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John Adams and Thomas Jefferson were the second and third presidents of the United States, and both played major roles in both the American Revolution and both are considered among the Founding Fathers.
John Adams, born in the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1735, was a learned and thoughtful man, and is considered more a philosopher than a politician (John pp). He once said that "People and nations are forged in the fires of adversity" (John pp). A Harvard educated lawyer, Adams was a delegate to the First and Second Continental Congresses, and led in the movement for independence from Britain (John pp). riting in his journal of the Boston Massacre in February 1771, shortly after the trial of the British soldiers, he wrote, "Never in more misery my whole life" (Biography pp). During the Revolutionary ar, he served as a diplomat in France and Holland and was instrumental in the…
Biography of John Adams The Boston massacre. Retrieved October 18, 2005
Jefferson as 'America's Everyman.' Retrieved October 18, 2005 from:
history are dotted by many instantly and universally-recognizable names. What is it that makes one an enduring symbol beyond death? From those few great men and women granted the sort of immortality that comes only with the eternal respect of his or her fellows, we may glean many key lessons about what it is to be great. One of the hallmarks of greatness, if the following examples may be taken as representative, is undoubtedly the contribution of enduring knowledge or action to the benefit of one's fellow man.
Albert Einstein lived a live of courage and brilliance, surmounting the odds as a German Jew in the mid twentieth century to thrive and spark a revolution in physics with his theory of relativity. One of the characteristics of greatness is surely acting when others would falter, which is why history will remember Winston Churchill as one of the greatest wartime leaders…
Feldman, Burton (2000). The Nobel Prize: A History of Genius, Controversy, and Prestige. New York, New York: Arcade Publishing
Hart, Michael H. 1992. The 100: A Ranking of the Most Influential Persons in History, Revised and Updated for the Nineties. New York: Citadel Press Book.
Kennedy, John F. Profiles in Courage. HarperCollins Pres. New York. 1964.
Ligon, B Lee (2004). "Sir Howard Walter Florey -- the force behind the development of penicillin." Seminars in pediatric infectious diseases 15 (2): 109 -- 14.
Jesus by E.P. Sanders
The Historical Figure of Jesus is an account of the life of Jesus the man. This is in contrast to the life of Jesus as presented by the bible.
The author looks at what we really know about Jesus's life. The emphasis is not about saying whether he is or is not the son of God, instead it just looks at what historians know about the life of Jesus. The book is in no way an attack on Christianity, it simply accepts that Jesus was a man and attempts to compile his life as a man.
At the same time, the book is not a biography of Jesus, it is more a look at what historical information exists and what it shows us about Jesus.
The author describes when the search for historical information began in the 18th century, showing us how scholars of the time…
Sanders, E.P. The Historical Figure of Jesus. New York: Penguin, 1996.
Shirley Temple is the historical figure I would like to meet. She won the heart of the working man and with her firmly held views, inspired confidence in the values of the 1930's, which helped bring America out of the great depression. She became known as "America's Princess" after a film titled "The Little Princess," and continuing public duty and service (lack Temple Shirley, Child Star: An Autobiography).
There are a million and one questions which come to my mind, which I would ask of Shirley; What was it like to be a child star, Did she ever think she would be one the significant contributors to American history for her work during the depression, What made her grow up faster than her time, What were her experiences with cancer how did she forage ahead so bravely? In some ways this is the sad story of a little Princess who…
Burdick Loraine, The Shirley Temple Scrapbook, 1993
Blashfield F. Jean, Shirley Temple Black, 1900
Black Temple Shirley, Child Star: An Autobiography
I hope all is well with you and your family. It's been a while since I've written; forgive me as I've been busy with school, work and life in general. Over the past few weeks, I've become quite interested in the life and triumphs of Clara Barton, a 19th century nurse, teacher and pioneer who was by my account, a woman way ahead of her time. Clara Barton is a true hero, this letter is to give you a glimpse of her life and successes and how she contributed to nursing as we know it today. During Ms. Bartons' era women were largely shut out of working in certain professions or if they were allowed to work at all -- they were not allowed to climb the ladder to be promoted to other positions. There also lacked an institution that provided aid to those affected by disaster.…
Ardalan, C. (2010). Clara Barton's 1898 Battles in Cuba: A Reexamination of Her Nursing Contributions. Florida Atlantic Comparative Studies Journal, 12, 1-20.
Maikell-Thomas, B. "Discovered Historical Documents Uncover The First Official Missing Persons Investigator, Clara Barton" National Association of Investigative Specialists. http://www.pimall.com/nais/n.barton.html
Tooker, J. (2007). Antietam: Aspects of Medicine, Nursing and the Civil War. Transactions of the American Clinical and Climatological Association, 118, 215-223.
Impressionism vs. Post-Impressionism
Impressionism vs. Post
This paper will explore impressionism vs. post-impressionism including the influences of each on each other and society, and the effects of each other on the 19th century. The paper will ascertain how one period revived or continued the style and characteristics of the other, or how one period originated in reaction to the other. Impressionist paintings tended to focus less on detail and more on making impressions of form and figure, as the name implies. The brush strokes were less inclined to add detail and structure or order. Post-impressionists considered this trivial, and created artistic work that was decidedly more expressive according to some; more organized and structured, the Post-Impressionist movement could be best described as a response to the Impressionist movement. Some focused on methods including Pointillism, or the use of dots of color, whereas others used bright fresh colors used by Impressionists…
Brettell, R. 2000. Impression: Painting quickly in France, 1860-1890. New Haven and London: Yale
Denvir, B. 1990. The Thames and Hudson Encyclopaedia of Impressionism. London: Thames and Hudson.
Sweeny, J.J. 1996. Post-Impressionism. Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia, Microsoft Corp.
Tinterow, G. And Henri Loyrette. 1994. Origins of Impressionism. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art.
Conventional literature would
come to see Cleopatra as an exploitive whore, responsible for the downfall
of virtuous men like the Ptolemies, Julius Caesar and, inevitably, Marc
Antony as well. So is this reported by historical accounts such as that by
Cassius Dio who reflected that "Indeed she so enchanted and enthralled not
only Antony but all others who counted for anything with him that she came
to entertain the hope that she would rule the Romans as well, and whenever
she took an oath, the most potent phrase she used were the words, 'So
surely as I shall one day give judgement [sic] on the Capitol.'" (Cassius
Dio, 39) The argument given here in defining her persona would be the
clear understanding of her imperialist intent, so to say that it had been
always an ambition for this ruler to extend the Egyptian influence to new
heights. The Roman perspective…
Ashmawy, A.K. (1995). Cleopatra: The Last Pharoah, B.C. 69-30. History
of Alexandria. Online at <
Burstein, S.M. (2004). The Reign of Cleopatra. Greenwood Publishing
Historiography in Jesus' era, or the ethics of writing good history, was also different from our own -- objective, historical accounts were rare, rather each historian wished to present his or her version of the facts.
History and belief invariably 'butt heads,' and when confronted with arguments about the life of Jesus that challenge all notions of science and history, such as the resurrection of dead: Charlesworth admits "Historians cannot answer this question" as "this question extends beyond the methodology and focus of historians" (Charlesworth 118; 121). For believers, aspects of Jesus will always exist outside of historical time, but it is the duty of those who seek the historical Jesus to put their own personal biases and agendas aside when reviewing the evidence. A singular Jesus may never emerge, but scrupulous historical and literary analysis can reveal a clearer picture of the many versions of Jesus that existed during…
Charlesworth, James H. The Historical Jesus: An Essential Guide. Nashville: Abingdon, 2008.
Horsley. Richard a. Jesus and Empire: The Kingdom of God and the New World Disorder.
Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2003.
Van Voorst, Robert E. Jesus Outside the New Testament. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans
A work of non-fiction does not have to be about a person, however. Non-fiction work can include theories of social studies, presented in interesting and new ways. Non-fiction is tremendously helpful in lesson planning because the prose elucidates issues in subjects like science and social studies.
Question 6: Although she is not remembered as a major figure in the Civil Rights Movement, Marian Anderson's life contributed to some of the reforms that African-American citizens demanded. Discuss how her voice "challenged" a nation.
Marian Anderson was an accomplished African-American singer. Anderson broke the color barrier in the arts, just as Jackie Robinson did in sports. Anderson's success challenged prevailing social norms, as she became a visible figure in America's most elite concert halls. Anderson began indirectly using her voice as a political tool, channeling her success into achieving broader civil rights goals.
Question 7: Describe how the city of Philadelphia, its…
American Library Association. "Terms and Criteria." Retrieved Dec 8, 2009 from http://www.ala.org/ala/mgrps/divs/alsc/awardsgrants/bookmedia/newberymedal/newberyterms/newberyterms.cfm
"Yellow Fever Attacks, 1793" Eye Witness to History. Retrieved Dec 8, 2009 from http://www.eyewitnesstohistory.com/yellowfever.htm
Melchizedek is a mysterious Biblical figure about whom very little is known. He is alluded to in the Old Testament only in the Book of Genesis, and is referred to a few times in the New Testament in the Pauline text Hebrews. No actual historical data exists to support the existence of Melchizedek the man, although the discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls did lead to some scholars believing that Melchidekek was indeed an historical figure ("Melchizedek"). Universally, Melchizedek is thought to be a priest of the highest order, as well as the king of Salem (usually considered to be another name for Jerusalem). When his character first appears in Genesis, Melchizedek appears to Abraham, offering him bread and wine in honor of Abraham's victories. Therefore, Melchizedek was a high priest and kingly figure. He is sometimes equated with Shem, son of Noah ("Melchizedek"). Biblical references would place his life…
Huie, Bryan T. (1997). Was the Logos Melchizedek? Retrieved online at http://users.aristotle.net/~bhuie/melchiz.htm
'Melchizedek. (2005). Wikipedia. Retrieved online at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Melchizedek
'Melchizedek Priesthood." (2000). Bible Dictionary. Retrieved online at http://scriptures.lds.org/bdm/mlchzdkp
The Nag Hammadi Library: Melchizedek. Giversen, Soren and Pearson, Birger A. (Trans). Retrieved online from http://www.gnosis.org/naghamm/melchiz.html
Euclid -- 323-285 B.C was a historical figure who taught at Alexandria in Egypt. There are three hypotheses revolving around Euclid's life. The first is that he wrote his magnum opus the Elements as also contributed a lot of other works. Another interesting hypothesis is that Euclid was a member of a group of mathematicians working at Alexandria with each one contributing to writing the 'complete works of Euclid', with the group engaged in writing books under the name of Euclid also after his demise. The third hypothesis is that Euclid of Megara lived roughly 100 years prior to Euclid of Alexandria. A team of mathematicians wrote the complete works of Euclid and took Euclid's name from Euclid of Megara. The proof surrounding the first hypothesis is significant that he wrote his magnum opus the Elements as also contributed a lot of other works. Scanty evidence is there that deny…
Dietz, Elizabeth. "Euclid 323-285 B.C. Biography" Retrieved from http://www.albertson.edu/math/History/edietz/Classical/biography.htm
Accessed on 8 August, 2005
Dietz, Elizabeth. "Euclid 323-285 B.C: Discoveries" Retrieved from http://www.albertson.edu/math/History/edietz/Classical/discoveries.htm
Accessed on 8 August, 2005
The creation and enjoyment of music has been a part of our collective human culture since long before the beginnings of recorded history. It is believed that once upon a time even cavemen and Neanderthals were able to create music using their prehistoric instruments and technologies. Archaeologists and historians have discovered remnants of musical instruments in dig sites from all across the globe. The various instruments or what may or may not have at one time been instruments, that have been found at each of these locations have been a reflection of the culture in which it was used. As modern culture is reflected in current musical interests, so too the cultures of past civilizations have been reflected in the instruments and music that those cultures had left behind. Part of the culture invariably involves the tools and available materials that the population would utilize in order to…
Anderson, J 2008, 'Slaves to the rhythm,' CBC News.
Busoni, F 1962, 'Sketch of a new esthetic of music,' Three Classics in the Aesthetic of Music:
Cher 1998, 'Believe,' Believe. Warner Bros.
Everett-Green, R 2006, 'Ruled by Frankenmusic,' The Globe and Mail.
Man's Fate" by Andre Malraux [...] use of opium in the novel and research and critique this aspect of the novel and how it relates to the literary accuracy of the novel. Opium use is well documented in Asia, and the use of opium figures heavily in this novel. Baron de Clappique smuggles opium, and several characters use opium throughout the book. Opium and China seem to go together in history. esearch into opium, and how opium in portrayed in this novel will show that opium use was widespread in Chinese culture, and it was accepted, even if it did eventually become illegal.
Opium has a long and varied history, and it always seemed threaded through the Chinese people. There are records of opium poppies being cultivated as far back as 3400 B.C. By the Sumerians, and it had spread to China by the eighth century. By the sixteenth century,…
De Quincey, Thomas. Confessions of an English Opium-eater. Ed. William Sharp. London: Walter Scott, n.d.
Malraux, Andre. Man's Fate. New York: Random House, 1934, 1961.
McCoy, Alfred W. "2 A Critical History of the Global Narcotics Trade." Dangerous Harvest: Drug Plants and the Transformation of Indigenous Landscapes. Eds. Steinberg, Michael K., Joseph J. Hobbs, and Kent Matthewson. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004. 24-97.
Trocki, Carl A. Opium and Empire: Chinese Society in Colonial Singapore, 1800-1910. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1990.
Feng Shui's Course In Hong Kong
Hong Kong goes its own ways. Not entirely, of course, and obviously much less so since 1997, but it retains a certainly cultural autonomy. One way in which Hong Kong has continued traditional beliefs and practices that have faded on the mainland is the degree of dedication to the practices of feng shui. There are several reasons why Hong Kong has maintained such traditions. Some of these arise from the fact that islands tend to be both conservative and independent, holding to traditions as a strength.
Mainland Chinese officials see their current and future strength as arising from their economic modernization, as essentially arising from their flight from tradition. Hong Kong, while certainly attached to economic prosperity and legally a part of China, has because of its geography also maintained an attachment to its past.
Hong Kong, no matter how many legal times it…
Carroll, Robert. Feng Shui: The Skeptics Dictionary. www.skepdic.com/fengshui.html. 2010.
Chua-Eoan, H., StonerT. & Wong, B. (1987). How to keep the dragons happy. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,964725,00.html#ixzz1apwioL5e
Disneyland Hong Kong Feng Shui, http://www.disneyland-hong-kong.com/disneylandhongkongfengshui.htm.
One weekend, not so long ago, Steve went with his family to visit his grandmother, who lived far out in the countryside in a huge two story house with more windows than he could count. The roof scaled up to a peak that resembled a tower that one might see on a castle.
When Steve got bored, as he always did when he was around grown-ups, he climbed the stairs to the top floor of the house, to the attic in the tower. There, he always found interesting things to look at, play with and explore. There were several old trunks filled with tons of family memorabilia. His grandfather had been an anthropologist and at one time had even worked in some tombs in Egypt. His grandfather's things were packed away in several boxes in the far left corner of the attic, and although Steve knew he was never…
America was finding its footing, Americans were finding their identity. The spark of revolution trickled down the vine where three men decided to take arms. One took arms by defending the country against the British and securing the role of president of a new country. A second took pen and wrote to inspire the reluctant to declare independence from an unfair Britain. A third took brush and art to establish a painted history of the American revolution along with the first museums to showcase them in.Three notable figures, George Washington, Charles Willson Peale, and Thomas Paine became some of the most influential men of their time.
George Washington was born on February 22, 1732 or February 11, 1731 and died December 14, 1799. He was alive during the time of the American evolution and played a pivotal role in America's victory over Great Britain.He became the first President of the…
Burns, J.M., & Dunn, S. (2004). George Washington. New York: Times Books.
This source discusses the life anf career of George Washington.
Greene, J.P., & Bailyn, B. (1967). The Ideological Origins of the American Revolution. American Historical Review, 11(3), 588-90. doi:10.2307/1849163
This is a journal source that discusses the reasons behind the American Revolution.
In other words she is seen in this light as a double threat to the country.
Consequently, she interferes in the issues and "frames" Naboth in a clever and callous plot. She succeeds in enlisting others in the community to support her actions against Naboth and he is accused of blaspheming against God and going against the King. She encourages the King to kill Naboth and to "...take him out and stone him to death." As a result Naboth is murdered and Jezebel is seen as being a cold and manipulative figure who will go to any lengths to achieve her ends.
However, from a more pragmatic historical perspective some scholars question the iblical text. As one study states,
The fantastical tale of Naboth's death... stretches the reader's credulity. If Jezebel were as hateful as the Deuteronomist claims, surely at least one nobleman in Jezreel would have refused to assist…
Atkinson J. Jezebel. http://latter-rain.com/eschae/jezebel.htm . (Accessed 9 May 2008)
Kings 18:4. IBS. (Accessed 9 May 2008)
Biblos com. (Accessed 9 May 2008).
Courteau, Sarah L. "Was the Lady a Tramp?." The Wilson Quarterly, Autumn 2007, 92+. Database online. Available from Questia,
Gerd Theissen and Annette Merz bridge a gap between trade book and scholarly discourse with their 642-page tome The Historical Jesus: A Comprehensive Guide. This joint effort by Theissen and Merz explores the subject matter of the historical Jesus in light of primary sources, especially relying on the Gospels, both canonical and apocryphal. The book is divided into four main sections, in addition to a meaty Introduction, a "Retrospect" called "A Short Life of Jesus," and two helpful indexes, one of Biblical
Theissen, Gerd, and Merz, Annette. The Historical Jesus: A Comprehensive Guide. Minneapolis: Fortress, 1998.
Assemble Historical Data
Over the last several years, the role of the federal government in the housing market has been increasingly brought to the forefront. This is because of the implosion in prices and support that was provided by ashington to address these issues. However, since the 1930s the U.S. government has been directly providing support to the housing market (through the FHA). This was in response to the impact of private mortgages on the economy during the Great Depression.
As time went by, this role was expanded with ashington providing direct and indirect assistance through: Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac along with the Veterans Administration (VA). The combination of these factors allowed the federal government to help with the financing and purchasing of homes. As a result, the numbers of Americans who own properties have increased exponentially since the 1940's. Evidence of this can be seen in the below chart…
Carliner, Michael. "Development of Federal Homeownership Policies." Fannie Mae Foundation vol. 9 no. 2 (1998): 299 -- 322.
Chambers, Matthew. "Did Housing Policies Cause the Post War Boom." Townson University (2011): 1 -- 28.
Collins, Michael. "Towards a Strategic Federal Policy." Federal Homeownership Policy (2003): 1- 20.
Collins, Michael. "Perusing the American Dream." Millennial Housing Commission (2002): 3 -- 51.
Human Figure in Art
The Ognissanti Madonna by Giotto, from around 1310. Tempera on panel. Located at the Uffizi Gallery in Florence.
Giotto's work is relevant of the transition period between Cimabue's work in the 13th century, with profound yzantine influences, including in the figures, and the Early Renaissance of the 14th century in Italy. Stokstad (2004) notes the influences of Cimabue in this work by Giotto, including in terms of the symmetry of the painting. The Ogissanti Madonna is also relevant for that transition, particularly through the touches of realism that Giotto exercise here, including elements such as the marble throne on which the Madonna sits. The entire painting also surprises through its three-dimension depiction.
The human figure here is severe and serious, dominating the painting. It is very large in comparison to the other figures, perhaps to support its central role in the work (it is also in…
1. Stockstad, Marilyn, (2004). Art History. Prentice Hall.
As an anthropologist, as she observed hoodoo practices of Southern blacks and became such a hoodoo priestess herself, she embraced subjectivity. (79) historian and woman ahead of her time, Hurston thrived not only, out of necessity on the physical margins of academia, but also on the professional margins of 'writing history.' But her techniques not only "became spaces of perspective" and "turned black folk" into legitimate subjects. Her perspective also made for a better writing of American history in general because it included the voices of marginalized figures. (118) Zora Neale Hurston took advantage of her "heightened penchant" for interdisciplinary study "to forge some of the first substantive academic research on African-Americans" but highlighted the need for interdisciplinary and openly subjective historical study in general, particularly of those peoples deemed to be marginal to mainstream 'written' American society and history. (138)
Hurston studied Black culture partly to recover her own…
Des Jardins, Julie. Women and the Historical Enterprise: the Female American Historian. University of North Carolina Press, 2003.
Human Figure Drawing
Testing has become an integral part of psychological theory and practice. Rooted in historical perspectives and heated conversation of principles, wagering purpose and ethics, it involves the statistical conceptualizations of psychometrics and the connection of the validity of a test to the reality of a person. The field of psychological testing is characterized by the use of small samples to apply larger generalizations to a specific individual; samples of behavioral trends combine with observations over a limited time in which performance of prescribed tasks is compared to a the pre-studied responses of members of a norm group. These responses, compiled and analyzed before compared to the studied individual, are often crafted into statistical tables that allow the evaluator to compare the behavior of the specific person to the range of responses given by the norm group and make appropriate personality discussions therein. A common type of psychological…
Plubraarn and Theermonparp, p. S615.
Sturner, R.A., Rothbaum, F., Visintainer, M., Wolfer, J. "The Effects of Stress on Children's Human Figure Drawings." Journal of Clinical Psychology. Vol. 36, No. 1. January,1980. p. 324.
Wang, H., Ericsson, K., Winblad, B., Fratiglioni, L. "The Human Figure Drawing Test as a Screen for Dementia in the Elderly: A Community-Based Study." Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics. Vol. 27, No. 1. August, 1998. p. 25.
The Vairocana Buddha on the back wall has a Bodhisattva to his left wearing a crown and pearls. Bodhisattvas were still 'of the world,' beings in Mahayana Buddhism who temporarily did not seek Enlightenment to bring Enlightenment to the rest of the world. On his other side, a "divine general treads an evil spirit underfoot" ("acred Destinations," Longmen Caves, 2010). The combined images of the most spiritual and enlightened of all manifestations of the Buddha, a spiritual deity still striving to Enlighten those in the world, and national symbolism illustrate how Buddhism was not seen as innately contradictory with the aims of the nation-state.
"Longmen Caves." acred Destinations. March 1, 2010.
O'Brien, Barbara. "The Five Dhyani Buddhas: Vairocana Buddha" About.com.
ummarize the history of the porcelain traditions in China from the Yuan to the present. Give examples.
The Yuan Dynasty saw the development of what…
"Japanese architecture." Asian Info. March 2, 2010.
"Temples and Shrines." Japan Culture. March 2, 2010.
His early life played an important part in his political life, and this seems true of most political figures. Politics is partly about power, and partly about convictions, and this is a strong point that comes through in Clinton's book. In addition, when he was a child, he was greatly influenced by President Kennedy, and this carried through to his own administration, which he called "Camelot" for a while, after the name for the Kennedy White House.
It is also clear from this book that many historical events also inspired and influenced Clinton. He came of age at a time when the country was divided over Vietnam, and there were vast differences between young and old, epublican and Democrat. His life was influenced by these historic events, and he carried much of that influence and how it affected him with him into his political career. It is what made him…
Clinton, William Jefferson. My Life. New York: Borzoi Book, 2004.
Science and Religion: Conflict
Historical and Psychological Reasons for the Conflict Between Science and Religion
There is obvious controversy on the tensions between science and religion. A growing number of well-known figures deny any logical conflict between science and religion. For example, Langdon Gilkey says the following:
[T]o say that evolution' excludes God' is [. . .] merely to say that it is a theory within natural science. It is not to say that this theory is essentially atheistic or represents atheism. It is because science is limited to a certain level of explanation that scientific and religious theories can exist side by side without excluding one another, that one person can hold both to the scientific accounts of origins and to a religious account, to the creation of all things by God [. . .].
Ian Barbour believes that science and religion are "complementary languages," complementary ways of analyzing…
Gould, Stephen Jay. Rocks of Ages: Science and Religion in the Fullness of Life (NY: Ballantine Books) 1999.
Holtzmann, Seth. Science and Relgion: The Categorial Conflct. International Journal For Philosophy of Religion. 2003, 54:77-99.
Lorenzo de Medici: An Historical Biography, Judith Hook was the first major historian of the second half of the twentieth century to embark upon the task of setting the life of this figure into some larger historical context. At the time of Hook's writing and research, the last work published on Lorenzo de Medici was that of C.M. Ady's Lorenzo de' Medici and Renaissance Italy in 1955. In contrast to this earlier work, which stressed the unique qualities of the subject and his powerful ability to shape his environment, Hook argues over the course of her own volume that the subject of her biography was equally if not more affected by his historical environment of Renaissance Florence. Rather than man's ability to affect history, Hook perceives historical actors as more shaped by historical and social forces, by "a system which aimed at the development of man's entire personality, body, and…
Hook, Judith. Lorenzo de' Medici: An Historical Biography. London: Hamish Hamilton, 1984.
Teaching Historical Events to Student With Disabilities
Our perspective of the concept of the passing of time and our place in the history of the world is important to us towards our growth and evolution. Lacking a sense of time and space, one is prone to be disconnected with the universe. While it can be frightening to be trapped in a moment in time and not be cognizant of the position in space you occupy, it is the experience people classified to have Profound and Multiple Learning Difficulties (PMLD) go through (Tony Jones, 2013). Adolescents who have learning disabilities (LD) face a number of challenges with the strict application of Common Core State Standards for literacy when considering subjects such as social studies and history. Besides the challenges they have with reading, students with LD are required to take part in reasoning and thinking at a high level. For teachers…
Candy Bear, & Cheryl Mason Bolick. (2013). Teaching Social Studies in Middle and Secondary Schools. University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill: Pearson.
Carole Boudreau, Anne Rodrigue, Veronique Parent, Julie Myre-Bisaillon, & Annick Tremblay-Bouchard. (2014). Teaching History to High School Students with LDs: Pedagogical Considerations & Strategies. LD School.
Janis A. Bulgren, Patricia Sampson Graner, & Donald D. Deshler. (2013). Literacy Challenges and Opportunities for Students with Learning Disabilities in Social Studies and History. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 17-27.
Tony Jones. (2013). History for Individuals Experiencing Profound and Multiple Learning Difficulties. Nottinghamshire: Talksense.
The conversation in the Irish castle about the war lends to a greater understanding of the quiet life he lead around his friends; they, too, were in the dark when it came to the person lying inside the heart of their tragic, literary friend.
If there were a war between Great Britain and the United States, Mr. James, where would your loyalty lie?" Webster asked him during a lull in the conversation after dinner.
My loyalty would lie in making peace between them."
And what if that should fail?" Webster asked him.
A happen to know the answer," Lady Wolseley interrupted. "Mr. James would find out which side France was on and join that side." (30-31)
As the conversation continued, it was made clear that the actual encounter James had had with the Civil War in is reality was unknown to even those close friends, who had taken him in…
According to Toronto Star reporter Stephan Handelman in an article printed in 2005, the U.S. senior intelligence analysts consider China to be the greatest long-term threat to U.S. stability. China's military force and computer intelligence has reached its peak. Both the Europeans and the U.S. agree that the expansion of the Chinese military is more than "worrisome."
Another article posted on November 16, 2007 by the Washington Post claims that spying by China in the United States is the biggest threat keeping American technologies secret. Advances by the Chinese military are catching U.S. intelligence officials by surprise. It has also been suggested that the U.S. Department of Defense could inadvertently outsource the manufacturing of key weapons and military equipment to China. China is attempting to reverse its move into free markets by setting up state-owned enterprises and control over the 12 major industries, which include oil, telecommunications, shipping, automobiles, steel…
1. Article: online
Kim Zetter (February 3, 2010). Threat Level: Privacy, Crime and Security Online
Report Details Hacks Targeting Google, Others, (1), 1. http://www.wired.com/threatlevel/2010/02/apt-hacks/
2. Article Publication: online and hardcopy
He seems to think, from his closing remarks, that the colony had little purpose in those early days beyond mere survival, which would have been impossible without him.
William Bradford also wrote is account of the Plymouth landing and the colony founded thereabouts in the third person, but he is not nearly as self-aggrandizing as Smith. His account is not exactly humble though, but rather speaks with a certain religious authority that comes perhaps in part from the years between the actual events and Bradford's writing about them. The purpose for the colony, as he seems to see it, was to establish a place where God would receive due reverence. That had been their purpose in leaving Europe, after all, and he counts misfortunes as trials from God and good events as signs of God's blessing. He, too, lists the difficult times that were encountered by the colonists upon landing;…
Standard of Ur, Scenes of War/Peace, 2700 bce
The Standard of Ur is an artifact, which Charles Leonard Woolley discovered in the late 1920. It was in the Royal Tombs of Ur in ancient Mesopotamia, which was close to aghdad presently known as Iran about 2600 CE. Leonard was a London-based excavator who had gone to Ur in an effort to discover artifacts including archeological elements. Apparently, when he found it, he was not sure what it was; therefore, he assumed that it was a flag used back then in 2600 CE. In addition, other people were also not sure of what it was, and some of them assumed it was a type of emblem of a king, others suggested it was a musical instrument covering.[footnoteRef:2] [2: Wolley, Leonard. Excavations at Ur: A record of twelve years' work. (London: Routledge) ]
In this regard, the ritish Museum has favored this…
Gansell, Amy Rebecca, and Winter Irene. Treasures from the royal tombs of Ur. Cambridge,
Mass: Publications Dept., Harvard University, 2002.
Sailus, Christopher. "Standard of Ur: Definition, lesson and quiz." Education Portal. Accessed 23 April 2014.
Shannon, White. "Treasures from the Royal Tombs of Ur: A Traveling Exhibition of the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology," Near Eastern Archaeology 67, no. 4. (2004): 229.
Two of the world’s most important and magnificent religions share little in common on the surface. Yet as the Dalai Lama’s recent interfaith dialogues have shown, locating points of intersection between Christianity and Buddhism can be a more fruitful endeavor than focusing only on differences. Buddhism is older than Christianity, but only by about 500 years. From their points of origin, Buddhism and Christianity spread far and wide geographically: Buddhism to East Asia and Christianity to Europe. One of the things Christianity and Buddhism share in common most is that their respective faiths are not as entrenched in their places of origin as they are in the places that adopted these religions later. For instance, Christianity is more popular in the Americas, Africa, and Europe than in the Middle East, and Buddhism is more popular in the rest of Asia outside of India than in India, where the Gautama Buddha…
ace and evolution
An iconoclastic figure in the study of American History, Gary Nash, who is Director of the National Center for History in the Schools at UCLA, writes from a position of authority as he questions the history that many of us were taught during our primary and secondary educations. In ace and evolution, Nash turns his keen vision toward the matter of slavery at the time our country was founded. A collection of essays based upon his series of Merrill Jensen Lectures in Constitutional Studies at the University of Wisconsin, ace and evolution is an indictment of our country's, primarily northern, founders as they hemmed and hawed and, ultimately, declined the opportunity to create a true, free, racially diverse republic.
ather than focusing on the issue of slavery at its post-independence height, during the antebellum period in the South, ace and evolution examines the issues surrounding slavery during…
Nash, G. (1990). Race and revolution. Lanham, Maryland:
Madison House Publishers
Nash, G. (2010). Red, white, and black: the peoples of early North America (6th ed.). Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Very little reliable information is available on John Knox's birth and early childhood, but it is supposed that he was probably born and grew up in a district of Haddington called Gifford Gate. This is about 17 miles outside of Edinburgh. His early education was received at the grammar school of Haddington. After his schooling, Knox attended the university at Glasgow, where he proved himself able to aptly dispute and debate theological issues. This was a time during which reformed Christian theology was beginning to make its appearance in the general Christian education of the time. The type of education Knox received was therefore mainly theological, with an added element of dispute, which was indicative of the paradigm of his time.
John Knox is known best for his role in the reformation of the church, and for his gifted preaching. The reformer first appeared prominently in this capacity…
Sir Walter Scott was a writer a part of the romantic era, roughly 1797 -- 1837. Scott was born slightly before the beginning of this era, in 1771, and died nearly at the same time the period changed in 1832. Scott is known as a novelist, playwright, and poet of Scottish descent. The beginning of the omantic period is typically attributed to the publication of Wordworth's and Coleridge's Lyrical Ballads, and closed with the rise into power of Queen Victoria. This is a period in literature that produced outstanding lyrical poetry, a few dramas, and several novelists that were popular, including Scott. Scott was known for the ability to blend European history into entertaining narratives. Scott happened to have mass appeal during this period, able to reach readers of various classes and places within the Victorian era. At the time of the omantic Era, authors such as Jane Austen were…
Edinburgh University Library. "Walter Scott." Edinburgh University Library, Web, 2014, Available from: http://www.walterscott.lib.ed.ac.uk/home.html . 2014 March 04.
MacKenzie, Robert Shelton. Sir Walter Scott: The Story of His Life. Kessinger Publishing, 2009. Print.
Scott, MD, Professor Walter. The Complete Works of Sir Walter Scott: With a Biography, and His Last Additions and Illustrations, Volume 7. Nabu Press, 2010. Print.
Madonna and Child by the Master of St. Cecilia
Madonna and Child (1290-1295) by the Master of St. Cecilia is a tempera and gold leaf on panel depiction of the Mother of God and the Christ Child. Its iconic imagery perfectly represents and reflects the ideals of the medieval world, of Christian Europe as it existed under the guidance of the Roman Catholic Church. The Church during this time served as the social, political and religious example for all the nations and peoples of Europe. This icon by the Master of St. Cecilia depicts the ideal that the Church wished to convey to its followers, whether princes or peasants -- namely, that all mankind should honor and humble himself before the majesty of the Mother of God, whose fiat to the Archangel ensured that the Son of God would be born to redeem mankind and pay the price for his…
J. Paul Getty Museum. "Madonna and Child." Getty, 2016. Web. 16 Apr 2016.
He describes how he dines with the members of Antipas' court, "thus maintaining the table-fellowship connection of Mark and Daniel," (Freyne 98). Therefore, the account of government practices which can be validated by other reliable sources show the New Testament as presenting clear and reliable sources for the historical validity of the figure of Jesus. Thus, modern researchers have found great truths and reliable correlations between the figure of Jesus and the occurrences of government within the ancient world.
The Biblical cannon also present more specified elements of correlation, such as Jesus' relationship with John the Baptist. John was a reliable historical figure, whose existence has long been assumed as historically accurate and backed up with sources verifying his locations and actions during and before the time of Jesus. In fact, the beginning of Jesus' ministry was heavily defined by his relationship with John the Baptist. Very little was recorded…
Blackburn, Barry L. "The Miracles of Jesus." Studying the Historical Jesus: Evaluations of the State of Current Research. Eds. Chilton, Bruce & Evans, Craig A. Brill Press. 1998.
Charlesworth, James H. The Historical Jesus: An Essential Guide. Abingdon Press. 2008.
Freyne, Sean. "The Geography, Politics, and Economics of Galilee and the Quest for the Historical Jesus." Studying the Historical Jesus: Evaluations of the State of Current Research. Eds. Chilton, Bruce & Evans, Craig A. Brill Press. 1998.
Josephus, Flavius. Antiquities of the Jews Book XVII. Christian Classics Ethereal Library. 2009. Retrieved 11 Dec 2009 from http://www.ccel.org/j/josephus/works/ant-18.htm
82). While much of his theories are conjecture, it is quite clear from his Appendix, ibliography, and Notes that he has conducted extensive research into Alexander and his life, and bases his theories on this exhaustive research. His theories may be conjecture, but it is clear he bases them on much historical fact, and so, they are easier to believe.
I feel that the author has included enough new information in the book to make it a worthwhile read, even for those who have read other books about Alexander. In addition, it includes so much other history of the time that it would be useful for anyone doing research into this particular historical epoch. Alexander's life is still legendary today, and I think people will get a bigger picture of Alexander the man and what motivated him by reading this book. It was dry and scholarly at times, but it…
Bibliography, and Notes that he has conducted extensive research into Alexander and his life, and bases his theories on this exhaustive research. His theories may be conjecture, but it is clear he bases them on much historical fact, and so, they are easier to believe.
I feel that the author has included enough new information in the book to make it a worthwhile read, even for those who have read other books about Alexander. In addition, it includes so much other history of the time that it would be useful for anyone doing research into this particular historical epoch. Alexander's life is still legendary today, and I think people will get a bigger picture of Alexander the man and what motivated him by reading this book. It was dry and scholarly at times, but it had enough good information that it was still worthwhile to read. It was not always easy to read, and it was not the kind of book you could race through to the conclusion. It took some concentration to reach the end, but when I did reach it I felt it had been overall a good reading experience.
In conclusion, yes, I would recommend this book to my friends if they were interested in Alexander's life or military history. I felt some of the book was difficult to wade through, and that it would not hold every reader's interest. However, anyone who is interested in Alexander or that period in history would probably enjoy this book. I would not recommend it if this period did not interest you, or you did not enjoy history topics. The book was heavy enough that it would simply be boring if a person were not interested at all in Alexander or his time. I would not call this book light reading, and I certainly would not keep it on my bedside table, but I would certainly keep it on my bookshelf if I were a serious student of Alexander and this period in history.
Cartledge, P. Alexander the Great: The hunt for a new past. New York: The Overlook Press, 2004.
Soviet Union brought the missiles into Cuba to rile up the American military establishment precisely so that U.S. nuclear missile installations in Turkey and Italy could be brought on the table. Secondly as an ally, Soviet Union was concerned about the fate of Cuba which held a lot of promise for the Communist experiment internationally.
The American leadership understood that what they faced in Cuba was a catch 22 situation. If they failed to act, they would live under threat and shadow of nuclear war. If they carried out a full fledge invasion of Cuba, the Soviet Union would respond by taking over West Berlin thereby severely denting the credibility of the United States of America in the eyes of its European allies. Able master of political chess that Khrushchev was he played the inexperienced but charismatic President Kennedy like a fiddle. There were of course some in the military…
It does not clearly transpire at any point during Plutarch's account what the author's real opinion of Tiberius Gracchus is. The only instance where the author explicitly introduces his view is when he ventures to suggest that the fate of Tiberius may have been different, namely that he might have succeeded in continuing his reforming endeavors, if only his father-in-law had not been elsewhere, waging war against the Numantines, but had been present in Rome in order to support him: "And it is in my opinion that Tiberius would never have met with his great misfortunes if Scipio Africanus had been present in Rome during his political activity" (Plutarch 159). This faint trace of personal imprint is interesting because the readers could infer that Plutarch may be exhibiting a vague form of sympathy at Tiberius's plight, a presumption supported by his subtle suggestion that the politician perhaps just happened to…
Plutarch. Plutarch's Lives. Ed T.E. Page. Trans. B. Perrin. Vol. X. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1959. Print.
Richardson, Keith. Daggers in the Forum: The Revolutionary Lives and Violent Deaths of the Gracchus Brothers. London: Cassell and Company Limited, 1976. Print.
Scullard, H.H. From the Gracchi to Nero: A history of Rom 133 B.C. To a.D. 68. New York: Methuen and Co. Ltd., 1959. Print.
"The Reforms of Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus." Western Civilization: Volume a: To 1500: To 1500. Vol. 1. 2008. Print.
Gandhi Influenced Martin Luther King
Martin Luther King Jr. is a historical figure as he helped to win civic liberties and social equality for the Black Americans during the 1950s and 1960s. His approach towards the struggle was based on nonviolent civil disobedience as opposed to armed struggle. In that, he was inspired by the philosophy of nonviolence used by Gandhi to gain independence for India against the British. Despite belonging to two different cultures and historical periods, there is great fundamental similarity in the philosophies of both the leaders. At the same time, King adopts a more active approach and gives relatively less stress on personal suffering and endurance.
hat King adopted from Gandhi's Philosophy
Gandhi initiated the civil disobedience movement against the British rule in the Indian subcontinent. Since the British had military superiority over the local Indian population, Gandhi devised a novel and effective strategy to highlight…
Center for Compassionate Living. Principles of Nonviolence. Center for Compassionate Living, 2012. Accessed on 25 April 2012.
King, Mary, E. Mahatma Gandhi and Martin Luther King Jr.: The Power of Nonviolent Action UNESCO Publishing. 1999. Print
Nojeim, Michael, J. Gandhi and King: The Power of Nonviolent Resistance Greenwood Publishing. 2004. Print
The King Center. The King Philosophy. The King Center, 2012. Accessed on 25 April 2012.
The film is subdued and takes great care not to hurt sentiments of the white population and also avoids the probable civil unrest that may be caused with the coloured community watching it, if it was to be made in depth. The director has stopped with pointing to the facts rather than explore the possibilities as a film. Therefore there has been no bias except that there was a tighter reign in exploring the issues.
4) - What are the director's visible goals? What did he/she try to do with this movie? What might be his/her thesis?
She probably wanted to highlight the plight of the Haitians and their history and that was sought to be done through their hero -- a person who gave them the constitution and stood up to Napoleon. However the thesis failed because neither was she able to present us the personality of the central…
Documentary. (n. d.) "Egalite for All. Toussaint Louverture and the Haitian Revolution"
Retrieved 12 April, 2013 from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D6F5dXqTCfo
Facebook. (2013) "Facebook" Retrieved 12 April, 2013 from https://www.facebook.com/paste1
IMBD. (2013a) "Egalite for All. Toussaint Louverture and the Haitian Revolution"
Aligheiri Dante's "Inferno" is the first of three books in Dante's classical work "The Divine Comedy." The "Inferno" pursues Dante's journey through Hell on his path to discovering God. He begins at the bottom Hell in sin, and must fight his way to the top through a variety of adventures, where lovely Beatrice awaits him in Paradise. In modern times, Dante's work is still quite applicable, because there are many people who deserve to reside in Hell. Instead of nine circles, today there are three -- High Hell, Middle Hell, and Deepest Hell. High Hell is reserved for those who have sinned, but not critically.
The punishment in High Hell would be similar to Dante's labyrinth, but a great beast would not guard it. Howard Stern would guard it, and his continual and never-ending comments would be audible throughout the labyrinth. There is no exit from this labyrinth, and…
Dante Aligheiri, "The Inferno." The Divine Comedy. Translated and with Commentary by Charles S. Singleton, Princeton University Press, 1980.
courage means words cross threshold. 2. Identify historical figure courage. Explain embodies definition courage. Use specific examples details illustrate point.
The hero: Crossing the threshold
According to the historian of mythology Joseph Campbell, a true hero is a man or woman who 'crosses the threshold' by undertaking a courageous action that enables him or her to be reborn into a new identity. A hero might not seem to be an extraordinary person initially, but through the willingness to reinvent him or herself, he or she is revealed to be a heroic person. This was the case with Franklin Delano Roosevelt. Franklin Delano Roosevelt was born to privilege. He lived a luxurious existence of wealth few Americans could dream of experiencing in Hyde Park, New York. He was descended from a line of prominent figures, the most famous of who was Theodore Roosevelt, the former Republican president. Franklin was educated by…
"Franklin Delano Roosevelt." Biography.com. 2012 [14 Apr 2012]
Many of the writings cited were produced decades after Christ died, and not by men who knew him but by those reacting to the stories they heard. The gospels as well were accounts written by men who did not know Jesus directly, and the desire to promote a religious ideal and to help shape the emerging church makes some of these suspect. Many existing writings and stores were brought together in the form we know today long after Jesus died, as was true of many of the Jewish writings cited by Powell, from the Babylonian Talmud. Much of what is known of the historical Jesus derives from the Epistles in the New Testament, notably the letters written by Paul, who has much to say about the teachings of Jesus as known at that time. These accounts have great value because they were written so early, some two decades before the…
Powell, M.A. (1998). Jesus as a Figure in History. Louisville, Kentucky: Westminster John Knox Press.
Powell, M.A. (1998). Issues in Jesus Research and Scholarship. 20 March 2008. http://www.bibleinterp.com/articles/jesusresearch.htm
Josephine Tey's 1951 novel The Daughter of Time is a mystery novel. Alan Grant is a Scotland Yard inspector who undertakes an ambitious project of solving the mystery of who King Richard III really was and why he had been disparaged by the Crown. Like the lead character in Alfred Hitchcock's movie Rear indow, Alan Grant becomes obsessed with the mystery because his leg is broken and he is off-duty. Grant finds a portrait of King Richard III and muses that the man's visage appears kindly, in stark contrast to Richard's characterization by Shakespeare. Shakespeare in fact called King Richard III "this poisonous bunch-backed toad," "that foul defacer of God's handiwork," and "this carnal cur," (cited by Yardley). As Remick points out, Richard III was viewed as a "wicked uncle and murderer!" Alan Grant takes it upon himself to clear Richard III's image and reputation. The title of Josephine…
Remick, Lynne. "Daughter of Time by Josephine Tey: A Book Review." Retrieved online: http://www.suite101.com/article.cfm/romance_through_the_ages/31254
Tey, Josephine. The Daughter of Time. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1995.
Yardley, Jonathan. Josephine Tey, Sleuthing Into The Mystery of History." The Washington Post. March 12, 2003; Page C01. Retrieved online: http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A13181-2003Mar11.html
El Cid and Medieval History
Medieval Spain was a constant battlefield where Christians and Moors fought constantly. The Moors had invaded Spain in the early stages of the 7th century and remained in control of the area well into what are now known as the Middle Ages. The Moors had begun their campaign in Europe intent upon conquering the entire continent but had been stopped at the Pyrenees by Charles the Hammer. Nevertheless, the Moors remained in Spain for over 700 years and their influence on Spanish culture remains evident to this very day. These influences include the Spanish language and its architecture.
In the course of over 700 years many legends and tails arise both fictional and real. When these legends and tails begin, at least when they are based upon living characters, they tend to accurately reflect the conditions and events as they occurred. As time progresses, however,…
Fletcher, Richard, The Quest for El Cid, Oxford, Oxford University Press (1991)
Heaney, Seamus (translator), Beowulf: A Verse Translation, New York, W.W. Norton & Company, new edition (2002)
Sayers, Dorothy L.(translator), The Song of Roland, New York, Penguin Classics (1957)
Simpson, Lesley B (translator)., The Poem of the Cid, 2nd Ed., Berkeley, University of California Press (2007)
Did the Crusades advance the cause of Christ?
According to a digitized volume originally published in 1864 by Partridge and Company, the Crusades were instigated chiefly by "the most superstitious and fanatical notions"; and these "soldiers of Jesus…carried destruction to those who knew him not. Is this the spirit of Christ or of his holy gospel? Is it not rather the spirit of Mahomet…" whose propaganda was always 'the sword or the Koran" (Meliora, p. 15). Simon de Montfort, the Duke of Burgundy, executed his task "…with relentless cruelty, ravaged the country, burned the houses, massacred all the people, whether Romanists on not" and inflicted the "most revolting indignities…upon the weak and helpless" (Meliora, 15).
Answering the question for this portion of the paper, Meliora states, "To Christianity as a religion the Crusades did much evil" because the Christian Church "…sank more deeply into superstition; the clergy into ignorance; and…
Crawford, Paul F. 2011. Four Myths About the Crusades. The Intercollegiate Review 46
McCannon, John. Barron's AP World History, 2010. Hauppauge, NY: Barron's Educational
Hamilton notes the biographies of Alexander often reflected the backgrounds of authors who wrote about him. For example, Sir William Tarn, a Scottish gentleman of the ritish imperial era, characterized Alexander as a chivalrous Greek gentleman with a missionary zeal to spread Greek civilization. In contrast, Fritz Schachermeyr, a German historian who had experienced the rise and fall of the Nazi Germany, described Alexander as a ruthless and cruel ruler, indulged "in deceit and treachery to gain his ends, as a 'Titanic' figure aiming at the conquest of the world."
oth Tarn and Schachermeyr are among the great modern historians of Alexander but even they could not escape personal biases.
The irony of Hamilton's book is that, although he is at pains in his discussion of the difficulty of writing about Alexander and is critical of biased historians, the book starts with a straightforward admission of a bias. Rejecting the…
Freeman, Philip. Alexander the Great. New York: Simon and Schuster, 2009.
Hamilton, J.R. Alexander the Great. Pittsburg: The University of Pittsburg Press, 1974.
Philip Freeman, Alexander the Great (New York: Simon and Schuster, 2009), p. xxii.
Ibid, p. 323.
Furthermore, the Bible has influenced the evolution of language. I was pleasantly surprised to find that the Old and New Testament are filled with phrases and maxims that have become part of common vernacular, such as "nothing new under the sun" from Ecclesiastics.
One of the overarching themes of this course has been to approach the Bible as a multi-authored collection. Each book possesses unique tones and perspectives that emerge upon close and comparative readings. The collective aspect of the Bible becomes especially clear when reading the Gospels of the New Testament. The alternative perspectives of the life of Jesus of Nazareth sometimes offer contradictory stories and interpretations of his life. Learning about the historical time frame for the Gospels surprised me considerably, as it too often seems that the books of the Bible were written concurrently.
Nothing in particular bothered me about studying the Bible from an academic perspective.…
Second, he must attempt to present good doctrine. Contrary to what some may suggest, these first two goals are not identical -- merely by translating from the page to the screen what the gospels describe happening would not explain the theological significance of the events, as Jesus is rather too busy being executed to have much time to explain his purpose of salvation in those chapters -- this purpose is clarified at other points before and after his death, and must somehow be worked into this narrative without making it overly ahistorical. Finally, in order to function as a film, the film must function on an artistic level and be coherent both to the viewer and within the tradition of Christological art. It would not reflect well on Christ to be presented within the context of a shoddily film -- many people would refrain from belief for no other reason…
So, in some case, leadership does not necessarily link with responsibility for the men, but rather with the relationship with the persons who are led. Napoleon was able to concentrate the energies of his men in a way that served his best interests.
This links with Raymond Carver's story, in the sense that good leadership is also about good communication, about the ability of passing the appropriate message. The main theme of his story is that of communication (or lack of), namely of finding the right words to pass on to the others. The right words are fundamental, because they help connect individuals and fostering this relationship is perhaps the most important part of good leadership.
The most important point in "Cathedral," from a leadership perspective, is when the husband finds himself at a loss of words when trying to describe the cathedral to Robert. He is, throughout the story…
1. O'Brien, Tim (1990). The Things They Carried. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt
2. Carver, Raymond (1983). Cathedral New York: Knopf
3. Chemers M. (1997) An integrative theory of leadership. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers
Also, men oppose her for reasons of jealousy, he stresses, not because they really think that she is acting in an anti-Christian manner. Thus while Socrates Scholasticus himself never even entertained any point-of-view remotely considered heretic, including Gnosticism and Manichaeism as well as Arianism, he never condoned violence and was able to see how personal and political biases could fuel hateful actions masking as 'anti-heretical' actions like the murder of a woman preacher. Although he on a few occasions used the term "evil" is in regards to the Arians, and he gave ample attention to the benefits of the creation of the creed of Nicene, praising its ideals, more often than not Socrates Scholasticus used cool and factual language to describe controversies. Sometimes even the Arians who denied the consubstantiality of the Son with the Father and Trinitarian notions of God are given a chance, through excerpts, to 'speak' their…
Jung and auditory hallucinations
Meyer (2003), in a discussion of Jungian symbolism in the movie, Spider-Man, notes that both masks and voices are essential to the movement of heroic characters through the plotline. Meyer is not, however, a psychologist, nor even an anthropologist; rather, she is a write about communications. Still, her work on Spider-Man tied several of the movie's themes to Jungian thought.
Halifax's work goes farther in bringing Jungian thought into the mainstream of psychological study. His work with shamans and shamanic ritual, important subjects to Jungians, posited aspects of schizophrenia in the initiatory journey of the shaman. Halifax cited Julian Silverman's conclusions in which schizophrenia was characterized as a disorder in which the "individual withdraws form society and the outer world and becomes preoccupied by internal processes with a resulting disintegration of the personality. The symptoms, broadly described, include autism and unreal ideation, disturbed perception and thinking,…
Ardery, Philip. "Ramifications of Julian Jaynes's Theory of Consciousness for Traditional General Semantics." ETC.: A Review of General Semantics 61, no. 1 (2004): 83+. Database online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/ . Internet. Accessed 21 July 2005.
Bemak, Fred, and Lawrence R. Epp. "Transcending the Mind-Body Dichotomy: Schizophrenia Reexamined." Journal of Humanistic Counseling, Education and Development 41, no. 1 (2002): 14+. Database online. Available from Questia,
Over the decades, much research has been devoted to studying leadership traits and the qualities of an effective leader. Some of the approaches to assessing leadership include personality theory, as well as the qualitative approach to leadership research.
In the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, (1988), D.K. Simonton used the personality basis of leadership research that looks at the effectiveness of a leader as a result of particular personality traits. For this study, Simonton carried out an archival analysis of the personalities and personal histories of thirty-nine American presidents, and related that to their perceived effectiveness as Heads of State. An analysis of eight-two separate personality characteristics were ultimately reduced to five general categories; "The interpersonal, charismatic, deliberative, creative, and neurotic styles." (Simonton, 1988).
Simonton makes the point that research into leadership is frequently concerned with the question of whether a great leader is born, or becomes a…
Bryman, A., Stephens, M., & Campo, C. (1996). The importance of context:
Qualitative research and the study of leadership. Leadership Quarterly, 7(3),
Simonton, D.K. (1988). Presidential style: Personality, biography and performance.
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 55(6), 928-936.
However, in the way that it brings Murrow to life and pays tribute to something he did that has likely been forgotten, the film makes a case for redefining what constitutes a good political film. Because the events depicted so clearly mirror events in our own political world and life, yet are done so in a way that grippingly recreates a lost era of the 1950s, a viewer gains the sense of being 'transported' in a way that is the essence of cinema.
The film's theme raises a potentially provoking challenge to our own media obsession -- yes, it is easy to condemn McCarthy now, with the wisdom of hindsight, now that McCarthy has become a synonym for baseless slander and the Soviet Union is defunct. However, after 9/11, another threat to the nation, the Department of Homeland Security engaged in a number of questionable tactics, including surveying the library…
It appeared almost as if the South might win, and many of Lincoln's advisers "said that there was no way to win the war and he might need to compromise on slavery," (Moreton, 2008). However, Lincoln would not budge. It would have certainly been the politically expedient thing to do for Lincoln to surrender and make a compromise that would result in the preservation of the union on the South's terms. Lincoln did not want to preserve the union at the expense of its moral integrity, though. For Lincoln, the emancipation of the slaves was integral to the creation of a "more perfect union." eferring to the tremendous loss of life that the Civil War caused, Lincoln (1863) stated in the Gettysburg Address, "It is for us the living rather to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced." The…
Goodwin, D.K. (2005). Team of Rivals: The Political Genius of Abraham Lincoln. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Lincoln, a. (1863). Gettysburg address. Retrieved online: http://avalon.law.yale.edu/19th_century/gettyb.asp
Moreton, C.L. (2008). 10 Qualities that Made Abraham Lincoln a Great Leader. HRBLR. Retrieved online: http://hr.blr.com/whitepapers/Staffing-Training/Leadership/10-Qualities-that-Made-Abraham-Lincoln-a-Great-Lea
Phillips, D.T. (1992). Lincoln on Leadership. New York: Warner.
"(Schneider, 396) it was certainly Evita's dedication to the poor which promoted her as a cultural icon in the first place. This idea is openly available in her writings, where she emphasizes her view on social justice and her indignation when confronted with social discrimination between the different classes of people: "I have discovered a fundamental feeling in my heart which completely governs my spirit and my life. That feeling is my indignation when confronted with injustice."(Peron)
According to Evita's own confession, her first realization of the idea of social injustice was shocking to her, as she perceived openly the difference between the poor and the rich: "I admit I learned it almost at one blow, and that I learned it though suffering; and I declare that it never seemed to me either logical or natural."(Peron) Evita's confessed natural repulsion towards injustice was perhaps her greatest trait of character and…
Adams, Jerome K. Liberators and Patriots of Latin America. Jefferson: McFarland, 1991
Crassweller, Robert D. Peron and the Enigmas of Argentina. New York W.W. Norton, 1987.
Peron, Eva. "Excerpts from Evita's own story: 'La raz n de mi vida' or 'The Reason for my Life' by Eva Duarte Per n in her own words." http://web.archive.org/web/20030611194904/my.execpc.com/~reva/html7n.htm
The History of Peronism. http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1951evaperon.html
In explaining his theories and conceptions regarding the divine nature, the writer helps us understand what the Thomistic school of thought is. It must be underlined that the Thomistic conceptions reach a very profound philosophical level. Regardless of this the author of the book under review manages to introduce them to the general audience through a language and a manner which make them accessible to everyone. Religious issues such as the revelation, the creation of the world in general and of things in particular are briefly explained in a manner which allows the reader to grasp their fundamental meaning. In addition, the writer makes some notes about the Thomistic virtues, explaining Aquinas' contribution to the development of the religious thought.
It is interesting to notice that McDermott's selection includes figures who come from various backgrounds and environments. From Aquinas we pass to Martin Luther, who, in his opinion is the…
McDermott, G. (2001)The great theologians, A brief guide. Intervarsity Press
" Further, as previously stated, in the Jewish tradition, it is believed that the Messiah (whom Christians believe is Jesus), must be a descendent of David's line.
The New Testament in fact introduces Jesus as the son of David and of Abraham (Mt. 1:1). Further, in the Gospel of Luke, he describes how Mary, the mother of Jesus, was descended from King David through one of his sons, Nathan. This leads contemporary Christians to believe that Jesus is the prophesied messiah, as well as the rightful king of Israel.
It is interesting that Jesus, despite the fact of David's obviously sinful nature, follows him in matters of conduct. Indeed, the reader notes that Christ used the actions of the pre-descent David as justification for his own (Luke 6:1-5) concerning the eating of wheat from the fields on the Sabbath. (McCall, 1999). However, even more interesting than David's use as a…
Aish. Aish.com. Staff. "Jewish History." Web site. 1995. Retrieved on July 8, 2005 http://www.aish.com/literacy/jewishhistory/Crash_Course_in_Jewish_History_Part_19_-_King_Solomon.asp
Alter, R. "The David Story." Chicago, Norton. 1999.
Bible History.com. Staff. "Biblical Archaeology: Tel Dan Stele." Web site. 2005. Retrieved on July 8, 2005 http://www.bible-history.com/archaeology/israel/tel-dan-stele.html
Biran, Aaron and Joseph Naveh, "An Aramaic Stele Fragment from Tel Dan," in Israel Exploration Journal 43 (1993), pg. 81-98