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Marx Historical Context
Classical sociological and economic theories like those of Karl Marx emerged in Western Europe when it was experiencing the Enlightenment, the emergence of scientific method, a growing sense of individual autonomy over one's life conditions, the emergence of private property, urban growth, and a total shattering of the social balance of relations among peoples that had been in place for centuries if not millennia. Christianity and other traditional religions were being undermined by the new developments in science and technology, while urban, industrial capitalism was breaking up the old feudal-agrarian order in Europe and the Americas. All the founders of modern sociology had to deal with this radically new society, and attempted to describe its historical origins, the new social and economic problems of industrial capitalism, and how governments and societies should deal with them. Karl Marx received his PhD in economics in Germany during the dawn…
Appelrouth, S. And L.D. Edles (2010). Sociological Theory in the Classical Era: Text and Readings, 2nd Edition. SAGE Publications.
Greene, J.C. "Biological and Social Theory in the Nineteenth Century: August Comte and Herbert Spencer" in John Offer (ed). Herbert Spencer: Critical Assessments of Leading Sociologists, Volume 2. Routledge, 2000, pp. 203-26.
Marx, Karl and Friedrich Engels. The Manifesto of the Communist Party. Moscow: Progress Publishers, 1969.
2. Leadership analysis of the two former Arab leaders
Sheikh Zayed bin Sultan Alnahyan and Saddam Hussein were two great Arab leaders that significantly influenced the Arab world, but there is very little resemblance in their leadership styles. As a manner of manifestation, the two had very distinct leadership styles, although their objective was somewhat common: the prosperity and unity of the Arab world.
2.1. General leadership analysis
The two Arab leaders had similar objectives, the unification of the Arab world, but different leadership styles, almost opposite.
Saddam Hussein exerted an autocratic leadership style that consisted in the strict surveillance of his subordinates, informational flows directed mostly up-down, inspiring fear to his subordinates, using fear as a way of control.
In opposition, Sheikh Zayed exerted a democratic leadership style, having as most main traits: sociability, flexibility, cooperation, communication, open spirit and friendly environment. The democratic leadership style is the most…
Saddam Hussein (2007). Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved March 25, 2007 at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saddam_Hussein#Secular_leadership .
DuBrin, Andrew J. (2005). Leadership: Research Findings, Practice, and Skills. Fifth Edition. Chapter 1: The Nature and Importance of Leadership. Retrieved March 25, 2007 at http://college.hmco.com/business/dubrin/leadership/5e/chapters/chapter1.html.
DuBrin, Andrew J. (2005). Leadership: Research Findings, Practice, and Skills. Fifth Edition. Chapter 2: Traits, Motives, and Characteristics of Leaders. Retrieved March 25, 2007 at http://college.hmco.com/business/dubrin/leadership/5e/chapters/chapter2.html.
DuBrin, Andrew J. (2005). Leadership: Research Findings, Practice, and Skills. Fifth Edition. Chapter 7: Power, Politics, and Leadership. Retrieved March 25, 2007 at http://college.hmco.com/business/dubrin/leadership/5e/chapters/chapter7.html.
A young Orthodox Jew may consider him or herself "orthodox," but no longer feels the need to read and write exclusively in Hebrew (Singer 2008). The demands of modern U.S. society have put a strain on many Orthodox Jews, but others see these demands and cultural or social responsibilities as opportunities to continue to redefine what it means to be a young Orthodox Jew in American society.
A major motivator behind the rethinking of the Jewish religion, as happened in the mid 19th century, was the fact that as the Jewish religion grew and more and more Jews found themselves in incongruous cultural living situations, there was a need to reinvent what it means to be Jewish (Erlich, 2009). The very same thing is going on today, in America and Israel especially, among those youth who consider themselves to be "orthodox." Certainly the very idea that an Orthodox Jew needs…
Angel, Marc D. (2005) Choosing to Be Jewish: The Orthodox Road to Conversion. (1st ed.) Jersey City, NJ: KTAV Publishing House Inc.
Blutinger, Jeffrey C. (2007) "So-called Orthodoxy": The History of an Unwanted Label.
Modern Judaism, 27, 310-328.
Erlich, M. Avrum. (2009) Encyclopedia of the Jewish Diaspora: Origins, Experiences, and Culture, Volume 2. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO.
Lai Shi, China's Last Eunuch
The movie Lai Shi, China's Last Eunuch was directed by Chi Leung "Jacob" Cheung which has been nominated for 4 awards at the Hong Kong Film Award. The story mostly follows the young Lai Shi on his quest to become a eunuch for the Manchu Emperor. The story is adapted from a somewhat autobiographical novel.
Lai Shi's quest of becoming a eunuch is very noble; the main goal behind his decision of castrating himself in order to become a eunuch was to be able to earn more money for his family to survive. The eunuchs were usually recruited from lower classes and castration was a necessary element for anyone wishing to become a eunuch during this era (Scholz, 131). In this regards, it would be true to say that Lai Shi is defined as the real hero archetype, as he was ready to do a…
Lai Shi, China's Last Eunuch. Dir. Chi Leung Jacob Cheung. 1988. Hong Kong Edition DVD.
Scholz, Piotr O. Eunuchs and castrati: a cultural history. Princeton: Markus Wiener Publishers, 2001. Print.
Nineteenth century ideologies emerged concurrently with the ongoing entrenchment of secular values and the principles of scientific inquiry. With empirical methods at the fore, philosophers and social scientists also grounded their theories in the prevailing political themes and realities of their time. The industrial revolution had a profound impact on political ideology and practice throughout Europe.[footnoteRef:1] When Karl Marx developed the theories that would inform his most influential works like Das Capital and the Communist Manifesto, his theories blended the methodologies used in history and political theory with those used in social sciences, most notably economics. Marx’s scientific socialism reflected the shift from an economic and political model dominated by feudalism and tight authoritarian political control towards one that reflected the tenets of independence, self-governance, and human rights. [1: Joshua Cole and Carol Symes., Western Civilizations: Their History & Their Culture, Brief 4th ed. (New York: W.W. Norton, 2017) v.…
Greene's the Power and the Glory
Graham Greene's The Power and the Glory is believed by some to be his finest work. The book addresses a variety of social, religious and personal issues that lay close to the heart of the author. The Mexican situation and the Catholic faith are for example two prominent issues addressed by the work. elow is then a consideration of the context and inner truths from which Graham Greene created this work.
Roman Catholicism in Mexico
Greene met the woman who would be his wife, Vivien Dayrell-rowning while he was working at the Nottingham Journal. While some say that this is his reason for converting to Roman Catholicism, it is obvious that his devotion and affection for this religion later became much deeper than the catalyst for a woman's love. The way in which the protagonist of The Power and the Glory, the priest, is…
Bloom, Harold. Graham Greene. Chelsea House Publishers, 1987.
D'Souza Santosh. "Graham Greene, Biography, His Works, Other Web Resources." 6 November 2001. http://www.geocities.com/Ahtens/Parthenon/1608/greene.htm
Greene, Graham. The Lawless Roads. New York: Viking Press, 1939.
Lenchek, Shep. "the Catholic Church in Mexico, Triumphs and Traumas." (2000): 13 November 2001. Http://www.mexconnect.com/mex_/travel/slenchek/slcatholic1.html .
This lesson would itself actually consist of several smaller lessons in order to incorporate all tasks and provide proper room for learning and absorption. This extended time period will also assist learners in making greater strides with the multimedia technology they have available, which as a dynamic setting and experiential means of expression and communication requires time to allow for repositioning and reanalysis (Gonzalez et al., 2000). By progressing in segments, leaners will come full circle form an examination of how alien history can be to how similar the technologies of the period in question are to certain technologies of today, despite the substantial and unquestionable differences. Lesson objectives include an improved understanding of communication technology and its importance in all times, societies, and civilizations; an ability to make connections between historic technologies and capabilities and those that exist today, the ability to work effectively in groups, the ability to…
Brophy, J., & VanSledright, B. (1997). Teaching and learning history in elementary schools. New York: Teacher's College Press.
Castek, J.M. (2008). How do 4th and 5th grade students acquire the new literacies of online reading comprehension? Exploring the contexts that facilitate learning. ProQuest.
Cunningham, P.M., Hall, D.P., & Cunningham, J.W. (2011). Comprehension During Guided, Shared, and Independent Reading, Grades K-6. Carson Dellosa Publishing Company.
Curby, T.W., Stuhlman, M., Grimm, K., Mashburn, A., Chomat-Mooney, L., Downer, J., ... & Pianta, R.C. (2011). Within-day variability in the quality of classroom interactions during third and fifth grade. The Elementary School Journal, 112(1), 16-37.
In other words she is seen in this light as a double threat to the country.
Consequently, she interferes in the issues and "frames" Naboth in a clever and callous plot. She succeeds in enlisting others in the community to support her actions against Naboth and he is accused of blaspheming against God and going against the King. She encourages the King to kill Naboth and to "...take him out and stone him to death." As a result Naboth is murdered and Jezebel is seen as being a cold and manipulative figure who will go to any lengths to achieve her ends.
However, from a more pragmatic historical perspective some scholars question the iblical text. As one study states,
The fantastical tale of Naboth's death... stretches the reader's credulity. If Jezebel were as hateful as the Deuteronomist claims, surely at least one nobleman in Jezreel would have refused to assist…
Atkinson J. Jezebel. http://latter-rain.com/eschae/jezebel.htm . (Accessed 9 May 2008)
Kings 18:4. IBS. (Accessed 9 May 2008)
Biblos com. (Accessed 9 May 2008).
Courteau, Sarah L. "Was the Lady a Tramp?." The Wilson Quarterly, Autumn 2007, 92+. Database online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5023471656.Internet .(Accessed 11 May 2008).
film Spartacus, its historical background, the significance of the movie being made and shown in 1960's America, the real-life events occurring in the U.S. In the 1960's, the historical significance of the slave revolt of Spartacus, how gladiators and slavery in Rome relate to the movie, and background information about Rome at the time of Spartacus, including the slave revolt, and the rise of Roman generals to positions of power.
Spartacus was a slave, who is famous for having led a revolt 'the slave revolt' against the Roman Republic, from 73 D to 71 C. Spartacus was born in Thrace, a region northeast of Greece, and was a member of a group of nomadic herders and later served in the Roman Army (Sinnigen, 2003). Spartacus deserted the army, but was captured and enslaved, following which, the Romans trained him as a gladiator to fight other gladiators and wild beasts in…
Handlin, O. (2003). The Vietnam War. In World Book Encyclopaedia, for Apple Macintosh.
Sinnigen, H.D. (2003). Spartacus. In World Book Encyclopaedia, for Apple Macintosh. http://www.vroma.org/~bmcmanus/spartacus.html 'Spartacus: Historical background'. Accessed on 26th January 2004. http://reviews.imdb.com/Reviews/140/14080.Review of Spartacus (1960) presented on the World Wide Web by Brian Koller. Accessed on 26th January 2004. http://www.historyinfilm.com/spart/ .'Spartacus'. Review of the film, and of the historical context of the film. Accessed on 26th January 2004.
Tao de Ching is one of the most influential and important philosophical texts in human history. Attributed to Chinese philosopher Lao Tzu between 500 and 400 BCE, the teachings contained within the Tao de Ching have become collectively known as Taoism. The term "tao" or "dao" is usually translated straightforwardly as "the way," but the entire title of the text Tao de Ching may refer to a cluster of concepts including "the way of integrity" (Walter 1) or the "way and its power," ("Lao Tzu: The Father of Taoism," 1). Knierim points out that the term "ching" means scripture, and the term "te" means both strength and virtue. Thus, Tao de Ching does refer to a scriptural text about the way or path of strength and virtue. The Tao de Ching is not a narrative text, but a prescriptive one written as short verses containing wisdom quips and advice for…
The second statute which serves to maintain the economic and political domination of women is the rule stating that women may not "dare or presume to take for spinning more than one ball of wool at one time," because this prevents any attempt on the part of female workers to stockpile or otherwise accumulate enough wool to sell or use it outside the established, guild-monitored economy ("Statutes of a wool guild," 1384, 106). Although this statute may have decreased the overall efficiency of the wool-spinning process by requiring women to go get a new ball of wool every time they finish, it also served to protect the guild from rebellion or discontent, because allowing women greater control over the process "might give rise to a strong organization of skilled craftsmen who would be much more difficult to control than" individual women, spinning one ball of wool at a time out…
Belfanti, C.M. (2004). Guilds, patents, and the circulation of technical knowledge northern italy during the early modern age. Technology and Culture, 45(3), 569-589.
Caferro, W.P. (2008). Warfare and economy in renaissance italy, 1350 -- 1450. Journal of Interdisciplinary History, 39(2), 167-209.
Statutes of a wool guild. (1384). Padua.
Gerd Theissen and Annette Merz bridge a gap between trade book and scholarly discourse with their 642-page tome The Historical Jesus: A Comprehensive Guide. This joint effort by Theissen and Merz explores the subject matter of the historical Jesus in light of primary sources, especially relying on the Gospels, both canonical and apocryphal. The book is divided into four main sections, in addition to a meaty Introduction, a "Retrospect" called "A Short Life of Jesus," and two helpful indexes, one of Biblical
Theissen, Gerd, and Merz, Annette. The Historical Jesus: A Comprehensive Guide. Minneapolis: Fortress, 1998.
Lorenzo de Medici: An Historical Biography, Judith Hook was the first major historian of the second half of the twentieth century to embark upon the task of setting the life of this figure into some larger historical context. At the time of Hook's writing and research, the last work published on Lorenzo de Medici was that of C.M. Ady's Lorenzo de' Medici and Renaissance Italy in 1955. In contrast to this earlier work, which stressed the unique qualities of the subject and his powerful ability to shape his environment, Hook argues over the course of her own volume that the subject of her biography was equally if not more affected by his historical environment of Renaissance Florence. Rather than man's ability to affect history, Hook perceives historical actors as more shaped by historical and social forces, by "a system which aimed at the development of man's entire personality, body, and…
Hook, Judith. Lorenzo de' Medici: An Historical Biography. London: Hamish Hamilton, 1984.
In “Crimes Which Startle and Horrify: Gender, Age, and the Racialization of Sexual Violence in White American Newspapers, 1870-1900,” Estelle Fredman situates rape as a series of interconnected power relations, focusing on the intersection between race and gender in particular. Fredman analyzes the historical context of rape, showing how rape is socially constructed in ways that reinforce patriarchal and racist norms. Besides the cogent thesis driving Fredman’s work, the author also relies on a tight methodology, focusing on media accounts in nineteenth century American newspapers geared to primarily white male readers. Fredman claims that the media proliferated the two central archetypes that defined American social and political hierarchies for the coming generations: the black male sexual predator and the innocent, vulnerable child victim.
Fredman begins the article with a brief introduction to the historiography of rape. The rise of the popular media during the late nineteenth century was especially critical…
Historic development of professional associations
Historical development of professional associations:
National Association of Social Workers
Why the association was formed
In the postwar era, the need for social workers increased, with the rise of industrialization and the return of veterans to the home front. Counseling, adjusting to a new way of life, and the demands of a rapidly-changing society all necessitated the construction of social work as a viable profession. The National Association of Social Workers was established in 1955. It was created to consolidate seven organizations in the field, including the American Association of Social Workers (AASW), the American Association of Psychiatric Social Workers (AAPSW), the American Association of Group Workers (AAGW), the Association for the Study of Community Organization (ASCO), the American Association of Medical Social Workers (AAMSW), the National Association of School Social Workers (NASSW), and the Social Work esearch Group (SWG). It is one of…
Clark, Elizabeth. (2010). A broader vision for the social work profession. NASW (National
Association of Social Workers). Retrieved October 27, 2011 at http://www.naswdc.org/nasw/VisionSpeech0809.pdf
Code of ethics. (2008). NASW (National Association of Social Workers).
Retrieved October 27, 2011 at http://socialworkers.org/pubs/code/default.asp
Jesus by E.P. Sanders
The Historical Figure of Jesus is an account of the life of Jesus the man. This is in contrast to the life of Jesus as presented by the bible.
The author looks at what we really know about Jesus's life. The emphasis is not about saying whether he is or is not the son of God, instead it just looks at what historians know about the life of Jesus. The book is in no way an attack on Christianity, it simply accepts that Jesus was a man and attempts to compile his life as a man.
At the same time, the book is not a biography of Jesus, it is more a look at what historical information exists and what it shows us about Jesus.
The author describes when the search for historical information began in the 18th century, showing us how scholars of the time…
Sanders, E.P. The Historical Figure of Jesus. New York: Penguin, 1996.
Andre Malraux's novel, Man's Fate reflects the human realities and costs of war that have been depicted throughout Chinese literature. In his depiction of characters like Ch'en, Ferral, Old Gisor, Kyo and Katov, Malraux gives life to the terrible realities of war that have been seen in humanity as a whole, and are represented in almost any time of war. Ch'en's struggles with the dehumanizing effects of war reflect the struggles of many men throughout history, as Kyo's unfailing patriotism reflects the Moral Law of warfare written over 2,000 years ago in Sun-Tzu's The Art of ar. Similarly, Chinese Poet Tu Fu's "Ballad of the Army Carts" describes the agony of losing loved ones that is seen again within Man's Fate.
In Man's Fate, Malraux expertly exposes human emotions and conflicts that are universal to any time of war. A powerful novel that depicts human loss, difficult decisions, and the…
Malraux, Andre. 1990. Man's Fate. Vintage.
Sun-Tzu. 1990. The Art of War. Vintage.
Tu Fu. Ballard of the Army Carts. Du Fu Poetry (Tu Fu). 25 May 2004. Available at http://www.chinapage.com/poet-e/dufu2e.html
Wikipedia. Andre Malraux. 24 May 2004. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andre_Malraux
I hope all is well with you and your family. It's been a while since I've written; forgive me as I've been busy with school, work and life in general. Over the past few weeks, I've become quite interested in the life and triumphs of Clara Barton, a 19th century nurse, teacher and pioneer who was by my account, a woman way ahead of her time. Clara Barton is a true hero, this letter is to give you a glimpse of her life and successes and how she contributed to nursing as we know it today. During Ms. Bartons' era women were largely shut out of working in certain professions or if they were allowed to work at all -- they were not allowed to climb the ladder to be promoted to other positions. There also lacked an institution that provided aid to those affected by disaster.…
Ardalan, C. (2010). Clara Barton's 1898 Battles in Cuba: A Reexamination of Her Nursing Contributions. Florida Atlantic Comparative Studies Journal, 12, 1-20.
Maikell-Thomas, B. "Discovered Historical Documents Uncover The First Official Missing Persons Investigator, Clara Barton" National Association of Investigative Specialists. http://www.pimall.com/nais/n.barton.html
Tooker, J. (2007). Antietam: Aspects of Medicine, Nursing and the Civil War. Transactions of the American Clinical and Climatological Association, 118, 215-223.
For the first part of this exercise, I will dwell on Lou Gehrig's speech. The speech in question has featured prominently in quite a number of speech collections as a truly historical speech, alongside those given by the likes of Martin Luther King and Winston Churchill. Commonly referred to as the Iron Horse due to both his commitment and durability as far as baseball is concerned, Gehrig was at the prime age of 36 when he was struck by what has now come to be referred to as Lou Gehrig's disease. The disease effectively ended his long and illustrious career in baseball. This speech, which I will rewrite to convey the opposite message, was delivered by Gehrig during a ceremony held in his honor by his friends and team mates. Given his circumstances at the time, one would have expected the speech to be self-defeating and perhaps full of…
American Rhetoric (2013). Lou Gehrig: Farewell to Baseball Address. Retrieved from http://www.americanrhetoric.com/speeches/lougehrigfarewelltobaseball.htm
Natural Resources Defense Council (2012). The Consequences of Global Warming on Weather Patterns. Retrieved from http://www.nrdc.org/globalwarming/fcons/fcons1.asp
Union of Concerned Scientists (2011). Climate Hot Map: Global Warming Effects around the World -- Solutions to Global Warming. Retrieved from http://www.climatehotmap.org/global-warming-solutions/
Playwright August ilson won two Pulitzers in his illustrious career. In The Pittsburgh Cycle, ilson wrote a series of plays each depicting a different decade in the lives of African-Americans living in the United States. Of these, Fences, takes place in the 1950s and features the problems not only of the African-American experience, but also the situation of societal oppression indicative of that period. At the heart of the play is protagonist Troy Maxson. His actions result in comedy and tragedy for all of the characters around him, making him the center of this universe that ilson has created, representing the tumultuous time period in which the play takes place. August ilson has stated that the character is based upon his own step-father, David Bedford providing the story with an autobiographical context. ilson uses his own perception of his step-father in order to illustrate a story about the difficulties…
Bryer, Jackson R., and Mary C. Hartig. Conversations with August Wilson. Jackson: University
of Mississippi, 2006. Print.
Clark, Keith. "Reflections on Baseball, Gunshots, and War Wounds in August Wilson's Fences."
Contemporary Black Men's Fiction and Drama. Urbana: University of Illinois, 2001.
Loretta Ford was a revolutionary in her time. She took a chaotic period of social and political unrest and used it in order to spearhead new directions for modern nursing. She helped recreate the role of the NP in a much more clinical context. The clinical emphasis of the clinical field was opened up for a new generation of nurses to expand their roles and become much more powerful within the operation of the health care system. The 1960s also saw some uniquely difficult challenges in the health care industry. During the time, the needs of the system were changing. There were more people in greater need. Physician shortage in an era that was demanding greater levels of care and opening up the "opportunity to advance nursing through education and an expanded role in healthcare" (American Academy of NPs, 2005). This increase in clinical emphasis helped empower the modern…
American Academy of NPs. (2005). Celebrating 40 years of NPs. Youtube. Web. http://www.youtube.com/watch?NR=1&v=YNMki0i88xA&feature=endscreen
Institute of Medicine. (2010). The future of nursing. Report Brief. Web. http://www.iom.edu/~/media/Files/Report%20Files/2010/The-Future-of-Nursing/Nursing%20Scope%20of%20Practice%202010%20Brief.pdf
criminal justice. Each question must be 300 words long.
Identify the requirements for the insanity plea in your jurisdiction and contrast this with the M'Naghten standard, the Brawner standard, ALI standard, and the Durham rule. Identify similarities and differences. Support you response with examples from your research and reading assignment.
In the 1843 case of the United Kingdom House of Lords Decisions of Daniel M'Naghten's, the court determined that an insanity plea to would hinge on whether the defendant knew what he was doing, or, if he did know what he was doing, did he know that it was wrong. In 1972,the U.S. v. Brawner case in the D.C. Circuit Court of Appeals determined not to involve the jury in the determination of the defendant's mental state. This decision was grounded in the ALI test of a Model Penal Code. The Brawner rule overturned the Durham Rule, which was overly…
In addition, stratification contributes to cultural determinism, which again, alludes to when a person's position or class within a stratified society determines their culture, what kind of labor they will have the opportunity to have, what quality of education they may have access to, and other aspects (or limitations) of a particular culture.
When social stratification becomes too extreme and tensions within a culture rise too high, there is a distinct possibility for cultural differentiation. This occurs in societies where the tensions and imbalances are apparent and transparent. In many countries, such as the United States, the media helps to minimize class imbalances. The media is often used as an institution that will communicate and distribute the dominant ideology and specific hegemony. Hegemony is a form of social control and ideology is the greater societal structure of which hegemony is a tool or strategy. Hegemony may is often skewed or…
Understanding Race and Ethnic Relations, 4th Edition. Chapter 3 -- Understanding Race and Culture. Print. Provided.
At this precise time, a young communist named Mao Zedong popularized the idea of land reforms and focused his attention on the issue of poverty among peasant class. He convinced his fellow communists that the only solution to all problems lied in strengthening the agricultural sector by introducing land reforms. He worked ceaselessly for the peasants but his party was driven to remote corners of North China during the Long March. This action, taken by Chiang government, was a clear indication of the paranoia and insecurity that were building in nationalist forces (Peoples: Rise). Mao continued to fight government's oppressive rule even while in exile and this lasted till 1937 at which point, Japan invaded China and the nationalist-communist conflict came to an end.
In 1920s, Malraux was present in China and observed the political dynamics of the country. The oppression and communist popularity affected his deeply and 1927 revolution…
Stoley, Richard B. Events That Shaped the Century. Time-Life Books. New York. 2000.
John Cruickshank. The Novelist as Philosopher: Studies in French Fiction, 1935-1960: Oxford University Press. London. 1962.
Dye, Michel. Andre Malraux and the temptation of the Orient in 'La Condition humaine'. (French writer) Journal of European Studies; 3/1/1999
Paine v. Chalmers
Maintaining historical perspective is a difficult task nearly two-hundred and fifty years after the event but a reading of Thomas Paine's Common Sense (Paine, 1997) and the contradictory pamphlet, Plaint Truth (Chalmers, 2010), prepared by British loyalist, James Chalmers, offers readers an excellent glance at the situation in colonial America in the beginning days of the evolution. As evidenced by the rhetoric in both volumes, lines were being sharply drawn which would seem to indicate that there were only two sides to the issue but, in reality, the Chalmers and Paine writings are only examples of the two extremes and most of the colonists were philosophically positioned somewhere in between the two extremes.
The significance of Paine's pamphlet cannot be overstated. elations between the Mother Country, England, and her colonies had been growing strained for a number of years but the impassioned words of a young dissident,…
Chalmers, J. (2010). Plain Truth: addressed to the inhabitants of America, containing remarks on a late pamphlet, entitled Common sense. Toronto, Canada: Gale ECCO.
Paine, T. (1997). Common Sense (Dover Thrift Editons). Mineola, NY: Dover Publications.
Paine v. Chalmers
Historiography in Jesus' era, or the ethics of writing good history, was also different from our own -- objective, historical accounts were rare, rather each historian wished to present his or her version of the facts.
History and belief invariably 'butt heads,' and when confronted with arguments about the life of Jesus that challenge all notions of science and history, such as the resurrection of dead: Charlesworth admits "Historians cannot answer this question" as "this question extends beyond the methodology and focus of historians" (Charlesworth 118; 121). For believers, aspects of Jesus will always exist outside of historical time, but it is the duty of those who seek the historical Jesus to put their own personal biases and agendas aside when reviewing the evidence. A singular Jesus may never emerge, but scrupulous historical and literary analysis can reveal a clearer picture of the many versions of Jesus that existed during…
Charlesworth, James H. The Historical Jesus: An Essential Guide. Nashville: Abingdon, 2008.
Horsley. Richard a. Jesus and Empire: The Kingdom of God and the New World Disorder.
Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2003.
Van Voorst, Robert E. Jesus Outside the New Testament. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans
Preservation of Historical uildings
The economic and political contexts that influenced the practice of heritage conservation of historical buildings
The prevalence of the practice of heritage conservation has been instigated with cultural concerns that arise from a developed human society, along with its gradual movement toward becoming a more technologically-advanced civilization. Primarily, heritage conservation, specifically of historical sites and buildings, was introduced as part of organizations' attempts to preserve humanity's cultural heritage. That is, the argument put forth in introducing heritage conservation is culture-based.
Stipe (2003) elucidates on this point, where he considers heritage conservation as initially introduced through an acknowledgment and implementation of cultural preservation. For the author, the conservation of historic buildings is essential because they are our "physical link to the past" (xiv). As such, historic buildings also serves as a reminder to and remembrance for people about the significant events in history that are considered important…
Klamer, A. And P. Zuidhof. (1999). "The values of cultural heritage: merging economic and cultural appraisals." CA: The J. Paul Getty Trust.
Klatt, M. (October 2004). "Car culture." Preservation Online. Available at: http://www.nationaltrust.org/Magazine/archives/arch_story/100804.htm.
Serageldin, I., E. Shluger, and J. Martin-Brown. (2001). Historic cities and sacred sites: cultural roots for urban futures. Washington, D.C.: World Bank.
Stipe, R. (2003). A richer heritage: historic preservation in the twenty-first century. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
It is a thorough collection of how to approach very different styles in numerous contexts. With wood as its primary medium, the artwork of Sheraton was allowed to live on through its massive reproduction as a result of the detailed instructions of this work. Although this collaborated effort allowed other designers and cabinet makers to copy and reproduce these designs, it also allowed for Sheraton's visionary designs and conceptions of how beautiful furniture should look. It set a standard in terms of fashionable design, while also allowing many of the more normal day-to-day consumers to enjoy high furniture fashion as well.
ot long after its publication, the work became a huge hit, and served to influence a great many cabinet makers across England and the rest of the Western world. The designs went on to inspire a plethora of private makers to create pieces within the context of a generalized…
Not long after its publication, the work became a huge hit, and served to influence a great many cabinet makers across England and the rest of the Western world. The designs went on to inspire a plethora of private makers to create pieces within the context of a generalized Sheraton style. Thus, it was extremely influential in the method and design styles of creating detailed and stunning wood pieces. It can still be used to provide a realistic interpretation of the construction of such beautiful and profound furniture styles of earlier generations.
Sheraton, Thomas. The Cabinet-Maker and Upholsterer's Drawing-Book: In Three Parts. Bibliotheca Regia Monacensis. 1793. Retrieved through Google Books at http://books.google.com/books?id=kYA_AAAAcAAJ&pg=PA296&lpg=PA296&dq=Thomas+Sheraton+furniture+catalogue&source=bl&ots=NADCGnKrIk&sig=fuW52OndWvlCH8jDoq0GnW19i8Q&hl=en&ei=j2RvS529IoHmswPm08yyDQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=4&ved=0CBEQ6AEwAzgK#v=onepage&q=&f=false
Evidence suggests that this had absolutely no basis in reality. Swaim (2007) takes a satirical perspective on director Scott's choices in the film, even suggesting that the film was 'saved' by its inaccuracies. According to Swaim, Commodus, the Roman Emperor "who lusted after his sister in the film, was in real life held in high esteem by the senate and ruled for a successful 13 years (rather than the ineffectual few months depicted in the film). Also, though the Emperor did, in fact, have an enthusiasm for gladiatorial combat (he did so incognito), he didn't get his ticket punched in the arena. He was killed in the bath by a wrestler named Narcissus to prevent him taking office as consul." (Swaim, 1)
To Swaim's view, and to the view of this account, the filmmakers were a great deal more concerned with the expediency provided by certain plot devices than they…
Neelin, D. (2003). Gladiator: The Real Story. Exovedate.com.
Swaim, M. (2007). 11 Movies Saved by Historical Inaccuracy. Cracked.com.
Ward, a. (2001). The Movie 'Gladiator' in Historical Perspective. Classics Technology Center.
At the same time, the Japanese parent will likely encourage the child's freedom, especially in the early stages of life, while the American parent will tend to correct from early stages of development any misbehavior or errors. With the relationship mother-child, the Japanese mother will tend to emphasize less the development of the communication side for the child and will prefer a more symbiotic relationship (Ibid. page 71).
4. A family can best be defined through some of the main characteristics it has. However, one should also known that there are some general characteristics that everyone accepts as to what a family is and several others that are only accepted by groups of individuals as to what the family is. As such, both aspects need to be taken into consideration and discussed.
First of all, the family is judged to be the fundamental unity cell of society. From this perspective,…
1. Roopnarine, Jaipaul. Gielen, Uwe. 2005. Families in Global Perspective. Pearson.
2. Ehrenreich, Barbara, Hochschild, Arlie Russell. 2002. Global Woman. Henry Holt and Company
There are many historical mysteries which have fascinated human and encouraged investigation. Among the most often examined and theorized over are the potential reasons for why the Mayan civilization suddenly disappeared from the face of the Earth. Scholars, conspiracy theorists, and all manner of investigators have looked into the culture, the people, and the environment in the vain effort to finally determine exactly what happened to this large population. Once one of the largest groups Central and South America, by 900 AD, the Mayans were in a steady rate of decline which led to their eradication by the year 1200 (Ancient 2000). Over the course of three hundred years, an entire civilization of human beings had completely fallen off of the face of the earth and no one was or is yet able to say for certain why this happened. Of course with so much time having passed,…
"Ancient Mayan Civilization." (2000). Mayan Archaeology.
Chella (2005). "What Happened to the Mayans?" Unsolved Mysteries.
usiness Study Nucor Steel
Historical Performance Review vs. Goals
The performance of Nucor Steel has been one of volatility in their earnings and demand for their products. Part of the reason of for this, is because of the sharp contraction in demand for steel (due to the server implosion in economic activity). At the same time, the traditional volatility of industry would cause the company's earnings to become even more unpredictable. A good example of this can be seen by looking no further, than comparing revenues with the net income between 2006 and 2008. Where, revenues would climb from $14.7 billion in 2006 to $22.6 billion in 2008. While the net income, would become more unpredictable during the same period of time going from: $1.7 billion in 2006 to $1.4 billion 2007. At which point, they would begin to climb again, with 2008 net income coming in at $1.8 billion.…
Nucor Corporation. (2009). Scribd. Retrieved from: http://www.scribd.com/doc/21947260/Nucor-Report
Nucor Reports Quarterly Results for the First Nine Months of 2010. (2010). Nucor. Retrieved from: http://www.nucor.com/investor/news/releases/?rid=1485562
Nucor Steel. (2010). Yahoo Finance. Retrieved from: http://finance.yahoo.com/q/co?s=NUE+Competitors
Packard, John. (2010). Nucor Lowers Galvanized Coating Extras. Steel Market Update. Retrieved from: http://www.steelmarketupdate.com/pub/blog/posts/2010/5/28/nucor-lowers-galvanized-coating-extras/
social historical events educational nature helped form shape John COmenius's educational worldview. Discuss key ideas influenced educational policy formulation / provision young children time history, ( relevant) NZ.
John Comenius is considered to be the father of universal education, a title awarded to him as a result of the theories that he introduced into the sphere of affairs. Comenius was born in Europe at a time when individuals started to express a particular interest in revolutionizing society and in improving conditions in a variety of domains. He is believed to have written more than 154 books across his lifetime and to have provided the world with essential knowledge in regard to education. Even with the fact that his education did not start until he reached the age of sixteen, his impressive ability to process information assisted him greatly in accumulating knowledge rapidly.
Comenius started his education at the…
Leonard, David C. Learning Theories, A to Z (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2002)
Perkinson, Henry J. Learning from Our Mistakes: A Reinterpretation of Twentieth-Century Educational Theory (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1984)
Comenius, John Amos, The Great Didactic ( London: Adam and Charles Black, 1896)
Morgan, Harry The Imagination of Early Childhood Education (Westport, CT: Bergin & Garvey, 1999)
Evans' choice to use the CINAHL, PubMed, and Sociological Abstract databases as a main source for her article practically means that she did not observe a nursing environment where both men and women are present and has a limited comprehension of the subject. In spite of the fact that she remains true to the data and that she follows the steps described for data analysis, she has a predisposition toward accentuate the fact that men nurses are typically provided with preferential treatment. The writer considered a complex account regarding male nurses in these three countries, but her findings are generally directed at putting men nurses in a bad position.
The article's findings are presented within the larger context involving nurses in Great Britain, Canada, and the U.S. Even with this, readers are probable to be influenced to believe that men nurses act as a pollutant in the…
When Longfellow uses the word tremulous to describe the tides of the ocean and the gleam of the moonlight, he personifies those natural elements to connect Evangeline's experiences with the natural world.
The phrase "like the tremulous tides of the ocean" is a simile: Longfellow here compares Evangeline's body with the undulating tides using the word "like" to denote the comparison. The phrase "the infinite meadows of heaven" is a metaphor for a starry night (Part One, Canto 3). Also in Part One Stanza 3, Longfellow alludes to fairy tales about goblins but also to Christian scripture and legend: "how on Christmas eve the oxen talked in the stable." When Longfellow describes the statue of Justice in Part One, Stanza 3 the poet uses personification: "a brazen statue of Justice / Stood in the public square, upholding the scales in its left hand." The statue is depicted as being human.…
More recently two schools of military history have developed that attempt to consider its object from a more eclectic, objective perspective, dubbed the "New Military History" and "War and Society" history. New Military History "refers to a partial turning away from the great captains, and from weapons, tactics, and operations as the main concerns of the historical study of war," and instead focusing on "the interaction of war with society, economics, politics, and culture."
New Military History is a relatively broad category, and its perspective can be evinced both on the level of a particular methodology and ideology.
Along with the "War and Society" school of thought, New Military History seeks to uncover the multifarious factors driving and influencing military conflict, with a particular view towards the interaction between these factors and the actual practice of war. That is to say, these schools of thought do no entirely abandon any…
Alexander, Joseph G. "The Truth about the Opium War." The North American Review (1821-
1940) 163, (1896): 381-383.
Bello, David. "The Venomous Course of Southwestern Opuim: Qing Prohibtion in Yunnan,
Sichuan, and Guizhou in the Early Nineteenth Century." The Journal of Asian Studies.
Standard of Ur, Scenes of War/Peace, 2700 bce
The Standard of Ur is an artifact, which Charles Leonard Woolley discovered in the late 1920. It was in the Royal Tombs of Ur in ancient Mesopotamia, which was close to aghdad presently known as Iran about 2600 CE. Leonard was a London-based excavator who had gone to Ur in an effort to discover artifacts including archeological elements. Apparently, when he found it, he was not sure what it was; therefore, he assumed that it was a flag used back then in 2600 CE. In addition, other people were also not sure of what it was, and some of them assumed it was a type of emblem of a king, others suggested it was a musical instrument covering.[footnoteRef:2] [2: Wolley, Leonard. Excavations at Ur: A record of twelve years' work. (London: Routledge) ]
In this regard, the ritish Museum has favored this…
Gansell, Amy Rebecca, and Winter Irene. Treasures from the royal tombs of Ur. Cambridge,
Mass: Publications Dept., Harvard University, 2002.
Sailus, Christopher. "Standard of Ur: Definition, lesson and quiz." Education Portal. Accessed 23 April 2014.
Shannon, White. "Treasures from the Royal Tombs of Ur: A Traveling Exhibition of the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology," Near Eastern Archaeology 67, no. 4. (2004): 229.
1. Alexander Pope assumes an authoritative voice in “An Essay on Man.” These lines, beginning with “All nature is but art,” and ending with “whatever is, is right” are declarative statements in keeping with the general tone and theme of the poem. In “An Essay on Man,” Pope seeks to situate humankind in the natural order of the universe. Pope shows the potential and the limitations of human beings, encouraging an attitude of humility.
By stating, “All nature is but art,” Pope affirms the ineffable beauty of nature: which is one thing that humankind certainly does not create. As much as human beings can interfere with nature or adjust nature for functional or aesthetic purposes, nature is “art” on another level: a creative, perhaps divine level. Pope then refers to “all chance, direction, which thou canst not see,” which reiterates the meaning of the previous line about nature being naught…
A work of non-fiction does not have to be about a person, however. Non-fiction work can include theories of social studies, presented in interesting and new ways. Non-fiction is tremendously helpful in lesson planning because the prose elucidates issues in subjects like science and social studies.
Question 6: Although she is not remembered as a major figure in the Civil Rights Movement, Marian Anderson's life contributed to some of the reforms that African-American citizens demanded. Discuss how her voice "challenged" a nation.
Marian Anderson was an accomplished African-American singer. Anderson broke the color barrier in the arts, just as Jackie Robinson did in sports. Anderson's success challenged prevailing social norms, as she became a visible figure in America's most elite concert halls. Anderson began indirectly using her voice as a political tool, channeling her success into achieving broader civil rights goals.
Question 7: Describe how the city of Philadelphia, its…
American Library Association. "Terms and Criteria." Retrieved Dec 8, 2009 from http://www.ala.org/ala/mgrps/divs/alsc/awardsgrants/bookmedia/newberymedal/newberyterms/newberyterms.cfm
"Yellow Fever Attacks, 1793" Eye Witness to History. Retrieved Dec 8, 2009 from http://www.eyewitnesstohistory.com/yellowfever.htm
As one commentator notes; "What this adds up to is, in my view, a significant shift in the balance of work and family life. oles are changing, the nature of care is changing, and the stress related to juggling the balance is increasing (Edgar, 1997, p. 149)
A number of statistics also help to outline the nature of the family structure in a developed economy like Australia. In terms of workforce participation, the figures are as follows: "….86% for fathers and 56% for mothers in two-parent families, and 65% for male and 43% for female sole parents"(Edgar, 1997, p.151). This is also indicative of a shift in the role of the female as solely a homemaker. "In 1993, 53% of couples with dependent children were both employed & #8230;" (Edgar, 1997, p. 151). Therefore, there are still imbalances and disparities in terms of the family structure and this is a…
Anderson, G.L. (Ed.). (1997). The Family in Global Transition. St. Paul, MN: Professors
World Peace Academy. Retrieved October 1, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=59215755
Baile, S. (1990). Women and Health in Developing Countries. OECD Observer, a (161),
18-20. Retrieved October 1, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=98938035
Encountering John: The Gospel in Historical, Literary, and Theological Perspective provides a remarkably thorough explication of John's gospel from multiple perspectives and points-of-view. The book is divided into five main parts, in addition to the appendices, indexes, and study tools. Author Andreas J. Kostenberger formats Encountering John as a textbook, and yet the tome also serves as a reference book that complements exegetical works and Biblical commentaries.
In the preface materials, Kostenberger clearly states that the book is intended for an audience of students. However, the tone is personal, informal, and familiar, rather than strictly scholarly or academic. This is due to in part to the fact that Kostenberger writes as a believer for believers, resisting the temptation to secularize biblical studies. The primary audience for Encountering John is students in biblical, theological, or seminary school who seek deep understanding of the gospel.
Part One of Encountering John covers…
Kostenberger, A.J. (2006). Encountering John: The Gospel in Historical, Literary, and Theological Perspective (Encountering Biblical Studies). Baker Academic.
According to Toronto Star reporter Stephan Handelman in an article printed in 2005, the U.S. senior intelligence analysts consider China to be the greatest long-term threat to U.S. stability. China's military force and computer intelligence has reached its peak. Both the Europeans and the U.S. agree that the expansion of the Chinese military is more than "worrisome."
Another article posted on November 16, 2007 by the Washington Post claims that spying by China in the United States is the biggest threat keeping American technologies secret. Advances by the Chinese military are catching U.S. intelligence officials by surprise. It has also been suggested that the U.S. Department of Defense could inadvertently outsource the manufacturing of key weapons and military equipment to China. China is attempting to reverse its move into free markets by setting up state-owned enterprises and control over the 12 major industries, which include oil, telecommunications, shipping, automobiles, steel…
1. Article: online
Kim Zetter (February 3, 2010). Threat Level: Privacy, Crime and Security Online
Report Details Hacks Targeting Google, Others, (1), 1. http://www.wired.com/threatlevel/2010/02/apt-hacks/
2. Article Publication: online and hardcopy
Provide sustained technical assistance (Expert Panel Meeting: Health Information Technology: Meeting Summary, 2003)
Evaluation of the process in rural and small communities includes: (1) scope of the project; (2) goals; (3) critical success factors; and (4) technical assistance." (Expert Panel Meeting: Health Information Technology: Meeting Summary, 2003) Community grants have been focused on the provision of 'personal digital assistant (PDA) systems in assisting with the decision support role. The initiative is stated to include: (1) development of toolkits; (2) leveraging known tools; (3) developing capacity; and (4) disseminating best practices. (Expert Panel Meeting: Health Information Technology: Meeting Summary, 2003)
Ormond, Wallin, and Goldenson report in the work entitled: "Supporting the Rural Health Care Safety Net" (2000) state: "The policy - and market-driven changes in the health care sector taking place across country are not confined to metropolitan areas. Rural communities are experiencing changes impelled by many of the same forces…
Healthcare and Healthcare Insurance Country Report: India (2004) Tata Consultancy Services and Microsoft. WebHealthCentre.com. 2004 August. Online available at http://download.microsoft.com/documents/customerevidence/7144_WebHealth_CS.doc
Expert Panel Meeting: Health Information Technology (2003) Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) 23-24 July 2003. Online available at http://www.ahrq.gov/data/hitmeet.htm
Silberman, P. And Slifkin, R. (nd) Innovative Primary Case Management Programs Operating in Rural Communities: Case Studies of Three States. Working Paper No. 76 North Carolina Rural Health Research and Policy Analysis Program.
Ormond, Barbara a.; Wallin, Susan Wall; and Goldenson, Susan M. (2000) Supporting the Rural Health Care Net. 15 May 2000 Urban Institute
World War II -- Eastern Front
While the personality of any dictator may significantly influence the military decisions of his/her dictatorship, perhaps the clearest instance of this phenomenon occurred in World War II's arbarossa, an invasion of Russia in the Eastern Front. Obsessed with his messianic delusions, Hitler's personal flaws resulted in the ultimate failure of the greatest invasion in recorded history. The failure of that invasion, in turn, directly resulted in Germany's loss of World War II.
Hitler's Personal Flaws Caused the Failure of arbarossa
Synthesis of reputable historical sources, some of which stress Adolf Hitler's personal flaws while others minimize or ignore them, reveals that Adolf Hitler's personal shortcomings caused the failure of arbarossa and, therefore, caused Germany's loss of World War II. Hitler's warlike personality was apparently dominated by "the three p's": prejudice, paranoia, and perplexity. Though Hitler was famously prejudiced against Jewish people, his prejudice against…
Citino, Robert Michael. The Path to Blitzkrieg: Doctrine and Training in the German Army, 1920-1939. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 1999.
Cooper, Matthew. The German Army, 1933-1945: Its Political and Military Failure. New York, NY: Stein and Day, 1978.
Keegan, John. The Battle for History: Re-Fighting World War II. New York, NY: First Vintage Books Edition, 1996.
Overy, Richard. Why the Allies Won. New York, NY W.W. Norton & Company, Inc., 1997.
Class struggles are one type of such instability, and this instability is hinted at again and again throughout the novel. Esteban's rape of one of the servants at the hacienda is indicative of the subjugation and authority that exists within the household, and the fact that this union ends up resulting in a child can be seen as indicative of the generative power of such a power and class structure. This child also ends up having a child, however, and the grandson of this class rape completes the cycle of violence by imprisoning and raping Esteban's granddaughter, showing a new type of class dominance that is representative of the equal evils yet changed perspective of the socialist/Communist regimes.
Gender Struggles and Female Power/Independence
Another very evident strain throughout the House of Spirits, and one that can be seen in both instances of rape along with may other events and details…
Allende, Isabel. The House of Spirits. New York: Dial, 2005.
Garcia-Johnson, Ronie-Richele. "The Struggle for Space: Feminism and Freedom in the House of the Spirits." Revista Hispanica Moderna Volume 47, Issue 1 (1994), pp. 184-93.
Hamner, Lucia C. & a. Harron Akram Loodhi. "In the House of the Spirits: Toward a Post Keynesian Theory of the Household?" Journal of Post Keynesian Economics
Volume 20, Issue 3 (1998), pp. 415-33.
One way to solve the problem was to write down black accounts of their lives, and some historians did do this to preserve the information for future generations. The authors continue, "They [abolitionists] took down the stories of fugitive slaves who had safely made their way North, and published the accounts" (Davidson and Lytle 178). However, interest in these stories waned, and it wasn't until the twentieth century that interest revived, and by that time, many blacks had already died, taking their experiences and insight to the grave with them. Interest picked up in the 20's when many black writers were popular, and interest in southern culture continued during the WPA artists' projects during the Depression, when oral histories began to gain in popularity. These oral histories make up nineteen volumes, and really helped preserve the history of the slaves and freedmen. Even this bulk, however, only represents a fraction…
Davidson, James West and Lytle, Mark Hamilton. After the Fact: The Art of Historical Detection. New York: Alfred a. Knopf, 1982.
Changing ocial and Political Education ystem
The social and political context of diversity as it applies to education seems to be in a point of confusion. The conservative movement in favor of the English only classroom in publicly funded schools has been fueled by the terrorist events that occurred in eptember of 2001. Those same events also fuel the cause of diversity in education in both a social and a historical sense. Though these two issues are not by any means the same they do reflect attention in very separate areas of educational trend setting. Even before the eptember 11th events occurred the backlash toward multicultural education had taken a strong hold on the political perspective.
Ron Unz, the ilicon Valley entrepreneur who in 1998 helped push forward California Proposition 227 mandating English-only instruction, for example, has broadened his horizon. Unz's new target: the broader "multicultural agenda." He is quoted,…
Crawford, James, "Obituary: The Bilingual Ed Act, 1968-2002," Rethinking Schools online, Vol. 16 No. 4 Summer 2002. http://www.rethinkingschools.org/Archives/16_04/Bill64.shtml
English for the Children http://www.onenation.org/index.cfm
Language Policy Web Site & Emporium, http://ourworld.compuserve.com/homepages/JWCRAWFORD/
Pardini, Priscilla, "Down But Not Out," Rethinking Schools online, Vol. 15 No 1. Fall 2000. http://www.rethinkingschools.org.Archives/15_01/Namu151.shtml
A large number of ads, however, routinely try to market these items to TV viewers, without consideration of the viewing generations' wants and needs.
In learning more about boomers' wants and needs, along with exploring factors contributing to advertisements, this researcher questions if perhaps, the undertaking of this particular subject simultaneously evolves from the desire to learn more about himself personally. Boomers possess the greatest purchasing power and constitute the group of people this researcher desires to target. If one day, this researcher reaches the goal of owning a business, the insight into which group/s possess the most purchasing potential would prove to be a valuable asset.
This researcher worked for this particular group a number of years' experience, specifically in the service industry, and has attained a significant amount of education in business and finance. In addition, as this researcher possesses a personality which aims to please the consumer,…
The science of Psychology has evolved over time and certain studies have been instrumental in that evolution. Two of the more famous studies that have revolutionized the field were the orschach inkblot study of 1942, and the study in 1962 by Calhoun on the effects of overcrowding. These two scientific studies changed the field of psychology and our understanding of human behavior.
The orschach inkblot test is one of the most famous studies in the history of Psychology. As stated in the published study, "the experiment consists in the interpretation of accidental forms, that is, of non-specific forms." (orschach, 1951, p. 15) Inkblots are created by dripping ink on a piece of paper and then folding the paper. The researchers maintain that it is important that the resulting inkblot fulfill certain requirements, but most importantly the inkblot must be symmetrical. The inkblots are then shown to the subject…
Calhoun, J.B. (1962). "Population Density and Social Pathology." Scientific American. 206, 139-48.
"Letting the Rat out of the Bag, The Cultural Influence of John B. Calhoun's Rodent Experiments." (2009) London School of Economics and Political Science. Retrieved from http://www2.lse.ac.uk/researchAndExpertise/researchHighlights/Environment/rats
Rorschach, Hermann. (1951). Psychodiagnostics: A Diagnostic Test Based on Perception, 2nd Ed.. Retrieved from http://www.archive.org/stream/psychodiagnostic011205mbp#page/n7/mode/2up
influential theories related to deviance by Robert K. Merton. Firstly, the paper provides the historical context within which the theorist produced their ideas. Secondly, the paper provides a summary of their original theory. Thirdly, the paper provides a discussion of how the model has been critiqued and altered as new research has emerged. Lastly, the paper delves into the theory's current usage/popularity within criminology.
The historical context within which the theorist produced their ideas
There is huge contribution of influential theories related to deviance by Robert K. Merton. As a matter of fact, He is considered one of the most significant sociologists of modern times. Moreover, he has also made large number of contributions to the criminology field. Undoubtedly, Merton influenced various fields of science, humanities, law, political theories, economics and anthropology (Cole, 2004, p.37). Merton's introduced numerous concepts like anomie, deviant behavior, self-fulfilling prophecy, strain, middle range theory and…
American Sociological Review (2012). Retrieved January 29, 2014 from http://garfield.library.upenn.edu/histcomp/index-merton.html
Bernanke, Ben, S. (1995) 'The Macroeconomics of the Great Depression: A Comparative Approach', Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, 27 February.
Bivens, T. (2004). Robert K. Merton Draft. Florida State University Publications
Calhoun, C. (2003). Remembering Robert K. Merton. Papers in Honor of Robert K. Merton. 175-220. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
Indentured Servant Analysis
Elizabeth Springs' letter to her father on September 22, 1756, is both a letter of apology due to her failure to communicate and a review of the horrendous conditions she was working under as an indentured servant. This paper reviews -- through historical context -- the situation that many indentured servants from England suffered through and puts Springs' letter into a perspective.
The Letter from Springs to John Spyer
Elizabeth Springs is clearly in distress. And to add to her distress over the terrible working conditions in the American colonies she is feeling guilty and sad that she left England under a cloud as to her relationship with her father. "My being forever banished from your sight…" she begins, hoping to touch her father's heart with her present pathos. It seems clear that it wasn't just a matter of Elizabeth leaving without her father's permission, but rather…
Baseler, Marilyn C. "Asylum for Mankind": America, 1607-1800. New York: Cornell
University Press, 1998.
Springs, Elizabeth. "Complaint of an Indentured Servant (1756)." Voices of Freedom /
Creating Anglo-America, 1660-1750. 57-58.
By the second night, a group of men had mutinied and attempted to kill the officers and destroy the raft, and by the third day, "those whom death had spared in the disastrous night […] fell upon the dead bodies with which the raft was covered, and cut off pieces, which some instantly devoured" (Savigny & Correard 192). Ultimately, the survivors were reduced to throwing the wounded overboard, and only after they had been reduced to fifteen men, "almost naked; their bodies and faces disfigured by the scorching beams of the sun," were they finally rescued by the Argus, which had set sail six days earlier to search for the raft and the wreck of the Medusa (Savigny & Correard 203).
Theodore Gericault's the Raft of the Medusa captures the moment on the 17th of July when the Argus first became visible to the survivors, and his choice to reflect…
Alhadeff, Albert. The raft of the Medusa: Gericault, art, and race. New York: Prestel, 2002.
Athanassoglou-Kallmyer, Nina. "LEtat Et Les Artistes: De La Restauration a La Monarchie De
Juillet (1815-1833) / Salons." The Art Bulletin 85.4 (2003): 811-3.
Blair, J.A. "The Possibility and Actuality of Visual Arguments." Argumentation and Advocacy
In the future, this helps to give everyone a greater appreciation for the emotions and challenges that were endured. (Henry, n.d., pp. 522- 535) (Legett, n.d., pp. 802 -- 818) (Gray, n.d., pp. 678 -- 697)
In the Victorian Period, there is focus on showing the impact of the industrial revolution on society. In the poem Dover Beach, there is discussion about how this is creating vast disparities. Evidence of this can be seen with the passage that says, "Ah, love, let us be true
To one another! For the world, which seems. To lie before us like a land of dreams, So various, so beautiful) so new, Hath really neither joy, nor love, nor light, nor certitude, nor peace, nor help for pain; and we are here as on a darkling plain. Swept with confused alarms of struggle and flight, Where ignorant armies clash by night." (Arnold, n.d.) This…
Arnold, M. (n.d.). Dover Beach.
Arnold, M. (n.d.). To Marguerite-Continued.
Blake, W. (n.d.). London.
Blake, W. (n.d.). Chimney Sweeper.
Planet of the apes series is one of the most successful series in American cinematic history. Product of the anti-Vietnam War sentiment, open racial tension, the War on Poverty, fear of nuclear war and lingering Cold War anti-USSR passions, the first 5 films in the series were also based on knowledge of and research about apes up to and including the 1960's and 1970's. Rise of the planet of the apes was released 38 years later and placed its emphasis squarely on apes as a valuable subject rather than a symbol.
Development of the Planet of the Apes Series up to and Including Rise of the Planet of the Apes in Historical Context
Planet of the Apes
Planet of the apes (Schaffner, 1968), is the first in the film series. In the film, 4 astronauts travel to and crash on a strange planet. Prior to the crash, Stewart, the white…
Beneath the Planet of the Apes
Beneath the planet of the apes (Post, 1970), the first sequel to Planet of the apes, shares the historical context of the first film and was propelled by the added impetus of the first film's financial success (Greene, 1999, p. 48b). Based on the story by Mort Abrahams and Paul Dehn, Paul Dehn wrote the screenplay for Beneath the planet of the apes (Greene, 1999, p. 22). In this film, a white astronaut named John Brent has been sent to find Taylor. Brent's ship crashes onto the same planet and Brent finds Nova alone in the desert. Brent and Nova are both captured by the apes but escape, travel to the Forbidden Zone and find Taylor in Manhattan, which is now a bombed-out underground city. Taylor is being held hostage by radiation-induced mutants who communicate by mental telepathy and worship an atomic bomb as God's instrument. A gorilla army led by General Ursus invades the city and shoots Taylor. Taylor's final act is detonation of the atomic bomb, which destroys the entire planet.
Still following the controversial topics of the 1960's - distinct anti-Vietnam War sentiment, open racial
Lessons Learned by American Experience of the Vietnam War: Diplomatic Negotiations, Presidential Leadership, and Cultural/Social Context
The objective of this study is to examine the lessons learned by the American Experience of the Vietnam War in terms of diplomatic negotiations, presidential leadership, and the cultural and social context of the war. The work of Mariney (1989) writes that the U.S. civilian and military leadership failed "to heed the lessons of the past during the Vietnam war." (p.1) Not only was the enemy underestimated but as well, America underestimated the war's nature. The historical context was not given due consideration according to Mariney (1989) and specifically in terms of how the Chinese, Japanese, and the French have "over the centuries, attempted to exert control over Indochina unsuccessfully." (p.1)
Vietnamese Strong National Identity
The result of this experience was the forging of a strong national identity in Vietnam, both North and South…
Lewis, AM (1996) Re-examining Our Perceptions on Vietnam. CIA Historical Review Program 2 Jul 1996. Retrieved from: https://www.cia.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/kent-csi/vol17no4/html/v17i4a01p_0001.htm
Mariney, C (1989) Vietnam: Lessons Learned. Global Security Org. Retrieved from: http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/library/report/1989/MC.htm
Winterstein, S. (2000) Teaching the Vietnam War: A Conference Report. Foreign Policy Research Institute. July. Retrieved from: http://www.fpri.org/footnotes/064.200007.winterstein.teachingvietnam.html
This spacious building is open-sided and resembles a pavilion in appearance more than a formal, permanent structure. Its walls are open. The building has a jutting foyer with two flanking sides. It seems designed for outdoor use. There are elaborate rods holding up the ceiling. The ceiling, unlike the walls, is not transparent, but seems to be made of smoked glass. The shape of the large, tunneled halls is rounded although it comes to a peak at the top.
Surmise: Building and history
This building looks similar to a temporary structure designed for an outdoor festival. It is located amongst verdant grass and gardens. It would be an ideal place for a band to play, or to house an exhibition, allowing the crowds to dart in and out of the covered area. The building is more elaborate than a temporary tent: there is a suggestion of…
He describes how he dines with the members of Antipas' court, "thus maintaining the table-fellowship connection of Mark and Daniel," (Freyne 98). Therefore, the account of government practices which can be validated by other reliable sources show the New Testament as presenting clear and reliable sources for the historical validity of the figure of Jesus. Thus, modern researchers have found great truths and reliable correlations between the figure of Jesus and the occurrences of government within the ancient world.
The Biblical cannon also present more specified elements of correlation, such as Jesus' relationship with John the Baptist. John was a reliable historical figure, whose existence has long been assumed as historically accurate and backed up with sources verifying his locations and actions during and before the time of Jesus. In fact, the beginning of Jesus' ministry was heavily defined by his relationship with John the Baptist. Very little was recorded…
Blackburn, Barry L. "The Miracles of Jesus." Studying the Historical Jesus: Evaluations of the State of Current Research. Eds. Chilton, Bruce & Evans, Craig A. Brill Press. 1998.
Charlesworth, James H. The Historical Jesus: An Essential Guide. Abingdon Press. 2008.
Freyne, Sean. "The Geography, Politics, and Economics of Galilee and the Quest for the Historical Jesus." Studying the Historical Jesus: Evaluations of the State of Current Research. Eds. Chilton, Bruce & Evans, Craig A. Brill Press. 1998.
Josephus, Flavius. Antiquities of the Jews Book XVII. Christian Classics Ethereal Library. 2009. Retrieved 11 Dec 2009 from http://www.ccel.org/j/josephus/works/ant-18.htm
The field is represented as the earth, which was once free of weeds and negative influences. The seeds the followers of the Lord, some of whom have been corrupted by the devil, the enemy of the Lord. God has chosen not to separate the good from the bad right away, but instead to allow each seed to grow to fruition and prove him or herself as wheat or a weed, "Let both grow together until the harvest" (Matthew 13:30). The harvest as the apocalypse, where the Lord will weed out the sinful and only accept the good seeds, or the wheat, into the Kingdom of Heaven. Even the messages of the foreshadowing of the evelation were something known by the people of the time, who were typically of Jewish faith; "Jesus' message was shaped by Jewish eschatology; that is, Jesus proclaimed the end of all time," (Charlesworth 4). Thus, Jesus…
Bovon, Francis. The Last Days of Jesus. Westminster John Knox Press. 2006.
Charlesworth, James H. The Historical Jesus: An Essential Guide. Abdingdon Press. 2008.
Crossan,, John Dominic. Jesus: A Revolutionary Biography. HarperOne. 1995.
Holy Bible: King James Version. Pew Library ed. Thomas Nelson. 1994.
This meant that men held positions of power and authority in all the public spheres including economics/business, politics/the law, and the bearing of arms. Men also possessed social status that women did not have, enabling the perpetuation of a patriarchal society.
y applying Freudian psychoanalysis and feminist theory, I will analyze the personality of the independent, strong, risk taker, and smart Alexandra ergson in Willa Cather's O Pioneer! As Smith points out in Freud's Philosophy of the Unconscious, the psychoanalytic model lends insight into the underlying psychic forces promoting personal and collective change. With regards to a singular female like Alexandra ergson, psychoanalysis takes into account the protagonist's family background, tracing her ego development across the course of her lifetime starting with childhood. The significance of my research is that it studies the possibility of female's success in life under certain circumstances and refutes the outmoded opinion that suggests the…
By applying Freudian psychoanalysis and feminist theory, I will analyze the personality of the independent, strong, risk taker, and smart Alexandra Bergson in Willa Cather's O Pioneer! As Smith points out in Freud's Philosophy of the Unconscious, the psychoanalytic model lends insight into the underlying psychic forces promoting personal and collective change. With regards to a singular female like Alexandra Bergson, psychoanalysis takes into account the protagonist's family background, tracing her ego development across the course of her lifetime starting with childhood. The significance of my research is that it studies the possibility of female's success in life under certain circumstances and refutes the outmoded opinion that suggests the leadership is a male-specific quality. Cather creates an overtly political novel with O Pioneer! As her protagonist single-handedly proves that women can be completely self-determined and self-reliant. This would have been a revolutionary view when Cather first published her novel.
The 1913 novel O Pioneer! By Willa Cather, one of the greatest American women writers, is a good illustration for the frontier literature in general, regardless of its political views on gender. However, Cather differentiates herself from her contemporaries and other writers in the Wild West genre, by stressing the other half of the human race: the half that is typically excluded from histories and literature alike. Cather accomplishes what Robinson comments on in "Treason Our Text," a feminist challenge to the accepted and established literary canon. The established canon of literature propagated by mainstream academia is a decidedly and unapologetically patriarchal one; that is, until the second wave of feminism (Robinson). It is therefore important to appreciate Cather's novel within her own historical context, which makes O Pioneer! truly revolutionary. Cather, although certainly not the first or only female American novelist, expands the canon of American literature by addressing the social, political, and economic worldviews from a more global and inclusive perspective, one that takes into account the lives of half of humanity. Patriarchal literature limits itself to constructing women out of stereotypes and projections of feminine ideals and mystiques; Cather simply tells it like it is (Duby, Perrot and Pantel).
The novels heroine embodies all feminine characters who disregard the complex American West during the time the novel was written. The narratives reveals out the difficulties experienced by women
Leila Ahmed's 1992 book Women and Gender in Islam: Historical oots of a Modern Debate is divided into three parts. One is devoted to the pre-Islamic Middle East including Mesopotamia and the Mediterranean. This background section provides an historical and cultural context that is often omitted from discourse on gender and Islam. The second section of Women and Gender in Islam is on the founding discourses, and encompasses the period from the beginning and Muhammad to the Medieval era of Islam and its spread throughout the Mediterranean world. The last part of Ahmed's book is entitled "New Discourses," and it bridges the gaps between past and future, and between the Muslim and non-Muslim worlds. Ahmed's thesis in Women and Gender in Islam is multifaceted. The author suggests that the multiple and heterogeneous discourses on the subject of gender in Islam must be taken into consideration of their cultural and…
Ahmed, Leila, 1992. Women and Gender in Islam: Historical Roots of a Modern Debate. Yale University.
Bass, Laura R. And Wunder, Amanda, 2009. The Veiled Ladies of the Early Modern Spanish World: Seduction and Scandal in Seville, Madrid, and Lima. Hispanic Review, Vol. 77, No. 1, Re-Envisioning Early Modern Iberia: Visuality, Materiality, History (Winter, 2009), pp. 97-144.
Berkey, Jonathan P. 1996. Circumcision Circumscribed: Female Excision and Cultural Accommodation in the Medieval near East. International Journal of Middle East Studies, Vol. 28, No. 1 (Feb., 1996), pp. 19-38.
Martin Riesebrodt. Review of Women and Gender in Islam: Historical Roots of a Modern Debate by Leila Ahmed. The Journal of Religion, Vol. 73, No. 3 (Jul., 1993), pp. 453-454.