "recognize that men naturally and therefore legitimately seek, in the course of many rebirths, four aims in life" (oss, 178). They are pleasure, power, morality, and salvation.2 There are three ways to reach this salvation. These are the Way of Works, the Way of Knowledge, and the Way of devotion.3 Finally, the multiple faces of God…
Noss, David S. And John B. Noss. Man's Religions. 7th Edition. New York: MacMillan Publishing, 1984.
Noss, David S. A History of Worlds Religions. 10th Edition. New York: Prentice Hall. 1999.
Smith, Huston. The World's Religions, Our Great Wisdom Traditions. San Francisco: Harper. 1991.
Both the Puranas and the Upanishads are important sources of information for the Hindus, with a large number of them having become better acquainted with God as a result of heavy learning.
It is not enough for one to have solid information in Hinduism for the respective person to successfully cross the path to afterlife. Hindus believe that only he that has experience both in knowledge and in ignorance is able to obtain immortality, with the particular person succeeding by crossing death through lack of knowledge and acquiring life after death through understanding. For the Hindus death is not a disaster, at it is only part of a much greater process named Jiva. Reincarnation is not something impossible in Hinduism, as it also is a part of Jiva. The soul is considered to leave the body after death and spend some time recharging its energy in a mysterious place of…
1. Beck, Guy L. (2006). "Sacred sound: experiencing music in world religions." Wilfrid Laurier Univ. Press.
2. Chandra, Suresh. (1998). "Encyclopaedia of Hindu gods and goddesses." Sarup & Sons.
3. Clooney, Francis Xavier. (2001). Hindu God, Christian God: how reason helps break down the boundaries between religions. Oxford University Press U.S..
Chandra, Suresh. (1998). "Encyclopaedia of Hindu gods and goddesses." Sarup & Sons.
Hinduism Is and hat it Is Difficult to Reconstruct a Historical Chronology of Its Development
It is a fairly simple matter to identify the precise point of origin of many of the world's major religions; for example, the origins of Buddhism, Christianity and Islam can be historically placed with some degree of accuracy because of the known historical personages associated with their creation (Zaehner 1307). By sharp contrast, the origins of the world's most ancient religions such as Hinduism and Judaism have largely been lost in the mists of time, but this has not impacted the popularity of this religion today or the efforts of researchers to shed more light on their origins (Kelkar & Vaishnav 24). To this end, a brief overview of Hinduism is provided below, followed by an assessment of why it is particularly difficult to reconstruct a historical chronology of its development. A summary of the…
Brockington, J.L. The Sacred Thread: Hinduism in Its Continuity and Diversity. Edinburgh:
Edinburgh University Press, 1981.
Doniger, Wendy and Brian K. Smith. "Hinduism." In Encyclopedia Britannica, Vol. 8.
Hinduism religion is a complex set of principles that encompass the following nine basic beliefs: The divinity of the Vedas (ancient scripture) and the Agamas (primordial hymns), which are God's word; the belief in one Supreme eing which is transcendant; the belief that the universe experiences constant cycles of creation, preservation, and dissolution; the belief that karma creates a person's destiny through personal thoughts, words and actions; the belief that the soul reincarnates until liberation from the cycle has been achieved; the principle that divine beings exist in worlds beyond Earth; the belief that a satguru (spiritual master) is essential to fulfill all aspects of being; and that all religions are paths to God and deserve respect (http://www.beliefnet.com/story/26/story_2656_1.html).
Furthermore, all Hindu followers must fulfill five basic obligations, including daily worship (upasana), Holy days (utsava), virtuous living (dharma), pilgrimage (tirthayatra), and rites of passage (samskara) to be considered true to their…
Brekke, Torkel. "The Conceptual Foundation of Missionary Hinduism." The Journal of Religious History 23.2 (1999): 203-214.
Hinduism. 28 July 2003. http://www.culturopedia.com/Religions/Hinduism.html
Hinduism. 28 July 2003 http://www.encyclopedia.com/printable.asp?url=ssi/section/Hinduism_earlyhinduism.html
Sivanda, Sri Swami. Jnana Yoga. 28 July 2003 http://www.sivanandadlshq.org/teachings/jnanayoga.htm
The practice of Yoga, and its focus on increasing the body's prana through awakening of chakras, or spiritual centers within the body, is also common in Hinduism. Many also share a common belief in an earth goddess who rules over our lives. Over fifty million Hindus are said to worship a variety of the goddess.
Several Hindu traditions explain the importance of rising above the physical world. The Purusha is the pure self, "which is eternally wise, pure, free, beyond change, beyond cause," (76). The ideal self is later tainted through its relationship to the Prakriti, or the physical world. Many believe that all of human suffering comes from man's confusion between the two. When one is too comfortable in the physical world, "we, too, are like gods who forget the heights from which we came, so intent are we on the joys and sorrows of earthly life," (76). Many…
Put the info of the work faxed here. I could not see any author or publication information.
Sanatana dharma or Hinduism - Information Portal." Dharma.com. Found on November 17, 2007 at http://dharma.indviews.com
eing kind to a stranger would give the person good Karma, while being cruel to an animal would be bad Karma. Karma can also cause good or bad things to happen to a person during their life on Earth.
What are the cultural and societal influences that have made Hinduism vital to the region in which it originated?
Hinduism is so important to Indian culture because it is so old, dating back 5,000 years. The most important scriptures for the Hindu religion, the hagavad Gita, or Song of the Lord, dates back to 3,000 C. It teaches that devotion to God is the highest level of worship. ecause God is everywhere around the person, anything the person does, if done with devotion to God, pleases God. This caused the religion to infuse every day life
Explain the desire for liberation from earthly existence.
The highest goal for a Hindu is…
Atkinson, Glennis. 2003. "Basic Hindu Beliefs." The Hutchinson Encyclopedia, 2003.
Subramuniyaswami, Satguru Sivaya. 2000. "Nine Questions: Hinduism, with its ritual and philosophical richness, naturally arouses questions from curious non-Hindus. Do you have good answers?" Hinduism Today, June 30.
The notion of Dharma is a primary concept in Hinduism. Dharma, or the Dharmic conduct, can be understood as a code of conduct of a person's life, guided by the morals, principles and discipline of spirituality. Hinduism describes it as the natural laws of the universe, which if observed properly, provide followers happiness and keeps them away from suffering. Its purpose is to present to the people a way of conducting their lives to enjoy the worldly joys and happiness, while also attaining a union with the soul spiritually. In lay man terms, Dharma can be seen as playing a role in a play. If the character performs his/her duties according to the script, then the play goes well, but if he/she doesn't, then the play is a failure. Similarly, if everything in the universe follows its Dharma, then the universe operates smoothly. If not, then everything in the…
Narayan, R.K. The Ramayana: A shortened modern prose version of the Indian epic. New York: Penguin Books, 1995.
Hinduism view human nature and what is the human condition?
The Vedas view of human nature is that humans have an "eternal self (atman)" that is tucked into numerous "bodily layers (kosas)" such as: intellect, breath, body and mind (Coward, 2012). These layers that Coward describes are believed by Hindus to be made of "karma" that has been created by a person's "free choice in this and previous lives" (190). In order for humans to approach perfection the purging of one's karma was be conducted; "…it is karma that causes one to be reborn" (Coward, 190). Humans are expected to make a spiritual quest, and that, Coward explains in his book, is that goal that "each one must realize" (190).
The human condition according to Swami Brahmeshananda is that man is "less governed by his instincts than other animals" and that if humans didn't have dharma, they are "no better…
Brahmeshananda, S. (2008). Nature of Man / Understanding Hinduism. Retrieved July 17,
2015, from http://www.hinduism.co.za.
Britannica Online Encyclopedia. (2015). Artha. Retrieved July 17, 2015, from http://www.britannica.com .
Psychology.wika.com. (2009). Moksha. Retrieved July 17, 2015, from http://psychology.wikia.com .
Hinduism is a religion started in India sometime around 2000 BC—so it is twice as old as the religion of Christianity. Our calendars are dated by the birth of Christ, which marks the start of Christianity; the year 2020 AD stands for 2020 anno domini (“in the year of Our Lord”). Even though much of the world has turned away from Christianity and now writes the year as 2020 CE (“common era”) it nonetheless still marks the point of departure from BCE (“before the common era”) as that moment of the Incarnation—when in Christianity the Savior (the Word) became Flesh, i.e., when God became Man. For this reason, it must be said that Christianity has had the greater impact on the world, since the world still marks its days by the birth of Christ.
The two religions differ not just in age but also in how they approach the concept…
BBC. “Religions.” https://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/hinduism/beliefs/intro_1.shtml
Brown, Peter. The Cult of the Saints: Its Rise and Function in Latin Christianity. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1981.
Diffen. “Comparison Chart.” https://www.diffen.com/difference/Christianity_vs_Hinduism
Dyneslines. “Judaism and Polytheism.” http://dyneslines.blogspot.com/2010/02/judaism-and-polytheism.html
ESRI. “Hinduism and Christianity.” https://www.arcgis.com/apps/MapJournal/index.html?appid=885a98af925645e1a06050aac07a679 b
Trimurti and the Trinity
Hinduism is a religion which is practiced by millions of people all over the world, particularly in India and other eastern nations. It is a religion which is unlike any other, a religion designed for the individual. Unlike most religions which demand that followers a designated set of rules and practices which require adherence, Hinduism is about individual beliefs. Most religions begin from a written interpretation of what the creators have stated that their God, or Gods in polytheistic religions, wants from the practitioners, also known as the dogma. Because of this fact, the other religions are comparatively slow to evolve and are less likely to accommodate individual believers. Religious scholar J.N. Nanda explains, "Hinduism is not limited by the view of a single founder, a single holy man or a single holy book" (Nanda 106). Since there is no one type of person in the…
Basham, A.L. The Wonder that Was India: a Survey of the Culture of the Indian Sub-Continent
Before the Coming of the Muslims. New York, NY: Gross, 1954. Print.
D'Costa, Gavin. The Meeting of Religions and the Trinity. Faith Meets Faith Series. Maryknoll,
NY: Orbis, 2000. Print.
The Vedas are the primary texts of Hinduism. The oldest is called the ig Veda (hymns praising a number of gods), with the other three being the Yajur Veda (rituals for sacrifices), the Sama Veda (chants for ritual worship), and the Athara Veda (spells and charms for healing the sick). The ig Veda, the oldest of the four Vedas, was composed around 1500 B.C. Vedas are ancient oral traditions that reflect the customs, belief and practices of the ancient Aryan people. It contains hymns, chants, incarnations and rituals from ancient India. Later additions to the Vedas were the Upanishads, which elaborates on how the soul (Atman) can be united with the ultimate truth (Brahman) through meditation. It was written around 700 BC ("Hinduism, Information, Gods…," 2009).
The other type of Hindu literature is smrti, which is verbal remembered or "handed down" by tradition, texts. One of the most famous stories…
Bhaskarandada, Swaimi (2002), The Essentials of Hinduism: A Comprehensive Overview of The World's Oldest Religion, Viveka Press.
Bowes, P. (1976). The Hindu Religious Tradition: A Philosophical Approach, Allied
"Heart of Hinduism," (2004). Cited in: http://hinduism.iskcon.com/
BUDDHISM vs. HINDUISM
Describe essential teachings Buddha. How Buddhism modify Hinduism? How explain appeal Buddhism? eference
Describe the essential teachings of Buddha. How did Buddhism modify Hinduism? How can we explain the appeal of Buddhism?
Both Buddhism and Hinduism share many similar features. Both possess the doctrine of karma, or the notion that one's actions in this life affect what transpires later on. However, while Hinduism preaches the doctrine of anatma, or self, Buddhism preaches the doctrine of non-self (Difference between Buddhism and Hinduism, 2012, difference between.net). The first noble truth of Buddhism is that there is suffering and the second noble truth of the Buddha is that the cause of suffering is our delusion that we possess a self. For Hindus, the self is a static, unchanging and eternal thing. For Buddhism, what we believe to be the self is merely a conglomeration of the five aggregates: matter, sensation,…
Difference between Buddhism and Hinduism. (2012). difference between.net. Retrieved:
Eng, Tan Swee. (2006). Differences between Mahayana and Theravada Buddhism. A Basic
Buddhism Guide. Retrieved: http://www.buddhanet.net/e-learning/snapshot02.htm
For this reason, it is important to identify the most basic differences between Hinduism and Christianity (Christian esponse to Hinduism (http://contenderministries.org/hinduism/christianresponse.php)."
While Hindus believe in a Creator the truth behind that creator is that there are many Gods within the Brahman. The Christian faith provides one Lord, one God and one true creator.
The bible instructs man to worship and love only one God.
Hear, O Israel: The Lord our God, the Lord is one." Deuteronomy 6:4
And call upon me in the day of trouble; I will deliver you, and you will honor me." Psalm 50:15
In the Hindu faith each person is nothing more than a manifestation of the Brahman. It is something that can create great stress with the belief that one is on earth because in a previous life they were not worthy.
The Christian faith believes that God created all mankind with free will. He…
Ghasarian, Christian (1997) We have the best gods! The encounter between Hinduism and Christianity in La Reunion. Journal of Asian and African Studies
Lambert, Yves (1999). Secularization or New Religious Paradigms? Sociology of Religion, 60 (3), Fall, pp. 303-333.
Cohen, Charles L.(2003) the colonization of British North America as an episode in the history of Christianity. Church History
Study of Basic Christian Beliefs (Accessed 5-23-07)
Of course, Americanized women are more apt to push the edge of human rights, whether internally or for their bretheran abroad. The book is very personal in orientation, not footnoted, and scholarly only on the point of interest level and tone.
ADD CITATIO, this is for scans 103-109 in book.
Postcolonialism has been accentuated by globalism, and is a particular change factor in the Hindu world. For much of this world, centuries of colonialism had a dominant effect upon culture, expression, gender roles, and political awareness. In particular, the media (telecommunication, television, the Internet) engenders reform within society because it shows younger Hindus what is possible in the outside world, what other younger people are doing in different parts of the world, and how they can remain compatible with Hinduism while still becoming citizens of the modern world. Change is the ultimate decision maker for culture, and the post-colonial Hindu…
Nasr, V. (2010). Forces of Fortune: The Rise of the New Muslim Middle Class. New York:
One of the consequences of globalism in the world is the availability of a number of products and services from the Western world that are somewhat questionable in the Islamic culture. Outside the political sphere, many Muslims say that the forces of satellite TV, the Internet, certain movies, McDonald's and other fast food restaurants may be problematical and not always equitable with traditional Muslim society. This, combined with the rise of a new, more fisically viable, middle class changes the way many Muslims perceive the world -- particularly Muslim women. Different countries adapt to technological and economic change differently, but the simple fact is that Islam cannot feasibly divorce itself from the modern world -- so must find a way to adapt the Koranic teachings to the modern world.
) These consist in offerings made at the home shrine or performing puja to the family deities whereas Nainittika occur only at certain times during the year.For instance, the celebration of festivals in temples, offering thanksgiving etc.Kamya are pilgrimages. Although optional they are ocnsidered by the followers of the faith to be highly desirable. It allows a devotee to see and be seen by the deity which is an important part of Hindu Worship. Areas of pilgrimage would be rivers (especially river Ganges, and holy places such as Banares (believed to be the home of Lord Shiva), Allahabad, etc.), temples, mountains, and other sacred sites are popular pilgrimage places
Due to the atheistic nature of Buddhism, this faith has no doctrine of a personal god. In order to arise to enlightment buddhist meditate.Meditation involves the body and the mind. For Buddhists this is particularly important as they want to avoid…
Knipe, David M. Hinduism: Experiments in the Sacred. Religious traditions of the world. San Francisco, Calif: HarperSanFrancisco, 1991. Print
Knott, Kim. Hinduism: A Very Short Introduction. Very short introductions. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000. Print
Emptiness, as we also find in some Hindu philosophies like Advaita, is the eternal emptiness that is beyond dualism and which is rich with possibilities that far exceed the dualities of the ordinary world. In most Buddhist schools of thought we understand the search for Nirvana as the personal search for enlightenment and understanding of existence beyond ordinary duality. This is also reflected in Advaita Hinduism.
Another important area of comparison is the rejection of a personal God or the concept of God as part of the realization of Nirvana. This is evident in all forms of Buddhism and in Advaita Hinduism. However, the Dvaita school of thought and other forms of Hinduism tend to place emphasis on God or Gods as essential for enlighten.
There are many other similarities and differences between these two faiths, which would take as few books to discuss. In the final analysis we could…
Advaita. February 6, 2010.
Dasa, Shukavak N. A Hindu Primer. February 3, 2010.
Salvation will come based on one's deeds rather than on his capacity to achieve a high spiritual level, as in the Hindu faith and others.
Christianity does not necessarily provide all the answers. Christian believers will still have doubts about their existence, about their role on Earth and about their lives, as well as about their capacity of attaining salvation. However, Christianity provides the means by which one can integrate successfully into his or her life, enjoy the life here, while committing to a life within the Church and doing the good deeds that can help an individual attain eternal salvation. The idea of salvation puts things into perspective, but with a direct impact on the present, because it is the acts of the individual here that will get the salvation or not.
Christianity can be considered, from all these perspectives, the most complete religion in existence and a way…
1. Barrow, Martin. The Four Gospels. 1995. On the Internet at http://www.domini.org/tabern/martyn.htm.Last retrieved on February 3, 2009
2. Salvation. 2008. The Catholic Encyclopedia. On the Internet at http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/13407a.htm.Last retrieved on February 3, 2009
Barrow, Martin. The Four Gospels. 1995. On the Internet at http://www.domini.org/tabern/martyn.htm.Last retrieved on February 3, 2009
Salvation. 2008. The Catholic Encyclopedia. On the Internet at
In the reading, Maya has been given different meanings by the Upanishads. From my understanding, the world contains both magic and matter. Therefore, the world is real because it takes many different forms and accommodates diversity. Therefore, God is our creator who directs us to the concept of Maya when dealing with nature. For the Shvetasvatara this implies that God is the one who rules over Maya and this includes human beings and all other things found on earth. The world can be looked at as something stable and permanent, but some disparity can be drawn from the aspect that makes movements. This move has enabled it to shift and change all the time and is similar to the world of one’s thoughts and dreams where changes also take place. Time is also seen by people to be something that is real and the distinct divisions in this element…
Hindu society dictates that once a girl is married, she no longer belongs in the home of her parents and her husband's home is her entire future. She may never return to her maternal home on a permanent basis, for that would bring shame upon her in Hindu society. This is the reason why Hindu weddings are always characterized by much weeping as the girl ceremoniously bids farewell to her ancestral home. Her husband becomes her God, his home becomes her home and her life is dedicated to serve him and obey him. In the absence of the support of her maternal home, dowry was provided as a means to provide for the girl's new family needs in the event of a financial crisis. However, over the years this practice has degenerated into a mercenary enterprise, where a premium is placed on a male and the woman is bought and…
Narayan, Vasundra: http://college.hmco.com/history/readerscomp/women/html/wm_016100_hinduism.htm
Malhotra, Rajiv: (2000): http://www.infinityfoundation.com/ECITempowermentframe.htm
Dollar, David and Gatti, Roberta: (1999): Gender Inequality, Income and Growth: Are good times good for women?: www.worldbank.org/gender/prr
O'Henry, Edward: THE JAYAMALA RITE in EASTERN NORTH INDIA: OUTSIDERS' and INSIDERS' MISUNDERSTANDINGS, Department of Anthropology, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204-5020 http://www.unm.edu/~jar/v59n4.html#a4
Hinduism With Other eligions
There are a number of common characteristics that Hinduism shares with other religions. One of the most fundamental of these is the notion of the afterlife in Hinduism. Specifically, Hinduism posits the notion that there is both a heaven and a hell that people will encounter after their physical existence ends on earth. This idea is reflected in Christianity and in Judaism. Additionally, it is significant to realize that Islam is also partly predicated on the conception of paradise, which is largely akin to the Hindu tenet of heaven. Hinduism is also extremely polytheistic, which is one of its notions that is also found in other religions such as those which dominated classical Greece and ome during the period of antiquity (and prior to ome's adoption of Christianity by Constantine as its official state religion). Interestingly enough, there is a conception in Hinduism of a trinity,…
Hebbar, N.H. (2002). Modern Hinduism. www.boloji.com Retrieved from http://www.boloji.com/index.cfm?md=Content&sd=Articles&ArticleID=1494
Hoffert, B. (n.d.). Hinduism in the modern world.
Jainism and Hinduism
Jainism, along with Hinduism and uddhism, constitutes the three central religious and philosophical traditions of India. In many ways the linkages and evolution of these three religions are inextricably intertwined and can be seen to be coterminous and related to each other. Jainism and uddhism emerged from within the growing and evolving matrix of Hindu doctrine and philosophy.
Jainism in particular developed in reaction to various aspects of Hindu worldview, particularly with regard to the rahmanistic stratification of society and its ritual theism.
A comparison of these two faiths also brings attention to bear on the various interpretations of Hinduism. It should also be noted that Hinduism is not one homogenous body of clear-cut practice and doctrine, it is in fact a complex amalgam of various interpretations and views that form a sometimes contradictory whole. Jainism also cannot be seen in isolation from the cultural and philosophical…
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Christianity and Hinduism -- Similarities and Differences
Christianity and Hinduism
This paper will provide a comparison and contract of Christianity and Hinduism with particular regard to the subjects of monotheism and eschatology. Christian monotheistic practice and Hindu monotheism will be highlighted, and the end-times philosophies of each religion are reviewed with regard to structure and caste system.
Christianity has always stood out as a monotheistic practice, celebrating belief in the one God, the Father Almighty, creator of heaven and earth, "all things visible and invisible" (Bolt, 2004). Many sects within the Christian faith believe in the Trinitarian principle, which is the idea or concept of the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit as one body (Bolt, 2004; Sunday, 2005).
Most do not consider Hinduism a monotheistic practice; but it is actually if one believes in monotheism as the belief in one God. Hinduism is not polytheistic, because it simply recognizes…
Bhattatiri, Mepathur Narayana.2003.Narayaneeyam-Bhagavata, Condensed
Edition.SriRamakrishna Math. pp. 234-239.
Bolt, Peter. 2004. The cross from a distance: Atonment in Mark's gospel, a new studies in biblical theology. Downers Grove: Intervarsity.
Gulshan, Esther. 2010. The torn veil, a biography. CLC Publications.
Hindu Festivals: Manifestation of the Hindu Society and Culture
Throughout history, human civilization were influenced by numerous religions that carry with it a specific set of beliefs and customs, and philosophy that guided people how to live their lives on earth. Early world religions are characteristically Eastern or traditionalist, in their approach, such as uddhism, Islam, and Hinduism. These old world religions have bee influential in changing and developing many facets of human civilization, particularly in developing social interaction among people and cultivation of culture that is unique and characteristically derived from the dominant and prevailing religion in a society.
Hinduism, as an old world religion, is considered as the cradle of civilization for most South Asian countries, particularly India, where Hinduism was born as early as 1500 .C. It is evident that India as a nation is greatly influenced by Hindu philosophy and culture. The way of life among…
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hen Buddha discusses suffering or pain (dukkha), the First Noble Truth, he is referring not only to pain as though someone had burned a hand on a stove, or had stumbled and bruised knee. Dukkha-dukkha is in reference to negative things, painful emotional moments, mental agony and the suffering that goes along with mental disturbances. According to sources used for this paper, some scholars suggest that dukkha alludes to something closer to "dissatisfaction" or "stress" (about.com). And viparinama-dukkha also refers to change or a lack of permanence. For example, when a person is very happy but the success that produced that happiness fades away, that is dukkha (about.com).
The cause of suffering (samkhara-dukkha) (the Second Noble Truth) can be attributed to a "craving," and to "desire" and "ignorance"; desire means craving for material things and pleasure, along with immortality (pbs.org). Buddha believed these wants and desires could never be…
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July 20, 2015, from http://buddhism.about.com .
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Bliss of Hinduism. (2012). The Self in Hinduism. Retrieved July 20, 2015, from https://blissofhinduism.wordpress.com.
Hinduism and People
Unlike most religions which ask their practitioners to prescribe to a designated set of behaviors wherein they shall all behave uniformly, Hinduism bears the motto that "People are different." Most religions begin from a dogma which is a written interpretation of what the creators of that religion state their God or Gods want from the followers of that religion. Because of this, the religions are slow to evolve and more or less stagnant. According to J.N. Nanda, "Hinduism is not limited by the view of a single founder, a single holy man or a single holy book" (106). That is to say, those that practice Hinduism understand that there is no one type of person. Individuality, by its very definition states that people will have singular ideas and singular personalities. There is no one type of person living in the world, just as there is no one…
Keene, Michael. Religion in Life and Society. Dublin, Ireland: Folens. 2004. Print.
Ketkar, Shridhar. The History of Caste in India: Evidence of the Laws of Manu. Ithaca, NY:
Taylor & Carpenter. 1909. Print.
Lipner, Julius. Hindus: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices. Chatham. 1994. Print.
At first glance the world of sports looks simplistic and unencumbered. Regardless of the sport in question the fans come, they watch the sport take place and then they leave. It is only when one takes a closer look that the complicated underpinnings of sports fan behavior becomes evident. Sports fans support their teams in many ways. They purchase millions of dollars of merchandise each year, they attend games and cheer their teams on, and they remain loyal in the face of losing seasons. Individually most sports fans are law abiding, calm and reasonable members of society, but when they get into a group, or they attend a sport events they often become loud and behave in ways that they never behave elsewhere. Sports fans have caused injury to other fans, to players and to the other team. They have rushed onto the field at games, as well…
Qualifications of the divine and the nature of supreme reality are core concepts of any religious tradition. Hinduism and Buddhism conceptualize the divine and the nature of reality in complementary yet distinct ways. Buddhism emerged from Hinduism, in a manner not wholly unlike the way Christianity emerged from Judaism. Therefore, there are several core similarities in the cosmologies and the conceptualizations of divine reality between these two faiths. Moreover, the religious practices and philosophies of Buddhism and Hinduism tend to be more similar than they are different. These similarities should not obscure the real and practical differences in the ways Hindus and Buddhists conceptualize and communicate matters related to the nature of the divine, and the nature of supreme reality. In particular, Buddhism avoids distinctions between a divine and a profane realm; there are no actual Buddhist deities or gods. Hinduism boasts a plethora of gods and goddesses, although…
Cline, Austin. "Hinduism: Origins, Beliefs, Practices, Holy Texts, Sacred Places." About.com. Retrieved online: http://atheism.about.com/od/bookreviews/fr/Hinduism_2.htm
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Freeman, Richard. Interview data received February 21, 2013.
The Heart Sutra. Translated by Kumarajiva and Pevahouse. Retrieved online: http://www4.bayarea.net/~mtlee/heart.txt
On the surface, Hinduism and Christianity could not be much more different. Ancient Hinduism offers a colorful pantheon of playful deities, some of which assume animal characteristics such as Hanuman and Ganesh. Stemming from its Jewish roots, Christianity presents a much different view of the origin and structure of the universe. Christian cosmology is more tightly ordered than that of Hinduism. Strictly monotheistic, Judaism imparted a mistrust of pagan polytheism to Christianity. Christian deity is unitary but also triune, in the worship of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit. Herein lies the strongest connection between worship in ancient India and worship in early Christianity. Hinduism, like Christianity, has a triune God concept. The Hindu God Brahma is the Supreme God, but God has three manifestations as Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva. Each of these gods has its own expression and role in the Hindu cosmology. hereas Brahma is…
Bible: Old and New Testament
Das, Subhamoy. "Top 10 Hindu Deities." About.com. Retrieved online: http://hinduism.about.com /od/godsgoddesses/tp/deities.htm
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Crouching Tiger Hidden Dragon
The film, documentaries and the last docudrama are exceptional production pieces by notable directors and producers. Crouching tiger-hidden dragon defies the usual mantra of strength only attributed to men. Jen effectively acts as person having higher morals. The martial arts performance was exceptional, an unusual feature in Hollywood. Islam, the empire of faith is another documentary made on the rise of Islamic empire and the life of Prophet Mohammad having a great impact on establishment of religion. 'Gandhi' also remains an unquestioned production classic that eloquently portrays Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, the unquestioned leader of India. The film sheds light on Hinduism as a religion and its faith and dogmas. Lastly, Kundan is a docudrama based on life of Dalai Lama. 'Kundan' might not have justified the stature of Buddhism in history of mankind but the piece of production remains an earnest effort on part of Martin…
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Chan, K. (2004). The Global Return of the Wu Xia Pian (Chinese Sword-Fighting Movie): Ang Lee's Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon. Cinema Journal, 43(4), 3-17.
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There was no time to allow better preparation of the bread. They had to move out of Egypt in before Pharaoh could realize. The bitter herbs symbolized the bitter life experienced in Egypt. They remained as captives of slavery for many years, and a moment of redemption approached. In the book of Exodus, one sympathizes with the Jews that served life of slavery without freedom.
However, one feels delighted because of the happy conclusion when the Jews attain freedom and redemption. Passover offers a bonding moment that brings together everyone that shares the Jewish customs. The home and most Jewish families celebrate the holy days such as the New Year in Jewish calendar and the Day of Atonement. They celebrate these holy days at night of the eve of the holy day and families prepare meals before performing the synagogue service. They serve the meals with apples and honey which…
Heehs, Peter, ed. 2002. Indian Religions: A Historical Reader of Spiritual Expression and Experience. New York.
Online Conference on Socially Engaged Buddhism. Journal of Buddhist Ethics, April 2000, available online at http: / / jbe.gold.ac.uk.
Queen, Christopher, Charles Prebish and Damien Keown. 2003. Action Dharma: New Studies in Engaged Buddhism. London: Routledge Curzon.
This provided a pathway for spirituality to the early Vedic thinkers. For these founding ideologists, this pathway led to the notion that there are multiple deistic beings which can occupy all manner of space and mental plane, a sharp-departure from the 'ethical monotheism' that underscores most western religious traditions.
This, perhaps, more than any other quality, helps to illustrate the common ground between Hinduism and Buddhism, which Prothero goes to even greater lengths to show are distinctly eastern in their theological orientation. Due to its origins in India, Buddhism was perceived in its earliest form by many as a mere sect of Hindu rather than a philosophy of its own foundations. Its practitioners, leading into the Common Era, were a statistically modest population of Indians who placed a spiritual emphasis "on experience over belief. Buddhism never had a creed or catechism until the American convert Henry Steel Olcott decided in…
Neusner, J. (2003). World Religions in America. Westminster John Knox Press.
Prothero, S. (2010). God Is Not One: The Eight Rival Religions the Run the World. HarperOne.
There is a great difference in the way Christianity, Islam, and Judaism perceives death in comparison to these two Indian religions. For Hindus and Sikhs, birth, and death repeat for every single person in a continuous cycle. The main idea is that each person repeatedly undergoes birth, and death in order his or her soul may be completely purified to join the divine cosmic consciousness (Harold, 2000).
A typical example of Indian religions is the Hinduism and Sikhism. These two religions share in the same core beliefs. Their way of worship and rituals, citing their communal origin, traits, and literary pieces are similar. The ultimate common belief found in Hinduism and Sikhism is the Moksha. Moksha stands for deliverance from the life cycle, the frustrations, and torments from the physical life. In Indian religion, Moksha is equivalent to the deliverance from sin in the Christian religion. Moksha perceives liberation as…
Harold, C. (2000). Bioethics for clinicians: Hinduism and Sikhism. Canadian Medical Association Journal. 163(9). p. 1167-1170.
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The people of scheduled castes who are given very lowly status in Hindu society are considered untouchables. This is justified by the term Karma which says that these people must have done something bad in their past lives to have earned a lowly status in their current lives. The same kind of explanation can be presented to explain why Brahmins are considered special.
Karma is one concept that has become so closely aligned to reincarnation that it is impossible to separate the two. Wadia (1965) writes: "...the Law of Karma has become attached to the idea of reincarnation, the idea that what is called death relates only to the death of the physical body, while the soul remains unaffected by it and may be reborn in another body, human or animal." (p. 145) This happens because we see that not every good person always prospers and he too goes through…
David Pocock, Mind, Body and Wealth, Oxford, 1973
Wadia, a.R. Philosophical Implications of the Doctrine of Karma. Philosophy East and West V. 15, No. 2 (1965) University of Hawaii Press. Hawaii, USA
It is likely that in order to achieve this "release" from the tedium of one's worldly conception of one's self will only be achieved with the guidance of a Guru (or siddha) who provides inspiration but does not intervene on one's behalf.
The key scriptures in Hinduism are referred to as "Shastras" (a collection of spiritual guides and laws revealed by "saints and sages" along the historical route through which Hinduism traveled (Das, p. 1). The deities (gods and goddesses) that are associated with Hinduism number into the "thousands or even millions," Das explains (p. 2). These many deities all represent particular aspects of "Brahman," which is the supreme Absolute, Das goes on. Notwithstanding all those deities, the most powerful and visible of the deities is the "Trinity of Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva -- creator, preserver and destroyer, respectively" (Das, p. 2). It is also known that Hindus worship trees,…
Das, Subhamoy. (2010). How Do You Define Hinduism? Hinduism for Beginners. The Uniqueness of Hinduism. About.com. Retrieved Dec. 14, 2010, from http://hinduism.about.com .
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14, 2010, from http://mnsu.edu/emuseum/cultural/religion/hinduism/beliefs.html .
Mysorekar, Uma. (2006). Eye on religion: clinicians and Hinduism. Southern Medical Journal.
The research showed that Hinduism is a religion that has been practiced in South Asia for more than 4,000 years, and despite having experienced some fundamental changes during these millennia, the religion has been adopted by people from all over the world. hile the majority of Hindus are still in India where four out of five people are Hindus, the research also showed that the billions of people who subscribe to Hinduism do not assign this term to their faiths, and may not even have ever heard the term "Hindu" in their lives. The worldview held by these billions of faithful is therefore naturally varied, but largely relates to a perpetual universe in which unrequited desire is the source of human misery, and the cycle of life will continue until these desires are understood and extinguished. Finally, the research also showed that Hinduism is characterized by the shared concepts…
Basham, a.L. "Hinduism." In the Concise Encyclopedia of Living Faiths, R.C. Zaehner (Ed.). Boston: Beacon Press, 1989.
Beck, Richard. (2006). "Defensive vs. Existential Religion: Is Religious Defensiveness Predictive of Worldview Defense?" Journal of Psychology and Theology 34(2): 142.
Carmody. Denise Lardner and John Tully Carmody. Mysticism: Holiness East and West. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996.
Findly, Ellison Banks. (2002). "Hinduism and Ecology: The Intersection of Earth, Sky, and Water." The Journal of the American Oriental Society 122(4): 925.
Maharshtrian cuisine comprises of hot, aromatic meat and fish curries and subtle flavoring of vegetarian cuisine. Peanuts and cashew nuts are widely used in vegetables and the main cooking medium is peanut oil. Another feature is the use of a deep purple berry with a sweet and sour taste, otherwise called kokum, in sol kadhi, an appetizer-digestive, which is served chilled. Non-vegetarian and vegetarian dishes are served with boiled rice or rotis made from rice flour. Dessert is commonly comprises rotis (a type of bread) stuffed with a sweet mixture of jaggery and gram flour.
Goan cuisine boasts of delicacies like tangy pork 'vindaloo', spicy 'sorpotel' and the popular fish curry with rice. Most of their meals are accompanied with local wine or local liqueur, 'Feni'. Meals are simple but most are also chili hot, spicy and pungent. The basic components include rice, fish and coconut and delicacies made from…
Audretsch, D.B. And Meyer, N.S. " Religion, Culture and Entrepreneurship in India." Indiana
University Public Affairs Conference. 2009. 17 Apr.2010.
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Finally, Gandhi believed that Indian independence had to precede any agreements between the competing groups in the country: Muslims, Hindus, and Sikhs. In contrast, Jinnah believed in the idea of two Indias, a Muslim India and a Hindu India. Furthermore, Jinnah believed that the Indian National Congress, composed of educated Muslims, Hindus, and Sikhs, was the pathway to a free India, because through it they could extract more and more constitutional freedoms from Britain. Jinnah did not believe in direct confrontation, even the nonviolent confrontation espoused by Gandhi.
9. Vivekananda and Gandhi had a different definition of karma yoga than that found in the Bhagavad-Gita. In the Bhagavad-Gita, karma yoga is concerned with duty (dharma) regardless of earthly reward and dharma is linked to class or caste. The concept is that one may reach salvation by working for the pleasure of a supreme being.
In order to understand Gandhi's notion…
In the "Bhagavad Gita, a greatly revered philosophical poem depicting the dialogue between God as Krishna and a devotee, it says: 'All creatures great and small- I am equal to all; I hate none, nor have I any favorites.' This rules out the claim of anyone to be the privileged or 'chosen' agent of God, and thus makes exclusivism impossible in Hinduism (Mugilan)."
One of the largest differences between "Hinduism and other revealed religions is that Hinduism recognizes no prophet as intermediary with exclusive claim over truth. One is not required to acknowledge an intermediary as a prophet or as a chosen agent of God. In a revealed religion, one who denies the authority of this intermediary is called a non-believer, even if one believes in God (Mugilan)."
The Hindus can not conceive "any accommodation of a belief system that denies one's freedom of choice and conscience. Therefore, even…
Mugilan, Kalai. "Spiritual freedom: The essence of Hinduism." University Wire. (1998): 26 May.
Unknown. "Hinduism." The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. (2004): 22 April.
Unknown. "Hindu philosophy." The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. (2004): 22 April.
According to Bass, "Hinduism is the only major religion lacking an adequate explanation as to its origin," as no definitive Hindu text exist that that date before 1000 B.C. Indeed, because Hinduism is one of the religions that views time as cyclical rather than linear, what information is available about Hinduism does not give a very accurate picture of its history (Bass 5). hat can be gleaned from this history is the fact that Hinduism is one of the oldest religions with one of the oldest societies in the world. Just as their origins are difficult to define, the beliefs of Hinduism are varied depending on one's personal interpretation of the religion. However, one of the more important aspects of Hinduism is its social caste system. This belief states that there are four casts, and each "has its rules and obligation for living." The three castes are Brahman, priests, hatriyas,…
"A Concise History of Islam and the Arabs." Mid East Web. n.d. 11 June 2009.
Abdullah, Mohd Habibullah Bin. "The Story of Creation in the Quar'an and Old
Testament." Bismika Allahuma. 15 October 2005. 11 June 2009.
Tradition says that a dying person should be put on the floor in order for them to be closer to the earth. After the ailing person dies, the body is washed and prepared for funeral practices. Most Hindu people would rather have a Hindu priest pray and bless their recently departed relative.
4.In Hinduism, people that don't believe are not threatened to perish in hell as they are given another chance to recognize the religion as having great importance in one's life. From the Hindu point-of-view, hell is something experienced by people that have a bad Karma.
Hindu people believe that they've attained a level of happiness when they reach a perfect Karma and their mind and body are pure. Hinduism regards life as being complex process in which the soul undergoes several phases of reincarnation in order to reach a final phase where it is saved and reincarnation no…
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2. Wendell, Thomas. "Wendell Thomas." Kessinger Publishing, 2003.
3. "Hindu American Foundation Denounces Temple Entry Ban on Harijans (Dalits) in Orissa." Retrieved April 8, 2009, from the Hindu American Foundation Web site: http://www.hinduamericanfoundation.org/media_press_release_jagannath_harijan.htm
4. "Hinduism." Retrieved April 8, 2009, from diehardindian Web site: http://www.diehardindian.com/demogrph/moredemo/hindu.htm
oldest and most widely practiced religions in the world, Hinduism is an attractive and flexible tradition. ith its colorful pantheon of deities, Hinduism has evolved over millennia, and has survived vast transformations in Indian culture. The fundamental teachings of the religion are contained within its sacred texts, namely the Vedas and the Upanishads. Hindu deities like Krishna, Ganesha, and Shiva have become well-known around the world, and Hindu practices like yoga are also renowned.
The Vedas are considered to be divine teachings containing immutable knowledge. However, their scope is wide and diverse. A supreme being is espoused, one who is personal and impersonal, immanent and transcendent. The Supreme Being is viewed as creator of the universe of both seen and unseen realities. The existence of other realms of existence, including deities, is central to Hindu cosmology. Communion with the gods is made possible by spiritual practice, devotion, ritual, sacrifice, and…
Aiyar, C.P.Ramaswami; Dutt, Nalinaksha; Wadia, A.R.; Mujeeb, Pal; Dharm M., and D'Souza, Jerome. "An Introduction to Hinduism." Hindusim. The Gazetteer of India, Volume 1: Country and people. Delhi, Publications Division, Government of India, 1965. 11 June 1997. 3 July 2003. http://www.uni-giessen.de/~gk1415/hinduism.htm#intro .
Hinduism: The World's Third Largest Religion." About.com. 3 July 2003. http://www.religioustolerance.org/hinduism.htm .
familiar with the religions of Buddhism and Hinduism but the religion of Jainism, although enjoying nearly as many members, is not as well-known. Similarly, most know something about the practices and beliefs of Hinduism and Buddhism but very individuals know anything about Jainism.
Jainism is a well-established religion that is largely based on the concept of non-violence which is one of the five great vows of the religion (Long, 2009). The other four vows are non-attachment to material things, no lying, no stealing, and promotion of sexual restraint. As to sexual restraint, celibacy is considered to be the ideal.
Followers of Jainism view the world as a highly integrated unit. They believe that all living things, including animals and plants, possess a living soul and that humans, animals, and plants all operate on an equal level. This belief places a strict duty on the part of its followers to treat…
Cush, D. (1999). 'Learning from' the Concept and Concepts of a Religious Tradition: Jainism in the RE Curriculum. Journal of Beliefs & Values: Studies in Religion and Education, 60-74.
Jamison, D. (2003). Janism and Buddhism. In D. Jamison, A Companion to Environmental Philosophy (pp. 52-66). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell.
Long, J.D. (2009). Jainism: An Introduction . London: I.B. Tarius.
Jainism, Buddhism, Hinduism
Buddhism and Jainism
Based on Michael Molloy's three patterns for comparing and contrasting religions, there seems to be a great deal of similarity between Buddhism and Jainism and marked differences between Hinduism and aoism (Experiencing the World's Religions: radition, Challenge, & Change, 2002.)
o start with, Buddhism and Jainism both meet the definition of religion as a 'spiritual path' and Carl Jung's description of religion as meeting the need for personal fulfillment or "individuation." Buddhism and Jainism also share a common prophetic and mystical orientation: nontheistic in nature; believing in guidance from enlightened beings (the Buddhist 'bodhisattva' and the Jain 'tirthankara'). Mahavira, the founder of Jainism, was himself believed to be the twenty-fourth 'tirthankara' and according to Buddhist Cosmology, an enlightened being is born in each era (Gautama Buddha is regarded as the fourth Buddha). Both religions are similar in upholding the path of 'dharma' and 'ahimsa.' he two religions…
The first elemental difference between Hinduism and Taoism is the transcendental nature of the former and the immanent nature of the latter. This characteristic also leads to Hinduism's sacramental orientation and the importance lent to the use of sacred words and scriptures in areas such as music and art vs. The more mystical leanings of Taoism and the value it places on silence and wordless meditation. The second significantly different pattern of contrast is that while Hinduism advocates dualism or that nature is contaminating and exists as an opposing force to the non-material world of the spirit, Taoism believes that nature is sacred and needs no alteration (Experiencing the World's Religions: Tradition, Challenge, & Change, 2002.) third aspect of contrast is that Hinduism preaches the doctrine of karma and cyclical time, and that the 'atman' or human soul will receive 'moksha' or liberation from personal limitation, egotism and rebirth only through following a path of 'Jnana Yoga,' 'Karma Yoga' and 'Bhakti Yoga,' whereas Taoism places far less emphasis on the individual. Taoism, instead, takes the view that actions are not guided by an internalized moral system but by society, tradition and a sense of mutual obligation (Experiencing the World's Religions: Tradition, Challenge, & Change, 2002.)
The fourth point of marked difference is that while Hinduism practices 'exclusiveness,' Taoism is inclusive in nature accepting belief in many deities and regarding truth as relative in the interests of attaining social harmony.
In conclusion, though there are some similarities and some differences when comparing any two religions, Buddhism and Jainism do seem to have a very common basis in their overall orientation whereas there seems to be sharp differences between Hinduism and Taoism.
The Japanese myth partly resembles that of Adam and Eve present in the Bible and in the Quran. However, the first beings in Japan are considered to hold much more power than their equivalents in the west. Another resemblance between the Japanese legends and those in the west is the fact that the kami are considered to live in the high planes of Takamagahara, somewhat resembling mount Olympus, from Greek mythology. Japanese mythology is different from other mythologies through the fact that all of the deities involved in it are good in their character.
In the sixteenth century, when Buddhism entered Japan, the locals had a hard time keeping Shinto as their main religion, since it had not been an organized religion. Even with the fact that Buddhism had been spreading quickly around the country, the presence of Shinto could be felt everywhere, in people's lifestyles and in their culture.…
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2. Herman A.L. (1991). "A Brief Introduction to Hinduism: Religion, Philosophy, and Ways of Liberation." Westview Press.
3. Kato, Etsuko. (2004). "The Tea Ceremony and Women's Empowerment in Modern Japan." Routledge.
4. Kumagai Fumie, Keyser Donna J. (1996). "Unmasking Japan Today: The Impact of Traditional Values on Modern Japanese Society." Praeger.
The masses are in most occasions determined to understand a particular matter by comparing it with something they already know. This is not possible with the rahman, as it involves all the characteristics which cannot be understood by humans. One should not attempt to understand the rahman in order to believe in it, as it can be appreciated by meditation. It is incorrect to recognize the rahman as a form of god, as a god is understood and praised for what it is, whereas the rahman is infinite and does not necessarily need worshiping. Instead, people can learn more about it by experimenting spiritually. Trying to understand the rahman can lead to confusion, as it becomes obvious that it is everything and nothing at the same time. People want to understand the rahman as a form of deity ruling from a heavenly location. However, consequent to discovering the rahman through…
1. Molloy, Michael. (2009). Experiencing the World's Religions: 5th Revised edition. McGraw Hill Higher Education.
2. Van Voorst, R.E. (2010). Anthology of World Scriptures: 7 edition. Wadsworth Publishing.
It is because of this that Hinduism has become as powerful now as it has ever been (Hopfe and oodward 77-113).
Among the most powerful religions of the world, comes Buddhism. Its great history is one that makes this spiritual belief one that has withstood time. Not only is its origination in one of the most populated countries of the world, but the powerful influence that it has had on other religions and on the political institutions from which some nations base their governments, it has become clear that Buddhism, just as Christianity and Islam have become, is a great powerful influence on the insurgence of political atmospheres, and extremists views (Hopfe and oodward 134-155).
Buddhism is most closely associated with peaceful teachings and non-violent approaches to everyday issues. Because of this great belief in that everything can be resolved through peaceful means, governments have chosen to also adapt…
Hopfe, Lewis M. & Woodward, Mark R. Religions of the World. 11th Edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, 2009. Print.
If, in witnessing to a Hindu, such efforts can be directed towards them and their people, then their own personal love can be brought out and they may be led to follow Christ. ecause of the diversity and complexity of their beliefs, sometimes, the simple promises of the truth of Christ and of salvation through him will assist in helping them to understand that Christianity has only these simple beliefs to follow instead of the complexity of Hinduism.
egin with the ook of John in the New Testament and in a simple version such as the New International Version (NIV). Start with Chapter 1 and emphasize mostly the passages concerning Salvation. Remember Hindus don't know Christ. You must introduce Him to them on a personal basis. Also, use 1 John 5:13 to explain that salvation is based on God's grace and not on works.
Make your spirit humble in your…
Caner, E.M. "PHILOSOPHY 104: Supplemental notes to lecture and reading: The worldview of Hinduism." n.d. 28 November 2009 <
Halverson, D. "Hinduism." 2004. International Students Inc. 28 November 2009 .
business culture and expansion trends that exist for American companies in India. The paper focuses on answering the following questions: 1. What are the major elements and dimensions of culture in this region? 2. How are these elements and dimensions integrated by local conducting business in the nation? 3. How do both of the above items compare with U.S. culture and business? 4. What are the implications for U.S. businesses that wish to conduct business in that region? The paper also tackles the following aspects: Dimensions of Culture, Communication. Different Meaning of Words across Languages, Verbal, Nonverbal, High Context vs. Low Context and eligion -- Christianity, Judaism, Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism, Confucianism, Shinto and Ethics; Definitions, The Issue of Corruption, Corporate Social esponsibility, Values and Attitudes, Variances in Attitudes across Cultures, Concept of Time, Dealing with Change, The ole of Gender, Social Status, Business Manners and Customs across National Cultures, Social…
Bose, P. And Lyons, L.E. (2010). Cultural Critique and the Global Corporation. Tracking Globalization, Bloomington, IN.
Butler, Patty. (2012). India Business Etiquette, Manners, Cross Cultural Communication, and Geert Hofstede Analysis. International Business Etiquette and Manners. Cyborlink http://www.cyborlink.com/besite/india.htm
Doh, J., and Luthans, F. (2009). International Management: Culture, Strategy, and Behaviour. New York: The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Doh, J., and Luthans, F. (2009). International Management: Culture, Strategy, and Behavoir. New York: The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Buddhists, who similarly believe in the concept of Karma, also have a strong commitment to the belief that their actions have consequences. hile Buddhists have a much different value system than Hindus or especially estern religions that tend to see good and bad as black and white, while Buddhists see it as wholesome or unwholesome (Sach 80), they still have a code of morality, such as valuing peace over harm. Karma represents this moral dichotomy. Thus, both the Eastern religions of Hinduism and Buddhism support the theory that one creates one's own destiny. If they did not, they could not have their system of moral rights and wrongs. ithout the chance to make positive or negative decisions, a belief system cannot coherently state that one cannot make one's own decisions, creating one's own destiny. How could a belief system maintain that one would be punished for his or her actions…
Mannion, James. Essential Philosophy. Avon: F+W, 2006.
Rice, Hugh. "Fatalism." 2006, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 8 October 2008.
Stanford University. http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/fatalism/
Sach, Jacky. Essential Buddhism. Avon: F+W, 2006.
In both cases, He "is an impersonal force; an indefinable, all-pervading deity. Hinduism recognizes hundreds, even thousands, of lesser gods." (Evangelical.us) the same is true in uddhism, "God is an abstract. In essence, uddhism is an atheistic philosophy." (Evangelical.us) in both Hinduism and uddhism, there are stories of how the divine interacts with humans, but there is no historical proof. Only Christianity has historical proof. Since I am not Asian, I naturally want historical evidence, and I naturally want to follow a religion with a real God who cares about me as a person. Hinduists and uddhists have no sense of self-worth in the scope of the universe. "Humans, as with all living things, are just manifestations of rahman. We have no individual self, or self-worth. The world and everything on it are manifestations of rahman. Sin is committed against oneself, not against God." (Contender Ministries) This idea is opposite…
Christian Response to Hinduism." Apologetics. Contender Ministries. http://www.contenderministries.org/hinduism/christianresponse.php
Comparitive Religions & Christianity." Bibleone.net. 2004. http://www.bibleone.net/print_SF3.html brief comparison of Mohammed to the founders and leading figures of other major religions."
Support the Fight to Acheive Freedom, Secularism, Human Rights and Democracy in Iran. http://www.pcpages.com/ani/pages/isl/moh-comp.htm
How do we know Christianity is the one true way? http://www.evangelical.us/is-christianity-true.html
Islamic women are now restricted from most activities, and their rights have been steadily decreasing. Her social and political as well as economic rights are all being violated everyday by unscrupulous men who have corrupted the very religion to their own advantage, and today, especially in most Arab countries, woman has become 'Awarah', or the very subject of concealment, wherein her public presence is banned; where even her very voice, must not be heard in public. (Women's Position, ole, and ights in Islam)
In India, there are only 960 women to 1000 men, a figure that when compared to the rest of the world, especially developed countries, which shows 105 women to 100 men, due to better health care for women, is quite miserable. It is in India that women are often considered to be burdens on their families, and the main reason for this is the 'dowry system', wherein…
Agarwal, Sita. Hindu Scriptural Sanction for the Crushing of Women. Retrieved at http://www.dalitstan.org/books/gowh/gowh6.html . Accessed on 16 March, 2005
Gender Equality. 2004. Retrieved at http://www.faithnet.org.uk/Ethics/genderequality.htm. Accessed on 16 March, 2005
John, MacArthur Jr., Women's Roles. 20 March, 2003. Retrieved at http://www.believersweb.org/view.cfm?ID=205Accessed on 15 March, 2005
Mbiti, John. The Role of women in African traditional religion. Retrieved at http://www.afrikaworld.net/afrel/atr-women.htm . Accessed on 16 March, 2005
Thus, these castes being born twice in Hinduism, the principles behind Karma and Reincarnation applies to them. Karma refers to the corresponding reaction to an action or deed that an individual had done to another living thing/s. This means that if the deed was bad or considered evil, the corresponding reaction or karma will also be bad or evil. A similar analogy is applied to goodness/good deeds. Reincarnation is the return of some metaphysical part of the self into a new body -- a process of rebirth for the individual, characteristic of the concept of two births exclusively only to members of the three higher castes.
Jainism is an old religion prevalent in India and other nations in the Asian region. Originally a part of the Buddhist religion, Jainism believes not in the concept of a God, but the authority of the saints or prophets. Its religious principles are simple…