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HIV rates are stabilized, but there are still many at-risk persons. As each generation reaches sexual maturity, they need to continually be educated about the risks of HIV / AIDS in order to curtail the spread of the disease. There has been considerable research as to the best ways for the education system in particular to handle this issue, and this report will synthesize some of those issues. There is no set role in the curriculum for HIV / AIDS education, but perhaps with refinement of the concept in the education profession, that role can be determined.
Kirby, Laris and Rolleri (2007) conducted a meta-analysis of HIV education programs around the world. They found that two-thirds of the programs "significantly improved one or more sexual behaviors." Their study also evaluated the traits of the programs, to determine if there were common traits of successful programs. There 17 such…
Kirby, D, Laris, B., Rolleri, L. (2007). Sex and HIV education programs: Their impact on sexual behaviors of young people throughout the world. Journal of Adolescent Health. Vol. 40 (2007) 206-217.
Kirby, D. (1995). Sex and HIV / AIDS education in schools. British Medical Journal. Vol. 311 (1995) 403.
Thomas, S. & Quinn, S. (1991). Public health then and now. American Journal of Public Health. Vol. 81 (11) 1498-1505
St. Lawrence, J., Jefferson, K., Alleyne, E. & Brasfield, T. (1995). Comparison of education vs. behavioral skills training interventions in lowering sexual HIV-risk behavior of substance-dependent adolescents. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. Vol. 63 (1) 154-157.
A medical condition in which the immune system is destroyed by a virus called as Human Immune Deficiency Virus is known as HIV infection. The loss of immune function deteriorates the ability of the body to fight against various types of pathogenic infections (caused by harmful micro-organisms) (Quinn). The virus attacks the immune cells of the body which are basically the white blood cells (CD4 T cells) due to which the white blood count of the body infected with the virus is reduced to a great extent. Increased reduction of CD4 cells leads to progression of HIV infection to AIDS (Cunningham et al.).
The diagnosis history of HIV dates back to 1981 when a few homosexual individuals in Los Angeles and New York were caught. These individuals represented clinical phenotype of pneumonia (lung infection) and skin cancers. Furthermore, there was a marked reduction of the CD4 cells (white…
Cunningham et al. "Manipulation of Dendritic Cell Function By Viruses." Current opinion in microbiology 13 (2010): 524 -- 529. Web. 27 Jan 2013.
Daar, Eric S. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV Management). MedicineNet.com, 5 March 2012. Web. 27 Jan 2013.
Kwidni, Tidi. New Research Claims Potential Cure for HIV Discovered. Zimeye.org, 18 Jan 2013. Web. 27 Jan 2013.
Moore, Richard D. "Epidemiology of HIV Infection in the United States: Implications for Linkage to Care." Clinical Infection Disease 52 (2011): 205-213. Web. 27 Jan 2013
The primary method used by the program will be an advertising campaign that addresses the need for behavioral change by the delivery of a personal message to the target audience, which has been shown to be highly effective in other areas (Singh, 2010). It will also encourage HIV testing and informed status among sexual partners. It will discourage the sharing of needles among IV drug users. The program will use community resources to target the general population. The success of these initiatives will be measured by the number of cases of new HIV patients by healthcare facilities.
Measurable results will be obtained through tracking of new HIV positive cases. It will not consider those that already have HIV, only the number of new cases reported to the Washington County Health Department by the various required reporting agencies in the area. The success of the program will be measured on an…
Ciantia, F., Orach, S. & Pariyo, G. et al. (2009) HIV prevention conundrum: did the Pope have a case?. Journal of Medicine and the Person 7(2): 347-350. Retrieved July 18, 2010 from http://www.springerlink.com/content/a1916q6q06v414t6/fulltext.html
Gray, R., Serwadda, D., & Kigozi, G. et al. (2006). Uganda's HIV Prevention Success: The Role
of Sexual Behavior Change and the National Response. Commentary on Green et al.
The subjects were adolescents 14-18 years old. They were recruited from schools and health clinics. The subjects completed an in-depth survey and interview at baseline and again 6 months later. The subsequent analyses were limited to adolescents with steady partners who reported sexual activity between the baseline and 6-month follow-up assessment periods (N = 179). At baseline, five-scale measures and a single-item measure were used to assess predictive constructs, and at follow-up, the subjects were asked about their frequency of condom use over various periods of recall. The researchers created multivariate models to control for the confounding influence of pregnancy status. They then found that the findings were remarkably distinct, with evidence that strongly supports the predictive role of perceived barriers toward condom use and peer norms. Based on the measure of sexual communication, the researchers found significance for two of the six assessed outcomes. Alternatively, measures of attitudes toward…
Crosby, R.A., DiClemente, R.J., Wingood, G.M., Salazar, L.F., Harrington, K., Davies, S.L., & Oh, M.K. (2003). Identification of strategies for promoting condom use: a prospective analysis of high-risk African-American female teens. Prevention Science: The Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research 4 (4), 263-70.
Emans, S.J., Brown, R.T., Davis, a., Felice, M., & Hein, K. (1991). Society for Adolescent Medicine Position Paper on Reproductive Health Care for Adolescents. The Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine Vol. 12 (8), 649-61.
Harvey, B., Stuart, J., & Swan, T. (2000). Evaluation of a drama-in-education programme to increase AIDS awareness in South African high schools: a randomized community intervention trial. International Journal of STD & AIDS 11 (2), 105-11.
Morrison-Beedy, D., Nelson, L.E., & Volpe, E. (2006, February 24). HIV Risk Behaviors and Testing in Adolescent Girls: Evidence to Guide Clinical Practice. Pediatric Nursing.
It Takes a Village
Advances in medical treatment follow two paths more or less simultaneously. The first of these is the basic and directed scientific research that is needed to provide the concepts and solutions that may be channeled into particular treatments or cures. The second is equally important in terms of the ways in which medicine is conducted in the current age: The infrastructure to fund medical developments, to guide them through the approval process, and to distribute them to the medical professionals and patients who will be able to use them is a complicated and extremely expensive process. This paper examines the current state and possible future directions of the process of developing a vaccine for AIDS, focusing on the latter of these two pathways while touching on the current state of the science of such a vaccine (Shilts, 1987).
The quest for a vaccine for…
Bentwich, Z., Kalinkovich, A., & Weisman, Z. (1995). Immune activation is a dominant factor in the pathogenesis of African AIDS. Immunology Today 16(4): 187 -- 191.
Cowley, P. (1993, May). Preliminary cost-effectiveness analysis of an AIDS vaccine in Abidjan, Ivory Coast. Health Policy 24(2): 15-53.
Iaccino, E., Schiavone, M., Fiume G., Quinto, I. & Scala, G. (Jul 2008). The aftermath of the Merck's HIV vaccine trial." Retrovirology 5(56).
Harmon, K. (16 November 2009). Renewed hope. Scientific American 302(1): 15 -- 16.
HIV isk Prevention: Educating Minority Adolescents
Fighting HIV / AIDS involves no less than changing our whole sexual culture." Peter Piot, Executive Director of UNAIDS, feels that what is most vital is that preventive education be stressed into young people's behavior. (UNESCO Courier, October 1999). Around half of all new cases of HIV infection in the whole world involve young people between 15 and 24, and in more and more cases, below age 15. Why is this so? Because everybody knows that it is the age when you begin experimenting with sex and change partners most often which compounds the problem because it multiplies the risk of infection. Studies in Kenya and Zambia show that 23% of the girls between 15 and 19 are HIV-positive compared with only three to four percent of boys. Girls are more vulnerable because of two reasons: the female genitals are more susceptible to infection…
AIDS, Messages, Supporting Information." Facts for Life. (Revised Edition 1993). P & LA. 18 Observatory Closer Benson, Wallingford, Oxforshire.
Getting Youth through the AIDS Crisis." (October 1999). Monthly Publication UNESCO: The Courier. UNESCO 31 Francois Benvin.
Boyer, B., C., & Kegels, M., S. (1991). AIDS risk and prevention among adolescents. Social Science Medicine, 33, 11-23.
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus (actually a lentivirus) that eventually causes the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS; World Health Organization [WHO], 2014). There are two subtypes of the HIV virus: HIV -- 1 in HIV -- 2 (the agent in the epidemiological triangle). Both are transmitted to the host (humans) via the exchange of bodily fluids such as by sexual contact, rectal contact, blood, or breast milk (Centers for Disease Control [CDC], 2014). According to the World Health Organization (WHO) the biggest risk factor associated with acquiring HIV is unprotected sex (WHO, 2014). Thus, the environment in the epidemiological triangle consists of these human bodily fluids and incubation period lasts from three to six months (Hiv & Long, 2012).
The WHO reports that 85% of HIV transmission occurs through heterosexual intercourse on a global basis and that the other major modes of transmission of the HIV…
Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. (2014). ANAC website. Retrieved June 12, 2014 from http://www.nursesinaidscare.org/i4a/pages/index.cfm?pageid=3277 .
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2014). HIV. Retrieved on June 12, 2014 from http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/basics .
Hiv, C., & Long, H. (2012). AIDS. Medical Care, 916, 874-7720.
Maurer, F.A., & Smith, C.M. (2012). Community/public health nursing practice: Health for families and populations. St. Louis, MO:Elsevier Health Sciences.
HIV Prevention Among Adolescents in Brooklyn
Intervention studies are an approach to health conditions that is being used globally. For any given community, there can be success with intervention studies, or the intervention studies can be insufficient to decrease the effect of health issues upon the community. One medical condition which has been the subject of intervention studies is HIV. While there have been numerous intervention studies of HIV, their result has been both success and failure. In this report, five intervention studies for HIV are reviewed. From these data, a new method to decrease HIV effects upon adolescents in Brooklyn is proposed.
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retro-virus that can be passed from one human to another via contact with broken skin, eyes, or vaginal and/or anal tissue (HIV Basics). The process of viral growth includes reproduction, during which structural mutations may occur (HIV Basics).…
HIV Basics. (n.d.). Retrieved November 2, 2014, from http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/basics /index.html' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
he depth of the problem can be seen in the results of a survey reported by Booth, Koester, Brewster, and Weibel (1991) which show that over fifty percent of the subjects injected drugs on a daily basis, while 70% shared needles with other addicts. Only 22% used a disinfectant with their needles every time they injected. It was further found that 86% shared a "cooker" with other users, and nearly fifty percent reported injecting in a shooting gallery. hese subjects were not merely dangerous to themselves, either, since 90% reported having sexual relations in the six months prior to the interview, with one-half having had multiple partners. he subjects rarely used condoms (Booth, Koester, Brewster, and Weibel, 1991).
his was the situation after a long effort at public education on the dangers of HIV infection and ways to avoid it. Leukefeld, Battjes, and Amsel (1990) suggest, along with many other…
This was the situation after a long effort at public education on the dangers of HIV infection and ways to avoid it. Leukefeld, Battjes, and Amsel (1990) suggest, along with many other professionals and researchers, that prevention efforts to reduce the risk of AIDS among IV drug users should be a priority considering the high levels of AIDS risk behavior within this population and the fact that the sexual partners of IV drug users are also at risk (Leukefeld, Battjes, and Amsel, 1990). The sharing of needles is the primary risk factor for IV drug users. Lishner and Look (1990) emphasize that this is one of the major means of transmission of the HIV virus into the general population. Education and other programs have thus addressed the matter with the hope of reducing the incidence of high risk behavior, with mixed results. Lishner and Look cite the case of Seattle where liberal laws made acquisition of needles relatively easy, the assumption being that needle sharing would then not be a significant problem.
However, a follow up survey shows that it remains a significant problem that addicts still share needles and that they still fail to sterilize their needles between uses (Lishner & Look, 1990). The spread of HIV to a younger and younger population has also been part of the ongoing spread of the disease, creating new fears about the social devastation the disease would bring. Fears of what HIV means to society as a whole have been present for some time, and analysts have stated that the capacity of the voluntary sector to respond to continuing and new needs will be sorely tested (Jonsen & Stryker, 1993). Higher rates among adolescents will make this even more difficult. The basic methods for prevention were set early. Chitwood, McCoy, and Comerford (1990) examined a number of treatment and prevention modalities and set forth several characteristics they saw as most effective for such programs.
They stated that the most effective intervention strategy would include ethnic? And gender specific interventions; acknowledge the compulsive nature of cocaine; convince IV drug users to sterilize needles and syringes; focus on high-risk sexual behavior; and follow up reinforcement of behavioral changes achieved at initial intervention (Chitwood, McCoy, and Comerford, 1990). Many of these assumptions, while adopted, have not been fully tested for efficacy. Education for the young has become more and more a part of efforts to reduce the incidence of HIV. Education is seen as critical because AIDS is not curable. Many young
HIV Prevention: Adolescents in Brooklyn
Although the risk of HIV / AIDS has been curtailed somewhat with advances in medication and treatment, ultimately prevention of this disease is the best strategy. Youth, particularly minority youths, are most likely to be infected. According to the CDC: "youth aged 13 to 24 accounted for an estimated 26% of all new HIV infections in the United States in 2010. Most new HIV infections among youth occur among gay and bisexual males; there was a 22% increase in estimated new infections in this group from 2008 to 2010. Almost 60% of youth with HIV in the United States do not know they are infected" ("HIV amongst youth," 2014). The proposed intervention would be specifically designed to target this high-risk group in Brooklyn through educational and prevention strategies.
Current interventions to aid this group in Brooklyn include education and prevention for the at-risk population and…
Evans, W. How social marketing works in healthcare. BMJ, 2006, 332 (7551): 1207-1210
Accessed November 2, 2014.
HIV amongst youth. CDC, 2014. Retrieved from:
Background of HIV/AIDS
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pandemic remains a prevalent public health crisis both globally and in the United States. The world statistics estimate for HIV was 37 Million people by 2016 with 1.8 Million new cases reported in 2017. HIV is disproportionately high in Sub-Saharan Africa accounting for 66% of new infections worldwide. The CDC reports that of the 36.9 Million patients, 21.7 Million people are under antiretroviral therapy (ART). CDC estimates 1.1 million people were living with HIV in the US by end of 2016 with 14% of the population unaware that they were living with HIV. The Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates that over 700,000 have succumbed to HIV/AIDS since the recognition of the virus in 1981. US HIV statistics are varied across gender, gender identity, race, and region. While the pandemic is highly prevalent among the young aged 25-34, the HIV statistics are…
CDC. (2019). Basic Statistics | HIV Basics | HIV/AIDS | CDC. Retrieved April 17, 2019, from https://www.cdc.gov/hiv/basics/statistics.html
Cihlar, T., & Fordyce, M. (2016). Current status and prospects of HIV treatment - ScienceDirect. Retrieved April 17, 2019, from https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1879625716300207
Dailey, A., Hoots, B., Hall, I., Song, R., Hayes, D., Fulton, P., … Velleroy, L. (2016). Vital Signs: Human Immunodeficiency Virus Testing and Diagnosis Delays — United States. Retrieved April 17, 2019, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5708685/
Fauci, A., Redfield, R., Sigounas, G., Weahkee, M., & Giroir, B. (2019). Ending the HIV Epidemic: A Plan for the United States. | HIV | JAMA | JAMA Network. Retrieved April 17, 2019, from https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/article-abstract/2724455
Gardner, E., McLees, M., Steiner, J., del Rio, C., & Burman, W. (2010). The spectrum of engagement in HIV care and its relevance to test-and-treat strategies for prevention of HIV infection. - PubMed - NCBI. Retrieved April 17, 2019, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21367734
Hughes, A., Mattson, C., Scheer, S., Beer, L., & Skarbinski, J. (2014). Discontinuation of antiretroviral therapy among adults receiving HIV care in the United States. - PubMed - NCBI. Retrieved April 17, 2019, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24326608
Marcus, J., Chao, C., Leyden, W., XU, L., Quesenberry, C., Klein, D., … Silverberg, M. (2017). Narrowing the Gap in Life Expectancy Between HIV-Infected and HIV-Uninfected Individuals With Access to Care. Retrieved April 17, 2019, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5427712/
Shah, M., Risher, K., Berry, S., & Dowdy, D. (2016). Epidemiologic and Economic Impact of Improving HIV Testing, Linkage, and Retention in Care in the United States | Clinical Infectious Diseases | Oxford Academic. Retrieved April 18, 2019, from https://academic.oup.com/cid/article/62/2/220/2462686
The prevalence of HIV cases in the U.S. might be attributed to increased complacency due to more advanced drug treatment options. However, it is difficult to not understand this complacency, as there are such high-profile cases of people infected with HIV many years ago who still today go on to lead highly-productive lives as though nothing were wrong. Case in point is Magic Johnson, former NBA superstar player, who was diagnosed with HIV more than 20 years ago. Today he is still alive, still in the spotlight, and still working as the managing director of the NBA team the Los Angeles Lakers. His success and apparent health have surely impacted the way HIV and AIDS are perceived in the U.S., especially as so many people in the past were dying from the disease—people like Arthur Ashe, celebrity tennis player who died from HIV contracted from a blood transfusion. Ashe’s story…
Nyembezi, A., Reddy, P., Ruiter, R. A., van den Borne, B., Sifunda, S., & Funani, I. (2016). The application of intervention mapping in developing STI/HIV health education program for traditionally circumcised men in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. European Health Psychologist, 18(1), 22-29.
Tsimonis, G., & Dimitriadis, S. (2014). Brand strategies in social media. Marketing Intelligence & Planning, 32(3), 328-344.
AIDS is a condition brought about by HIV. It results during the advanced stages of an HIV infection when an individual's immune system becomes so weak it can't fend off infections from the body. The body becomes a target of various infections which if left untreated can lead to death of the infected person. No cure has been found to cure AIDS. Nonetheless, with good support and treatment, an infected person can live with HIV for a long time. For a healthy long life after infection, the right treatment should be taken correctly and side effects of treatment addressed promptly.
Basic Facts about AIDS
AIDS is an acronym for acquired immune deficiency syndrome. The syndrome can also be referred to as late-stage HIV or advanced HIV infection. Someone suffering from AIDS may contract several conditions like thrush, TB, cytomegalovirus, toxoplasmosis and pneumonia. An individual's risk of developing some chronic conditions…
HIV Infection and Your Child
It is a very frightening and traumatic to know that one of your children is suffering from a life threatening disease, especially if you feel that you may be partially responsible for what has happened. That is one reason why parents are reminded repeatedly to talk to their children about sex and related matters before they reach an age where they start mingling intimately with the members of the opposite sex. Sex education in schools only covers a small part of the awareness process, the real education begins at home where the parents are responsible for discussing sensitive subjects with their children.
If I find that my daughter was having unprotected sex with multiple partners, and upon screening she is found to be infected with HIV virus, my first reaction would be that of complete shock and disbelief. I would be gripped with intense fear…
However, the extent of discrimination and stigma on a HIV infected HCW is much higher creating severe health, economic and psychosocial consequences for the person. The risk of HIV infection is 100 times lesser than HV infection and by following 'Universal Procedures' it is possible to eliminate chances of an infected HCW from affecting a patient. HIV positive nurses should be permitted to work in safe settings without 'exposure prone procedures' so they can continue to participate in care giving while they are themselves coping with the burden of the disease. This is in line with the globally accepted GIPA principle of encouraging the active participation of HIV patients as an effective means to prevent, control and provide support services for people infected with HIV. While patients' safety should be the foremost issue in the field of health provision, care must be taken not to subject the HIV positive HCWs…
1) Susan J. Westrick, JD, MS, RN, Katherine McCormack Dempski, JD, BSN, RN, (2009),'Essentials of Nursing Law and Ethics', Jones & Bartlett Publishers. Pg. 223-224
2) Kathy Shaw, (Oct 2003), 'Workplace Issues for HIV positive Nurses', Georgia Nursing, available online at, http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3925/is_200308/ai_n9255768/
3) Mahendra, vs. Gilborn, L., Bharat, S., Mudoi, R., Gupta, I., George, B. et
al.(2007). Understanding and measuring AIDS related stigma in health care settings: A developing country perspective, Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/
What they found was that religiosity played a significant role in predicting the level of religious stigma, which led to beliefs that HIV/ADIS might be a curse or punishment from God (Muturi & an, 2010). This leads to the conclusion that faith-based organizations could play an important role in HIV / AIDS prevention and treatment in the community.
Anyone familiar with HIV research is aware of the high correlation between drug using populations and HIV infection, because addicts engage in practices like needle sharing and are more likely to engage in unprotected sex with unknown partners. Therefore, one would expect that HIV prevalence would be higher among African-American women in detoxification than in other groups given that the prevalence is higher in the regular population. What they found was that whites and Hispanics had higher levels of total HIV risk scores and risky injection use scores than African-Americans (Wu et…
Hendree, E.J., Berkman, N.D., Kline, T.L., Ellerson, R.M., Browne, F.A., Poulton, W.,
Wechsberg, W. (2011). Int J. Pediatr: 389285. doi:10.1155/2011/389285
Inungu, J., Lewis, a., Mustafa, Y., Wood, J., O'Brien, S., & Verdun, D. (2011). HIV testing among adolescents and youth in the United States: Update from the 2009 behavioral risk factor surveillance system. Open AIDS J, 5, 80-85. doi:10.2174/1874613601105010080
Muturi, N., & an, S. (2010). HIV / AIDS stigma and religiosity among African-American women. J Health Commun., 15(4), 388-401.
To understand how communities attitude about the disease contributes to the spread of the disease
To determine which measures need to be taken to educate women of color concerning the seriousness of the disease.
The proposed study is to add to the bevy of research which suggests that there are social, medical and communal reasons why women of color are at a greater risk of becoming infected with the AIDS virus. Additionally, the proposed study aims to investigate programs that have successfully decreased the rate at which women of color contract the AIDS virus. The research will also aim to assist practitioners as they attempt to treat women of color and prevent the spread of the disease.
An outline of chapters
Statement of Problem
Prevalence of HIV / AIDS in the African-American Community
Prevalence of HIV / AIDS in the…
http://www.questia.com /PM.qst?a=o&d=5001364647' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
In addition, increased awareness of both testing and treatment options can help to eliminate the stigma associated with HIV and AIDS. Marketing should focus on the normative lifestyle now available to those infected with HIV; the fact that a positive test result is now no longer the death sentence it once was has made the disease less socially abhorrent, and increased testing has shown positive results in the reduction of spread (Pembrey, 2009). Brazil has excellent social programs in place to deal with HIV / AIDS, and public awareness of these programs and their benefit to individuals and society at large is essential in combating the disease in Brazil.
Pembrey, G. (2009). "HIV & AIDS in Brazil." AVET.org. Accessed 17 February 2009. http://www.avert.org/aids-brazil.htm
Plan UK. (2008). "aising awareness of HIV / AIDS in Maranhao, Brazil." Accessed 17 February 2009. http://www.plan-uk.org/wherewework/southamerica/brazil/hivaidsawarenessbrazil/
US AID. (2008). "Brazil." U.S. AID from the American…
Pembrey, G. (2009). "HIV & AIDS in Brazil." AVERT.org. Accessed 17 February 2009. http://www.avert.org/aids-brazil.htm
Plan UK. (2008). "Raising awareness of HIV / AIDS in Maranhao, Brazil." Accessed 17 February 2009. http://www.plan-uk.org/wherewework/southamerica/brazil/hivaidsawarenessbrazil/
US AID. (2008). "Brazil." U.S. AID from the American people: HIV / AIDS." Accessed 17 February 2009. http://www.usaid.gov/our_work/global_health/aids/Countries/lac/brazil.html
-- but Glaxo contends that Cipla violates the companies' patents and international intellectual- property agreements"(Boseley, 2002). In moral defense of its actions, Glaxo's CEO, told shareholders "Some people might see patents as the obstacle to getting medicines to patients in poorer countries. Nothing could be further from the truth....Even in countries where low cost generics are available millions of people are dying every year because they cannot obtain low cost generic treatments for malaria, TB and other common diseases. e should also remember that 95% of the medicines on HO's Essential Drugs List are not covered by patent protection anywhere in the world, let alone in developing countries, many of which have no effective intellectual property laws" (Samson, 2001).
Still, a recent scandal revealing that "nearly $18 million worth of reduced-price HIV drugs intended for impoverished Africans have been intercepted by profiteers and shipped back to Europe to be sold…
Boseley, Sarah (6 Sept. 2002). "Glaxo cuts AIDS drug prices in Africa." The Guardian. Retrieved 20 Jan 2007 at http://www.guardian.co.uk/international/story/0,3604,786919,00.html
Glaxo: Cheap AIDS drugs not enough." (25 May 2001) BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/1351153.stm
HIV Drugs for Africa Diverted to Europe. (3 Oct 2002). Centers for Disease Control.
International News. Retrieved 20 Jan 2007 at http://www.thebody.com/cdc/news_updates_archive/oct3_02/hiv_drugs.html
In other cases, preserving confidentiality or entrusting the doctor with treatment-related decisions may be in the best interest of the patient and his or her family or community. Health care workers should carefully weigh consequences, in light of deontological ethics and institutional regulations.
Health care professionals working with patients with HIV / AIDS must be careful to temper consequentialism with deontology, to balance the psychological needs of the patient for confidentiality and autonomy with the practical needs of public health; or to balance the physical needs of a patient with HIV / AIDS with medical paternalism. Furthermore, discrimination against patients with HIV / AIDS is commonplace and often occurs inadvertently. Health care workers are obliged to confront their own biases regarding HIV / AIDS because to withhold adequate treatment is to violate a series of ethical principles including those based on deontology and on utilitarianism. For example, a health care…
Johnston, Carolyn and Slowther, Anne. "Patient Information and Confidentiality." UK Clinical Ethics Network. Sept 2003. Retrieved Sept 15, 2006 at http://www.ethox.org.uk/Ethics/econfidential.htm
Hamblin, Julie. "People Living with HIV: The Law, Ethics, and Discrimination." UNDP Issue Paper No. 4. Retrieved Sept 15, 2006 at http://www.undp.org/hiv/publications/issues/english/issue04e.htm
Ruddick, William. "Medical Ethics." Encyclopedia of Ethics. Lawrence and Charlotte Becker, Eds. 2nd edition. Garland, 1998. Retrieved Sept 15, 2006 at http://www.nyu.edu/gsas/dept/philo/faculty/ruddick/papers/medethics.html
HIV / AIDS in Practice: When to Start Therapy, a Clinical Context eport
Article from "MedPage Today"
The writer, Mr. Smith, interviewed Dr. Myron Cohen of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill about the treatment of HIV / AIDS. Dr. Cohen says that the guideline from International Antiviral Society and DHSS (Department of Health and Human Services) treatment for HIV need to be started immediately after the diagnosis regardless of the CD4 cell count. HIV treatment involves different steps. First and foremost is for people to have a test for HIV detection. Once it is detected, treatment should be started. HIV and AIDS are two different diseases. HIV can be controlled and a person can lead a normal life. However, there are side effects of HIV treatment as well like it produces elite controllers i.e. patients who will progress towards AIDS slowly or not at all. But despite…
Altman, L.K. (2012, July 30). A World Without AIDS, Still Worlds Away. The NewYork Times.
Beasley, D., & Miles, T. (2012, July 18). AIDS deaths worldwide drop as access to drugs improves. Chicago Tribune.
Smit, M. (2013, January 05). HIV / AIDS in Practice: When to Start Therapy, a Clinical Context Report. MedPage Today.
Although AIDS was first discussed in medical literature in 1981, recent evidence proves the HIV virus existed long before. The first documented infection, based on plasma samples, was from 1959 (Avert).
The three most direct modes of HIV transmission between humans include sex, blood transfusions or needle sharing, and mother to infant. The HIV virus cannot survive long without a host body. Transmission therefore requires fresh bodily fluids and yet HIV cannot be transmitted via mosquitoes.
HIV / AIDS carries an enormous social stigma as psychologically devastating as the disease is physically fatal. Because the first medically chronicled cases of HIV / AIDS were gay men, the disease became synonymous with homosexuality. Homophobia fueled fears of the disease and simultaneously stymied efforts to increase public awareness of its devastating effects on all persons. In sub-Saharan Africa, almost 60% of adults living with AIDS are female.
Avert. Web site retrieved…
Avert. Web site retrieved Nov 18, 2008 at http://www.avert.org/worldstats.htm
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Retrieved Nov 18, 2008 at http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/topics/basic/index.htm
Needless to underline the difficulty of the this challenge.
Another author who is concerned with why the prevention programmes fail in this specific cultural environment is Catherine Campbell. She believes that while external help is fundamental, so is mobilizing the local community is the direction of prevention. Peer education made in informal scenery is believed to be the first necessary step. Another step would imply reaching the target represented by children and teenagers. This means "promoting peer education in a formal school setting" as well. "Mobilizing stakeholders to prevent HIV" is the third measure which she takes into consideration. "In the past few years, some development practitioners and agencies have attempted to acknowledge the complex and contested nature of local communities through the growing popularity of the concept of the "multi-stakeholder community." The recognition that geographical areas are often home to a range of different "stakeholders" represents an important first…
Attwood, G. REFLECT- Learning circles in the Malealea Community Development project
Campbell, C. Letting them die: why HIV / AIDS intervention programmes fail. Google Books. Retrieved October 5, 2010 from http://books.google.it/books?id=xZME3SMJUwcC&printsec=frontcover&dq=catherine+campbell+letting+them+die&source=bl&ots=L2WZ6lJaV2&sig=Le2k1h7d68hGxxDTBo8HM_nisYs&hl=it&ei=iPqtTIvdGczEswbxxv29DQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CBUQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q&f=false
Dunton, C. - Audio
Epstein, H. The invisible cure. Retrieved October 7, 2010 from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VSPk8K5zK3I
It is through education that people can understand that AIDS is a disease like any other and there is no reason to keep it taboo. It is also through education that people must be made to understand the risks which this disease implies. The attitude needed in order to approach this issue is a very rational one. African people, starting with very young children, must be taught that there are diseases which cannot be cured, with chemicals or with herbal medicine from the local doctor and that prevention could spare everyone the dramatic consequences of this phenomenon.
My family lives in the U.S.A. And yet the mentality that they have was one of the factors which contributed most to their contamination and that of their spouses and children. This shows that mentality is a key issue all over the world, not just in Africa. Had my cousin not been ashamed…
Description of HIV; the causes, symptoms, complications, mode of transmission and treatment
HIV is a condition that manifests in the virus attacking the immune system of the victim. When the immune system is weakened, the body does not effectively fight off diseases. The combination of the infection plus the virus that triggers it is referred to as HIV. The immune system heavily relies on the presence of white blood cells to carry out the defence activities. The HIV virus targets and destroys a type of white blood cells referred to as CD4 cells. If the virus destroys a significant number of these cells, the body begins to fail to fight infections. The final stage of infection by HIV is called AIDS. AIDS is an abbreviation for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. People with AIDS suffer ailments that are not commonly experienced by healthy people. They may acquire rare cancers and…
CATIE. (2016). The Social Determinants of Health and Structural Interventions. Retrieved from Canada's source for HIV and hepatitis C information: http://www.catie.ca/en/hiv-canada/introduction
Hariri, S., & McKenna, M. T. (2007). Epidemiology of Human Immunodeficiency Virus in the United States. Clin Microbiol Rev, 20(3), 478 -- 488.
MDH. (2001, March). Public Health Interventions - Applications for Public Health Nursing Practice. Retrieved from Minnesota Department of Health Division of Community Health Services Public Health Nursing Section: http://www.health.state.mn.us/divs/opi/cd/phn/docs/0301wheel_manual.pdf
Morison, L. (2001). The global epidemiology of HIV/AIDS. Br Med Bull, 58(1), 7-18.
com -- only random links to sites that may or may not have a passing reference to HIV. There is no persuasive element whatsoever. True but Little Known Facts, however, attempts to be objective and its bullet by bullet approach has the style of a persuasive site -- but, again, because its points are ridiculous, its "minimum bias" and "objectivity" cannot be relied upon.
The content, on the other hand, of True but Little Known Facts appears to be moderately up-to-date, with sources from 2009, 2005, 2001, 1999, and 1993 -- but the sources themselves are incredible (Fybb R. Magee writes an article whose title, in a mix of French and German, can be roughly translated to mean "AIDS in the women and the man; making a hoax") and the documentation ("works sited" [sic]) is poor ("September2005" [sic]) cannot be trusted. Two copyrights exist (another peculiarity) -- one of them…
Henderson, John R. "True but Little Known Facts about Women and AIDS." Ithaca
College Library. 1996, 2009. Web. 8 June 2011.
Truthaboutaids.com. 2011. Web. 8 June 2011.
The SBOH seems set to proceed with mandatory HIV reporting by name. That alternative is presently used by 30 other states. It is presently used by ashington for the other 52 infectious diseases with mandatory reporting. In that regard, it is an easy option to implement. Moreover, because name reporting is done already with AIDS, there is little room to justify different treatment for HIV than is already being given the full-blown version of the disease. There are concerns about privacy, given that unlike AIDS patients, HIV patients can live for decades. Reporting by name would have implementation issues for doctors and would give Public Health the most accurate and timely information possible to help them combat the spread of the disease. The privacy concerns stem largely from a distrust within the most afflicted communities of authorities, in particular the state government. There is the possibility that a significant portion…
No author. (1997). Mandatory HIV Reporting Gaining Advocates. Hepatitis and AIDS Research Trust. Retrieved July 8, 2008 at http://www.heart-international.net/HEART/Legal/Comp/MandatoryHIVreportinggaining.htm
No author. (no date). Feds Increase Pressure for HIV Reporting. Act Up New York. Retrieved July 8, 2008 at http://www.actupny.org/reports/names-news1.html
Howell, Craig. (1999). Testimony for Oversight Hearings on the D.C. Department of Health. GLAA. Retrieved July 8, 2008 at http://www.glaa.org/archive/1999/namestestimony0223.shtml
Jayraman, Gayatri C., Preiksaitis, Jutta K., and Larke, Bryce. (2003). Mandatory Reporting of HIV Infection and Opt-Out Prenatal Screening for HIV Infection: Effect on Testing Rates. Canadian Medical Association Journal. Retrieved July 8, 2008 at http://www.cmaj.ca/cgi/content/abstract/168/6/679
HIV / AIDS on African-American Community in U.S.
Certain diseases occur more frequently within certain communities or ethnic groups. In part, this can be connected to genetics, heritage, environment, or the habits of a given cultural or ethnic group. This phenomenon is no different with HIV / AIDS, an illness which has been aggravated in the African-American community. HIV stands for the human immunodeficiency virus, a virus which can eventually turn into AIDS, also known as the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. HIV / AIDS is believed to have come from a chimpanzee in West Africa: "They believe that the chimpanzee version of the immunodeficiency virus (called simian immunodeficiency virus, or SIV) most likely was transmitted to humans and mutated into HIV when humans hunted these chimpanzees for meat and came into contact with their infected blood. Studies show that HIV may have jumped from apes to humans as far back as…
Cdc.gov. (2013, May 29). What is HIV? Retrieved from cdc.gov: http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/basics /whatishiv.html' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
AIDS to prevent infection: a bargain?" And is written by Julie Steenhuysen for Reuters and published April 17, 2012. The article begins by describing why AIDS is still a very much-discussed topic within the medical community, despite many breakthroughs, after so many years of being in the news, and so many advances in the technology that treats it. According to the article, one of the most successful treatments in preventing AIDS for healthy individuals is called Truvada, which is a combination of Emtriva, and Viread. (Truvada, 2012) This treatment was created in an effort to create a "pre-exposure prophylaxis" or PrEP. (Steenhuysen, 2012). This treatment would require men who are at high risk of contracting HIV to take a daily pill in order to provide a better defense from this disease.
This treatment may greatly reduce the number of men who contract HIV each year, already at a very high…
Steenhuysen, J. (2012). Abs-cbn news. Retrieved from http://www.abs-cbnnews.com/lifestyle/04/17/12/using-aids-drugs-prevent-infection-bargain
Truvada. "About TRUVADA - TRUVADA." TRUVADA.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Apr. 2012. .
The second session had camera instruction. The third session had each participant given a camera and they were instructed to "(t)ake pictures of the challenges and solution in addressing HIV and AIDS" (Mitchell et al., 2005). The fourth session saw the photos developed and asked small groups to compare and contrast their pictures by creating posters. The authors draw on previous research on photo-voice techniques, as well as memory and photography and self-representation through photography.
In the end, the authors' qualitative research concluded that although many projects use photography to give voice to participants, it is especially significant in the giving a voice to community health workers and teachers in rural South African communities. In these remote areas, the communities do not have to wait for researchers to provide them answers, instead they are able to take action themselves and give a visible face to the HIV and AIDS plight…
Healthy People 2020' initiative (HP2020) greatly emphasizes social health determinants, health inequity factors, and income and educational goals. Further, it adopts a broader perspective of the health effects of natural and manmade environments. The National Prevention and Health Promotion Council, by building on this initiative, offers a new means to implement a government-wide 'health in every policy' approach. Several NPS (National Prevention Strategy) interventions will extend across sectors and departments, influencing various health results (Fielding, Teutsch, & Koh, 2012). Numerous HIV / AIDS-linked clinical characteristics may be attributed to the intense immune deficiency developing among infected individuals. Immune system breakdown by the human immune virus causes opportunistic infection, and greater vulnerability to malignancy and autoimmune diseases. Moreover, there may be HIV-connected disease manifestations; for instance, in the course of the primary ailment surfacing within a few weeks after the individual's first HIV exposure, clinical signs are seen in about half…
Public Infrastructure and the Status of World Health for Hiv / Aids Treatment
The HIV / AIDS epidemic began as a regional problem but gradually became a global public health issue by the closing decade of the 20th century (Powers, 2016). The same forces that have driven globalization are believed to account for this growth in HIV / AIDS cases, and researchers have since termed the epidemic as "a disease of the global system" (Powers, 2016, p. 239). This paper reviews the relevant peer-reviewed literature as well as nongovernmental organizational resources to evaluate the adequacy of the public infrastructure developed in response to this global problem and a discussion concerning the most important needs in shaping and sustaining the infrastructure for dealing with this public health problem. Finally, a series of recommended changes are followed by a summary of the research and important findings concerning the HIV / AIDS global…
The problem with using this approach is that anomalies could occur, which will make the figures incorrect. To avoid these kinds of oversights, descriptive statistics is looking at a wide variety of numbers. This allows researchers to corroborate the underlying trends with one another. (Descriptive Statistics 2006)
Inferential data is when you are trying to determine what the respondents of the sample are thinking by looking beyond the data. This is accomplished by using probability to make judgments about what the data means by: looking at the differences between the control group and the independent variable. Two types of tests that are appropriate include: the t test and analysis of variance. (Inferential Statistics 2006)
To achieve the various objectives of the survey, we include a timeline that will serve as guide in determining the length of the project. elow is a time line that will highlight the extent…
Cross Sectional Study, 2011. Available from: [9 June 2011].
Descriptive Statistics, 2006, Knowledge Base. Available from: [9 June 2011].
HIV / AIDS, 2010, The Kaiser Foundation. Available from: [9 June 2011].
Inferential Statistics, 2006, Knowledge Base. Available from: [9 June 2011].
AIDS in the Workplace," discuss the following:
What are the moral issues in this case?
The first moral obligation Carla has is to the law: it is illegal to discriminate against someone because they have an illness, if that illness does not substantially affect the employee's job performance. In this case, there is no concrete evidence that Tom's rumored illness has affected his abilities as a worker. The second moral obligation Carla has is to the truth. The evidence of Tom having AIDS is based upon second-hand testimony from his ex-wife, and Carla only convinced herself that Tom may have seemed thinner after hearing Frances' comments. Tom's illness does not seem as bad, objectively, as Carla's fears suggest. Carla also has a moral obligation to honor Tom's loyal service and evident qualifications for a promotion.
What ideals, obligations, and consequences must Carla Lombard consider?
Carla Lombard must consider the ideal…
In this regard, Hackl and her colleagues emphasize, "Women who share their HIV or AIDS diagnosis with family or friends risk stigmatization (including reactions of fear, shock, and blame), isolation (as a result of others' fears of casual transmission and the possibility of desertion), and potential loss of self-esteem (lack of confidence and self-blame)" (p. 53).
The alternative to sharing their diagnosis is also not viable: "Keeping the diagnosis of HIV a secret may hinder a woman's ability to develop effective coping strategies and leave her vulnerable to fear, anger, and depression. These problems may worsen as the progression of HIV disease creates significant changes in behavior, attitudes, and physical appearance" (Hackl et al., p. 54). As osenberg emphasizes, though, "Medical experts know that those who get tested and counseled reduce risky sexual behaviors. Treatment also reduces the stigma of AIDS. One of the biggest reasons people don't change their…
Blumberg, S.J., Osborn, M.L., Larry, C. & Olson, L. (2003). The impact of touch-tone data entry on reports of HIV and STD risk behaviors in telephone interviews. The Journal of Sex Research, 40(2), 121.
Hak-Su, K. (2004, March-May). Why we must defeat HIV / AIDS. UN Chronicle, 41(1), 51.
Hackl, K.L., Somlai, a.M., Kelly, J.A. & Kalichman, S.C. (1997). Women living with HIV / AIDS: The dual challenge of being a patient and caregiver. Health and Social Work, 22(1), 53.
HIV / AIDS and women. (2008). U.S. Centers for Disease Control. [Online]. Available: http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/topics/women/index.htm .
Community-level programs can also reach large numbers of young men. Societal homophobia may impede implementing effective prevention programs for gay youth and may discourage young gay men from accessing prevention services.
This stigma has manifested itself in the forms of discrimination and fear of "people living with AIDS" (PLWAs). As a result, the social implications of the disease have been removed from people with other life threatening conditions to PLWAs. Unfortunately, they are not only faced with a terminal illness but also social isolation and constant discrimination throughout society. Various explanations have been suggested as to the underlying causes of these discriminatory stigmas. Many studies point to the relationship the disease has with deviant behavior, while others suggest that fear of contagion is the actual culprit. When examining the existing literature and putting it into societal context, it could lead one to believe that there is no one cause of…
Conduct Unbecoming: Gays and Lesbians in the U.S. Military: Vietnam to the Persian Gulf. New York: St. Martin's, 1993.
Hodgson, I. Culture, meaning and perception: explanatory models and the delivery of HIV care. Abstract MoPeD2772, XIIIth International AIDS Conference, Durban, South Africa, 2000. Available at www.brad.ac.uk/staff/ijhodgson/summaries/Publications/durban2000.htm.
Shilts, Randy. And the Band Played on: Politics, People, and the AIDS Epidemic. New York: St. Martin's, 1987.
UNAIDS (United Nations Joint Programme on HIV / AIDS). 2002. Report on the Global HIV / AIDS Epidemic, 2002. Switzerland: UNAIDS.
A group of researchers write, "To effectively respond to this pandemic, HIV / AIDS must be treated as both an emergency and a long-term developmental issue" (Da Cruz, Da Cruz & Hammers, 2007). First, additional research must be developed to help find an ultimate cure for this disease. This would be the ultimate form of control and eradication, and would eliminate this social problem from the world.
However, this research is costly and takes time. Simply developing drugs that help combat the disease effectively has taken decades, and there is still no cure or preventative for AIDS, other than abstinence. There is an office of AIDS research in the Federal Government that coordinates research and development activities, and there is research under way to help develop an AIDS vaccine to prevent the disease. esearch should be heavily funded, and if federal funds are not available, they should be sought through…
Da Cruz, J.D., Da Cruz, B.K., & Hammers, C. (2007). HIV / AIDS: The pandemic hits the 'sleeping giant'. International Social Science Review, 82(1-2), 55+.
Editors. (2008). AIDS. Retrieved 8 Feb. 2008 from the AIDS.gov Web site: http://www.aids.gov/ .
Editors. (2007). Basic information: AIDS. Retrieved 8 Feb. 2008 from the CDC.gov Web site: http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/topics/basic/#origin
The implications of a successful lawsuit in this instance would have been a great boon; the medical equipment and pharmaceutical industries seem ironically to be unethical and uncaring. While they manufacture goods that can potentially save lives, they base corporate decisions not on the welfare of others but solely on profit. Legislation could prevent unscrupulous business procedures in the future.
3. Manufacturers should indeed be held liable for withholding or failing to market products that could prevent injuries, even if they do hold the exclusive patent rights. Public safety and welfare should trump the pursuit of profit; a balance must be struck between the rights of corporations or individuals to maximize profit and their obligations as citizens to prevent harm. In many ways, withholding the patent of a product like the safety syringe actually causes injury because a piece of information or technology is being deliberately held back. It is…
communicable disease for discussion is HIV. HIV is the precursor to AIDS and is a virus with possible origins within the monkeys and chimp population of Africa. Some humans in certain areas of Africa ate these animals and may have been exposed to the virus where it transformed into aids. Because of HIV's ability to destroy CD4 cells, a particular kind of white blood cell, which plays a big part in aiding the body fight illness, it severely weakens a person's immune system. Eventually, it can progress to AIDS. This happens when an individual's CD4 count goes below 200 or experience complications that define AIDS like tuberculosis.
Transmission of HIV comes from infected semen, blood, or vaginal secretions that must enter a person's body. Ordinary contact does not result in infection like hugging, dancing, or kissing a person with HIV. HIV cannot be transmitted through water, insect bites, or air.…
Aids.gov,. (2015). Presidential Advisory Council on HIV / AIDS. Retrieved 1 April 2015, from https://www.aids.gov/federal-resources/pacha/about-pacha/
Layzell, S., & McCarthy, M. (1993). Specialist or generic community nursing care for HIV / AIDS patients?. J Adv Nurs, 18(4), 531-537. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2648.1993.18040531.x
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)
Description of the communicable disease
Infection by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) has become a global epidemic. It causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). The major causal sources of this communicable disease are through semen, blood, breast milk of infected mothers, and vaginal fluid. In addition, the virus can be found in sweat, saliva, and also tears; however, in the latter cases, generally not in sufficient amounts to cause spreading of the virus to another individual. The main common means of being infected with HIV are through having unprotected sex and through sharing of needles. HIV may be transferred through unprotected heterosexual or homosexual anal, vaginal, and perhaps oral sex. Even though the risk of infection is minimal with oral sex, there remains the same imperative to use protection such as a condom in the course of oral sex. Due to new treatments, the risk of…
Aids.gov. (2015). Global HIV / AIDS Organizations. Retrieved 19 May 2014 from: https://www.aids.gov/federal-resources/around-the-world/global-hiv-aids-organizations/
Body and Health Canada. (2015). HIV / AIDS. Retrieved 19 May 2014 from: http://bodyandhealth.canada.com/channel_condition_info_details.asp?channel_id=1020&relation_id=70907&disease_id=1&page_no=2
Cabieses Valdes, B.B. (2011). The living conditions and health status of international immigrants in Chile: Comparisons among international immigrants, and between them and the Chilean-born.
CDC. (2012). CDC Global Health Strategy 2012 -- 2015. Retrieved 19 May 2014 from: http://www.cdc.gov/globalhealth/strategy/pdf/CDC-GlobalHealthStrategy.pdf
Sex and AIDS: a Study in Contrasts
AIDS is one of the most hotly debated topics of modern times. Whether it is a question of what should be done to help those who have the disease, what may be done to prevent others from contracting it, or of the many moral arguments pro and con regarding the lifestyle or lifestyles that results in its spread, it is definitely a subject that is viewed from many, often widely-differing angles. What one newspaper or magazine can cover as a matter of science, another can describe as a cultural inspiration, or a religious sin. Film, television, radio, and the arts all play their role in constructing what we see as the impact of this dread disease. For the purposes of this paper, we shall take a look at AIDS and how it is depicted in one geographically small urban area: the New York…
Kramer, William. (10 May 1999). "Subway Art Raises AIDS Awareness." The Bronx Beat. New York, NY: Columbia University School of Journalism.
Lombroso, Linda. (4 April 2003) "Review of Homeless to Harvard: The Liz Murray Story © 2003 Lifetime Network." The Journal News. Gannet Co, Inc.: New York.
Meenan, Mick. (14-20 Feb. 2004). "Gay Pols Look to the Bronx." Gay City News, II, 7. Community Media: New York, NY.
Perez-Pena, Richard. (5 Oct. 2003). "New York's Vital Signs." The New York Times. New York, NY: The New York Times Company.
, Marais, C. And Wellbeloved, J.R.
The authors provide a clear image of the challenges faced by transgender individuals in general, and the particular challenges they face within societies that are less open-minded than some Western nations. Even in more liberal and open-minded societies, transgender individuals are frequently misunderstood. They are assumed to be part of the homosexual community by mainstream culture but often do not fit within that population either. Alternatively, they are viewed as recreational fetishists like transvestites who enjoy cross-dressing.
One of the most difficult aspects of life as transgender individual is that many of them are heterosexual but have an undeniable feeling that they are locked into the body of the wrong gender. It is rarely a matter of choice for them, since they typically have felt that way since early childhood. Moreover, in most cases, their compulsion to identify with the physical aspects of their…
Angels in America
ony Kushner's Angels in America won the 1993 Pulitzer Prize for sensitively handling of some serious issues concerning America today. In this paper, we shall only be focusing on the first play Millennium Approaches where the author talks about Reagan era and hostility towards gay movement shown by Reagan administration when AIDS epidemic engulfed the country.
Ronald Reagan administration has been criticized for its hostile attitude towards gay movement and cause. he administration was highly conservative and close-minded and is held largely responsible for generating homophobia in the country. he President himself refused to discuss the issue until 1987 when 20,000 people died in the U.S. due to AIDS epidemic. In such a society, everyone who appeared different was ridiculed, attacked, harassed and hated. Jews, homosexuals, AIDS-infected patients, almost everyone who was not part of the mainstream culture and society is considered non-human. hey are given an…
The fight between mainstream group and 'others' is presented as the fight between 'humans' and angels. The author wonders how humans can win when angels are supposedly more spiritual beings with compassionate souls. Humans are projected as strong unfair elements that seek eradication of angels simply because they are not similar to them. Prior, the protagonist of the play says: "The angel is not human, and it holds nothing back, so how could anyone human win, what kind of a fight is that? It's not just. Losing means your soul thrown down in the dust, your heart torn out from God's. But you can't not lose. (Pp. 49-50) Prior's dialogues signify the pain and suffering of the homosexuals who had an excruciatingly painful experience under the Reagan administration when they were categorized as immoral beings, not worthy of our love, compassion or understanding.
1) Kushner, Tony: Angels in America, Theatre Communications Group (New York) Edition 1993
HIV / AIDS Implication in African Governance
Implications of HIV / AIDS on Botswana's Governance
This dissertation paper is a research study that foresees on the governance structure of African nations, in particular, Botswana. The country has had a declining development on the improvements being instigated in government. This has been attributed to ht increasing rates of HIV / AIDS in the country; more so, it has been rated top among nations with the highest rate of HIV / AIDS infection. This paper raises concerns being implicated on in the social and economic aspects of Botswana government structure and Africa in general. The future is also prospected with a close analysis on the disease's trend in the country, and the importance of reducing the rate of infection for the betterment of governance.
Impact of HIV / AIDS on Botswana's Governance
Governance is the act of utilizing institutional resources in…
Adepoju, A., Naerssen, A. L & Zoomers, E.B. 2008. International migration and national development in Sub-Saharan Africa. New York: BRILL.
Bell, C., Shantayanan, D & Hans, G. 2003. The long-run economic costs of AIDS: Theory and an application to Southern Africa. Heidelberg: Heidelberg University.
Deacon, H., Stepheny, I & Prosalendis, S. 2005. Understanding HIV / AIDS stigma: a theoretical and methodological analysis. Chicago: HSRC Press.
EPub. 2002. Botswana: Selected Issues and Statistical Appendix. New York: International Monetary Fund.
AIDS and Politics in African
Aside from Malaria and other life threatening diseases, AIDS constitutes one of the major concerns within the African continent. One of the reasons behind this concern is the fact that HIV / AIDS is responsible for causing many deaths in this part of the world. ith close to 70% of people living with HIV / AIDS in the entire globe coming from Africa, the magnitude of the problem in the continent cannot be overemphasized (UNAIDS 1). Political participation in matters as serious as this cannot go without being noticed. Politics in Africa is part of the HIV / AIDS epidermis and plays a role not only in the prevention of the diseases but also in its causes among other dynamics. The politics of Aids however is not limited to government and political entities and neither does it emanate from Africa alone. The participation of such…
Akukwe, Chinua, HIV / AIDS in Africa: Politics, Policies, Programs and Logistics, Atlanta, GA: the Perspective, 2003
Cook, Nicholas, AIDS in Africa, Congressional Research Service, 2008, Accessed April 30, 2012, http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/row/RL33584.pdf
Fassin, Didier & Schneider, Helen, the Politics of AIDS in South Africa: Beyond the Controversies, South Africa: BMJ Publishing Group, 2003
Goliber Thomas, Africa's Political Response to HIV / AIDS, Washington D.C: Population Reference Bureau, 2012
The young people of our species love to try new things. Being a teen or young adult means living in a world of endless possibilities. During high school and college, people try a variety of new experiences covering every possible facet of life. They will probably drink for the first time during this period, will probably become sexually active, and many will experiment at least once or twice with drugs. Fifty years ago, parents worried about these things on moral grounds. Today, both the young people and their parents must worry because these common experiences can kill: they can lead, directly or indirectly, to the acquisition of the AIDS virus.
AIDS presents American youth with a particularly cruel paradox: the very factors that encourage young people to try new experiences, learn new things and become the masters of their lives makes AIDS-risky behavior more attractive. Being a teen or…
ADS in South Africa
Those of us living in the United States became used to the face of ADS a generation ago. We learned to recognize the particular gauntness that characterized those who had been struck by it, and who would soon be taken away by it. And then, after years of people dying from this disease, we learned that people who had this terrible disease could be healed; not cured, for they still contained the viruses within their bodies, but they could live lives that were happy and meaningful - and long. The terror of ADS subsided, becoming one of only many of the perils of modern life rather than one of the predominant ones.
But the trajectory of ADS in South Africa (as well as in other parts of the developing world, has been very different. Even in the first years of the disease the manifestations of it…
In already unstable societies, this cocktail of disasters is a sure recipe for more conflict. And conflict, in turn, provides fertile ground for further infections (http://www.nkosi.iafrica.com/aids_sa/).
AIDS is both the enemy in South Africa and a potential aid to other enemies. One of the reasons that AIDS has been successfully fought in the United States and Europe is the wealth of these nations; this has certainly been their primary advantage. But they have also benefited in the fight against AIDS from a high degree of social stability; public health measures can only be effective when used in a stable society.
One of the terrible ironies of AIDS in South Africa is that the nation does not have strong enough social structures to allow (at least so far) for the necessary public health measures to be taken. And as AIDS takes a greater and greater toll, the necessary social structures will only become weaker and weaker.
HIV in the Older Population
It has come to the attention of the medical community that enough is not being done to help the older population of HIV-infected individuals. This population makes up 1/4th of the total population of persons infected with HIV (CDC, 2016). In order to protect this population and to help to mitigate the risk of spreading HIV, there are a number of steps recommended to Congress that Congress can implement as part of a national policy to address the issue facing the older HIV population.
These steps are the following:
Establish more HIV clinics in inner city neighborhoods
Address housing, medical care, educational and financial assistance issues related to older populations needs
Set up a special fund that can be used to provide financial assistance for older HIV-infected adults
Support the medical community with direct grants and subsidies that go to providing free counseling…
AIDS. (2015). Newly diagnosed: Older Adults. Aids.gov. Retrieved from https://www.aids.gov/hiv-aids-basics/just-diagnosed-with-hiv-aids/overview/aging-population/
CDC. (2016). HIV Among People Aged 50 and Over. CDC.gov. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/group/age/olderamericans/index.html
Population Reference Bureau. (2009). HIV / AIDS and Older Adults in the United States.
PBR, 18: 1-6. Retrieved from http://www.prb.org/pdf09/TodaysResearchAging18.pdf
AIDS on South African Development
Today, the chromium, platinum, gold and diamond mining sectors provide the largest percentage of export revenues for South Africa. One of the inevitable consequences of these natural resource extraction industries is the proliferation of mining camps that house the migrant domestic and foreign workers from neighboring countries that support the industry. Although conditions vary, most mining camps are squalid affairs that lack running water, electricity or the other basic amenities of modern life that most people take for granted. These harsh living conditions, combined with the loneliness that results from being forced to spend long periods of time away from family and friends, create an ideal environment for the spread of communicable diseases, especially human immunodeficiency virus / acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV / AIDS). This paper provides a review of the related primary and secondary literature concerning mining camps and their role in the spread…
Boe, Hans-Petter and Crush, Jonathan. HIV / AIDS, Population Mobility and Migration in Southern Africa: Defining a Research and Policy Agenda. Pretoria: Regional HIV / AIDS
Programme for Southern Africa of the Netherlands' Embassy in Pretoria, 2005.
Lurie, M. et al. (1999). "Circular Migration and Sexual Networking in Rural KwaZulu-Natal:
Implications for the Spread of HIV and Other Sexually Transmitted Diseases." Health
Origin of HIV
The mystery of HIV and its origins is one that cannot be easily solved. In the thirty-odd years which have passed since the official recognition of AIDS by the CDC and the subsequent search for its cause, various theories have been floated regarding its nature, its development, its ability to adapt, our ability to combat it, and -- most importantly for some -- its origin. How did the virus come into being? Viruses are known for altering over time and according to circumstances. They have a way of "bending" in order to make due -- of manipulating themselves in such a way so as to survive. This is no less true for HIV than for influenza. Just as variants of influenza appear each year to wreak havoc on the human population, variant-strains of HIV continue to be discovered, suggesting that the virus is still developing, still finding…
Apetrei, C., et al. (2005) 'Molecular epidemiology of simian immunodeficiency virus
SIVsm in U.S. primate centers unravels the origin of SIVmac and SIVstm', J Virol, 79(14):8991-9005.
Clavel, F., et al. (1986) 'Isolation of a new human retrovirus from West African patients
with AIDS', Science, 233(4761):343-346.
Communicable Disease - HIV
Since its discovery as a wasting disease, "gay-related immune deficiency" and "slim" in the mid-1980's, HIV has posed a significant health problem for the United States and the World. Initially considered mysteriously devastating, HIV ultimately caused the deaths of hundreds of thousands, yet failed to attract sufficient funding and attention. hrough the efforts of health professionals and activists, HIV was finally accorded the funding and attention it deserved. oday, HIV is addressed globally, federally and locally through multiple well-funded programs/groups and agencies.
History of HIV
According to the AIDS Healthcare Foundation, blood analysis showed that the HIV virus existed in humans as early as the 1940's and that HIV-1 -- the most common viral strain -- was transmitted from chimpanzees to humans at some point in the early to mid-20th Century (AIDS Healthcare Foundation, n.d.). In the early 1980's medical professionals noticed that a "wasting disease"…
The nurse's role in education about and prevention of HIV stems from his/her core value of becoming a knowledgeable, effective advocate for the highest attainable quality of patient care. This core value requires several key activities by nurses, presented here numerically but in equal order of importance. First, the nurse must become educated about HIV-related issues (Association of Nurses in AIDS Care, 2012). Secondly, the nurse must make his/her voice heard. Nurses can make their voices nationally and regionally heard by: joining professional organizations that exert greater impact on the response to HIV / AIDS issues (Association of Nurses in AIDS Care, 2012); contacting public officials (Association of Nurses in AIDS Care, 2012); calling media attention to HIV / AIDS to the epidemic and in pressuring for a more aggressive governmental response (Association of Nurses in AIDS Care, 2010, p. 4); taking a clear-cut stance on effective education and prevention (Association of Nurses in Aids Care, 2012). Nurses can make their voices locally and specifically heard by: participating in community programs, organizations and support groups dedicated to education, prevention and high quality treatment. In their professional lives, nurses can contributed to prevention by educating patients about the causes, prevention, treatment and day-to-day aspects of living with of HIV / AIDS. Some use a widespread approach, such as published materials like What nurses know…HIV and AIDS (Farnan & Enriquez, 2012); others directly address those issues with their individual patients, such as forming an alliance with the patient to enhance adherence to treatment (Association of Nurses in AIDS Care, 2010, p. 47).
Community Programs / Organizations / Support Groups
As HIV / AIDS awareness increased, the numbers of community programs, organizations and support groups also increased. Given San Francisco's large at-risk gay/bisexual male population, for example, there are several key programs, organization and support groups. There is, of course, the San
Social Context of HIV and AIDS in Africa
The government of Africa has been moving toward criminalization of HIV transmission in its attempts to respond to the rising numbers of HIV infections however, those who advocate for human rights are concerned that these laws result in a violation of the rights of individuals living with HIV and ultimately resulting in the marginalization of these individuals. As well, it has been argued that laws criminalizing transmission of AIDS are counterproductive to the reason for their creation, which is that of slowing the rate of transmission and infection of HIV. There are arguments both for and against criminalization of HIV transmission that are valid and worthy of consideration.
The question addressed in this research study is one asking if criminalization of HIV transmission is a valid option to slowing the rate of infection among the population.
Significance of the Study…
The Criminalization of HIV (nd) UNFPA, Worldaids Campaign, IPPF, and GYCA,
Bernard EJ: (2008) Criminal HIV Transmission. 2008 in: HIV is a Virus, Not a Crime: Ten Reasons Against Criminal Statutes and Criminal Prosecutions. Journal of the International AIDS Society. Dec 2008.
UNFPA Fact Sheet (2008) 'The Criminalisation of HIV' in: HIV is a Virus, Not a Crime: Ten Reasons Against Criminal Statutes and Criminal Prosecutions. Journal of the International AIDS Society. Dec 2008.
Bernard EJ (2008) Criminal HIV Transmission. Neue Zurcher Zeitung 2008 in: HIV is a Virus, Not a Crime: Ten Reasons Against Criminal Statutes and Criminal Prosecutions. Journal of the International AIDS Society. Dec 2008.
Collaborative Learning Community on Issues elated to HIV / AIDS
Culture refers to a complex set of material, intellectual, spiritual and emotional characteristics that define a social group or a society. It comprises of fundamental rights, ways of life, traditional beliefs, and value systems in society. Some cultural beliefs, practices, and norms related to sexuality contribute to the spread and increased risk of HIV acquisition. Cultural beliefs such as negative attitudes towards the use of protective mechanisms such as condoms as well discussing its use among societies is one among the contributing factors. For example, men in some communities do not prefer using condoms because they consider flesh-flesh sex with masculinity and promotion of health.
Practices such as the male circumcision influence the risk of HIV disease. Studies show that the social practice significantly reduces the risks of HIV disease among them male during penile vaginal sex. Social practices embedded…
Hall, J.C., Hall, B.J., & Cockerell, C.J. (2011). HIV / AIDS in the post-HAART era: Manifestations, treatment, and epidemiology. Shelton, CT: People's Medical Pub. House- USA.
Jenkins, C.L. & Robalino, D.A. (2003). HIV / AIDS in the Middle East and North Africa: The costs of inaction. Washington, DC: World Bank
Stolley, K.S., & Glass, J.E. (2009). HIV / AIDS. Santa Barbara, Calif: Greenwood Press
World Bank (2001). HIV / AIDS in the Caribbean: Issues and options. Washington, DC: World Bank
Children with AIDS
The Centers for Disease Control estimate there were 217 children with HIV below the age of 13, in 2010 in the 46 states. The report indicates that seventy-five percent of these were infected prenatal. By the end of 2009, approximately 10,834 people diagnosed with HIV at the age of 13 and below, were living with confidential, long-term name-based HIV reporting. Of the prenatal infections, 63% were from the African/Black community, 22% were Latino/Hispanics, and 13% were whites. The CDC estimates that the number of new children infected will increase by 30%. This is because the number of women giving birth in the U.S., with HIV increase at a rate of 30% in 2006. New York has the highest number of children with AIDS in any area of the U.S., as half of the children diagnosed with HIV / AIDS in the country reside in the…
Holmes, A.M., Ackerman, R.D., Zillich, A.J., Katz, B.P., Downs, S.M., & Inui, T.S. (2008). The Net Fiscal Impact of a Chronic Disease Management Program: Indiana Medicaid. Health Affairs, 27(3), 855-864.
Peters, V.B., M.D., Liu, K., Robinson, L., Dominguez, Kenneth L, M.D., M.P.H., Abrams, E.J., M.D., Gill, B.S., PhD., & Thomas, P.A., M.D. (2008). Trends in perinatal HIV prevention in New York City, 1994-2003. American Journal of Public Health, 98(10), 1857-64.
Schackman, B.R., Gebo, K.A., Walensky, R.P., Losina, E., Muccio, T., Sax, P.E., Weinstein, M.C., Seage, G.R. III, Moore, R.D., & Freedberg, K.A. (2006). The lifetime cost of current human immunodeficiency virus care in the United States. Medical Care, 44(11), 990-997.
" (International Conference on Population and Development ICPD) (ibid)
However the meaning of reproductive right extends into other areas. For example, this includes the right to non-discrimination based on sex/gender and the right to privacy as well as the right to information. The issue of the reproductive rights for women becomes problematic and often fraught with controversy when it is applied to those infected with the HIV virus. This dilemma has far-reaching implications for the millions of women with HIV throughout the world.
3.2. Different perspectives
The different views on the subject of reproductive rights range from the more conservative view that all reproductive rights should be denied in Women with HIV to more perceptive views that links the denial of reproductive rights to other human rights issues. For example, one view from a survey conducted by the International Community of Women Living with HIV / AIDS (ICW) states that,…
Albury, R.M. (1999). Beyond the Slogans. St. Leonards, N.S.W.: Allen & Unwin.
Almond, B., & Ulanowsky, C. (1990). HIV and Pregnancy. The Hastings Center Report, 20(2), 16+. Retrieved June 15, 2005, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com .
Amaro, H., & Raj, a. (2000). On the Margin: Power and Women's HIV Risk Reduction Strategies. 723. Retrieved June 15, 2005, from Questia database,
Women and AIDS in New York City:
Hidden Cases, Hidden Problems
Ask most people what group of people you think of when you think of AIDS, and most people will name gay men. While it's undeniable that the AIDS epidemic was first noticed among gay men, AIDS has become an equal opportunity illness, and currently women represent the fastest growing sector of people with HIV / AIDS in the United States. This fact is true in New York City as well.
The growth in the rate of HIV / AIDS among women in New York City is a growing concern for a variety of reasons. Worse than the increase in infection among women is the death rate. Although overall, the death rate from AIDS has dropped significantly, the death rate for women with AIDS is significantly higher than that of men.
How widespread is the problem?
A look at recent…
Author not available. Fall, 1998. "The Children Left Behind. Harvard AIDS Institute. Accessed via the Internet 10/13/02. http://www.hsph.harvard.edu/hai
Author not available. "It Helps To Know." Brooklyn AIDS Task Force, Inc. Accessed via the Internet 10/13/02. http://www.batf.net/ .
Cadman, Jill. Spring 1998. "Strategies for Interrupting Mother-to-Child Transmission." CRIA Update: Vol. 7, No. 2. Accessed via the Internet 10/13/02. http://www.criany.org/treatment/treatment_edu_springupdate1998.html
Center for Disease Control. "CDC: National Center for HIV, STD and TB Prevention." Divisions of HIV / AIDS Prevention." Accessed via the Internet 10/13/02. http://www.cdcnpin.org/topic/stats.htm .
African-Americans and AID Risk
The increased incidence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immunodeficiency yndrome (AID) among the African-American population is an alarming issue. 35% - more than one third - of all cases reported in the United tates and 43% of newly reported AID cases are among African-Americans, even though this population only comprises 12% of the American population (PR Newswire, 1998). Among all new AID cases reported by women, African-American Women account for 60%, and African-American men comprise 39% of all new cases among men. This latter rate is six times the rate of reported AID cases by white men (PR Newswire, 1998). Overall, African-Americans have the highest transmission rates of HIV in the United tates (Adimora & choenbach, 2002), and AID is the leading cause of death of African-Americans between the ages of 25 and 44 (Hodge, 2001). What are the factors underlying these distressing statistics,…
Sanders-Phillips, K. "Factors Influencing HIV / AIDS in Women of Color." Public Health Reports 117.1 (2002): S151-6.
Sterk, C.E. "The Health Intervention Project: HIV Risk Reduction Among African-American Women Drug Users." Public Health Reports 117.1 (May - June 2002): S88-95.
Stoskopf, C.H., Richter, D.L., Kim Y.K. "Factors Affecting Health Status in African-Americans Living With HIV / AIDS." AIDS Patient Care and STDS 15.6 (June 2001): 331-8.
prevent AIDS in the Gay community
In all culture sex among men is present. The receptive companion is at the risk of carrying a HIV transmission if involved in anal sex and when unshielded. In some parts of the world the HIV transmission is mainly because of the sex among men, while in some other areas other ways of transmission is also possible. But almost everywhere sex amongst men is the major and regular cause for this spate. It should not be overlooked. These sex-actions are done only by option. The occurrence of sex between male-to-male is frequent in the establishments in which male are forced to spend longer periods in full male company like the military, prisons and men-only educational organizations. Antagonism and misunderstandings about sex among men have lead to insufficient protection procedures in many countries.
Defective and lack of epidemiological facts is the barrier for HIV deterrence…
Altman, Lawrence K. "Many Gay Men in U.S. Unaware They Have H.I.V., Study Finds" The New York Times, July 7, 2002, A7
Carrns, Ann "HIV Study Shows 44% Infection Rate for Young Gay Men." Wall Street journal 1January2001:B2.
Coyle, Adrian. "Lesbian and Gay Psychology; New Perspectives." Oxford, UK. Maiden, MA, Bps Blackwell, 2002, p.23
Diaz, Johnny. Study: "Young gays lax about safe sex" Miami Herald - Sunday, June 10, 2001,p6
The weaker segments in Africa, women and children, were and are the worst hit by HIV / AIDS, which then is spread to the families and communities. (Bage 2004)
Dealing with this is a great scientific, social, and moral challenge that every organization and country, especially developed countries must rise up to. It is time to mobilize resources and contribute to make changes in the policies so that we at the United Nations can do something worthwhile to combat Africa's problem with this disease. There were commercial interests earlier that would not allow the developed nations to provide subsidized medicine. For instance the United States, there was a stance that there could be no recognition of the problem and a denial of need. This was followed by a policy that placed the solving of the problem on the affected countries. Until George W. Bush, the United States and many developed…
Bage, Lennart. 2004. HIV / AIDS in Africa: Shifting the Horizons of Development. UN
Chronicle, vol. 41, no. 3. September-November, pp: 49-54.
DeConde, Alexander. 1963. A History of American Foreign Policy. Charles Scribner's
Sons: New York.
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Explain how HIV infects CD4+ cells?
The HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) is the virus which belongs to a group of viruses known as the retroviruses. HIV causes in AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) by infecting the cells of the human and uses up all the energy inside the cells which is required for the growth and development of human cells. AIDS is a fatal disease in which the immunity system of the human body is destroyed due to which the body becomes vulnerable to various infections and also the weakness of the body's immune system also allows other diseases to attack the body. Once a person is infected with HIV, this virus feeds on the energy present in the cells and multiplies in the white blood cells. White blood cells are the ones which build up the immune system and when they are weakened by the HIV…
McClatchey, Kenneth D (2002). Clinical Laboratory Medicine. 2nd. Edition. Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins.
Rose, Hamilton (2002). Manual of Clinical Immunology. 6th. Edition, ASM, 2002.
Whiteside, Alan (2008). HIV / AIDS: A Very Short Introduction. Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA; 1st edition. ISBN-10: 0192806920.