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A person infected with HIV is able to transmit the virus to others at any time, as it is impossible to totally rid the body of the virus. There is currently no cure for HIV. Drugs used to treat HIV may be able to decrease the number of the virus by 99.9%, but they are unable to get rid of it completely. Even though it is less likely, with a low number of the virus it is still possible to transmit HIV to others. For this reason, those already infected with HIV should take measures to prevent spreading the disease to others (Bartlett and Finkbeiner 3).
Individuals infected with HIV should follow all prevention measures listed above. These individuals should also notify anyone they may have exposed to HIV. This way, anyone who may have been exposed to HIV can get tested for it. Notifying those who may have been…
Bartlett, John G., and Ann K. Finkbeiner. The Guide to Living with HIV Infection. 5th ed. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2001.
Campos-Outcalt, Doug. "HIV Prevention Enters a New Era." Journal of Family Practice July 2004: 563-565.
Gibney, Laura, Ralph J. DiClemente, and Sten H. Vermund. Preventing HIV in Developing Countries. New York: Plenum Press, 2003.
U.S. Centers for Disease Control. "What Does Loving Responsibly Mean? http://www.prevent-hiv.com/6 Dec. 2004
Typically, culture is defined as a unique way of life that is both shared and developed by a group of people that is passed down from generation to generation and provides a framework that organizes society. While there are differing cultural formations, and these formations depend on a number of complex elements, there are also several similarities that allow a greater "macro" human culture, and various levels of understanding between cultures that share a number of characteristics that make us human. Among these are language, regional differences and adaptions to the environment, religious or spiritual beliefs, and political systems. Indeed, not all cultural groups share all elements of culture; and in larger cultural groups there are also smaller, micro-groups. Individuals may be part of more than one cultural group, and may also separate themselves based on either cultural similarities as well as cultural differences (Ferraro, 2008).…
Ferraro, G. (2008). Cultural Anthropology. Belmont, CA: Thompson Higher
Gudykunst, W.B., ed. (2003). Cross-cultural and Intercultural Communication.
Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Local HIV Prevention
HIV and Government Responsibility
HIV is a public health concern that has existed since the 1970's in the United States (Colorado Department of Public Health, 2010). As in other places in the world, containment and control over the spread of the disease has been a primary concern to both the federal, state, and local governments. In the United States, the trends for prevention and control of the disease have rested primarily on educating the public about the disease, reporting those with the disease through a federal database, testing all donated blood, and emphasizing consistent testing of various at risk groups within the population.
The first area where health officials are preventing the HIV epidemic is through public education. On the state and local levels, schools are required to educate adolescents on the risk of contracting HIV and the common risk factors (Colorado Department of Public Health). Additionally,…
Colorado Department of Public Health. Rules and regulations pertaining to reporting, prevention and control of AIDS, HIV related illness and HIV infection. 14 April 2010.
Herek, Gregory. AIDS and Stigma. American Behavioral Scientist, 42(7), 1106-1116.
Lin, Laura, MBA, JD, and Bryan A. Liang, MD, PhD, JD (2005). HIV and Health Law: Striking the Balance between Legal Mandates and Medical Ethics. American Medical Assocation, 7(10).
Additionally, it should be noted that there was a significant statistical increase in the transmission of HIV when the mother was an illicit drug user.
Though some will believe these suggestions to be inappropriate, they are imperative if HIV is ever to be eradicated. Also, if it is possible to eliminate the transfer of HIV to a child born of an HIV positive mother, then every possible action should be required. It is the requirement which will be offensive to some. However, since this study proves, beyond a doubt, that early detection greatly reduces transmission, all pregnant women should be required to undergo testing for HIV. It is only by doing so, that the safety of the baby can be ensured through the implementation of the three-arm therapy if it turns out that the mother is indeed HIV positive.
Obviously, this mandatory testing will not be effective for those mothers…
Peters, V., Liu, K., Robinson, L, Dominguez, K., Abrams, E., Gill, B., & Thomas, P. (2008).
Trends in perinatal HIV prevention in New York City, 1994-2003. American Journal of Public Health, 98(10), 1857-1864.
To understand how communities attitude about the disease contributes to the spread of the disease
To determine which measures need to be taken to educate women of color concerning the seriousness of the disease.
The proposed study is to add to the bevy of research which suggests that there are social, medical and communal reasons why women of color are at a greater risk of becoming infected with the AIDS virus. Additionally, the proposed study aims to investigate programs that have successfully decreased the rate at which women of color contract the AIDS virus. The research will also aim to assist practitioners as they attempt to treat women of color and prevent the spread of the disease.
An outline of chapters
Statement of Problem
Prevalence of HIV / AIDS in the African-American Community
Prevalence of HIV / AIDS in the…
What they found was that religiosity played a significant role in predicting the level of religious stigma, which led to beliefs that HIV/ADIS might be a curse or punishment from God (Muturi & an, 2010). This leads to the conclusion that faith-based organizations could play an important role in HIV / AIDS prevention and treatment in the community.
Anyone familiar with HIV research is aware of the high correlation between drug using populations and HIV infection, because addicts engage in practices like needle sharing and are more likely to engage in unprotected sex with unknown partners. Therefore, one would expect that HIV prevalence would be higher among African-American women in detoxification than in other groups given that the prevalence is higher in the regular population. What they found was that whites and Hispanics had higher levels of total HIV risk scores and risky injection use scores than African-Americans (Wu et…
Hendree, E.J., Berkman, N.D., Kline, T.L., Ellerson, R.M., Browne, F.A., Poulton, W.,
Wechsberg, W. (2011). Int J. Pediatr: 389285. doi:10.1155/2011/389285
Inungu, J., Lewis, a., Mustafa, Y., Wood, J., O'Brien, S., & Verdun, D. (2011). HIV testing among adolescents and youth in the United States: Update from the 2009 behavioral risk factor surveillance system. Open AIDS J, 5, 80-85. doi:10.2174/1874613601105010080
Muturi, N., & an, S. (2010). HIV / AIDS stigma and religiosity among African-American women. J Health Commun., 15(4), 388-401.
Description of HIV; the causes, symptoms, complications, mode of transmission and treatment
HIV is a condition that manifests in the virus attacking the immune system of the victim. When the immune system is weakened, the body does not effectively fight off diseases. The combination of the infection plus the virus that triggers it is referred to as HIV. The immune system heavily relies on the presence of white blood cells to carry out the defence activities. The HIV virus targets and destroys a type of white blood cells referred to as CD4 cells. If the virus destroys a significant number of these cells, the body begins to fail to fight infections. The final stage of infection by HIV is called AIDS. AIDS is an abbreviation for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. People with AIDS suffer ailments that are not commonly experienced by healthy people. They may acquire rare cancers and…
CATIE. (2016). The Social Determinants of Health and Structural Interventions. Retrieved from Canada's source for HIV and hepatitis C information: http://www.catie.ca/en/hiv-canada/introduction
Hariri, S., & McKenna, M. T. (2007). Epidemiology of Human Immunodeficiency Virus in the United States. Clin Microbiol Rev, 20(3), 478 -- 488.
MDH. (2001, March). Public Health Interventions - Applications for Public Health Nursing Practice. Retrieved from Minnesota Department of Health Division of Community Health Services Public Health Nursing Section: http://www.health.state.mn.us/divs/opi/cd/phn/docs/0301wheel_manual.pdf
Morison, L. (2001). The global epidemiology of HIV/AIDS. Br Med Bull, 58(1), 7-18.
HIV / AIDS on African-American Community in U.S.
Certain diseases occur more frequently within certain communities or ethnic groups. In part, this can be connected to genetics, heritage, environment, or the habits of a given cultural or ethnic group. This phenomenon is no different with HIV / AIDS, an illness which has been aggravated in the African-American community. HIV stands for the human immunodeficiency virus, a virus which can eventually turn into AIDS, also known as the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. HIV / AIDS is believed to have come from a chimpanzee in West Africa: "They believe that the chimpanzee version of the immunodeficiency virus (called simian immunodeficiency virus, or SIV) most likely was transmitted to humans and mutated into HIV when humans hunted these chimpanzees for meat and came into contact with their infected blood. Studies show that HIV may have jumped from apes to humans as far back as…
The second session had camera instruction. The third session had each participant given a camera and they were instructed to "(t)ake pictures of the challenges and solution in addressing HIV and AIDS" (Mitchell et al., 2005). The fourth session saw the photos developed and asked small groups to compare and contrast their pictures by creating posters. The authors draw on previous research on photo-voice techniques, as well as memory and photography and self-representation through photography.
In the end, the authors' qualitative research concluded that although many projects use photography to give voice to participants, it is especially significant in the giving a voice to community health workers and teachers in rural South African communities. In these remote areas, the communities do not have to wait for researchers to provide them answers, instead they are able to take action themselves and give a visible face to the HIV and AIDS plight…
Healthy People 2020' initiative (HP2020) greatly emphasizes social health determinants, health inequity factors, and income and educational goals. Further, it adopts a broader perspective of the health effects of natural and manmade environments. The National Prevention and Health Promotion Council, by building on this initiative, offers a new means to implement a government-wide 'health in every policy' approach. Several NPS (National Prevention Strategy) interventions will extend across sectors and departments, influencing various health results (Fielding, Teutsch, & Koh, 2012). Numerous HIV / AIDS-linked clinical characteristics may be attributed to the intense immune deficiency developing among infected individuals. Immune system breakdown by the human immune virus causes opportunistic infection, and greater vulnerability to malignancy and autoimmune diseases. Moreover, there may be HIV-connected disease manifestations; for instance, in the course of the primary ailment surfacing within a few weeks after the individual's first HIV exposure, clinical signs are seen in about half…
Public Infrastructure and the Status of World Health for Hiv / Aids Treatment
The HIV / AIDS epidemic began as a regional problem but gradually became a global public health issue by the closing decade of the 20th century (Powers, 2016). The same forces that have driven globalization are believed to account for this growth in HIV / AIDS cases, and researchers have since termed the epidemic as "a disease of the global system" (Powers, 2016, p. 239). This paper reviews the relevant peer-reviewed literature as well as nongovernmental organizational resources to evaluate the adequacy of the public infrastructure developed in response to this global problem and a discussion concerning the most important needs in shaping and sustaining the infrastructure for dealing with this public health problem. Finally, a series of recommended changes are followed by a summary of the research and important findings concerning the HIV / AIDS global…
In this regard, Hackl and her colleagues emphasize, "Women who share their HIV or AIDS diagnosis with family or friends risk stigmatization (including reactions of fear, shock, and blame), isolation (as a result of others' fears of casual transmission and the possibility of desertion), and potential loss of self-esteem (lack of confidence and self-blame)" (p. 53).
The alternative to sharing their diagnosis is also not viable: "Keeping the diagnosis of HIV a secret may hinder a woman's ability to develop effective coping strategies and leave her vulnerable to fear, anger, and depression. These problems may worsen as the progression of HIV disease creates significant changes in behavior, attitudes, and physical appearance" (Hackl et al., p. 54). As osenberg emphasizes, though, "Medical experts know that those who get tested and counseled reduce risky sexual behaviors. Treatment also reduces the stigma of AIDS. One of the biggest reasons people don't change their…
Blumberg, S.J., Osborn, M.L., Larry, C. & Olson, L. (2003). The impact of touch-tone data entry on reports of HIV and STD risk behaviors in telephone interviews. The Journal of Sex Research, 40(2), 121.
Hak-Su, K. (2004, March-May). Why we must defeat HIV / AIDS. UN Chronicle, 41(1), 51.
Hackl, K.L., Somlai, a.M., Kelly, J.A. & Kalichman, S.C. (1997). Women living with HIV / AIDS: The dual challenge of being a patient and caregiver. Health and Social Work, 22(1), 53.
HIV / AIDS and women. (2008). U.S. Centers for Disease Control. [Online]. Available: http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/ topics/women/index.htm.
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)
Description of the communicable disease
Infection by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) has become a global epidemic. It causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). The major causal sources of this communicable disease are through semen, blood, breast milk of infected mothers, and vaginal fluid. In addition, the virus can be found in sweat, saliva, and also tears; however, in the latter cases, generally not in sufficient amounts to cause spreading of the virus to another individual. The main common means of being infected with HIV are through having unprotected sex and through sharing of needles. HIV may be transferred through unprotected heterosexual or homosexual anal, vaginal, and perhaps oral sex. Even though the risk of infection is minimal with oral sex, there remains the same imperative to use protection such as a condom in the course of oral sex. Due to new treatments, the risk of…
Aids.gov. (2015). Global HIV / AIDS Organizations. Retrieved 19 May 2014 from: https://www.aids.gov/federal-resources/around-the-world/global-hiv-aids-organizations/
Body and Health Canada. (2015). HIV / AIDS. Retrieved 19 May 2014 from: http://bodyandhealth.canada.com/channel_condition_info_details.asp?channel_id=1020&relation_id=70907&disease_id=1&page_no=2
Cabieses Valdes, B.B. (2011). The living conditions and health status of international immigrants in Chile: Comparisons among international immigrants, and between them and the Chilean-born.
CDC. (2012). CDC Global Health Strategy 2012 -- 2015. Retrieved 19 May 2014 from: http://www.cdc.gov/globalhealth/strategy/pdf/CDC-GlobalHealthStrategy.pdf
AIDS and Politics in African
Aside from Malaria and other life threatening diseases, AIDS constitutes one of the major concerns within the African continent. One of the reasons behind this concern is the fact that HIV / AIDS is responsible for causing many deaths in this part of the world. ith close to 70% of people living with HIV / AIDS in the entire globe coming from Africa, the magnitude of the problem in the continent cannot be overemphasized (UNAIDS 1). Political participation in matters as serious as this cannot go without being noticed. Politics in Africa is part of the HIV / AIDS epidermis and plays a role not only in the prevention of the diseases but also in its causes among other dynamics. The politics of Aids however is not limited to government and political entities and neither does it emanate from Africa alone. The participation of such…
Akukwe, Chinua, HIV / AIDS in Africa: Politics, Policies, Programs and Logistics, Atlanta, GA: the Perspective, 2003
Cook, Nicholas, AIDS in Africa, Congressional Research Service, 2008, Accessed April 30, 2012, http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/row/RL33584.pdf
Fassin, Didier & Schneider, Helen, the Politics of AIDS in South Africa: Beyond the Controversies, South Africa: BMJ Publishing Group, 2003
Goliber Thomas, Africa's Political Response to HIV / AIDS, Washington D.C: Population Reference Bureau, 2012
ADS in South Africa
Those of us living in the United States became used to the face of ADS a generation ago. We learned to recognize the particular gauntness that characterized those who had been struck by it, and who would soon be taken away by it. And then, after years of people dying from this disease, we learned that people who had this terrible disease could be healed; not cured, for they still contained the viruses within their bodies, but they could live lives that were happy and meaningful - and long. The terror of ADS subsided, becoming one of only many of the perils of modern life rather than one of the predominant ones.
But the trajectory of ADS in South Africa (as well as in other parts of the developing world, has been very different. Even in the first years of the disease the manifestations of it…
In already unstable societies, this cocktail of disasters is a sure recipe for more conflict. And conflict, in turn, provides fertile ground for further infections (http://www.nkosi.iafrica.com/aids_sa/).
AIDS is both the enemy in South Africa and a potential aid to other enemies. One of the reasons that AIDS has been successfully fought in the United States and Europe is the wealth of these nations; this has certainly been their primary advantage. But they have also benefited in the fight against AIDS from a high degree of social stability; public health measures can only be effective when used in a stable society.
One of the terrible ironies of AIDS in South Africa is that the nation does not have strong enough social structures to allow (at least so far) for the necessary public health measures to be taken. And as AIDS takes a greater and greater toll, the necessary social structures will only become weaker and weaker.
AIDS is a condition brought about by HIV. It results during the advanced stages of an HIV infection when an individual's immune system becomes so weak it can't fend off infections from the body. The body becomes a target of various infections which if left untreated can lead to death of the infected person. No cure has been found to cure AIDS. Nonetheless, with good support and treatment, an infected person can live with HIV for a long time. For a healthy long life after infection, the right treatment should be taken correctly and side effects of treatment addressed promptly.
Basic Facts about AIDS
AIDS is an acronym for acquired immune deficiency syndrome. The syndrome can also be referred to as late-stage HIV or advanced HIV infection. Someone suffering from AIDS may contract several conditions like thrush, TB, cytomegalovirus, toxoplasmosis and pneumonia. An individual's risk of developing some chronic conditions…
However, the extent of discrimination and stigma on a HIV infected HCW is much higher creating severe health, economic and psychosocial consequences for the person. The risk of HIV infection is 100 times lesser than HV infection and by following 'Universal Procedures' it is possible to eliminate chances of an infected HCW from affecting a patient. HIV positive nurses should be permitted to work in safe settings without 'exposure prone procedures' so they can continue to participate in care giving while they are themselves coping with the burden of the disease. This is in line with the globally accepted GIPA principle of encouraging the active participation of HIV patients as an effective means to prevent, control and provide support services for people infected with HIV. While patients' safety should be the foremost issue in the field of health provision, care must be taken not to subject the HIV positive HCWs…
1) Susan J. Westrick, JD, MS, RN, Katherine McCormack Dempski, JD, BSN, RN, (2009),'Essentials of Nursing Law and Ethics', Jones & Bartlett Publishers. Pg. 223-224
2) Kathy Shaw, (Oct 2003), 'Workplace Issues for HIV positive Nurses', Georgia Nursing, available online at, http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3925/is_200308/ai_n9255768/
3) Mahendra, vs. Gilborn, L., Bharat, S., Mudoi, R., Gupta, I., George, B. et
al.(2007). Understanding and measuring AIDS related stigma in health care settings: A developing country perspective, Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/
In addition, increased awareness of both testing and treatment options can help to eliminate the stigma associated with HIV and AIDS. Marketing should focus on the normative lifestyle now available to those infected with HIV; the fact that a positive test result is now no longer the death sentence it once was has made the disease less socially abhorrent, and increased testing has shown positive results in the reduction of spread (Pembrey, 2009). Brazil has excellent social programs in place to deal with HIV / AIDS, and public awareness of these programs and their benefit to individuals and society at large is essential in combating the disease in Brazil.
Pembrey, G. (2009). "HIV & AIDS in Brazil." AVET.org. Accessed 17 February 2009. http://www.avert.org/aids-brazil.htm
Plan UK. (2008). "aising awareness of HIV / AIDS in Maranhao, Brazil." Accessed 17 February 2009. http://www.plan-uk.org/wherewework/southamerica/brazil/hivaidsawarenessbrazil/
US AID. (2008). "Brazil." U.S. AID from the American…
Pembrey, G. (2009). "HIV & AIDS in Brazil." AVERT.org. Accessed 17 February 2009. http://www.avert.org/aids-brazil.htm
Plan UK. (2008). "Raising awareness of HIV / AIDS in Maranhao, Brazil." Accessed 17 February 2009. http://www.plan-uk.org/wherewework/southamerica/brazil/hivaidsawarenessbrazil/
US AID. (2008). "Brazil." U.S. AID from the American people: HIV / AIDS." Accessed 17 February 2009. http://www.usaid.gov/our_work/global_health/aids/Countries/lac/brazil.html
Needless to underline the difficulty of the this challenge.
Another author who is concerned with why the prevention programmes fail in this specific cultural environment is Catherine Campbell. She believes that while external help is fundamental, so is mobilizing the local community is the direction of prevention. Peer education made in informal scenery is believed to be the first necessary step. Another step would imply reaching the target represented by children and teenagers. This means "promoting peer education in a formal school setting" as well. "Mobilizing stakeholders to prevent HIV" is the third measure which she takes into consideration. "In the past few years, some development practitioners and agencies have attempted to acknowledge the complex and contested nature of local communities through the growing popularity of the concept of the "multi-stakeholder community." The recognition that geographical areas are often home to a range of different "stakeholders" represents an important first…
Attwood, G. REFLECT- Learning circles in the Malealea Community Development project
Campbell, C. Letting them die: why HIV / AIDS intervention programmes fail. Google Books. Retrieved October 5, 2010 from http://books.google.it/books?id=xZME3SMJUwcC&printsec=frontcover&dq=catherine+campbell+letting+them+die&source=bl&ots=L2WZ6lJaV2&sig=Le2k1h7d68hGxxDTBo8HM_nisYs&hl=it&ei=iPqtTIvdGczEswbxxv29DQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CBUQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q&f=false
Dunton, C. - Audio
Epstein, H. The invisible cure. Retrieved October 7, 2010 from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VSPk8K5zK3I
It is through education that people can understand that AIDS is a disease like any other and there is no reason to keep it taboo. It is also through education that people must be made to understand the risks which this disease implies. The attitude needed in order to approach this issue is a very rational one. African people, starting with very young children, must be taught that there are diseases which cannot be cured, with chemicals or with herbal medicine from the local doctor and that prevention could spare everyone the dramatic consequences of this phenomenon.
My family lives in the U.S.A. And yet the mentality that they have was one of the factors which contributed most to their contamination and that of their spouses and children. This shows that mentality is a key issue all over the world, not just in Africa. Had my cousin not been ashamed…
Although AIDS was first discussed in medical literature in 1981, recent evidence proves the HIV virus existed long before. The first documented infection, based on plasma samples, was from 1959 (Avert).
The three most direct modes of HIV transmission between humans include sex, blood transfusions or needle sharing, and mother to infant. The HIV virus cannot survive long without a host body. Transmission therefore requires fresh bodily fluids and yet HIV cannot be transmitted via mosquitoes.
HIV / AIDS carries an enormous social stigma as psychologically devastating as the disease is physically fatal. Because the first medically chronicled cases of HIV / AIDS were gay men, the disease became synonymous with homosexuality. Homophobia fueled fears of the disease and simultaneously stymied efforts to increase public awareness of its devastating effects on all persons. In sub-Saharan Africa, almost 60% of adults living with AIDS are female.
Avert. Web site retrieved…
Avert. Web site retrieved Nov 18, 2008 at http://www.avert.org/worldstats.htm
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Retrieved Nov 18, 2008 at http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/ topics/basic/index.htm
HIV / AIDS in Practice: When to Start Therapy, a Clinical Context eport
Article from "MedPage Today"
The writer, Mr. Smith, interviewed Dr. Myron Cohen of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill about the treatment of HIV / AIDS. Dr. Cohen says that the guideline from International Antiviral Society and DHSS (Department of Health and Human Services) treatment for HIV need to be started immediately after the diagnosis regardless of the CD4 cell count. HIV treatment involves different steps. First and foremost is for people to have a test for HIV detection. Once it is detected, treatment should be started. HIV and AIDS are two different diseases. HIV can be controlled and a person can lead a normal life. However, there are side effects of HIV treatment as well like it produces elite controllers i.e. patients who will progress towards AIDS slowly or not at all. But despite…
Altman, L.K. (2012, July 30). A World Without AIDS, Still Worlds Away. The NewYork Times.
Beasley, D., & Miles, T. (2012, July 18). AIDS deaths worldwide drop as access to drugs improves. Chicago Tribune.
Smit, M. (2013, January 05). HIV / AIDS in Practice: When to Start Therapy, a Clinical Context Report. MedPage Today.
The SBOH seems set to proceed with mandatory HIV reporting by name. That alternative is presently used by 30 other states. It is presently used by ashington for the other 52 infectious diseases with mandatory reporting. In that regard, it is an easy option to implement. Moreover, because name reporting is done already with AIDS, there is little room to justify different treatment for HIV than is already being given the full-blown version of the disease. There are concerns about privacy, given that unlike AIDS patients, HIV patients can live for decades. Reporting by name would have implementation issues for doctors and would give Public Health the most accurate and timely information possible to help them combat the spread of the disease. The privacy concerns stem largely from a distrust within the most afflicted communities of authorities, in particular the state government. There is the possibility that a significant portion…
No author. (1997). Mandatory HIV Reporting Gaining Advocates. Hepatitis and AIDS Research Trust. Retrieved July 8, 2008 at http://www.heart-international.net/HEART/Legal/Comp/MandatoryHIVreportinggaining.htm
No author. (no date). Feds Increase Pressure for HIV Reporting. Act Up New York. Retrieved July 8, 2008 at http://www.actupny.org/reports/names-news1.html
Howell, Craig. (1999). Testimony for Oversight Hearings on the D.C. Department of Health. GLAA. Retrieved July 8, 2008 at http://www.glaa.org/archive/1999/namestestimony0223.shtml
Jayraman, Gayatri C., Preiksaitis, Jutta K., and Larke, Bryce. (2003). Mandatory Reporting of HIV Infection and Opt-Out Prenatal Screening for HIV Infection: Effect on Testing Rates. Canadian Medical Association Journal. Retrieved July 8, 2008 at http://www.cmaj.ca/cgi/content/abstract/168/6/679
Children with AIDS
The Centers for Disease Control estimate there were 217 children with HIV below the age of 13, in 2010 in the 46 states. The report indicates that seventy-five percent of these were infected prenatal. By the end of 2009, approximately 10,834 people diagnosed with HIV at the age of 13 and below, were living with confidential, long-term name-based HIV reporting. Of the prenatal infections, 63% were from the African/Black community, 22% were Latino/Hispanics, and 13% were whites. The CDC estimates that the number of new children infected will increase by 30%. This is because the number of women giving birth in the U.S., with HIV increase at a rate of 30% in 2006. New York has the highest number of children with AIDS in any area of the U.S., as half of the children diagnosed with HIV / AIDS in the country reside in the…
Holmes, A.M., Ackerman, R.D., Zillich, A.J., Katz, B.P., Downs, S.M., & Inui, T.S. (2008). The Net Fiscal Impact of a Chronic Disease Management Program: Indiana Medicaid. Health Affairs, 27(3), 855-864.
Peters, V.B., M.D., Liu, K., Robinson, L., Dominguez, Kenneth L, M.D., M.P.H., Abrams, E.J., M.D., Gill, B.S., PhD., & Thomas, P.A., M.D. (2008). Trends in perinatal HIV prevention in New York City, 1994-2003. American Journal of Public Health, 98(10), 1857-64.
Schackman, B.R., Gebo, K.A., Walensky, R.P., Losina, E., Muccio, T., Sax, P.E., Weinstein, M.C., Seage, G.R. III, Moore, R.D., & Freedberg, K.A. (2006). The lifetime cost of current human immunodeficiency virus care in the United States. Medical Care, 44(11), 990-997.
prevent AIDS in the Gay community
In all culture sex among men is present. The receptive companion is at the risk of carrying a HIV transmission if involved in anal sex and when unshielded. In some parts of the world the HIV transmission is mainly because of the sex among men, while in some other areas other ways of transmission is also possible. But almost everywhere sex amongst men is the major and regular cause for this spate. It should not be overlooked. These sex-actions are done only by option. The occurrence of sex between male-to-male is frequent in the establishments in which male are forced to spend longer periods in full male company like the military, prisons and men-only educational organizations. Antagonism and misunderstandings about sex among men have lead to insufficient protection procedures in many countries.
Defective and lack of epidemiological facts is the barrier for HIV deterrence…
Altman, Lawrence K. "Many Gay Men in U.S. Unaware They Have H.I.V., Study Finds" The New York Times, July 7, 2002, A7
Carrns, Ann "HIV Study Shows 44% Infection Rate for Young Gay Men." Wall Street journal 1January2001:B2.
Coyle, Adrian. "Lesbian and Gay Psychology; New Perspectives." Oxford, UK. Maiden, MA, Bps Blackwell, 2002, p.23
Diaz, Johnny. Study: "Young gays lax about safe sex" Miami Herald - Sunday, June 10, 2001,p6
For the many African-Americans who struggle with poverty, concerns about HIV and AIDS often fall to the bottom of their lists of concerns (Messina, 1994). When feeding their families, paying the rent or taking a sick child to the emergency room are everyday problems, concern about a disease that might be fatal in a decade is unlikely to be a priority.
In African-American communities, childbearing is extremely important. Various researchers have suggested that for African-Americans "who live in poverty, having children is often the only way they have to prove that they are socially productive and to demonstrate their manhood or womanhood (de la Vega, 1990). HIV / AIDS prevention messages that encourage condom use are in direct conflict with this cultural values, as condoms prevent pregnancy.
Denial of the threat of HIV / AIDS is common in African-American communities. Most people assume that they are safe from infection,…
References (March 18, 1998). The Untold Story: AIDS and Black American: A Briefing on the Crisis of AIDS among African-Americans. The Kaiser Family Foundation Survey of African-Americans on HIV / AIDS.
Andriote, John-Manuel. (2005). HIV / AIDS and African-Americans: A 'State of Emergency. Population Reference Bureau.
CDC. (2003) Late vs. early testing of HIV -- 16 sites, United States, 2000-2003. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report: 581-86.
A de la Vega, Ernesto. (March, 1990). Considerations for Reaching the Latino Population With Sexuality and HIV / AIDS Information and Education. SIECUS Report 18 (3), p.3.
Essien et al. (2005). Strategies to prevent HIV transmission among heterosexual African-American men. BMC Public Health: 5: 3.
African-Americans and AID Risk
The increased incidence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immunodeficiency yndrome (AID) among the African-American population is an alarming issue. 35% - more than one third - of all cases reported in the United tates and 43% of newly reported AID cases are among African-Americans, even though this population only comprises 12% of the American population (PR Newswire, 1998). Among all new AID cases reported by women, African-American Women account for 60%, and African-American men comprise 39% of all new cases among men. This latter rate is six times the rate of reported AID cases by white men (PR Newswire, 1998). Overall, African-Americans have the highest transmission rates of HIV in the United tates (Adimora & choenbach, 2002), and AID is the leading cause of death of African-Americans between the ages of 25 and 44 (Hodge, 2001). What are the factors underlying these distressing statistics,…
Sanders-Phillips, K. "Factors Influencing HIV / AIDS in Women of Color." Public Health Reports 117.1 (2002): S151-6.
Sterk, C.E. "The Health Intervention Project: HIV Risk Reduction Among African-American Women Drug Users." Public Health Reports 117.1 (May - June 2002): S88-95.
Stoskopf, C.H., Richter, D.L., Kim Y.K. "Factors Affecting Health Status in African-Americans Living With HIV / AIDS." AIDS Patient Care and STDS 15.6 (June 2001): 331-8.
The colorful and rich culture and heritage should be used to counter such menaces by the community or non-governmental organizations working for the prevention and awareness of AIDS/HIV.
Latino is a large group comprising further sub-categories like Mexican, Mexican-American, Chicano, people born in the U.S. Of Mexican descent that identify as American and other Indian civilizations. Each group cannot be targeted with the same message. These different groups have different social mindsets and have different social status. For example, people born in the U.S. Of Mexican descent will be more aware of the issues and problems related to their health and well being then new immigrants in the country belonging to this community. The migrant people belonging to this community have more pressing needs like housing, food, and employment as compared to Chicanos who are more concerned with political implications. Hence, one message fits all strategy cannot work with…
Borges-Hernandez, Adalisse, Gonzalez-Rodriguez, Rafael a. & Velez-Pastrana, Maria C. 'Family Functioning and Early Onset of Sexual Intercourse in Latino Adolescents.' Adolescence. 40.160 (2005): 777+.
Diaz, Rafael M. 'Macho, Latino HIV+'. The Advocate. 747(November 25, 1997): 9.
Peterson, John L. 'Introduction to the Special Issue: HIV / AIDS Prevention through Community Psychology'. American Journal of Community Psychology. 26.1. (1998): 1+.
Carmona, Jennifer Vargas, Mitchell-Kernan, Claudia, Newcomb, Michael D., Romero, Gloria J., Solis, Beatriz, Tucker, M. Belinda, Wayment, Heidi a. & Wyatt, Gail E 'Acculturation, Sexual Risk Taking and HIV Health Promotion Among Latinas'. Journal of Counseling Psychology. 45.4(1998): 454.
Women and AIDS in New York City:
Hidden Cases, Hidden Problems
Ask most people what group of people you think of when you think of AIDS, and most people will name gay men. While it's undeniable that the AIDS epidemic was first noticed among gay men, AIDS has become an equal opportunity illness, and currently women represent the fastest growing sector of people with HIV / AIDS in the United States. This fact is true in New York City as well.
The growth in the rate of HIV / AIDS among women in New York City is a growing concern for a variety of reasons. Worse than the increase in infection among women is the death rate. Although overall, the death rate from AIDS has dropped significantly, the death rate for women with AIDS is significantly higher than that of men.
How widespread is the problem?
A look at recent…
Author not available. Fall, 1998. "The Children Left Behind. Harvard AIDS Institute. Accessed via the Internet 10/13/02. http://www.hsph.harvard.edu/hai
Author not available. "It Helps To Know." Brooklyn AIDS Task Force, Inc. Accessed via the Internet 10/13/02. http://www.batf.net/ .
Cadman, Jill. Spring 1998. "Strategies for Interrupting Mother-to-Child Transmission." CRIA Update: Vol. 7, No. 2. Accessed via the Internet 10/13/02. http://www.criany.org/treatment/treatment_edu_springupdate1998.html
Center for Disease Control. "CDC: National Center for HIV, STD and TB Prevention." Divisions of HIV / AIDS Prevention." Accessed via the Internet 10/13/02. http://www.cdcnpin.org/topic/stats.htm .
HIV testing/Screening be made part of Primary Prevention?
This analysis backs up research on behavioral interventions that lower HIV transmission. The aim of the analysis are to reinforce interdisciplinary research that develops, implements, and evaluates practically and theoretically based interventions intended to prevent HIV transmission. This knowledge needs to progress understanding of the interaction between psychological, behavioral, biological and social factors that influence the acquirement of HIV in our populations. The analysis supports research that acts as the base for an empirically-based public health policy plan to prevent several new HIV infections as possible. Similarly, ASPQ supports basic prevention and intervention research that tackle multiple levels factors that facilitate or obstruct lowering of HIV risk.
Immense progress have been made over the ancient times decade in behavioral research on how to assist people prevent contracting HIV infections (primary prevention) and how to reduce or alleviate unfavorable consequences among individuals…
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2009). HIV / AIDS Surveillance Report. Vol. 19. Atlanta: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services,
CDC (2004). Cases of HIV infection and AIDS in the United States
HIV / AIDS, Surveillance Report 2005; 16:16 -- 45.
CDC. (2001) Revised recommendations for HIV screening of pregnant women. MMWR; 50(No. RR-19):63 -- 85.
ates and Preventative HIV / AIDS Policy: A Disconnect in African Countries
The primary focus of research in HIV / AIDS has been on the disease itself: transmission, prevalence, prevention, treatment, etc. (Aldashev & Baland, 2013). The responses to the HIV / AIDS academic have varied widely and are not intuitive, showing no logical patterns with regard to prevention policies and prevalence (Aldashev & Baland, 2013). That is to say that high prevalence rates in regions or nations do not trigger more aggressive policies. A key example of this phenomenon can be seen in Senegal's response to early proactive education programs for AIDS prevention that was completely out of proportion to its very low prevalence rate of 1% of the population of Senegal in 2003 (Aldashev & Baland, 2013). In comparison, Swaziland and Zimbabwe, countries that experienced extremely high prevalence rates of 24.6% in 2003 and 42.6%, respectively, exhibited limited…
Aldashev, G. And Baland, J. (2013, October). Awareness and AIDS: A political economy perspective.
Alsan, M. And Cutler, D. (2010). The ABCDs of health: Explaining the reductionin AIDS in Uganda. NBER working paper 16171.
AVERT (2012). HIV and AIDS in Uganda. Retreived from http://www.avert.ogr/aids-uganda.htm.
McElroy, A. And Townsend, P. (1989). Medical anthropology in ecological perspective. Medical Anthropology Quarterly, New Series, 3(4), 405-407.
Identify and Describe the Aggregate
This paper focuses on a particular section of HIV patients - that of men having sex with men, in the United States. There is also an identification and description of the aggregate, its needs and risk factors. The advantages, applications, limitations and adaptability of the interventions for the aggregate form the bulk of the discussion in this paper.
In almost every country in the world, it can be said with certainty, that there are men who have sex with men (MSM). Globally, however, this is a very diverse group. Some of these men label themselves as bisexual; others as gay and a large number simply refer to themselves as heterosexual men who just have sex with other men. In the global HIV and AIDS context, sex between men is a key front in the fight against the spread of this disease, because such…
Aceijas, C., Stimson, G., Hickman, M., & Rhodes, T. (2004). Global overview of injecting drug use and HIV infection among injecting drug users.
Avert.org. (2014). Men who have sex with men (MSM) and HIV / AIDS. Retrieved from Avert: http://www.avert.org/men-who-have-sex-men-msm-hiv-aids.htm
Beyrer, C. (2007). HIV Epidemiology Update and Transmission Factors: Risks and Risk Contexts -- 16th International AIDS Conference Epidemiology Plenary. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 981-987.
CDC. (2013, Novemeber 29). HIV Testing and Risk Behaviors Among Gay, Bisexual, and Other Men Who Have Sex with Men -- United States. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR), pp. 958-962.
Behavioral risk for HIV infection among gay and bisexual men in the United States
According to reports published by the Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), they state that by the year 2004, more than nine hundred and forty thousand individuals in the United States of America had been diagnosed with AIDS, majority of who were gay men and African-Americans. This report including others have brought the issue of HIV infection in gay and bisexual men into sharp focus and more in particular the behavioral risks that the group exposes themselves to, which have contributed to the sharp increase in HIV infection amongst members of this group. This research intends to focus of this behavioral risk and preventive measures that have been established to prevent HIV infection in gay and bisexual men in the United States.
Another recent research conducted by Centre for Disease Control and Prevention…
Hockenbury, D., & Hockenbury, E., (2008), Psychology, Word publishers, pp 232-234
Kelly, J.A. (1992). HIV risk behavior reduction following intervention with key opinion leaders of population: An experimental analysis. American Journal of Public Health, 82, 1483 -- 1489.
Latkin, C.A., Sherman, S., & Knowlton, A. (2003). HIV prevention among drug users: Outcome of a network-oriented peer outreach intervention. Health Psychology, 22, 332 -- 339.
Wasserheit, J.N., & Aral, S.O., (1996), the dynamic topology of sexually transmitted disease epidemics: Implications for prevention strategies. The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 201 -- 213.
Epidemiology of HIV
Epidemiology & Communicable Disease
Description of HIV
HIV is short for human immunodeficiency virus, and it the viral infection that can lead to AIDS or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The HIV virus remains in the body for life as the human body cannot rid itself of the virus; this is true even if the overt symptoms of HIV are absent ("CDC," 2015). The HIV virus spreads through body fluids, affecting specific cells (CD4 or T cells) associated with the immune system ("CDC," 2015). HIV destroys many CD4 cells over time to a degree that compromises the body's overall immune system leaving it incapable of fighting off infections and disease: this end stage of HIV infection is referred to as AIDS ("CDC," 2015). The CD4 cell count is fundamental to monitoring people living with HIV ("CDC," 2015).
HIV progresses through several stages with the first stage often -- but…
Osmond, DH (2003, March). Epidemiology of HIV / AIDS in the United States. HIV InSite Knowledge Base Chapter, University of California at San Francisco. Retreived from http://hivinsite.ucsf.edu/InSite?page=kb-01-03#S2X
____. (2013). Global Health Observatory (GHO) Data. World Health Organization (WHO). Retreived from http://www.who.int/gho/hiv/en/
____. (2012). Epidemiology of HIV Infection through 2012. National Center for HIV / AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD & TB Prevention. Division of HIV / AIDS Prevention. Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Retrieved from ____. (2015). HIV 101. Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).
Program Development and Evaluation
The proposed program is intended for, and targets the students of both secondary and tertiary institutions. The program is known as "MSM Initiative for Colleges." "
The ability of this program to use ICT as a way of helping the aggregate is one important technique that will give the program a new edge. This is to help develop an effective combination of avoidance intervention that will be able to deliver BCC-behavioral change in communication. These behavioral changes in communication can be in the form of products, services, messages, as well as referrals, as a way of promoting and improving the use of condoms and condom-compatible lubricants, HIV tests, reporting cases of violence, and using complementary services. This inventive online 'cyber educator' MSM intervention, virtually provides a one-on-one HIV and BCC counseling, and test referrals (Adams, Klindera, Walsh, & Wold, 2014).
Interventions for the Aggregate
Adam, D., kinder., K., Walsh, C.S., & Wold, R.C (2014), November 14). Innovative programmatic approaches to HIV prevention and care services for gay men, other men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender persons using information and communication technology (ICT). Digital Culture & Education (DCE). Retrieved from Digital Culture and Education: http://www.digitalcultureandeducation.com/uncategorized/v6_i3_editorial_html/
Cohen, L. M., & Gelbrich, J. (2015, October 16). Sample Educational Philosophy Statements . Retrieved from Oregun State University: http://oregonstate.edu/instruct/ed416/sample.html
PEPFAR (2011).Technical Guidance on Combination HIV Prevention. The U.S. President's Emergency plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR).
Strategic Management Health Care
I will use AIDSCAP Nepal as my organization. AIDSCAP has a mission to reduce the incidence of AIDS/HIV among Nepalese sex workers. The organization is not competitive in nature -- it is not a corporate but a not-for-profit entity. It is funded by USAID, so there might be some element of competition for funding that demand it show results for its efforts, but ultimately there is not much competitive posture for AIDSCAP at all.
Strategic thinking is essential to successful performance of any organization (Goldman, 2007), so the leaders of the organization must set a strategy that takes into account the external and internal environments. This is the case even when the organization is not engaged in active competitive, something that AIDSCAP as a not-for-profit entity does not engage in.
An adaptive strategy is defined as one that deals with the environment and its challenges by…
Goldman, E. (2007). Strategic thinking at the top. MIT Sloan Management Review. Retrieved November 16, 2014 from http://sloanreview.mit.edu/article/strategic-thinking-at-the-top/
Hawthorne, M. (2014). The purpose of mission and vision statements in strategic planning. Houston Chronicle. Retrieved November 16, 2014 from http://smallbusiness.chron.com/purpose-mission-vision-statements-strategic-planning-13161.html
Martin, R. (2014). Adaptive strategy is a cop-out. Harvard Business Review. Retrieved November 16, 2014 from https://hbr.org/2014/05/adaptive-strategy-is-a-cop-out
Poister, T. (no date). Strategic planning and decision making in state departments of transportation. Transportation Research Board.
AIDS to prevent infection: a bargain?" And is written by Julie Steenhuysen for Reuters and published April 17, 2012. The article begins by describing why AIDS is still a very much-discussed topic within the medical community, despite many breakthroughs, after so many years of being in the news, and so many advances in the technology that treats it. According to the article, one of the most successful treatments in preventing AIDS for healthy individuals is called Truvada, which is a combination of Emtriva, and Viread. (Truvada, 2012) This treatment was created in an effort to create a "pre-exposure prophylaxis" or PrEP. (Steenhuysen, 2012). This treatment would require men who are at high risk of contracting HIV to take a daily pill in order to provide a better defense from this disease.
This treatment may greatly reduce the number of men who contract HIV each year, already at a very high…
Steenhuysen, J. (2012). Abs-cbn news. Retrieved from http://www.abs-cbnnews.com/lifestyle/04/17/12/using-aids-drugs-prevent-infection-bargain
Truvada. "About TRUVADA - TRUVADA." TRUVADA.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Apr. 2012. .
Community-level programs can also reach large numbers of young men. Societal homophobia may impede implementing effective prevention programs for gay youth and may discourage young gay men from accessing prevention services.
This stigma has manifested itself in the forms of discrimination and fear of "people living with AIDS" (PLWAs). As a result, the social implications of the disease have been removed from people with other life threatening conditions to PLWAs. Unfortunately, they are not only faced with a terminal illness but also social isolation and constant discrimination throughout society. Various explanations have been suggested as to the underlying causes of these discriminatory stigmas. Many studies point to the relationship the disease has with deviant behavior, while others suggest that fear of contagion is the actual culprit. When examining the existing literature and putting it into societal context, it could lead one to believe that there is no one cause of…
Conduct Unbecoming: Gays and Lesbians in the U.S. Military: Vietnam to the Persian Gulf. New York: St. Martin's, 1993.
Hodgson, I. Culture, meaning and perception: explanatory models and the delivery of HIV care. Abstract MoPeD2772, XIIIth International AIDS Conference, Durban, South Africa, 2000. Available at www.brad.ac.uk/staff/ijhodgson/summaries/Publications/durban2000.htm.
Shilts, Randy. And the Band Played on: Politics, People, and the AIDS Epidemic. New York: St. Martin's, 1987.
UNAIDS (United Nations Joint Programme on HIV / AIDS). 2002. Report on the Global HIV / AIDS Epidemic, 2002. Switzerland: UNAIDS.
A group of researchers write, "To effectively respond to this pandemic, HIV / AIDS must be treated as both an emergency and a long-term developmental issue" (Da Cruz, Da Cruz & Hammers, 2007). First, additional research must be developed to help find an ultimate cure for this disease. This would be the ultimate form of control and eradication, and would eliminate this social problem from the world.
However, this research is costly and takes time. Simply developing drugs that help combat the disease effectively has taken decades, and there is still no cure or preventative for AIDS, other than abstinence. There is an office of AIDS research in the Federal Government that coordinates research and development activities, and there is research under way to help develop an AIDS vaccine to prevent the disease. esearch should be heavily funded, and if federal funds are not available, they should be sought through…
Da Cruz, J.D., Da Cruz, B.K., & Hammers, C. (2007). HIV / AIDS: The pandemic hits the 'sleeping giant'. International Social Science Review, 82(1-2), 55+.
Editors. (2008). AIDS. Retrieved 8 Feb. 2008 from the AIDS.gov Web site: http://www.aids.gov/ .
Editors. (2007). Basic information: AIDS. Retrieved 8 Feb. 2008 from the CDC.gov Web site: http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/ topics/basic/#origin
communicable disease for discussion is HIV. HIV is the precursor to AIDS and is a virus with possible origins within the monkeys and chimp population of Africa. Some humans in certain areas of Africa ate these animals and may have been exposed to the virus where it transformed into aids. Because of HIV's ability to destroy CD4 cells, a particular kind of white blood cell, which plays a big part in aiding the body fight illness, it severely weakens a person's immune system. Eventually, it can progress to AIDS. This happens when an individual's CD4 count goes below 200 or experience complications that define AIDS like tuberculosis.
Transmission of HIV comes from infected semen, blood, or vaginal secretions that must enter a person's body. Ordinary contact does not result in infection like hugging, dancing, or kissing a person with HIV. HIV cannot be transmitted through water, insect bites, or air.…
Aids.gov,. (2015). Presidential Advisory Council on HIV / AIDS. Retrieved 1 April 2015, from https://www.aids.gov/federal-resources/pacha/about-pacha/
Layzell, S., & McCarthy, M. (1993). Specialist or generic community nursing care for HIV / AIDS patients?. J Adv Nurs, 18(4), 531-537. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2648.1993.18040531.x
HIV / AIDS Implication in African Governance
Implications of HIV / AIDS on Botswana's Governance
This dissertation paper is a research study that foresees on the governance structure of African nations, in particular, Botswana. The country has had a declining development on the improvements being instigated in government. This has been attributed to ht increasing rates of HIV / AIDS in the country; more so, it has been rated top among nations with the highest rate of HIV / AIDS infection. This paper raises concerns being implicated on in the social and economic aspects of Botswana government structure and Africa in general. The future is also prospected with a close analysis on the disease's trend in the country, and the importance of reducing the rate of infection for the betterment of governance.
Impact of HIV / AIDS on Botswana's Governance
Governance is the act of utilizing institutional resources in…
Adepoju, A., Naerssen, A. L & Zoomers, E.B. 2008. International migration and national development in Sub-Saharan Africa. New York: BRILL.
Bell, C., Shantayanan, D & Hans, G. 2003. The long-run economic costs of AIDS: Theory and an application to Southern Africa. Heidelberg: Heidelberg University.
Deacon, H., Stepheny, I & Prosalendis, S. 2005. Understanding HIV / AIDS stigma: a theoretical and methodological analysis. Chicago: HSRC Press.
EPub. 2002. Botswana: Selected Issues and Statistical Appendix. New York: International Monetary Fund.
HIV in the Older Population
It has come to the attention of the medical community that enough is not being done to help the older population of HIV-infected individuals. This population makes up 1/4th of the total population of persons infected with HIV (CDC, 2016). In order to protect this population and to help to mitigate the risk of spreading HIV, there are a number of steps recommended to Congress that Congress can implement as part of a national policy to address the issue facing the older HIV population.
These steps are the following:
Establish more HIV clinics in inner city neighborhoods
Address housing, medical care, educational and financial assistance issues related to older populations needs
Set up a special fund that can be used to provide financial assistance for older HIV-infected adults
Support the medical community with direct grants and subsidies that go to providing free counseling…
AIDS. (2015). Newly diagnosed: Older Adults. Aids.gov. Retrieved from https://www.aids.gov/hiv-aids-basics/just-diagnosed-with-hiv-aids/overview/aging-population/
CDC. (2016). HIV Among People Aged 50 and Over. CDC.gov. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/ group/age/olderamericans/index.html
Population Reference Bureau. (2009). HIV / AIDS and Older Adults in the United States.
PBR, 18: 1-6. Retrieved from http://www.prb.org/pdf09/TodaysResearchAging18.pdf
AIDS on South African Development
Today, the chromium, platinum, gold and diamond mining sectors provide the largest percentage of export revenues for South Africa. One of the inevitable consequences of these natural resource extraction industries is the proliferation of mining camps that house the migrant domestic and foreign workers from neighboring countries that support the industry. Although conditions vary, most mining camps are squalid affairs that lack running water, electricity or the other basic amenities of modern life that most people take for granted. These harsh living conditions, combined with the loneliness that results from being forced to spend long periods of time away from family and friends, create an ideal environment for the spread of communicable diseases, especially human immunodeficiency virus / acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV / AIDS). This paper provides a review of the related primary and secondary literature concerning mining camps and their role in the spread…
Boe, Hans-Petter and Crush, Jonathan. HIV / AIDS, Population Mobility and Migration in Southern Africa: Defining a Research and Policy Agenda. Pretoria: Regional HIV / AIDS
Programme for Southern Africa of the Netherlands' Embassy in Pretoria, 2005.
Lurie, M. et al. (1999). "Circular Migration and Sexual Networking in Rural KwaZulu-Natal:
Implications for the Spread of HIV and Other Sexually Transmitted Diseases." Health
Communicable Disease - HIV
Since its discovery as a wasting disease, "gay-related immune deficiency" and "slim" in the mid-1980's, HIV has posed a significant health problem for the United States and the World. Initially considered mysteriously devastating, HIV ultimately caused the deaths of hundreds of thousands, yet failed to attract sufficient funding and attention. hrough the efforts of health professionals and activists, HIV was finally accorded the funding and attention it deserved. oday, HIV is addressed globally, federally and locally through multiple well-funded programs/groups and agencies.
History of HIV
According to the AIDS Healthcare Foundation, blood analysis showed that the HIV virus existed in humans as early as the 1940's and that HIV-1 -- the most common viral strain -- was transmitted from chimpanzees to humans at some point in the early to mid-20th Century (AIDS Healthcare Foundation, n.d.). In the early 1980's medical professionals noticed that a "wasting disease"…
The nurse's role in education about and prevention of HIV stems from his/her core value of becoming a knowledgeable, effective advocate for the highest attainable quality of patient care. This core value requires several key activities by nurses, presented here numerically but in equal order of importance. First, the nurse must become educated about HIV-related issues (Association of Nurses in AIDS Care, 2012). Secondly, the nurse must make his/her voice heard. Nurses can make their voices nationally and regionally heard by: joining professional organizations that exert greater impact on the response to HIV / AIDS issues (Association of Nurses in AIDS Care, 2012); contacting public officials (Association of Nurses in AIDS Care, 2012); calling media attention to HIV / AIDS to the epidemic and in pressuring for a more aggressive governmental response (Association of Nurses in AIDS Care, 2010, p. 4); taking a clear-cut stance on effective education and prevention (Association of Nurses in Aids Care, 2012). Nurses can make their voices locally and specifically heard by: participating in community programs, organizations and support groups dedicated to education, prevention and high quality treatment. In their professional lives, nurses can contributed to prevention by educating patients about the causes, prevention, treatment and day-to-day aspects of living with of HIV / AIDS. Some use a widespread approach, such as published materials like What nurses know…HIV and AIDS (Farnan & Enriquez, 2012); others directly address those issues with their individual patients, such as forming an alliance with the patient to enhance adherence to treatment (Association of Nurses in AIDS Care, 2010, p. 47).
Community Programs / Organizations / Support Groups
As HIV / AIDS awareness increased, the numbers of community programs, organizations and support groups also increased. Given San Francisco's large at-risk gay/bisexual male population, for example, there are several key programs, organization and support groups. There is, of course, the San
Origin of HIV
The mystery of HIV and its origins is one that cannot be easily solved. In the thirty-odd years which have passed since the official recognition of AIDS by the CDC and the subsequent search for its cause, various theories have been floated regarding its nature, its development, its ability to adapt, our ability to combat it, and -- most importantly for some -- its origin. How did the virus come into being? Viruses are known for altering over time and according to circumstances. They have a way of "bending" in order to make due -- of manipulating themselves in such a way so as to survive. This is no less true for HIV than for influenza. Just as variants of influenza appear each year to wreak havoc on the human population, variant-strains of HIV continue to be discovered, suggesting that the virus is still developing, still finding…
Apetrei, C., et al. (2005) 'Molecular epidemiology of simian immunodeficiency virus
SIVsm in U.S. primate centers unravels the origin of SIVmac and SIVstm', J Virol, 79(14):8991-9005.
Clavel, F., et al. (1986) 'Isolation of a new human retrovirus from West African patients
with AIDS', Science, 233(4761):343-346.
Collaborative Learning Community on Issues elated to HIV / AIDS
Culture refers to a complex set of material, intellectual, spiritual and emotional characteristics that define a social group or a society. It comprises of fundamental rights, ways of life, traditional beliefs, and value systems in society. Some cultural beliefs, practices, and norms related to sexuality contribute to the spread and increased risk of HIV acquisition. Cultural beliefs such as negative attitudes towards the use of protective mechanisms such as condoms as well discussing its use among societies is one among the contributing factors. For example, men in some communities do not prefer using condoms because they consider flesh-flesh sex with masculinity and promotion of health.
Practices such as the male circumcision influence the risk of HIV disease. Studies show that the social practice significantly reduces the risks of HIV disease among them male during penile vaginal sex. Social practices embedded…
Hall, J.C., Hall, B.J., & Cockerell, C.J. (2011). HIV / AIDS in the post-HAART era: Manifestations, treatment, and epidemiology. Shelton, CT: People's Medical Pub. House- USA.
Jenkins, C.L. & Robalino, D.A. (2003). HIV / AIDS in the Middle East and North Africa: The costs of inaction. Washington, DC: World Bank
Stolley, K.S., & Glass, J.E. (2009). HIV / AIDS. Santa Barbara, Calif: Greenwood Press
World Bank (2001). HIV / AIDS in the Caribbean: Issues and options. Washington, DC: World Bank
Public health screening activities in programs are also essential in ensuring this level of prevention is ensured. A good example is organized screening programs targeted at the community.
The third level of prevention, tertiary prevention, involves bother rehabilitative and therapeutic measures once the person already has the symptoms and signs of the disease. Tertiary prevention has several goals, which include preventing damage and pain that may arise from the disease, slowing down the progression of the disease, preventing the disease from causing complications, giving optimum care to people with signs of the disease, and helping those with the disease to live healthy lives afterwards. A quintessential example of tertiary preventive activities includes treating diabetics to prevent complications that occur as a result of the disease such as liver and kidney failure. Other examples are management of patients with chronic heart disease with therapy and medication, physical and occupational therapy as…
Baker, J.E.L. (1992). Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary Prevention in Reducing Pesticide-Related Illness in Farmers. Journal of Community Health Nursing, 9(4), 245-254. doi: 10.2307/3427201
Flaskerud, J.H. (1992). HIV Disease and Levels of Prevention. Journal of Community Health Nursing, 9(3), 137-150. doi: 10.2307/3427251
Green, M.M. (1971). The Expanded Role of the Public Health Nurse. Canadian Journal of Public Health / Revue Canadienne de Sante'e Publique, 62(2), 147-152. doi: 10.2307/41984635
Ureda, J., & Yates, S. (2005). A SYSTEMS VIEW of HEALTH PROMOTION. Journal of Health and Human Services Administration, 28(1), 5-38. doi: 10.2307/41288055
Health Promotion Lesson Plan
The concept of health promotion is thought of as "the science and art of helping people change their lifestyle to move toward a state of optimal health" (Dunphy et al., 2011, p 25). Serious heart conditions can be prevented, which is why it is so important to utilize community education techniques in order to help try to warn community members of the complications before they occur. This current lesson plan works to create three separate community lesson plans, based on specific age ranges. The age 18-29 focuses primarily on the use of social media and health advocacy efforts in association with the American Heart Association. For ages 30-49, there is also a focus on these two, combined with more community oriented issues, and for 50-60, there is much more of a focus on financial training along with community organized workshops.
Prevention has become a major issue…
References McLeod, Saul. (2010). Erik Erikson. Developmental Psychology. Simply Psychology. Web. http://www.simplypsychology.org/Erik-Erikson.html
AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa?
AIDS in Ghana
AIDS, or Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, has devastated much of Africa, hitting this continent worse than any other in the world. In fact, in the year 2000, 80% of the world's total AIDS-related deaths were within Africa. (C 2000) One of the areas hit the hardest by this virus has been the Sub-Saharan region. Ghana, within that region, has also been ravaged by AIDS, but it has a significantly lower percentage of AIDS cases than much of the rest of Africa. While the AIDS within Ghana has many of the same causes and effects on the people who are infected with the disease, it is a unique situation within Africa because of its particular effects on the women of the country, and the fact that there are comparatively fewer AIDS cases within this country.
The first reported cases of AIDS in Ghana were…
BBC. 2003. "Africa's Aids burden." UK: BBC News, Retreived December 1, 2003. ( http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/1045156.stm )
Ghana AIDS Commission . 2003. "Brief Statistics on HIV / AIDS." Ghana: Ghana AIDS Commission, Retreieved December 1, 2003. ( http://www.ghanaids.gov.gh/functionalities/statusandimpact/articledescription.asp?ArticleID=13 )
Ghana AIDS Commission . 2003. "Women and AIDS." Ghana: Ghana AIDS Commission, Retreieved December 1, 2003. ( http://www.ghanaids.gov.gh/barefacts/practicalinformation/articledescription.asp?ArticleID=24 )
Ofeibea Quirst-arcton. 2003. "Aids Treatment Plan Begins In January." Accra: AllAfrica.com, Retreived December 1, 2003. ( http://allafrica.com/stories/200311300172.html )
" (International Conference on Population and Development ICPD) (ibid)
However the meaning of reproductive right extends into other areas. For example, this includes the right to non-discrimination based on sex/gender and the right to privacy as well as the right to information. The issue of the reproductive rights for women becomes problematic and often fraught with controversy when it is applied to those infected with the HIV virus. This dilemma has far-reaching implications for the millions of women with HIV throughout the world.
3.2. Different perspectives
The different views on the subject of reproductive rights range from the more conservative view that all reproductive rights should be denied in Women with HIV to more perceptive views that links the denial of reproductive rights to other human rights issues. For example, one view from a survey conducted by the International Community of Women Living with HIV / AIDS (ICW) states that,…
Albury, R.M. (1999). Beyond the Slogans. St. Leonards, N.S.W.: Allen & Unwin.
Almond, B., & Ulanowsky, C. (1990). HIV and Pregnancy. The Hastings Center Report, 20(2), 16+. Retrieved June 15, 2005, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com .
Amaro, H., & Raj, a. (2000). On the Margin: Power and Women's HIV Risk Reduction Strategies. 723. Retrieved June 15, 2005, from Questia database,
EJAF or the Elton John AIDS Foundation has a mission statement centered on eradicating AIDS from the Americas and the Caribbean. They raise funds for evidence-based policies and programs and speak out openly about the harsh reality of those suffering with AIDS and HIV. Becoming the world's biggest HIV grant-makers, it holds to main offices in London and New York. EJAF has raised over $349 million for the prevention and treatment of AIDS/HIV ever since it was founded in 1992. With an estimated $7 million invested in the Americas spread across 120 organizations each year, half of this effort is focused on the Caribbean and the Southern U.S.
The agency in addition to its fundraising efforts, offers a unique perspective on issues, tackling the most difficult problems those with HIV / AIDS face. The organization focuses on sustainability and innovation, communicating regularly to allies and their grantees about any…
Prevention and Treatment
HIV / AIDS is one of the most prevalent and devastating diseases in the world today. It has already killed millions throughout the world, especially in developing countries like Africa. I chose this topic due to the importance of HIV for world heath issues and because of the larger social issues that this virus has for many countries. The statistics over the last decades are evidence of the growth and devastating effect of this virus. The total number of recorded deaths due to HIV / AIDS, between 1981 and 2003, was a staggering 20-million. The number of children in Sub-Saharan Africa who were orphaned by the end of 2003 was an estimated 12-million. Later figures indicate that the situation in Africa is not improving, with these figures increasing in 2004, especially among women in Africa. "y December 2004 women accounted for 47% of all people…
Approved Medications to Treat HIV Infection. 2004. Accessed January 3, 2004 http://aidsinfo.nih.gov/other/cbrochure/english/05_en.html
Acute HIV Infection. New Mexico AIDS InfoNet. 2004. http://www.thebody.com/nmai/acute_infection.html
Background Information on Fourteen FDA Approved HIV / AIDS Drugs. Consumer projects on technology. 2000. Accessed January 4, 2004. http://www.cptech.org/ip/health/aids/druginfo.html
Death Stalks a Continent. Time Magazine, February 12, 2001
The weaker segments in Africa, women and children, were and are the worst hit by HIV / AIDS, which then is spread to the families and communities. (Bage 2004)
Dealing with this is a great scientific, social, and moral challenge that every organization and country, especially developed countries must rise up to. It is time to mobilize resources and contribute to make changes in the policies so that we at the United Nations can do something worthwhile to combat Africa's problem with this disease. There were commercial interests earlier that would not allow the developed nations to provide subsidized medicine. For instance the United States, there was a stance that there could be no recognition of the problem and a denial of need. This was followed by a policy that placed the solving of the problem on the affected countries. Until George W. Bush, the United States and many developed…
Bage, Lennart. 2004. HIV / AIDS in Africa: Shifting the Horizons of Development. UN
Chronicle, vol. 41, no. 3. September-November, pp: 49-54.
DeConde, Alexander. 1963. A History of American Foreign Policy. Charles Scribner's
Sons: New York.
Public AIDS Policy -- And the Band Played on, for Republicans and Democrats alike, during this public health crisis of the 1980's
Today, it hard to remember a day before 'AIDS alks' through Central Park, before television advertisements in the voice of hoopi Goldberg proclaimed that "AIDS affects everyone," before AIDS became a public health enemy 'Number One.' But one must look back to the days when AIDS was a disease of secrecy and shame to truly learn from the illness, as it exists today. Most of us of Generation Y mercifully cannot even remember a time when AIDS was not even a name, but something called 'the gay cancer.' During America of the 1980's the disease of Acquired Immune Deficiency Disorder, it was thought only to affect those marginalized by society because of their sexuality.
Randy Shilt's book And the Band Played On acts as an important journalistic and…
Shilts, Randy. And the Band Played On.
Siplan, P. Aids & The Policy Struggle In the U.S. Georgetown Press, 2000.
The selective type would enable me to make optimal use of the specific factors that are relevant to my target group. This IOM type would also enable me to identify cases of prior and current drug use, and to refer these to specialized groups and programs for help. The selective type is therefore optimal for the specific sector of society that I want to target.
Best Practice Program
From the "Best Practice Programs," I chose "Athletes Training and Learning to Avoid teroids: The ATLA Program," because it specifically focuses on high school athletes as a target group. While it focuses mostly on one particular kind of drug, I would perhaps modify it to address the specific problems, risks and protective factors of my target group.
The ATLA program focuses on male high school athletes and aims at reducing the risk factors involved in the use of anabolic steroids and other…
CASAT. Best Practice: Athletes Training and Learning to Avoid Steroids: The ATLAS Program
Institute of Medicine. Projects: Adolescent Health Care Services and Models of Care for Treatment, Prevention, and Healthy Development http://www.iom.edu/CMS/12552/35625.aspx
Statistical Evidence Used to Support Early Study Termination
Study population, comprising two clusters, namely AIDS patients and those suffering from AIDS-related complex, was a factor that supported early termination of the study. Statistical evidence employed was that AIDS patients who suffered from pneumonia many times were included in the study. On the other hand, patients who suffered multiple Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) episodes were excluded from the study. Thus, the research, comprising 27 participants who had spent 24 weeks in the study, 152 participants with16 weeks' participation and others had completed at least 8 weeks' of participation. At this point, 19 recipients of placebo and 1 recipient of 1 AZT (Azidothymidine) died during the study (Fischl et al., 1987).
Are you for or against the early termination and why?
The idea of early termination is not considered favorable, since the study proved valuable in treating the clinical condition, virus replication…
A Priority Research Agenda. (2010). Retrieved October 24, 2015, from https://www.iasociety.org/Web/WebContent/File/Consensus_Statement_Asking_the_Right_Question_March_2010.pdf
Brookmeyer, R. (2010, January 11). Measuring the HIV / AIDS Epidemic: Approaches and Challenges. Retrieved October 24, 2015, from http://epirev.oxfordjournals.org/content/32/1/26.full
Fischl, M. A., Richman, D. D., Grieco, M. H., Gottlieb, M. S., Volberding, P. A., Laskin, O. L., ... & King, D. (1987). The efficacy of azidothymidine (AZT) in the treatment of patients with AIDS and AIDS-related complex. New England Journal of Medicine, 317(4), 185 191.
Knox, R. (2010, November 4). The Lucky Genetic Variants That Protect Some People From HIV. Retrieved October 24, 2015, from http://www.npr.org/sections/healthshots/2010/11/04/131064382/the-lucky-genetic-variants-that-protect-some-peopleagainst-HIV
programs and actions taken by health agencies to support cities and communities in their fight against the spread of HIV and AIDS virus. It will also discuss the demographic information of cities with high rate of HIV / AIDS, as well as other statistics in relation HIV / AIDS. Particular in this study is a discussion on one of the HIV / AIDS major areas - Miami.
Moreover, this section will provide the reader with an overview of the benefits that the health programs provide in different states and what they bring to communities of HIV / AIDS. It will explore on the success of such programs in terms of combating the disease.
A combat against HIV and AIDS, through an increased funding for health centers and services, is the main objective of this study. This specifically focuses on areas where most of the HIV / AIDS patients are financially…
Miami-Dade County Neighborhood Profiles.
Miami-Dade County Health Department. 25 May 2004. http://www.dadehealth.org/hiv/HIVprofiles.asp
Health Education and Risk Reduction Program.
Miami-Dade County Health Department. 26 May 2004. http://www.dadehealth.org/hiv/HIVed.asp
Demographics of Population Vulnerable to HIV / AIDS
Undoubtedly, AIDS has become an epidemic of color. Additionally, the menace has affected hay and bisexual men who have sex with other men (MSM). Today, these groups depict the highest risk rates compared to other groups and communities. In this paper, we endeavor to analyze the high rates of HIV / AIDS prevalence in these two groups. Further, we explore the implementation of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) in the U.S. and the impact it has brought regarding the prevention and care of these vulnerable populations.
The African-American community has occurred as the ethnic community that has suffered a severe blunt of this disease to a devastating degree. Historically, the African-American community has experienced neglect in healthcare and prevention regarding AIDS control. The changing demographics have exemplified the urgent need of concern and actions towards alleviating the spread of this disease, especially…
Kates, J., Garfield, R., & Young, K., Quinn, K., Frazier, E. and Skarbinski, J. (2014, Jan 7). Assessing the Impact of the Affordable Care Act on Health Insurance Coverage of People with HIV. The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. Retrieved from http://kff.org/report-section/assessing-the-impact-of-the-affordable-care-act-on-health-insurance-coverage-of-people-with-hiv-issue-brief/
Kliff, S. (2013, March 23). Obamacare's five biggest challenges. The Washington Post. Retrieved from https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/wonk/wp/2013/03/23/obamacares-five-biggest-challenges/
National Institute on Drug Abuse (2010). Diagnosis of HIV Infection among Adults and Adolescents, by Transmission Category (2010).NIH Retrieved from http://www.drugabuse.gov/longdesc/diagnosis-hiv-infection-among-adults-adolescents-by-transmission-category-2010
Weitz, R. (2012). The Sociology of Health, Illness, and Health Care: A Critical Approach. New York: Cengage Learning
disorder or disease would be HIV, the precursor disease for those that end up developing the AIDS virus. The items that will be covered in this report has it relates to HIV would include a description of the disease, the determinants of health and an explanation of the factors that lead to the development of the disease, the epidemiologic triangle as it relates to the disease in question, the role of the community health nurse when it comes to this disease and at least one national agency or organization that makes it a direct point to address the disease including reducing the impact and reducing the spread of the disorder. While HIV and AID's are slowing turning into diseases that are chronic and incurable but yet manageable with the prior lifestyle and pharmacological interventions, there is still much work to be done and it is entirely possible to prevent (or…
CDC. (2016). HIV / AIDS - CDC. Cdc.gov. Retrieved 3 August 2016, from http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/
CDC. (2016). Principles of Epidemiology - Lesson 1 - Section 8. Cdc.gov. Retrieved 3 August 2016, from http://www.cdc.gov/ophss/csels/dsepd/ss1978/lesson1/section8.html
Discover Nursing. (2016). HIV / AIDS Care Nurse. Discovernursing.com - Campaign for Nursing. Retrieved 3 August 2016, from https://www.discovernursing.com/specialty/hivaids-care-nurse#.V6IGmrgrKUk
PAHO. (2016). Epidemiologic Triad. Cursos.campusvirtualsp.org. Retrieved 3 August 2016, from https://cursos.campusvirtualsp.org/mod/tab/view.php?id=23154
Teenage pregnancy is described as being pregnant or being a mother below 20 years of age in most of the conducted researches. Only two researches considered had an age limit of 20 years, while another one had a limit of 21 years (Noll, Shenk, & Putnam, 2009).
The rate of teenage child birth differs by a 10 factor in case of first world nations. Netherlands on one hand has a negligible rate of 12 infants per 1,000 teenagers each year while Russia on the other hand has a rate of 100 infants per 1000 teenagers. During the 1990's United States of America spiked with teenage pregnancies which was the same in 1980's as well. Japan and European nations have controlled pregnancy rates (40 infants per 1,000). England peaks the European bloc with teenage pregnancy. One research in 2000 concluded that annually in England, around 90,000 child births…
Amoran, O. (2012). A comparative analysis of predictors of teenage pregnancy and its prevention in a rural town in Western Nigeria. Amoran International Journal for Equity in Health, 2-7.
Dickins, T., Johns, S., & Chipman, A. (2012). Teenage Pregnancy In The United Kingdom: A Behavioral Ecological Perspective. Journal of Social, Evolutionary, and Cultural Psychology, 344-359.
Fonseca, L., Araujo, H., & Santos, S. (2012). Sexualities, teenage pregnancy and educational life histories in Portugal: experiencing sexual citizenship? Gender and Education, 647-664.
Hoggart, L. (2012). I'm Pregnant...what am I going to do? An examination of value judgments and moral frameworks in teenage pregnancy decision making. Health, Risk and Society, 533-549.