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Saudi Arabia is known as the home to the hip hop group, Dark2Men, who competed in MTV Arabia's Hip Hop Na reality show. Break dancing has also become popular as a pastime in the region. Though the exact music distribution and sales numbers are difficult to establish, there is huge listenership especially in satellite TV and radio Gana 45()
Hip hop culture in the U.S.
Hip hop has been a part of America and especially the U.S. since the early 1970s when it started as a street subculture in the South Bronx area of New York Demers 41.
It was known to have four elements which were rap music, turntablism which is more popularly known as DJing, break dancing and graffiti art. The hip hop culture was more commonly associated with poverty and violence as a result of the conflict between their style and the authority or law. This conflict…
Abu-Ghazzeh, Tawfiq M. "Built Form and Religion: Underlying Structures of Jeddah Al-Qademah." Traditional Dwellings and Settlements Review 5.2 (1994): 49-59. Print.
Chang, J. Can't Stop Won't Stop: A History of the Hip-Hop Generation. New York: St. Martin's Press, 2005. Print.
Chang, Jeff. "It's a Hip-Hop World." Foreign Policy.163 (2007): 58-65. Print.
Cook, Susan E. "New Technologies and Language Change: Toward an Anthropology of Linguistic Frontiers." Annual Review of Anthropology 33.ArticleType: research-article / Full publication date: 2004 / Copyright © 2004 Annual Reviews (2004): 103-15. Print.
L. Cool J. into box-office stars. Like rock and roll in the 1950s, hip-hop has become the great cultural bridge in these times" ("Hip Hop: The history," Independence, 2006.). However, in some of its manifestations, the original intent of hip-hop music to parody and critique mainstream culture has been corrupted by materialism. There is a distinct contrast with the original voices and visions of artists like Afrika Bambaataa, Grandmaster Flash and Kurtis Blow with Kei$ha. Bambaataa, a Black Spades gang member and DJ said he wanted "to combine his love of music" and "enhance community life (atkins 22). But while all music that originated in the African-American community has 'crossed over' at some point, no crossover has been characterized by such materialism and dilution as hip-hop. Instead of a critique of materialism, the commercialized version of hip-hop often merely celebrates excess. Ignorant of the real circumstances behind the movement, artists…
Farley, Christopher John, Melissa August, Leslie Everton Brice, Laird Harrison Todd
Murphy & David E. Thigpen. "Music: Hip-Hop Nation." Time Magazine.
February 8, 1999. May 18, 2010. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,990164,00.html#ixzz0oHgi6quC
"Hip Hop: The history." Independence. 2006. May 18, 2010.
men in the hip-hop world. She has been a spokesmodel for Jenny Craig, a company that explicitly utilizes her 'real woman' image to sell its weight-loss product. "She's a CoverGirl and, off-screen, manicures a wholesome image" (What's worse, 2009, Querty). To emphasize her critique of Black male desire and to create another image for a Black woman to 'be' in the world would challenge prevailing norms and the new fascination with Black male power in the mainstream media.
Unlike Queen Latifah, some artists have taken a more controversial stance towards heterosexism. Queen Pen brags of taking a woman away from her boyfriend, in her song "Girlfriend" with a playful swagger similar to that of black male rappers: "After all, bragging about luring a woman away from her boyfriend is practically de rigueur on a hip-hop album," and she sings 'If that's your girlfriend, she wasn't last night'" to a man…
Bennett, Jessica. (2008, May 16). Outing hip hop. Newsweek Web Exclusive.
May 16, 2008. Retrieved October 26, 2009.
Grantham, C. (2001). Why artists defended Eminem. Gay & Lesbian Review Worldwide, 8(3),
As hip hop developed in urban environments, it has historically concerned itself with themes addressing the minorities dwelling in these communities. This is a tradition that has continued up to the present day. The main concern in hip hop lyrics is with the "struggle." This struggle can be personal or political in nature. In addition, there is also one strain of hip hop rapping known as "party rhymes" that are meant to pump a crowd at a party. This is particularly popular in old school hip hop. Gangsta rap contains lyric that traditionally celebrate crime and the "ghetto" lifestyle. Another more recent development in hip hop, Christian rap, helps spread messages of a spiritual theme.
Producing and Recording
Today, hip hop has become a big part of the American music industry. The production and recording side of hip hop is a complex world that has elevated a number of obscure…
Davey D. "The History of Hip Hop." N.D. Retrieved April 16, 2008 at http://www.daveyd.com/raptitle.html .
Kenner, Rob. "Dancehall." The Vibe History of Hip-hop, ed. Alan Light. New York:
Three Rivers Press, 1999.
Rose, Tricia. Black Noise: Rap Music and Black Culture in Contemporary America.
Sadly, what began as a means of artistic expression has evolved into a phenomenon that has centered on exploiting women and glamorizing crime and violence, leading listeners to believe that this is not only the acceptable way of treating women, but also that the crime and violence are socially accepted norms.
Alridge, D. & Stewart, J. "Introduction: Hip Hop in History: Past, Present, and Future."
Journal of African-American History. 90(3) Summer 2005: p. 190-195. Academic Search Premier. EBSCOHost. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ. March 14, 2008 http://web.ebscohost.com.
Don't Hate, Articulate!" Ride BMX. 15(5) May 2006: p. 47. MasterFILE Premier. EBSCOHost. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ. March 14, 2008 http://web.ebscohost.com.
Farley, F. "Hip-Hop Nation." Time. 15(5) 8 Feb 1999: p. 54-64. Academic Search Premier. EBSCOHost. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ. March 14, 2008 http://web.ebscohost.com.
Goodson, D. "Soulful Tribute Keeps Train Rolling." New York Amsterdam News. 97(11) 9 Mar 2006:…
Alridge, D. & Stewart, J. "Introduction: Hip Hop in History: Past, Present, and Future."
Journal of African-American History. 90(3) Summer 2005: p. 190-195. Academic Search Premier. EBSCOHost. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ. March 14, 2008 http://web.ebscohost.com .
Don't Hate, Articulate!" Ride BMX. 15(5) May 2006: p. 47. MasterFILE Premier. EBSCOHost. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ. March 14, 2008
Throughout history, popular music has changed constantly. Every time a new category of popular music is introduced to a new generation, there is always controversy. Elvis Presley, The Beatles, Madonna and even country and westerns Loretta Lynn broke barriers that everyone was real upset about at one time. They are now highly respectable. In time, the controversial music becomes accepted and new artists push through more limitations. Because of the dance craze, Hip-Hop and Rap music have became very popular. They both produce a very strong beat that is very easy to dance to. Hip-Hop or Rap music is accented with a heavy drumbeat, a handed down version of African rhythms, but the lyrics are composed of slang spoken by younger generations.
Many people thought that Hip-Hop music was not going to last, but it is showing no signs of diminishing. As a matter of fact, many new…
Hip Hop Culture
The History of Hip Hop Culture
The roots of hip hop culture are in West African and African-American music (Armstrong, 1997; Hummell, 2002). The griots of West Africa are a group of traveling singers and poets, whose musical style is very similar to hip hop. The most important direct influence on the creation of hip hop music was the Jamaican style called dub, which arose in the 1960's. Dub musicians isolated percussion breaks because dancers at clubs typically preferred the rhythms of the often-short breaks. Soon, performers began speaking in sync with these rhythms. In 1967, Jamaican immigrants brought dub to New York City, where it evolved into hip hop (Hummell, 2002; Mills, 1999). In Jamaica, dub music diversified into genres such as reggae and dancehall.
True hip hop arose during the 1970's when block parties became common in New York City, especially the Bronx. Block parties…
Armstrong, D.A. (1997). Roots. Philadelphia, PA: Marmont Publishing.
Farmington, S.A. (2002). Cultural origins of today's popular music. New York Post, p. 6.
Hummell, A.W. (2002). African influences on rap music. Washington Post, p. 16.
Mills, B.C. (1999). The roots of hip-hop. Rolling Stone, 14-20.
(Hip-hop History) Graffiti is also known as writing, and is not dance. It originated as an underground urban art which was boldly being displayed in public places, generally on the sides of buildings or walls. This was an avenue for citizens to make political and social commentary, and even for gangs to mark their territory. Folks would mark their areas with "tags" like FANK 207, TAKI 183 and several others. Finally the art of tagging developed into a full-blown art form, and produced beautiful mural art to cover trains and buildings. (Hip-hop History)
All the basic dances of hip hop have their individual and unique histories and stories. There is a common misconception which is that hip hop dancing has deep roots in the African rituals or ceremonies as well as culture. In truth, hip hop is much more of an American product. This position will help provide some sort…
Basic History of Hip-hop Dancing. 4 January 2005. Retrieved at http://www.dance.net/read.html?postid=2812173&replies=33&page=1 . Accessed 20 October, 2005
Chonin, Neva. Hip to homo-hop, Oakland's D/DC fuses gay and black identities with eyebrow- raising rhyme. San Francisco Chronicle. December 16, 2001. Retrieved at http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/chronicle/archive/2001/12/16/PK231895.DTLAccessed 18 October, 2005
Classified Hip-Hop Or I wanna blow up like Marilyn Monroe's skirt. Retrieved at http://joan.simmons.edu/~morrow/hiphopbib.html. Accessed 18 October, 2005
Hip-hop History. Retrieved at http://rap.about.com/od/hiphophistory/p/hiphophistory.htm. Accessed 18 October, 2005
The unique sounds of rap music challenged the American listening public by shifting away from rock song structures and instrumentation. Sampling songs and scratch became some of the signature effect of DJs, who provided the music over which rappers would speak their poetry. The fact that rapping is generally unmelodic and set over percussive-forward music ensured that hip-hop remained an underground music. Break beats offered a novel approach to musical expression. The lecture notes discuss the supremacy of the DJ within hip-hop, which is why one DJ could pair up with multiple rappers.
The lecture notes outline the pivotal moments that pushed hip-hop into the mainstream. The "internal growing pains" referred to in the lecture also lends insight into how hip-hop has never been monolithic. Artistic diversity has ensured that the genre thrives and grows. The lecture also addresses the different styles and sounds that hip-hop assumed when the movement…
They are taken for granted that is why here in the site of hsan.org, you can paste your comments and suggestions or even views and analysis when it comes to political issues. There is freedom of expression here in the HSAN as long as what you put in that site is valid. There are a lot of entertainers now who gives meaning to the youth opinions and some of them were Americans, their music are louder than before because every part of the world are already hooked up to each and every one so accessed to information are easy and within reach. Here are some of the information about HSAN's aspiration based on the online source, http://www.hsan.org/Content/main.aspx?pageid=27:
1. We want freedom and the social, political and economic development and empowerment of our families and communities; and for all women, men and children throughout the world.
2. We want equal justice…
Hip-Hop Summit Action Network (2005) [Online] Available at: http://www.hsan.org/content/main.aspx?pageid=7
globalization effect or reason for the creation of Hip-Hop Culture in the estern province in Saudi (Jeddah)?
Saudi Arabia is a country of variety and as of recently, hip-hop. The hip-hop culture of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia's western province, is a culture that signifies not only a new trend of music and interests never seen before in the area, but also an embrace of modern symbols, meaning, and language that could have a connection to the large forces of globalization from the like American hip-hop culture and street life. Semiotics, put simply, is the study of signs. These signs may include photographs, paintings, drawings, words, sounds, and body language. The analysis of the signs within hip-hop and hip-hop culture then leads to an understanding of the various meanings behind it.
This paper will focus on three rappers from Jeddah and compare them to U.S. rappers to find difference and common themes.…
Khan, Khatija. "Muziki: Journal of Music Research in Africa." Muziki: Journal of Music Research in Africa 10.1 (2013): 94-106. http://dx.doi.org/ . Web. 18 Nov. 2013.
Alim, H.S.. "Global Ill-Literacies: Hip Hop Cultures, Youth Identities, And The Politics Of Literacy." Review of Research in Education 35.1 (2011): 120-146. Print.
Alim, H. Samy. Roc the mic right: the language of hip hop culture. New York: Routledge, 2006. Print.
Chang, Jeff . "It's a Hip-Hop World." Foreign Policy. N.p., 11 Oct. 2007. Web. 7 May 2014. .
How Hip Hop Followed in the Footsteps of Malcolm X
Grandmaster Flash and the Furious Five and the Origins of Hip Hop
This paper examines the manner in which the hip hop grew out of the Civil Rights Movement and became a way for disenfranchised black youths, marginalized by society, to express their thoughts and feelings on a world that did want them to rise up. The history of hip hop and its culture is thus a rich one and a complex one that both celebrates youthful joys and energy while also taking different roads towards instigating a dialogue as well. Some hip hop artists have been thoughtful and have challenged the status quo with lyrics and albums that have provoked discussion in a sober-minded way (such as was the case with Tupac Shakur), while others have been more provocative and have set out to disrupt the status quo…
1. What is your general impression of any 2 specific arguments Giddings makes in the essay (i.e, Jay-Z as cultural agents or "africanisms" in Jay-Z's lyrics)?
First, I was impressed by Giddings’ assessment of “the Africanist spiritual value of recognizing reality as a composite of both the tangible and the ethereal/illusive,” (p. 11). The spiritual dimensions of hip-hop are not discussed much, and it is refreshing to encounter this perspective. Second, I appreciated Giddings interjection of gender issues into the assessment of Jay-Z’s lyrics and their “Africanisms,” particularly with regards to the concept of machismo. It is interesting that Giddings connects female background vocals and the blending of male/female in African-American music with corresponding social realities.
2. Of the 4 cultural africanisms/core values, introduced by Giddings and exhibited in Jay-Z's lyrics, which 1 (or more, if any) is most convincing to you that African Americans have an African heritage; and…
Giddings, G. Jahwara. “Afrocentric Jay-Z.”
Hip-hop and rap have often been criticized for depicting stereotypical depictions of women, particularly Black women, even while striving to offer a cultural counter-narrative of powerful black masculinity that is positive. Kanye West’s song “Gold Digger” famously criticizes women for being only interested in a man’s money, and the video crassly shows women in skimpy clothing gyrating in front of West, even being used as credit card dispensers. Although rap’s narrative may question a white world where the police are trustworthy and criminality is viewed as evil, versus a natural response to the environment, it often embraces a very negative view of women at its worst and at its best has depicted women more as sexualized objects than as fully dimensional human beings. On the other hand, as noted by Patricia Hill Collins in her essay “Get Your Freak On: Sex, Babies, and Images of Black Femininity,” many female artists…
M.I.A. on Letterman Singing "Paper Planes"
The recorded live performance of "Paper Planes" by hip hop artist M.I.A. on David Letterman's Late Night in 2007 is the focus of this paper. M.I.A.'s performance is a solo act (with a single back-up singer) as well as a DJ (who is at the rear of stage and not in the spotlight). The venue is Letterman's show and M.I.A. performs before a live studio audience. The performance drew some controversy as the "gunshots" that are supposed to ring out as part of the effect of the show's music were muted and diminished so that instead of loud bangs they came across as toy pop gun sounds. hen this first happened in the performance, M.I.A. actually stopped and looked behind her to her crew as though she was surprised at the diminishment in one of the more emotional impactful moments in the song, which…
"M.I.A. Paper Planes Live on Letterman." YouTube, 2008. Web. 11 Apr 2016.
Hip Hop and American Youth Culture
Everyone enters a stage of growth when a strong urge to break out of parental dependence, when he recognizes his own person and desires to assert himself. This sense of individuality is an inherent in the American character, especially the youth. Aligned with this restlessness is the restlessness endured for centuries by the Blacks. Their elders may have learned to live with the malignity, although without yielding to it, or have less energy to fight. But African-American youth found a way to vent their revulsion towards the discrimination and abuses to which they are subjected as a race. That discovery happened in the 70s when the hip-hop spirit evolved into a concept and then into music, dance, poetry and many other creative forms of letting the sea of anguish flow out of their soul.
The voice of the young American who seeks individual freedom…
Aponte, Christian Andres. 2013. "When Hip Hop and Education Converge: a Look into Hip Hop-based Education Programs in the United States and Brazil." Carnegie Mellon
Blanchard, Becky. 1999. "The Impact of Rap and Hip-Hop Music on American Youth." Ethics
Of Development in a Global Environment.
Positive Message in Hip Hop
When most people think of Hip Hop, they will often associate it with strong lyrics and the message it is sending. Its roots date back to New York City during the 1970s, as DJs would play various forms of music at different block parties. At the same time, some kind of rap is included which offers listeners with an underlying message they can connect with. These elements are combined with popular lyrics and sounds to create a unique style. As it tears away and deconstructs mainstream culture. (Lewis, 2009)
This is used to communicate about lifestyle choices and offer a way of thinking / behaving. These ideas have been utilized to provide a positive message to large segments of society through the challenges they are facing and how to overcome them. Most notably: escaping poverty, discrimination, an abusive family life / household and dealing with…
Biography of Nas. (2013). Poem Hunter. Retrieved from: http://www.poemhunter.com/lyrics/nas/biography/
Eminem Biography. (2013). Biography.com. Retrieved from: http://www.biography.com/people/eminem-9542093
I Can. (2013). AZ Lyrics. Retrieved from: http://www.azlyrics.com/lyrics/nas/ican.html
Not Afraid. (2013). AZ Lyrics. Retrieved from: http://www.azlyrics.com/lyrics/eminem/notafraid.html
Most fundamentally, virtually everything associated with Hip-Hop culture as it pertains to males relates to the portrayal of masculinity and a high degree of self-esteem, a positive self-image, and to being a powerful person on every level. This is portrayed in numerous specific ways, including the lyrics of songs, the adoption of certain physical mannerisms, manner of dress, and to inferences of social and physical dominance of men, particularly toward women (Price, 2006).
In many respects, these images completely contradict reality. For example, Hip-Hop artists have frequently appeared on prominent cable television programs profiling their success through guided tours of multi-million-dollar mansions and expansive estates complete with several brand new Lamborghinis, Ferraris, olls oyce, and Bentleys in their driveways. Aside from the social irresponsibility of promoting ostentatious displays of luxury to impressionable youth, in many cases, the portrayals are themselves largely phony (Price, 2006).
That is simply because much more…
Alim, a.S.; Ibrahim, a.; and Pennycook, a. (2008). Global Linguistic Flows: Hip Hop
Cultures, Youth Identities, and the Politics of Language. New York: Routledge.
Price, E.G. (2006). Hip Hop Culture. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO.
Watkins, S.C. (2006). Hip Hop Matters: Politics, Pop Culture, and the Struggle for the Soul of a Movement. Boston MA: Beacon.
In the "hard-core" sub-genre of hip-hop, one sees a much clearer emphasis on street and urban authenticity -- rather than on sampling. For N.W.A., hip-hop is an expression of lived life -- a kind of militant message passed down to urban blacks from men like Malcolm X
But not all hip-hop comes from such types. The Beastie Boys are an example of hip-hop artists who thrive on a different message. Much of their music is centered on adolescent/teenage angst -- white suburban kids enraged by suburban living, but moved by urban beats. They inter-mingle their own white perspective with samplings from an assortment of other artists -- thus making their mark on the hip-hop scene. Their aggression appears to be real, like 50 Cent's -- even if it is different in its source. The Beastie Boys are, of course, legends in hip-hop -- but Mickey Hess denies that their authenticity…
Alridge, DP 2012 'From Civil Rights to Hip Hop: Toward a Nexus of Ideas', the Hip
Hop Project, pp. 1-28
Arewa, OB 2006 'From JC Bach to Hip Hop: Musical Borrowing, Copyright and Cultural Context', North Carolina Law Review 84, pp 548-558
Best, S; Kellner, D 1999 'Rap, Black Rage, and Racial Difference', Enculturation 2:2
Lastly, the paper concludes by summarizing the findings of the paper.
Limitations of the Study
It is imperative to analytically assess the outcome and the entire thesis. This is because this thesis has some limitations that should be observed when taking into consideration the importance of the thesis and its assistance. This thesis has concentrated on a subject that has been an extremely large and leading one, that is, the development and influence of hip hop dance: the cultural, sociological, and dance style evolution of street dance. Undoubtedly, this characterizes an extremely difficult assignment for research in spite of the more precise interests that the thesis might have. This wide-ranging and difficult subject has been analyzed from a somewhat limited experimental perception. The choice of the single thesis design obviously draws out numerous limitations in so far as the simplification of the outcome of the thesis is involved. Consequently, the…
1) Hip Hop. Taken at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hiphop
2) Efrem Smith. Hip-Hop as Culture. Youth worker journal. July/Aug 2004. Taken at http://www.youthspecialties.com/articles/topics/urban/hip-hop.php
3) Carl S. Taylor and Virgil Taylor. Hip-Hop and Youth Culture: Contemplations of an Emerging Cultural Phenomenon. Reclaiming Children and Youth. Volume: 12. Issue: 4. 2004.
4) Paul Butler. Much Respect: Toward a Hip-Hop Theory of Punishment. Stanford Law Review. Volume: 56. Issue: 5. 2004.
Fortune Affect Grand Master Flash's Political Message?
Music is one of the most powerful forms of communication. It utilizes different types of information networks to cut across linguistic and social boundaries. In several occasions music has the potential to relate to politics and power. From the songs of sorrow sung by slaves in the south, to the revolutionary nature of jazz, blues, and rhythym and blues (R&) during the activist days of the Civil Rights Movements, music has been an important part of many social and political changes. In the recent past the power of music has definitely been amplified by increasingly globalized communications such as social media. Nowadays more rapidly than ever, music links and influences people from all over the world (Malone and Martinez).
Hip-hop is considered by some to be one of the most important genres of music. It originated in the ronx, New York in the…
Allmusic.com. Grandmaster Flash & the Furious Five. n.d. 8 May 2015. Web
Bakala-ska, prace. Hip hop in American Culture. Thesis. Palackeho, 2012. Web
Bey, Alexander. "Hip-Hop's Musical Evolution of Rap." n.d. http://www.oneonta.edu . 8 May 2015.Web
Center for Mental Health in Schools at UCLA. About Hip Hop Youth Subculture. Los Angeles: Center for Mental Health in Schools at UCLA, n.d. Web
Keeping it Real
Hip Hop Music and Keeping it Real Saga
Hip hop music is one of the most argued and debated topic with respect to allowance in the civilized societies. The mainstream behind the hip hop music culture is to portray the unexpressed adversities faced by the under privileged masses as a consequence of the black street lives that ultimately devastates the real nature of healthy survival of individuals in the civil societies. This social evil of inequality and injustice has been described the real reason why the hip hop music is based on the principle of keeping in real.
The expression of voice to emulate the reality that prevails in the cultures has always been a subject of consideration. Like many other liberal and freedom loving societies the American society is also classified under the header of the countries that appreciates and promotes the freedom of…
Rose, Tricia. "The Hip Hop Wars." Black Noise (n.d.).
Carnal teachings: raunch aesthetics as queer feminist pedagogies in Yo! Majesty's hip hop practice" by Jilian Hernandez, the essay explores the concept of 'raunch aesthetics' in the video for the song, "Don't Let Go." Hernandez also explore the notions of community cultural capital, color blind/new racism, and postfeminism through the performance of the women in the video. Hernandez's interpretation of queer and feminist teachings via these four concepts and through the music video provides a unique look, into analysis of text and visuals to gather and form ideas and theory.
The first concept to analyze is 'raunch aesthetics'. A term see in feminist theory, 'raunch aesthetics' describes the women in hip hop and the various ways they express sexuality via staging, choreography, and performance of lyrics. Women in hip hop that participate in 'raunch aesthetics' are thought to attempt to own their sexual identities as well as their bodies by…
Gangster Rap Responds to Police Brutality
Gangster Rap Speaking Out Against Police Brutality
Art often reflects life. When life creates situations that are dire, the art projected from that experience echoes that sense of urgency for change. In today's modern existence, the values of various subcultures do not always correlate with that of the dominate culture. This can often result in a clash of cultures, where minority groups are left to deal with the judgment of the majority group. A prime example of this is the gangster rap coming out of Los Angeles in the late 1980s and the early 1990s. At the time, gang violence was increasing, thus prompting for up scaling of law enforcement strategies. Ultimately, this led to LAPD acting out often much too aggressively in order to curb the increasing violence of the region. The art coming from such circumstances thus illustrates a clear defiance for…
Hip-Hop Culture, Its Origins and Its Culture
The hip-hop culture, according to Richardson, originated in the United States in response to the oppression of African-Americans. This art form is therefore deeply integrated with the social consciousness from which it arose. The art form created an outlet for creativity and repressed anger and other emotions resulting from the hardship of this particular culture. Therefore Richardson and several other critics criticize not only the commercialization of the art, but also globalization and its effects on the culture of hip-hop. oth commercialization and globalization, while proving a financial benefit to the music emerging from the hip-hop culture, nonetheless detracts some of the deeper culture and messages associated with the original art form. Indeed, when the struggle is removed from the art form, the unique culture from which it originated is lost, and the music changes accordingly. Thus globalization and increasing commercialization have combined…
Frazitta, Bobby. "Hip-hop Culture." 1998-2002. http://www.b-boys.com/hiphopculture.html
Hip-hop Congress. "Where is the Color?" 2004. http://hiphopcongress.com/yourworld/politics/columbusday.html
Johnson, Abra. "Globalization of Popular Culture:
Hip-Hop culture shaping and being shaped by pop culture in New Zealand, Japan, Cuba, and the U.S." 2004. http://www.hiphopconvention.org/issues/international/global.cfm
Hip-Hop: Beyond Beats and Rhymes, a documentary by Byron Hurt aims to investigate the underlying social issues that have permeated hip-hop and been propagated through the music and culture. The documentary offers multiple perspectives from industry professionals and artists that aim to dissect prominent social issues such as violence and hypermasculinity, stereotypes, homophobia, and the misogyny that pervades hip hop music and culture. Hip-Hop: Beyond Beats and Rhymes provides insight into these issues and raises awareness about these issues impact hip-hop yet the insight appears to be slightly skewed and only focuses on men and hip-hop.
The documentary begins by focusing on issues of violence and hypermasculinity and why these issues are so prevalent in hip hop music. While the documentary points to how these issues are not only a major concern in hip hop, but rather an overarching social issue that has been propagated through the media as far…
These findings suggest that rap may affect society in several ways. For example, how adolescent whites perceive rap may impact their support for race-based policies such as Affirmative Action as they grow older and become more politically involved. Further, to the extent that rap helps to promote interracial relationships, cross-racial social networks resulting from rap may increase employment opportunities for blacks and other non-whites (97).
However, state Thompson and Brown, another scenario is just as plausible. Since so many of the studies on racial attitudes and rap music have been cross-sectional, it is possible that over time the relationship between whites' opinions on rap music and racial attitudes may change. It is feasible that as the average young adult white rap supporters get older, have a family, and begin a career, the relationship between their opinions of rap music and their perceptions of blacks and support for liberal values may…
Aaron, C. 1998..Black Like Them. Spin Magazine
Farley, C. 1999..Hip-Hop Nation. Time, February 8.
Goff, J.R. 2002. Close Harmony. Greenboro: University of North Carolina Press.
Jackson-Brown, I. 1990. Developments in black gospel performance and scholarship.
Men are expected to put across domination and to affirm their masculinity during a hip hop dance. Hip hop and tango are both designed to put across the feeling that there is a strong connection between the message and the dance, the dance and the dancer, and the dancer and the message.
Tango and hip hop are relatively similar when considering that professional dancers are primarily interested in dancing from the perspective of someone who actually understands why he or she is dancing. These people are not only interested in looking beautiful as they dance, as they are also concerned about having audiences understand their emotions.
All things considered, choreography is one of the most important concepts in the contemporary society and it is very important for the general public to understand that dances are more than movements designed to please the eye. Individuals also dance with the purpose of…
Benshoff, Harry M. And Griffin, Sean "What is Gender?," "What is Sexuality" in America on Film: Representing Race, Class, Gender and Sexuality at the Movies, Blackwell Pub., 2004, pp. 203-206, 293-296.
LaBoskey, Sara "Getting off: Portrayals of Masculinity in Hip Hop Dance in Film," Dance Research Journal, 2001, 33(2), pp. 112-120.
Leigh Foster, Susan, "Choreographies of Gender," Signs, Vol. 24, No. 1 (Autumn, 1998), pp. 1-33.
Manning, Susan, "The Female Dancer and the Male Gaze: Feminist Critiques of Early Modern Dance," Meaning in Motion: New Cultural Studies of Dance, ed. Jane C. Desmond, Duke University Press, 1997, pp: 153-166.
lurred Line" is a song by Robin Thicke that caused a tremendous controversy because of the video that accompanied it. Some allegations included the fact that the video condoned a rape culture and a culture that sexually objectifies women. This paper will aim to analyze some of these claims, looking at the theoretical and sociological perspective of what a rape culture is and matching some of these characteristics over the elements that are seen in the video.
According to Nicoletti, Spencer-Thomas and ollinger (2009), a rape culture in society reflects a society that tolerates or even encourages rape and, in general, sexual violence against women. There are several characteristics of rape cultures, including sexual objectification and a trivialized approach to rape.
To a wider degree, however, there are connections that can be argued between a sexist society and the possibility of it becoming a rape culture. Sexist and misogynistic approaches…
1. Nicoletti, J., Spencer-Thomas, S., Bollinger, C. Violence goes to College. Charles C. Thomas Publisher. 2009
2. Sommers, C. Researching the "Rape Culture" in America. Simon & Schuster Inc., New York, 1994
3. Parenti, Michael. The Cultural Struggle.New York: Seven Stories Press.(2005)
4. Vogleman, L. Sexual Face of Violence: Rapists on Rape. Raven Press Ltd. 1990
How the Criminal Justice System is Dysfunctional according to Paul Butler's Let's Get Free
The American criminal justice system has had a long history of prejudice. From the Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) decision that institutionalized the false concept of "separate but equal" to the Jim Crow laws that followed to the methods of "control" enacted by police in urban communities, criminal justice in the U.S. has seen lots of crime but little justice. Part of the reason for the inherent dysfunction in the way minorities have always been treated in America is that the country was founded on prejudiced WASP (White Anglo-Saxon Protestant) principles: the principle of "manifest destiny" was based on the supposedly "divine right" that WASPs had to "control" the New World and eradicate the "lesser" races (such as the Native Americans and the African-Americans). These prejudiced principles were absorbed into the criminal justice system through lawmakers…
Butler, P. (2010). Let's Get Free: A Hip-Hop Theory of Justice. UK:
Shante represented herself (falsely) as Dr. Roxanne Shanteb, a psychologist with a graduate degree from Cornell University. In reality, she attended only a portion of one semester at Marymount Manhattan College. She had claimed to have attended Cornell under a different name because of a domestic violence situation but never provided any evidence to suggest that she actually attended the university.
Lauren Hill provides a much more positive and legitimate image of urban motherhood and community consciousness. She has been actively involved in charitable organizations and causes and is a recipient of a 1996 award by Essence magazine for her involvement in various initiatives such as founding the Refugee Project, for supporting voter registration efforts in Harlem, and for helping to build clean water wells in Kenya and Uganda. Ultimately, all four of these female artists have contributed to the empowerment of females with respect to overcoming male…
Other female Hip Hop artists besides Queen Latifah have also presented conflicting personal contributions toward the cause of female empowerment, mainly because they chose to do so in a fraudulent manner instead of honestly. For example,
Shante represented herself (falsely) as Dr. Roxanne Shanteb, a psychologist with a graduate degree from Cornell University. In reality, she attended only a portion of one semester at Marymount Manhattan College. She had claimed to have attended Cornell under a different name because of a domestic violence situation but never provided any evidence to suggest that she actually attended the university.
Lauren Hill provides a much more positive and legitimate image of urban motherhood and community consciousness. She has been actively involved in charitable organizations and causes and is a recipient of a 1996 award by Essence magazine for her involvement in various initiatives such as founding the Refugee Project, for supporting voter registration efforts in Harlem, and for helping to build clean water wells in Kenya and Uganda. Ultimately, all four of these female artists have contributed to the empowerment of females with respect to overcoming male subjugation in the Hip Hop genre as well as in the reality of urban communities. For this, they all deserve commendation regardless of their own troubles and imperfections.
Te article also portrays drawing young people to temples wit ip-op as a radical idea. But Buddism and popular culture ave always ad an interactive relationsip in Japan: people migt use Buddist amulets for good luck, for example, as well as solemnly meditate upon a koan. Wile Kanso Tagai, te subject of te La article, may be innovative in is appropriation of American urban culture for te 21st century, is approac is not unique witin te Buddist tradition. Anoter monk says: "it's important tat we come down into te secular world and live in modern society. An altar doesn't mean you ave a temple. A temple is a place were people follow te fait and Budda." Te concept of a Bodisattva is a being tat resists entering te plane of ultimate enligtenment, and remains amongst te unenligtened, to bring te wole world to a state of iger consciousness. Te tone…
The modern, Western media enjoys portraying modernity and religion as perpetually at odds: either in a humorous way, by showing nuns walking next to rollerbladers on the streets, or in a serious way, such as when it reports upon the position of the Catholic Church on the subjects of abortion and birth control. However, not all religions see secular and sacred life in such a sharply divided fashion. Buddhism, although it has a monastic component, has also existed as a religion 'of the world' for many centuries. The samurai warriors of Japan integrated their Buddhist beliefs with their military service, for example. However, when Buddhist monks are shown drinking, inevitably a reporter feels compelled to create a cute slogan, such as: "Sutras are shaken and stirred at the Monk Bar" (Lah 2010).
Kyung Lah's article "Buddhist monks use hip hop, alcohol to attract followers" from CNN suggests that Buddhism is in crisis in Japan, because so many temples have closed. Yet Buddhism is also a philosophy. Unlike Western religions which tend to define themselves by rituals that are seen as 'sacred' and in conflict with secular values, Buddhist methods of practice of meditation and reflection are not only confined to formal worship contexts. The article also portrays drawing young people to temples with hip-hop as a radical idea. But Buddhism and popular culture have always had an interactive relationship in Japan: people might use Buddhist amulets for good luck, for example, as well as solemnly meditate upon a koan. While Kansho Tagai, the subject of the Lah article, may be innovative in his appropriation of American urban culture for the 21st century, his approach is not unique within the Buddhist tradition. Another monk says: "it's important that we come down into the secular world and live in modern society. An altar doesn't mean you have a temple. A temple is a place where people follow the faith and Buddha." The concept of a Bodhisattva is a being that resists entering the plane of ultimate enlightenment, and remains amongst the unenlightened, to bring the whole world to a state of higher consciousness. The tone of the article suggests the monks are introducing something new to the religion in a cynical fashion to draw new believers, while the monks are really following very old practices and ideas common in Japanese Buddhism for many centuries.
Their view of the women is shaped by their perceptions of what category of woman they represent.
Symptoms of a Much Larger Social Issue:
In many respects, the gender relations illustrated in Boyz 'N the Hood are merely symptoms of a much more general problem of misogyny and the general lack of mutual respect for females in many areas of American social culture, especially in the Hip-Hop community. Both Tre's early relationship with Brandi and Rickie's relationship with the mother of his baby illustrate the psychological distance that males maintain between themselves and their female partners, even within romantic and domestic relationships respectively. Neither woman is involved in her partner's life in the same way as the male friends. Instead, they remain within a highly compartmentalized role and kept almost completely separate without significant integration into their lives.
If anything, that dynamic is only a relatively mild version of the…
A high production value and an industrial feel throughout much of the song impart an engagingly chaotic and progressive feel to the song.
6. MC Lyte is one of the few successful female rappers. In "Paper Thin" MC Lyte raps over minimalist music that includes just the beats and the occasional sound of a synthesized but unidentifiable instrument playing an eerie melody. Lyte tells the story of a jilted lover, with an overall theme of empowerment. Occasional encouragement from background vocals and a chorus of "ooooh" refer to African music. MC Lyte also draws gender issues into the repertoire of rap lyrics.
7. The Beastie Boys "Paul Revere" stands out because of the reverse-played scratch sound. Synthesized maracas add sonic texture, but the focal point is the amusing story. "Paul Revere" is one of many New York area rap songs denoting a shift of content away from love of music…
Increasingly, the majority of black outh Africans became disillusioned with the political system and those ruling it. In the opinion of many, they had simply traded one form of oppression for another - they are now exploited not only by white rulers, but also by those who are black (Clark, 2007). This is expressed in the current forms of outh African Hip Hop. Artists working against the apartheid of the past are now working against the exploitation of the poor.
In addition to being politically oriented, Hip Hop also focuses on the African enjoyment of dancing. The earliest forms of this, also advertised and accepted via the media, included break dancing. Currently, outh African Hip Hop has evolved to a form of house music called kwaito. This music is very popular among the black youth, whether oppressed or not. As such, it is a well established form of music in…
BBC News (2007, July 25). South African Hip Hop. http://www.theworld.org/?q=node/11662
Clark, Msia Kibona (2007, July 11). South Africa - Hip Hop Revolution. Global Envision
Wright, Steve (1999, June 9). Kwaito: South Africa's Hip-Hop? CNN. http://www.cnn.com/SHOWBIZ/Music/9906/09/kwaito.wb
I think that one of the ways that break dancing helps to solidify resistance is through providing another avenue for a countercultural movement to grow. Due to the concerns about the economy that she mentioned, today is one of the few times in the history of the U.S. that there is not a dominant countercultural movement. Therefore, I believe that by having people breakdance in places where people also turf dance, both of these forms of dance can help to form a countercultural movement that expresses social concern.
There is a definite similarity between Nicole's choice of hip-hop dance as a form of resistance and mine highlighting turf dancing as a form of resistance. Both of these forms of dance largely began in urban environments in the streets. I believe that it would be useful to incorporate hip hop dancing with turf dancing, since in reality turf dancing is merely…
Browning, Barbara. Samba: Resistance in Motion. Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press. 1995. Print.
he author then proceeds to contradict himself or herself by referring to the Black Eyed Peas as mainstream. So, are the Black Eyed Peas up-and-coming or mainstream? Moreover, the author contends that it was refreshing to have a "mainstream music group" release a song with a positive message when the music the band was not considered to be mainstream until the release of "Where is the Love?" And the release of their third studio album.
he essay is also heavily biased against hip-hop, or at least it appears to be, through the arguments made the song is influential because the Black Eyed Peas were able to convey such a message through hip-hop music when hip-hop artists "are stereotyped as thugs who only talk about money, sex, and guns." By arguing hip-hop artists are negatively stereotyped without explaining that hip-hop is not limited to these views and the term can also…
The essay is also full of false and biased statements. For instance, the author contends the Black Eyed Peas were an up-and-coming hip-hop group at the time the song was released when, in fact, they had been around since 1995 and had released two albums prior to the 9/11 attacks. The author then proceeds to contradict himself or herself by referring to the Black Eyed Peas as mainstream. So, are the Black Eyed Peas up-and-coming or mainstream? Moreover, the author contends that it was refreshing to have a "mainstream music group" release a song with a positive message when the music the band was not considered to be mainstream until the release of "Where is the Love?" And the release of their third studio album.
The essay is also heavily biased against hip-hop, or at least it appears to be, through the arguments made the song is influential because the Black Eyed Peas were able to convey such a message through hip-hop music when hip-hop artists "are stereotyped as thugs who only talk about money, sex, and guns." By arguing hip-hop artists are negatively stereotyped without explaining that hip-hop is not limited to these views and the term can also be used to define a specific music style or a lifestyle.
I believe the paper could have made a greater impact on the reader if the author explained what about the song was especially influential and how it appealed to listeners to take a closer look at their surroundings. I also think that the author should have explained why the song was so important to the band, and more specifically, how the song transformed the band. In order to strengthen the arguments made in the paper, I would suggest the author consider how the paper is structured, present the argument from a more formal perspective, provide citations for claims made, and make sure the essay is free of grammatical errors, which detract from the point that the author is trying to get across.
No Justice, No Peace
In Z-Ro’s “No Justice No Peace,” the hip hop artist states, “No justice, no peace
It's us against police. Every time I turn around they shoot another brother down.” The argument made by the artist is that police brutality and oppression is marginalizing African-Americans and making them fearful of the law—which to them represents white rule, white power, and white aggression. The artist, like all hip hop artists, is coming from a traditional of criticism against Jim Crow: his descendents are men like Malcolm X and MLK, Jr., Ice Cube, and Tupac Shakur. Z-Ro’s words echo with all the history of those stories and more rolled into a monumental protest anthem. It is an anthem that many can understand. However, there is also a racial component to it that disqualified anyone who is not African-American from identifying with the song. For instance, others who are white…
Yo! MTV Raps was also a great venue for up and coming rap legends to showcase their work to their world through performances. Audiences around the world were exposed to a new type of raw creativity in rap music, one which took the music industry by storm. Yo! MTV Raps was a huge first for the network; it was the first show dedicated one hundred percent to rap and hip hop, an emerging art form in American popular music that had not yet found acceptance within the larger body of society.
Major name artists saw their career explode alongside the publicity they were getting from the show and the movement it was inspiring within pop culture. Huge names in the rap industry were seen before they really made it big and when they had a definite hold over the lure of pop culture in the United States. The series was…
ith time, Tango dancing had been recognized officially world wide, and people have even turned it into an art. Tango dancing is presumed to be one of the easiest dances in the world, but it would take a professional to really Tango.
The Indians are known for their extreme spirituality and the Indian traditional dance is full of it. Indians have taken the art of dancing to a whole new level by having associated it with meditation with the intention of sending a message through the dance to the spectators. The early Indian dancers had a strong bond with the church. Later on, the dancers would be seen dancing in order to bring to life the stories told by singers.
According to David Courtney, "Today the acknowledged classical styles are:
Bharatnatyam of Tamil Nadu,
Kathakali of Kerala,
Kuchipudi of Andhra Pradesh,
Manipuri of Northeast India,
Orissi from Orissa, and Kathak…
Courtney, David. "NRITYA - INDIAN CLASSICAL DANCE." Chandrakantha. 2008. 24 November, 2008. http://chandrakantha.com/articles/indian_music//nritya.html
Heikkila, Lori. "Tango History." Central Home. 24 November, 2008. http://www.centralhome.com/ballroomcountry/tango.htm
Leonidou, Anne. "Portrait of the Greek Dance." Nostos Hellenic Cyber Centre. 24 November, 2008. http://www.nostos.com/dance/
Stith, Kevin. "Hip Hop Dancing." Ezine Articles. 24 November, 2008. http://ezinearticles.com/?Hip-Hop-Dancing&id=407540
Keepin' it real -- Real-ism, that is: Today's 'take' on John Singleton's 1991 film, "Boyz in the Hood"
The pummeling hip-hop soundtrack immediately sets the tone for "Boyz in the Hood." This film's musical sound signals to the viewer that it is produced by someone who knows the street, because it sounds like the street, screams like the street -- a particular kind of neighborhood street -- that of the 'hood.' The film's early use of quick cuts in a montage that introduces the main protagonists and the neighborhood to the viewer and its sharp, guttural dialogue suggest that the director is 'really' going to show to the viewer how people 'really' and authentically communicate in real, urban street life.
The use of short sentences and monosyllables in many films that attempt to seem realistic is often also used to show individuals who know each other well, like brothers and…
"Boyz in the Hood." Directed and written by John Singleton. 1991.
An Analysis of the Life and Work of Shirley Chisholm
In light of the fact that black feminism has gained more of a voice in the last few decades it is important to remember the people who first brought the plight of the black woman, specifically, to the forefront of national public and political discourse. One of these women was Shirley Chisholm. She was the first black member of the New York State Assembly and the United States House of epresentatives. Many black women may not have regarded her ventures into the political realm as wise, her voice was could have been dampened by the need to remain diplomatic, because she could have done more good advocating the cause as just an activist. But, Chisholm used her platform to change the way many, both black and white, viewed African-American women. Her personal story was one of rising to…
Chisholm, Shirley. 1970. Unbought and Unbossed. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
Collins, Patricia Hill. 2006. From Black Power to Hip Hop: Racism, Nationalism, and Feminism. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
Hill, Levirn. 1993. "Shirley Chisholm." Pp. 90-99 in American Women Civil Rights Activists: Biographies of 68 Leaders, 1825-1992, edited by Gayle J. Hardy. Jefferson, NC: McFarland.
Lynch, Shola. 2005. "Shirley Chisholm Fought the Good Fight." The Crisis, (January/February), 58.
However, at the same time, the Dominican Republic is also a Hispanic speaking island and thus the Latin influence is also heavy in their version of Reggae and other musical tastes. Finally, as the band grew up in the Bronx, their musical background was also heavily influenced by the growth of American style hip-hop, which grew up out of the Bronx area. This diverse, mixing pot of musical heritage was combined by the band Aventura to create the unique musical character of Bachata.
Overall, I found the Avnentura Kings of Bachata concert to be of high quality and highly entertaining. Watching the band perform on stage shows you how much they care about their music and how much they enjoy performing it for their fans. These facts bring a high level of energy to their show, which I found captivating. The band played their songs at a fast, energetic pace…
The master of the ceremony will be the key agent of advertisement during the event (Argenti 37). He will adorn himself at four different times with attires that are representing the brands of each of the four key sponsors.
The event is expected to cost an estimate of $8,000, which is inclusive of the token of appreciation given to the artists and the total cost incurred in running advertisements via the various media outlets (Tassiopoulos 21).
Courvoisier S.A, 2 place du Chateau,
16200 Jarnac, France
Tel +33 (0)5-45-35-56 16
As an organizer of Go-Go Music Show, which is an event held annually in ashington DC, I would like to invite the support of Courvoisier as one of the event sponsors. The event would be held on 10, November 2012.
As a sponsor in this event, you will have a chance to advertise the various brands offered by your…
Tassiopoulos, Dimitri. Event Management: A Professional and Developmental Approach. Sydney: Juta and Company Ltd., 2005. Print.
Skinner, Bruce and Rukavina, Vladimir. Event Sponsorship. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, 2002. Print.
Tarlow, Peter. Event Risk Management and Safety. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, 2002. Print.
Kahle, Lynn and Close, Angeline. Consumer Behavior Knowledge for Effective Sports and Event Marketing. Washington, DC: Taylor & Francis, 2010. Print.
Krump is a popular form of dancing sweeping America. But most people can't find a class in krump dancing offered at a suburban local gym or dance studio along with Zumba, tap, and jazz. Krump dancing originated in the urban ghettos of Los Angeles, not as part of a formal, classical tradition of dance. Much like breakdancing or vogue-ing, it has its roots in a culture of poverty, where people with little money or other material resources could at least create art with their bodies in a visceral and organic fashion. The streets where krumping first became popular are lined with "barbershops, chicken joints, liquor stores and churches" and little else (Booth 2005:1).
"Krumping," according to the documentary on the dance craze called Rize, has been called "break dancing on fast-forward" (Booth 2005:1). Krumping began as a "hip-hop dance style sired by a former drug dealer named Tommy…
Booth, William. "The Exuberant Warrior Kings of 'Krumping.'" The Washington Post.
24 Jun 2005. [1 Feb 2013] http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2005/06/24/AR2005062401880.html
Menzie, Nicola. "Krump dances into the mainstream." CBS News. 11 Feb 2009. [1 Feb 2013]
Sexuality is another common theme in music. We see in the songs studied testosterone and estrogen, the sexual response cycle, psychosexual images and sexual orientation issues. These treatments of the same basic thing are again complex, ranging from purely physical explorations of the subject to the deep-rooted psychological attributes of sex. Self-esteem and denial are also wrapped up in this subject in some of the songs. This again reflects our need to understand our sexual selves, in particular as distinct from our emotional/loving selves.
In the other category, power proved a major theme. Self-esteem, self-serving bias, defense mechanisms, ego, superego, the spotlight effect, achievement motivation and projection are all components of this theme that emerge in the music. The need for power reflects a desire for achievement that we all have and the need to feel important in this world, perhaps explaining why this theme is so popular. Its popularity…
female rappers talking sexually explicitly raps degrading act empowerment? feminists. sources: *pornification, sex sexuality media culture- susanna paasonnen *hen chicken heads roost *spin sisters: women media sell unhappiness liberlisation woman america.
Female rappers and how they affect society
The rap industry has generated much controversy in the recent decades, most debates emerging because critics consider some lyrics to be offensive and discriminatory to particular groups. It would be absurd to claim that society remains unaffected as a result of being subjected to lyrics that contain explicit inequitable expressions. Individuals who come up with these lyrics apparently share no interest in the consequences their music leaves on the world.
Although it is difficult to identify the exact people who are harmed by offensive language heard in rap music, surveys and personal opinions are more than explanatory in regard to the overall state of affairs. Although most individuals involved in the industry…
1. Blyth, Myrna. (2004). "SPIN SISTERS: How the Women of the Media Sell Unhappiness and Liberalism to the Women of America." ST. MARTIN'S PRESS.
2. Campbell, Kermit Ernest. (2005). "Gettin' our groove on: rhetoric, language, and literacy for the hip hop generation." Wayne State University Press.
3. Morgan, Joan. (2000). "When Chickenheads Come Home to Roost: A Hip-Hop Feminest Breaks It Down." Simon & Schuster.
4. Paasonen, Susanna; Nikunen, Kaarina; Saarenmaa, Laura. (2008). "Pornification: sex and sexuality in media culture." Michigan University.
Harry, B., Sturges, K.M., & Klinger, J.K. (2005). Mapping the process: An exemplar of process and challenge in grounded theory analysis. Educational Researcher, 34(2), 3-13.
Read the article listed above and provide your impressions. In one page, summarize the authors' experiences in conducting a grounded theory study in an educational setting. What were some of the challenges they faced? What are your thoughts in general on conducting qualitative research in the field of education?
Grounded theory is generation of a hypothesis (or assumption) that proceeds from observation and rich qualitative study. The authors wanted to show that qualitative study in general and grounded theory approach in particular could be used in conjunction with the subject of education.
The purpose of the study was (a) to investigate whether and, if so, how, the processes used to identify, assess, and place students in high-incidence special education programs contribute to the overrepresentation phenomenon;…
Lester, S (nd) An introduction to phenomenological research http://www.sld.demon.co.uk/resmethy.pdf
MacArthur, G.S. (2007). Best practices in writing instruction. New York: Guilford Press.
Stanley, L & Wise, S (1993) Breaking Out Again: Feminist Ontology and Epistemology London, Routledge
A Tribe Called Quest has performed live at a number of large music festivals including Bumbershoot and Lollapalooza. These big name, big draw venues allowed A Tribe Called Quest to project their sounds to the masses, enlightening large numbers of listeners to the transformative potential of hip-hop. As gangsta and other predictable forms of rap increasingly dominated the industry, A Tribe Called Quest was keeping things real. Their commercial success also depended on their high visibility in terms of live performances and music videos. The videos of A Tribe Called Quest parallel the content of their lyrics, and depict African-American street culture especially on the east coast.
A Tribe Called Quest drew upon the groundwork set by De La Soul in fusing jazz musical elements, instrumentation, and samples into hip-hop. In fact, A Tribe Called Quest, De La Soul, and the Jungle Brothers were schoolmates and formed a successful musical…
"A Tribe Called Quest." Rolling Stone. Retrieved Dec 8, 2009 from http://www.rollingstone.com/artists/atribecalledquest/biography
"Biography." A Tribe Called Quest. Website retrieved Dec 8, 2009 from http://atribecalledquest.com/html/biography/
Bush, John. "A Tribe Called Quest." All Music Guide. Retrieved Dec 8, 2009 from http://www.allmusic.com/cg/amg.dll?p=amg&sql=11:dcfixq95ld6e
In fact, the album Paul's Boutique, which is now hailed as "one of the first albums to predict the genre-bending, self-referential pop kaleidoscope of '90s pop" was scorned or ignored when it was released in 1989.
The Beastie Boys split from Rick Rubin and Def Jam and developed an independent, eclectic, and sonically adventurous sound. The album Check Your Head, which included rock instrumentation, solidified the Beastie Boys' reputation as one of America's top musical talents. Since then the band has enjoyed relatively steady critical acclaim, peer recognition, and popular success. Their most recent award earned was a Grammy for the 2007 release The Mix-Up, a creative instrumental journey. The Beastie Boys have released their own concert film called Awesome: I Fuckin' Shot That!, the title of which proves their punk roots.
Numerous musical styles and artists have influenced the Beastie Boys, enabling the band to create their unique and…
"Beastie Boys." LastFM. Retrieved Dec 12, 2009 from http://www.last.fm/music/Beastie+Boys
"Beastie Boys: Biography." Rolling Stone Encyclopedia of Rock and Roll. Simon & Schuster. Retrieved online at RollingStone.com on Dec 12, 2009 at http://www.rollingstone.com/artists/beastieboys/biography
Erlewine, Stephen Thomas. "Biography." All Music Guide. Retrieved Dec 12, 2009 from http://www.allmusic.com/cg/amg.dll?p=amg&sql=11:3ifqxq95ld6e
Forget, Thomas. The Beastie Boys. New York: Rosen Publishing, 2006.
Instead, he has been doing the production and promotion for other artists. He also collaborates with other musicians, such as Elizondo to product Eminem's single "The Real Slim Shady. He hopes to get out another album in 2008, which would have several different contributors. Even he admits that his message has mellowed out since his first hits in the '90s, Regarding earlier years he says: "That was my past. What I thought was the thing to do then. I mean, I think 'Straight Outta Compton' was a classic hip-hop album. ut I do look back on a lot of the things we were saying and doing then and go, "Damn!." ut the ***** was dope at the time." Would he ever do that same material now? "No. No way. I'm more into totally positive moves."
Admittedly, not everyone was or continues to be keen on Dr. Dre and similar musicians.…
Bennett, Andy. Bennett Cultures of Popular Music. Philadelphia: Open UP, 2001.
Dr. Dre. Biography. http://www.sing365.com/music/lyric.nsf/Dr.-Dre-Biography/49B29B5DD87AEC0C482568860008957D Accessed 24 November, 2007.
Dr. Dre's My Space. http://www.myspace.com/drdre . Accessed 24 November 2007.
Farley, Christopher "Hip Hop Nation." Time Magazine. 8 February,1999. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1101,00.html . Accessed 24 November, 2007.
Anthology of Rap by Adam radley and Andrew Duois sets out to illustrate how rap can be analyzed from a literary standpoint, and traces the development of the genre from the late 1970s to contemporary interpretations of the genre. Throughout the book, radley and Duois offer interesting insights into how the music movement developed and evolved, and while they provide some insight into the development of the genre as a movement, they overlook significant factors that influenced rap.
In the introduction, The Anthology of Rap establishes that it will focus primarily on rap as poetry, yet the focus frequently shifts to other influencers. The book's introduction is full of promise and offers a definition of rap that allows the rapper to be considered a poet and helps to create a distinction between rap and the overarching genre of hip hop. KRS-One states, "Rap music is something we do, but hip…
Bradley and DuBois's discussion of the Golden Age of rap ends on a low note because of its complete disregard for the role that women played during this time. The authors simply mention, "Whereas before, the best female lyricists crafted lyrics that were indistinguishable in essence from those of their distinguished male counterparts, figures such as MC Lyte, Roxanne Shante, Salt-N-Pepa, and Queen Latifah began to speak on themes provoked by a sense of gender disparity and the untapped power of women" (129). Bradley and DuBois ignore women's roles in rap throughout The Anthology of Rap, and while they mentioned that women rappers at this time wrote lyrics that were initially indistinguishable from their male counterparts, the authors do not elaborate nor explain how these women were affected by rap's evolution or how they contributed to rap as poetry. Throughout the book, Bradley and DuBois place focus on one singular female, M.I.A. And praise the impact she had on American hip hop, specifically citing her song "Paper Planes," which is heavily influenced by The Clash's 1982 song "Straight to Hell," which Bradley and DuBois do not cite nor recognize in applauding M.I.A.'s contributions to hip hop.
While The Anthology of Rap sets out to demonstrate the influence that rap had on society and argues rap lyrics should be considered works of art, much like poetry, the book's structure and focus progressively unravel as it traces rap's roots in the 1980s to hip hop's "death" in the new millennium. Bradley and DuBois have worked to create a distinction between rap and hip hop throughout the entire anthology, yet the last section "New Millennium Rap" appears to focus solely on hip hop. Furthermore, as the book progressed, they began to focus less and less on rap as poetry and instead transitioned into providing a brief explanation of how rap as a genre transitioned from something that was underground to something that was commercial. Furthermore, Bradley and DuBois place too much emphasis on music business in the later half of the book, completely voiding their claim that they seek to bring attention to rap as poetry.
Overall, The Anthology of Rap succeeds at presenting a collection of rap lyrics, however, its point-of-view is severely skewed, focusing mostly on the contributions of men with no more than 25 or so lyrical inclusions of rap by women. Additionally, the shifting focus in each of the major sections detracts from the purpose of the book. While the book begins by stating it will focus on rap as poetry, it begins to focus on individuals, society, and the music business soon thereafter. By the end of the book, the focus is no longer on rap, but on hip hop, which Bradley and DuBois defined as being two separate concepts. The book's deviating focus and the ignorance of women's contributions to rap cause a potentially great book to fall short.
The pimp has become the spokesman for the hip-hop subculture and directly influences black males and indirectly white males into directions that are anathema to the rights and dignity of black women in particular and all women in general. In other words, black and white females in a cultural sense are literally swimming in a sea of cultural images that play to the lowest common denominator of humanity and makes women into sexual objects and a product in the packaging of hip-hop records, whether or not they want to be there.
Again, to quote my paper and illustrate in detail the content "This form of media is the primary means of information broadcasting for youth. Plus, the portrayals of hip-hop culture in the media is highly likely to influence African-American youths." An entire generation of black males is being brought up to see women as material sexual objects.
Marketing Music on Social Media Sites
Social media sites like Facebook, Twitter, YouTube and others have grown exponentially over the past few years. One of the entertainment genres that has benefited mightily from social media is music, rap, rock, hip-hop, country, and even classical music. This paper explores and analyzes how musicians and groups have exploited social media in their marketing strategies.
Key Reasons Music Marketing Thrives on Social Media
Social Media has carved out an enormous presence in the contemporary entertainment and information scene in the United States. In fact according to a 2010 book -- Facebook Marketing: An Hour a Day -- a Harris Interactive study shows that "…48% of all American adults had either a Facebook or a MySpace account" (Treadaway, et al., 2010, p. 15). Also, as an indication of how extraordinarily fast Facebook has grown, in just eight months the giant social media company went…
Associated Press, 2011, 'Coldplay to livestream Madrid concert on YouTube on Oct. 26, two days after release of 'Milo Xyloto'. Retrieved October 7, 2011, from http://www.nydailynews.com .
CMU, 2011, 'New MySpace owners speak / New look music-focused MySpace set for 2011, retrieved October 7, 2011, from http://www.thecmuwebsite.com .
Hernandez, Brian Anthony, 2011, 'How Lady Gaga Created a Web Marketing Spectacle for Born This Way', Mashable.com. Retrieved October 6, 2011, from http://mashable.com/2011/05/24/lady-gaga-case-study .
Martell, Dan, 2010, 'How Six Hip Hop Artists Use Social Media', Flowtown.com. Retrieved October 6, 2011, from http://www.flowtown.com/blog/how-six-hip-hop-artists-use-social-media.
Kanye West's Yeezy Season Three Collections And Subversion Of Dominant Culture
Fashion is something that is thought to be changing with time. The fashion of the ancient times is not the same fashion of today, and the fashion of today has a little chance being the fashion of the times to come. As with the fashion progression in the United States of America, the fashion protagonists, and experts have contributed much to fashion. Fashion remains to be the people's choice and touches on the interests and tastes of the people. In the United States of America, fashion has been a way of life, finding its way almost into everything that involves human beings. The contributions are varied like with those who have progressed with the traditional career of fashion to those who have entered into fashion from other fields of play like Kanye West. In his Yeezy Season Three collections,…
Clay, Andreana. 2012. The Hip-Hop Generation Fights Back: Youth, Activism, and Post-Civil Rights Politics. New York, NY: New York University Press.
Hall, Stuart. 1993. What Is This "Black" in Black Popular Culture? Social Justice, Vol. 20, No. 1/2 (51-52), Rethinking Race (Spring-Summer 1993), pp. 104-114
Rose, Tricia. 1994. Black Noise: Rap Music and Black Culture in Contemporary America. Hanover [u.a.]: Wesleyan Univ. Press
The reason I do this is because it's the hottest part of the song that the dancers love and go absolutely nuts over. This ignited a cultural revolution and is how the term "break dancing" formed.
DJ EP: As I understand it, "breaking" has another meaning.
DJ KH: Oh yeah. My "b-boys" (break-boys) and "b-girls" (break-girls) are dancers who "breakdance" while I'm deejaying. ut the term, "breaking" also refers to the slang word for "getting excited," "acting energetically," and/or "causing a disturbance." Double entendre.
DJ EP: I love breaking in the clubs or on the streets. I don't know, tell me if you agree, but there's something so amazing and intense about the energy of deejaying street and park parties as opposed to clubs like Twilight Zone, Havelo, or the Executive Playhouse.
DJ KH: There's no doubt about it. They're absolutely electrifying, probably because park and street parties are spontaneous.…
1) Chang, Jeff. Can't Stop Won't Stop: A History of the Hip-Hop Generation. St.
Martin's Press, New York: 2005.
2) Hager, Steven. "Afrika Bambaataa's Hip-Hop." Village Voice September 21,
music is not always a vehicle for political or social commentary, it has become increasingly more so in the past several generations. Music serves often as a vehicle for community and cultural self-expression, or as a means to communicate social and political ideals as with the spirituals and blues songs of African-Americans bemoaning slavery and racism. Since the 1960s, however, music and its lyrical component has become a means by which to understand the zeitgeist of the historical epoch. Music in the 1960s was often directly and overtly political, particularly the songs of American folk musicians like Bob Dylan. It is almost easier to single out songs from the late 1960s that did not have political overtones versus those that did, because there were so many artists who used music to convey political messages. One of the most notable such songs is John Lennon's "Give Peace a Chance." This song…
Britton, L.M. (2015). Times they are a changin': Indie's apathy v pops political pursuit. The Guardian. 8 June, 2015. Retrieved online: http://www.theguardian.com/music/2015/jun/08/times-they-are-a-changin-indies-apathy-v-pops-political-pursuit
Burns, C. (n.d.). Lady Gaga: Performer, persona, and political advocate. Retrieved online: http://digitalcommons.calpoly.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1195&context=comssp
Gavish, E. (2009). Music has always been a tuneful force for political change. New York Daily News. 10 Act, 2009. Retrieved online: http://www.nydailynews.com /entertainment/music-arts/music-tuneful-force-political-change-article-1.381154
Hughes, D. (2013). Hip-hop in politics. ABC News. 14 Feb, 2013. Retrieved online: http://abcnews.go.com/Politics/OTUS/hip-hop-politics-difference-generation-makes/story?id=18495205
As the vast majority of African-Americans do not know where their ancestors came from, it is difficult to trace one's roots back to the African continent. At the same time, the United States, while certainly the nation that nearly every African-American would consider to be home, has hardly been hospitable to African-Americans throughout history. Even today, nearly a quarter of all African-American families in the United States live below the poverty line.
Nation plays a more prominent role in Hispanic-American communities, as these communities tend to organize themselves around national heritage. For example, the Puerto ican community in the United States is distinct from the Mexican-American community.
It should be kept in mind, however, that both Hispanic-Americans and African-Americans tend to identify their national heritage with the United States of America - despite their troublesome relationship with their home country over the centuries.
Institutional networks continue to play…
Boddy-Evans, a. (N.D.) the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade. Retrieved December 1, 2007 from African History web site: http://africanhistory.about.com/library/weekly/aa080601a.htm
Davis, R. (N.D.) Surviving Jim Crow. Retrieved December 1, 2007 from the History of Jim Crow web site: http://www.jimcrowhistory.org/history/surviving.htm
Educational Broadcasting Corporation (2002). The Great Migration. Retrieved December
1, 2007 from African-American World web site: http://www.pbs.org/wnet/aaworld/reference/articles/great_migration.html
Future ole of the Juvenile Justice System in the United States
Young people are naturally prone to experimentation and impulsive behaviors that frequently result in their involvement with the law enforcement community, and police officers today generally enjoy wide latitude in resolving these incidents. In fact, in some if not most cases, police officers can release young offenders into the custody of their parents or guardians without the further involvement of the criminal justice system. Even when young offenders are arrested, though, the juvenile justice system tends to afford them with more leniency than their adult counterparts, due in part to the view that the role of the juvenile justice system is to rehabilitate rather than punish. These enlightened views of juvenile justice, though, are being replaced with "get-tough-on-crime" approaches in some states, and there remains a paucity of standardized models for states to follow. To gain some fresh insights…
Alridge, D.P. (2005, Summer). Introduction: Hip hop in history: Past, present, and future. The Journal of African-American History, 90(3), 190-193.
Black's law dictionary. (1991). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.
Boyd, T. (2002). The new H.N.I.C.: The death of civil rights and the reign of hip hop. New York:
Brookins, G.K. & Hirsch, J.A. (2002, Summer). Innocence lost: Case studies of children in the juvenile justice system. The Journal of Negro Education, 71(3), 205-210.
Influence of Minstrel Shows in Modern Music
Minstrel shows date back to pre-Civil ar times. Since then, the minstrel show, and elements thereof, have been assimilated into modern culture. Despite this assimilation, minstrelsy still conveys themes of racism and continues to propagate negative stereotypes of African-American culture.
Modern minstrel shows continue to be a popular form of entertainment although this entertainment is not necessarily classified, or labeled, as a minstrel show. Historically, minstrel shows' popularity waned at the turn of the century and into the mid-20th century as African-Americans made significant gains in combating racism and other social injustices (Lee). Traditionally, African-Americans were portrayed as "stupid, foolish, overly happy, and ignorant," but through hard work, protests, and advocacy, these perceptions began to change and African-Americans began to be more accepted as a part of society and not as a group outside of it (Lee). Among some of the…
Lee, Caroline. "Minstrel Shows and Their Effect on American Culture." Helium.com. 20 Jan
2008. Web. 5 March 2013.
Rasheed, Shariff. "Is Hip-Hop the New Blackface." 17 Jan 2013. Web. 5 March 2013.