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We have over 529 essays for "Hiv Prevention"

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HIV AIDS Has Had

Words: 844 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 70102339



To understand how communities attitude about the disease contributes to the spread of the disease

To determine which measures need to be taken to educate women of color concerning the seriousness of the disease.

Aims

The proposed study is to add to the bevy of research which suggests that there are social, medical and communal reasons why women of color are at a greater risk of becoming infected with the AIDS virus. Additionally, the proposed study aims to investigate programs that have successfully decreased the rate at which women of color contract the AIDS virus. The research will also aim to assist practitioners as they attempt to treat women of color and prevent the spread of the disease.

An outline of chapters

Introduction

Purpose

Statement of Problem

esearch Questions

Conceptual Framework

Definitions

Literature eview

Prevalence of HIV / AIDS in the African-American Community

Prevalence of HIV / AIDS in the…… [Read More]

References

 http://www.questia.com /PM.qst?a=o&d=5001364647" target="_blank" REL="NOFOLLOW">
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HIV in African-American Women Does

Words: 871 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Literature Review Paper #: 56052774

What they found was that religiosity played a significant role in predicting the level of religious stigma, which led to beliefs that HIV/ADIS might be a curse or punishment from God (Muturi & an, 2010). This leads to the conclusion that faith-based organizations could play an important role in HIV / AIDS prevention and treatment in the community.

Anyone familiar with HIV research is aware of the high correlation between drug using populations and HIV infection, because addicts engage in practices like needle sharing and are more likely to engage in unprotected sex with unknown partners. Therefore, one would expect that HIV prevalence would be higher among African-American women in detoxification than in other groups given that the prevalence is higher in the regular population. What they found was that whites and Hispanics had higher levels of total HIV risk scores and risky injection use scores than African-Americans (Wu et…… [Read More]

References

Hendree, E.J., Berkman, N.D., Kline, T.L., Ellerson, R.M., Browne, F.A., Poulton, W.,

Wechsberg, W. (2011). Int J. Pediatr: 389285. doi:10.1155/2011/389285

Inungu, J., Lewis, a., Mustafa, Y., Wood, J., O'Brien, S., & Verdun, D. (2011). HIV testing among adolescents and youth in the United States: Update from the 2009 behavioral risk factor surveillance system. Open AIDS J, 5, 80-85. doi:10.2174/1874613601105010080

Muturi, N., & an, S. (2010). HIV / AIDS stigma and religiosity among African-American women. J Health Commun., 15(4), 388-401.
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HIV Epidemiology

Words: 1334 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 17110662

HIV Epidemiology

Description of HIV; the causes, symptoms, complications, mode of transmission and treatment

HIV is a condition that manifests in the virus attacking the immune system of the victim. When the immune system is weakened, the body does not effectively fight off diseases. The combination of the infection plus the virus that triggers it is referred to as HIV. The immune system heavily relies on the presence of white blood cells to carry out the defence activities. The HIV virus targets and destroys a type of white blood cells referred to as CD4 cells. If the virus destroys a significant number of these cells, the body begins to fail to fight infections. The final stage of infection by HIV is called AIDS. AIDS is an abbreviation for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. People with AIDS suffer ailments that are not commonly experienced by healthy people. They may acquire rare cancers and…… [Read More]

References

CATIE. (2016). The Social Determinants of Health and Structural Interventions. Retrieved from Canada's source for HIV and hepatitis C information:  http://www.catie.ca/en/hiv-canada/introduction 

Hariri, S., & McKenna, M. T. (2007). Epidemiology of Human Immunodeficiency Virus in the United States. Clin Microbiol Rev, 20(3), 478 -- 488.

MDH. (2001, March). Public Health Interventions - Applications for Public Health Nursing Practice. Retrieved from Minnesota Department of Health Division of Community Health Services Public Health Nursing Section:  http://www.health.state.mn.us/divs/opi/cd/phn/docs/0301wheel_manual.pdf 

Morison, L. (2001). The global epidemiology of HIV/AIDS. Br Med Bull, 58(1), 7-18.
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HIV AIDS on American Society What

Words: 3463 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33384543

HIV / AIDS on American Society

hat is HIV and where did it come from? The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (a primary source) explains that HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus, and once a person acquires this virus, "…you have it for life" (CDC). There is no effective cure, that is the bad news; but the better news according to the CDC is that HIV "…can be controlled" because there is a treatment called antiretroviral therapy (ART) (CDC). In fact while just a few years ago a person with HIV could expect to have full-blown AIDS within a few years, but with the ART treatment, many HIV sufferers can expect to have "…a nearly normal life…" (CDC).

The source of HIV is believed to be chimpanzees in est Africa, and how this came about related to the fact that Africans hunted the chimpanzees for food and at…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Administration on Aging. (2011). Older Adults and HIV / AIDS. Retrieved August 26, 2013, from  http://www.aoa.gov .

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2010). What is HIV? Retrieved August 26, 2013,

From http://www.ced.gov/hiv/basics/whatishiv.html.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2011). What Persons Aged 50 and Older Can Do.
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HIV AIDS on African-American Community in

Words: 1921 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24967309

HIV / AIDS on African-American Community in U.S.

Certain diseases occur more frequently within certain communities or ethnic groups. In part, this can be connected to genetics, heritage, environment, or the habits of a given cultural or ethnic group. This phenomenon is no different with HIV / AIDS, an illness which has been aggravated in the African-American community. HIV stands for the human immunodeficiency virus, a virus which can eventually turn into AIDS, also known as the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. HIV / AIDS is believed to have come from a chimpanzee in West Africa: "They believe that the chimpanzee version of the immunodeficiency virus (called simian immunodeficiency virus, or SIV) most likely was transmitted to humans and mutated into HIV when humans hunted these chimpanzees for meat and came into contact with their infected blood. Studies show that HIV may have jumped from apes to humans as far back as…… [Read More]

References

Cdc.gov. (2013, May 29). What is HIV? Retrieved from cdc.gov:  http://www.cdc.gov /hiv/basics/whatishiv.html" target="_blank" REL="NOFOLLOW">
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HIV and AIDS

Words: 6090 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 28504650



The second session had camera instruction. The third session had each participant given a camera and they were instructed to "(t)ake pictures of the challenges and solution in addressing HIV and AIDS" (Mitchell et al., 2005). The fourth session saw the photos developed and asked small groups to compare and contrast their pictures by creating posters. The authors draw on previous research on photo-voice techniques, as well as memory and photography and self-representation through photography.

In the end, the authors' qualitative research concluded that although many projects use photography to give voice to participants, it is especially significant in the giving a voice to community health workers and teachers in rural South African communities. In these remote areas, the communities do not have to wait for researchers to provide them answers, instead they are able to take action themselves and give a visible face to the HIV and AIDS plight…… [Read More]

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HIV Aids and HP2020 Initiative

Words: 1069 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73689374

Healthy People 2020' initiative (HP2020) greatly emphasizes social health determinants, health inequity factors, and income and educational goals. Further, it adopts a broader perspective of the health effects of natural and manmade environments. The National Prevention and Health Promotion Council, by building on this initiative, offers a new means to implement a government-wide 'health in every policy' approach. Several NPS (National Prevention Strategy) interventions will extend across sectors and departments, influencing various health results (Fielding, Teutsch, & Koh, 2012). Numerous HIV / AIDS-linked clinical characteristics may be attributed to the intense immune deficiency developing among infected individuals. Immune system breakdown by the human immune virus causes opportunistic infection, and greater vulnerability to malignancy and autoimmune diseases. Moreover, there may be HIV-connected disease manifestations; for instance, in the course of the primary ailment surfacing within a few weeks after the individual's first HIV exposure, clinical signs are seen in about half…… [Read More]

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HIV AIDS Infrastructures around the World

Words: 1023 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40752050

Public Infrastructure and the Status of World Health for Hiv / Aids Treatment

The HIV / AIDS epidemic began as a regional problem but gradually became a global public health issue by the closing decade of the 20th century (Powers, 2016). The same forces that have driven globalization are believed to account for this growth in HIV / AIDS cases, and researchers have since termed the epidemic as "a disease of the global system" (Powers, 2016, p. 239). This paper reviews the relevant peer-reviewed literature as well as nongovernmental organizational resources to evaluate the adequacy of the public infrastructure developed in response to this global problem and a discussion concerning the most important needs in shaping and sustaining the infrastructure for dealing with this public health problem. Finally, a series of recommended changes are followed by a summary of the research and important findings concerning the HIV / AIDS global…… [Read More]

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HIV AIDS on Women

Words: 2012 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 66067703

In this regard, Hackl and her colleagues emphasize, "Women who share their HIV or AIDS diagnosis with family or friends risk stigmatization (including reactions of fear, shock, and blame), isolation (as a result of others' fears of casual transmission and the possibility of desertion), and potential loss of self-esteem (lack of confidence and self-blame)" (p. 53).

The alternative to sharing their diagnosis is also not viable: "Keeping the diagnosis of HIV a secret may hinder a woman's ability to develop effective coping strategies and leave her vulnerable to fear, anger, and depression. These problems may worsen as the progression of HIV disease creates significant changes in behavior, attitudes, and physical appearance" (Hackl et al., p. 54). As osenberg emphasizes, though, "Medical experts know that those who get tested and counseled reduce risky sexual behaviors. Treatment also reduces the stigma of AIDS. One of the biggest reasons people don't change their…… [Read More]

References

Blumberg, S.J., Osborn, M.L., Larry, C. & Olson, L. (2003). The impact of touch-tone data entry on reports of HIV and STD risk behaviors in telephone interviews. The Journal of Sex Research, 40(2), 121.

Hak-Su, K. (2004, March-May). Why we must defeat HIV / AIDS. UN Chronicle, 41(1), 51.

Hackl, K.L., Somlai, a.M., Kelly, J.A. & Kalichman, S.C. (1997). Women living with HIV / AIDS: The dual challenge of being a patient and caregiver. Health and Social Work, 22(1), 53.

HIV / AIDS and women. (2008). U.S. Centers for Disease Control. [Online]. Available:  http://www.cdc.gov /hiv/topics/women/index.htm.
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HIV Infection and Its Implications

Words: 2318 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8730084

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)

Description of the communicable disease

Infection by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) has become a global epidemic. It causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). The major causal sources of this communicable disease are through semen, blood, breast milk of infected mothers, and vaginal fluid. In addition, the virus can be found in sweat, saliva, and also tears; however, in the latter cases, generally not in sufficient amounts to cause spreading of the virus to another individual. The main common means of being infected with HIV are through having unprotected sex and through sharing of needles. HIV may be transferred through unprotected heterosexual or homosexual anal, vaginal, and perhaps oral sex. Even though the risk of infection is minimal with oral sex, there remains the same imperative to use protection such as a condom in the course of oral sex. Due to new treatments, the risk of…… [Read More]

References

Aids.gov. (2015). Global HIV / AIDS Organizations. Retrieved 19 May 2014 from:  https://www.aids.gov/federal-resources/around-the-world/global-hiv-aids-organizations/ 

Body and Health Canada. (2015). HIV / AIDS. Retrieved 19 May 2014 from:  http://bodyandhealth.canada.com/channel_condition_info_details.asp?channel_id=1020&relation_id=70907&disease_id=1&page_no=2 

Cabieses Valdes, B.B. (2011). The living conditions and health status of international immigrants in Chile: Comparisons among international immigrants, and between them and the Chilean-born.

CDC. (2012). CDC Global Health Strategy 2012 -- 2015. Retrieved 19 May 2014 from:  http://www.cdc.gov /globalhealth/strategy/pdf/CDC-GlobalHealthStrategy.pdf
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How Is AIDS Related to African Politics

Words: 2873 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 59394386

AIDS and Politics in African

Aside from Malaria and other life threatening diseases, AIDS constitutes one of the major concerns within the African continent. One of the reasons behind this concern is the fact that HIV / AIDS is responsible for causing many deaths in this part of the world. ith close to 70% of people living with HIV / AIDS in the entire globe coming from Africa, the magnitude of the problem in the continent cannot be overemphasized (UNAIDS 1). Political participation in matters as serious as this cannot go without being noticed. Politics in Africa is part of the HIV / AIDS epidermis and plays a role not only in the prevention of the diseases but also in its causes among other dynamics. The politics of Aids however is not limited to government and political entities and neither does it emanate from Africa alone. The participation of such…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Akukwe, Chinua, HIV / AIDS in Africa: Politics, Policies, Programs and Logistics, Atlanta, GA: the Perspective, 2003

Cook, Nicholas, AIDS in Africa, Congressional Research Service, 2008, Accessed April 30, 2012,  http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/row/RL33584.pdf 

Fassin, Didier & Schneider, Helen, the Politics of AIDS in South Africa: Beyond the Controversies, South Africa: BMJ Publishing Group, 2003

Goliber Thomas, Africa's Political Response to HIV / AIDS, Washington D.C: Population Reference Bureau, 2012
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Impact of AIDS in South Africa

Words: 3432 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 20161294

ADS in South Africa

Those of us living in the United States became used to the face of ADS a generation ago. We learned to recognize the particular gauntness that characterized those who had been struck by it, and who would soon be taken away by it. And then, after years of people dying from this disease, we learned that people who had this terrible disease could be healed; not cured, for they still contained the viruses within their bodies, but they could live lives that were happy and meaningful - and long. The terror of ADS subsided, becoming one of only many of the perils of modern life rather than one of the predominant ones.

But the trajectory of ADS in South Africa (as well as in other parts of the developing world, has been very different. Even in the first years of the disease the manifestations of it…… [Read More]

In already unstable societies, this cocktail of disasters is a sure recipe for more conflict. And conflict, in turn, provides fertile ground for further infections (http://www.nkosi.iafrica.com/aids_sa/).

AIDS is both the enemy in South Africa and a potential aid to other enemies. One of the reasons that AIDS has been successfully fought in the United States and Europe is the wealth of these nations; this has certainly been their primary advantage. But they have also benefited in the fight against AIDS from a high degree of social stability; public health measures can only be effective when used in a stable society.

One of the terrible ironies of AIDS in South Africa is that the nation does not have strong enough social structures to allow (at least so far) for the necessary public health measures to be taken. And as AIDS takes a greater and greater toll, the necessary social structures will only become weaker and weaker.
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HIV and AIDS

Words: 1263 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54585951

AIDS is a condition brought about by HIV. It results during the advanced stages of an HIV infection when an individual's immune system becomes so weak it can't fend off infections from the body. The body becomes a target of various infections which if left untreated can lead to death of the infected person. No cure has been found to cure AIDS. Nonetheless, with good support and treatment, an infected person can live with HIV for a long time. For a healthy long life after infection, the right treatment should be taken correctly and side effects of treatment addressed promptly.

Basic Facts about AIDS

AIDS is an acronym for acquired immune deficiency syndrome. The syndrome can also be referred to as late-stage HIV or advanced HIV infection. Someone suffering from AIDS may contract several conditions like thrush, TB, cytomegalovirus, toxoplasmosis and pneumonia. An individual's risk of developing some chronic conditions…… [Read More]

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HIV Positive Nurses the Most

Words: 1901 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 46956439

However, the extent of discrimination and stigma on a HIV infected HCW is much higher creating severe health, economic and psychosocial consequences for the person. The risk of HIV infection is 100 times lesser than HV infection and by following 'Universal Procedures' it is possible to eliminate chances of an infected HCW from affecting a patient. HIV positive nurses should be permitted to work in safe settings without 'exposure prone procedures' so they can continue to participate in care giving while they are themselves coping with the burden of the disease. This is in line with the globally accepted GIPA principle of encouraging the active participation of HIV patients as an effective means to prevent, control and provide support services for people infected with HIV. While patients' safety should be the foremost issue in the field of health provision, care must be taken not to subject the HIV positive HCWs…… [Read More]

Bibliography

1) Susan J. Westrick, JD, MS, RN, Katherine McCormack Dempski, JD, BSN, RN, (2009),'Essentials of Nursing Law and Ethics', Jones & Bartlett Publishers. Pg. 223-224

2) Kathy Shaw, (Oct 2003), 'Workplace Issues for HIV positive Nurses', Georgia Nursing, available online at,  http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3925/is_200308/ai_n9255768/ 

3) Mahendra, vs. Gilborn, L., Bharat, S., Mudoi, R., Gupta, I., George, B. et

al.(2007). Understanding and measuring AIDS related stigma in health care settings: A developing country perspective, Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/
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AIDS Awareness in Brazil When

Words: 386 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 82108489



In addition, increased awareness of both testing and treatment options can help to eliminate the stigma associated with HIV and AIDS. Marketing should focus on the normative lifestyle now available to those infected with HIV; the fact that a positive test result is now no longer the death sentence it once was has made the disease less socially abhorrent, and increased testing has shown positive results in the reduction of spread (Pembrey, 2009). Brazil has excellent social programs in place to deal with HIV / AIDS, and public awareness of these programs and their benefit to individuals and society at large is essential in combating the disease in Brazil.

eferences

Pembrey, G. (2009). "HIV & AIDS in Brazil." AVET.org. Accessed 17 February 2009. http://www.avert.org/aids-brazil.htm

Plan UK. (2008). "aising awareness of HIV / AIDS in Maranhao, Brazil." Accessed 17 February 2009. http://www.plan-uk.org/wherewework/southamerica/brazil/hivaidsawarenessbrazil/

US AID. (2008). "Brazil." U.S. AID from the American…… [Read More]

References

Pembrey, G. (2009). "HIV & AIDS in Brazil." AVERT.org. Accessed 17 February 2009.  http://www.avert.org/aids-brazil.htm 

Plan UK. (2008). "Raising awareness of HIV / AIDS in Maranhao, Brazil." Accessed 17 February 2009.  http://www.plan-uk.org/wherewework/southamerica/brazil/hivaidsawarenessbrazil/ 

US AID. (2008). "Brazil." U.S. AID from the American people: HIV / AIDS." Accessed 17 February 2009.  http://www.usaid.gov/our_work/global_health/aids/Countries/lac/brazil.html
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HIV AIDS in South

Words: 1153 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 76499556

Needless to underline the difficulty of the this challenge.

Another author who is concerned with why the prevention programmes fail in this specific cultural environment is Catherine Campbell. She believes that while external help is fundamental, so is mobilizing the local community is the direction of prevention. Peer education made in informal scenery is believed to be the first necessary step. Another step would imply reaching the target represented by children and teenagers. This means "promoting peer education in a formal school setting" as well. "Mobilizing stakeholders to prevent HIV" is the third measure which she takes into consideration. "In the past few years, some development practitioners and agencies have attempted to acknowledge the complex and contested nature of local communities through the growing popularity of the concept of the "multi-stakeholder community." The recognition that geographical areas are often home to a range of different "stakeholders" represents an important first…… [Read More]

Bibliography:

Attwood, G. REFLECT- Learning circles in the Malealea Community Development project

Campbell, C. Letting them die: why HIV / AIDS intervention programmes fail. Google Books. Retrieved October 5, 2010 from  http://books.google.it/books?id=xZME3SMJUwcC&printsec=frontcover&dq=catherine+campbell+letting+them+die&source=bl&ots=L2WZ6lJaV2&sig=Le2k1h7d68hGxxDTBo8HM_nisYs&hl=it&ei=iPqtTIvdGczEswbxxv29DQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CBUQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q&f=false 

Dunton, C. - Audio

Epstein, H. The invisible cure. Retrieved October 7, 2010 from  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VSPk8K5zK3I
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AIDS in South Africa in

Words: 1528 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 9308908



It is through education that people can understand that AIDS is a disease like any other and there is no reason to keep it taboo. It is also through education that people must be made to understand the risks which this disease implies. The attitude needed in order to approach this issue is a very rational one. African people, starting with very young children, must be taught that there are diseases which cannot be cured, with chemicals or with herbal medicine from the local doctor and that prevention could spare everyone the dramatic consequences of this phenomenon.

My family lives in the U.S.A. And yet the mentality that they have was one of the factors which contributed most to their contamination and that of their spouses and children. This shows that mentality is a key issue all over the world, not just in Africa. Had my cousin not been ashamed…… [Read More]

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HIV AIDS the Acquired

Words: 359 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56256601

Although AIDS was first discussed in medical literature in 1981, recent evidence proves the HIV virus existed long before. The first documented infection, based on plasma samples, was from 1959 (Avert).

The three most direct modes of HIV transmission between humans include sex, blood transfusions or needle sharing, and mother to infant. The HIV virus cannot survive long without a host body. Transmission therefore requires fresh bodily fluids and yet HIV cannot be transmitted via mosquitoes.

HIV / AIDS carries an enormous social stigma as psychologically devastating as the disease is physically fatal. Because the first medically chronicled cases of HIV / AIDS were gay men, the disease became synonymous with homosexuality. Homophobia fueled fears of the disease and simultaneously stymied efforts to increase public awareness of its devastating effects on all persons. In sub-Saharan Africa, almost 60% of adults living with AIDS are female.

eferences

Avert. Web site retrieved…… [Read More]

References

Avert. Web site retrieved Nov 18, 2008 at  http://www.avert.org/worldstats.htm 

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Retrieved Nov 18, 2008 at  http://www.cdc.gov /hiv/topics/basic/index.htm
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HIV AIDS in Practice When to

Words: 719 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23389866

HIV / AIDS in Practice: When to Start Therapy, a Clinical Context eport

Article from "MedPage Today"

The writer, Mr. Smith, interviewed Dr. Myron Cohen of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill about the treatment of HIV / AIDS. Dr. Cohen says that the guideline from International Antiviral Society and DHSS (Department of Health and Human Services) treatment for HIV need to be started immediately after the diagnosis regardless of the CD4 cell count. HIV treatment involves different steps. First and foremost is for people to have a test for HIV detection. Once it is detected, treatment should be started. HIV and AIDS are two different diseases. HIV can be controlled and a person can lead a normal life. However, there are side effects of HIV treatment as well like it produces elite controllers i.e. patients who will progress towards AIDS slowly or not at all. But despite…… [Read More]

References

Altman, L.K. (2012, July 30). A World Without AIDS, Still Worlds Away. The NewYork Times.

Beasley, D., & Miles, T. (2012, July 18). AIDS deaths worldwide drop as access to drugs improves. Chicago Tribune.

Smit, M. (2013, January 05). HIV / AIDS in Practice: When to Start Therapy, a Clinical Context Report. MedPage Today.
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HIV Reporting Requirements to Determine

Words: 2848 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 17268468



The SBOH seems set to proceed with mandatory HIV reporting by name. That alternative is presently used by 30 other states. It is presently used by ashington for the other 52 infectious diseases with mandatory reporting. In that regard, it is an easy option to implement. Moreover, because name reporting is done already with AIDS, there is little room to justify different treatment for HIV than is already being given the full-blown version of the disease. There are concerns about privacy, given that unlike AIDS patients, HIV patients can live for decades. Reporting by name would have implementation issues for doctors and would give Public Health the most accurate and timely information possible to help them combat the spread of the disease. The privacy concerns stem largely from a distrust within the most afflicted communities of authorities, in particular the state government. There is the possibility that a significant portion…… [Read More]

Works Cited

No author. (1997). Mandatory HIV Reporting Gaining Advocates. Hepatitis and AIDS Research Trust. Retrieved July 8, 2008 at http://www.heart-international.net/HEART/Legal/Comp/MandatoryHIVreportinggaining.htm

No author. (no date). Feds Increase Pressure for HIV Reporting. Act Up New York. Retrieved July 8, 2008 at  http://www.actupny.org/reports/names-news1.html 

Howell, Craig. (1999). Testimony for Oversight Hearings on the D.C. Department of Health. GLAA. Retrieved July 8, 2008 at  http://www.glaa.org/archive/1999/namestestimony0223.shtml 

Jayraman, Gayatri C., Preiksaitis, Jutta K., and Larke, Bryce. (2003). Mandatory Reporting of HIV Infection and Opt-Out Prenatal Screening for HIV Infection: Effect on Testing Rates. Canadian Medical Association Journal. Retrieved July 8, 2008 at  http://www.cmaj.ca/cgi/content/abstract/168/6/679
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Social Context of HIV and AIDS in Africa

Words: 2201 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 70468179

Social Context of HIV and AIDS in Africa

The government of Africa has been moving toward criminalization of HIV transmission in its attempts to respond to the rising numbers of HIV infections however, those who advocate for human rights are concerned that these laws result in a violation of the rights of individuals living with HIV and ultimately resulting in the marginalization of these individuals. As well, it has been argued that laws criminalizing transmission of AIDS are counterproductive to the reason for their creation, which is that of slowing the rate of transmission and infection of HIV. There are arguments both for and against criminalization of HIV transmission that are valid and worthy of consideration.

Research Question

The question addressed in this research study is one asking if criminalization of HIV transmission is a valid option to slowing the rate of infection among the population.

Significance of the Study…… [Read More]

Bibliography

The Criminalization of HIV (nd) UNFPA, Worldaids Campaign, IPPF, and GYCA,

Bernard EJ: (2008) Criminal HIV Transmission. 2008 in: HIV is a Virus, Not a Crime: Ten Reasons Against Criminal Statutes and Criminal Prosecutions. Journal of the International AIDS Society. Dec 2008.

UNFPA Fact Sheet (2008) 'The Criminalisation of HIV' in: HIV is a Virus, Not a Crime: Ten Reasons Against Criminal Statutes and Criminal Prosecutions. Journal of the International AIDS Society. Dec 2008.

Bernard EJ (2008) Criminal HIV Transmission. Neue Zurcher Zeitung 2008 in: HIV is a Virus, Not a Crime: Ten Reasons Against Criminal Statutes and Criminal Prosecutions. Journal of the International AIDS Society. Dec 2008.
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Children With AIDS Population Demographics the Centers

Words: 1226 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15225793

Children with AIDS

Population Demographics

The Centers for Disease Control estimate there were 217 children with HIV below the age of 13, in 2010 in the 46 states. The report indicates that seventy-five percent of these were infected prenatal. By the end of 2009, approximately 10,834 people diagnosed with HIV at the age of 13 and below, were living with confidential, long-term name-based HIV reporting. Of the prenatal infections, 63% were from the African/Black community, 22% were Latino/Hispanics, and 13% were whites. The CDC estimates that the number of new children infected will increase by 30%. This is because the number of women giving birth in the U.S., with HIV increase at a rate of 30% in 2006. New York has the highest number of children with AIDS in any area of the U.S., as half of the children diagnosed with HIV / AIDS in the country reside in the…… [Read More]

References

Holmes, A.M., Ackerman, R.D., Zillich, A.J., Katz, B.P., Downs, S.M., & Inui, T.S. (2008). The Net Fiscal Impact of a Chronic Disease Management Program: Indiana Medicaid. Health Affairs, 27(3), 855-864.

Peters, V.B., M.D., Liu, K., Robinson, L., Dominguez, Kenneth L, M.D., M.P.H., Abrams, E.J., M.D., Gill, B.S., PhD., & Thomas, P.A., M.D. (2008). Trends in perinatal HIV prevention in New York City, 1994-2003. American Journal of Public Health, 98(10), 1857-64.

Schackman, B.R., Gebo, K.A., Walensky, R.P., Losina, E., Muccio, T., Sax, P.E., Weinstein, M.C., Seage, G.R. III, Moore, R.D., & Freedberg, K.A. (2006). The lifetime cost of current human immunodeficiency virus care in the United States. Medical Care, 44(11), 990-997.
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How to Prevent AIDS in the Gay Community

Words: 3659 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 9440599

prevent AIDS in the Gay community

In all culture sex among men is present. The receptive companion is at the risk of carrying a HIV transmission if involved in anal sex and when unshielded. In some parts of the world the HIV transmission is mainly because of the sex among men, while in some other areas other ways of transmission is also possible. But almost everywhere sex amongst men is the major and regular cause for this spate. It should not be overlooked. These sex-actions are done only by option. The occurrence of sex between male-to-male is frequent in the establishments in which male are forced to spend longer periods in full male company like the military, prisons and men-only educational organizations. Antagonism and misunderstandings about sex among men have lead to insufficient protection procedures in many countries.

Defective and lack of epidemiological facts is the barrier for HIV deterrence…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Altman, Lawrence K. "Many Gay Men in U.S. Unaware They Have H.I.V., Study Finds" The New York Times, July 7, 2002, A7

Carrns, Ann "HIV Study Shows 44% Infection Rate for Young Gay Men." Wall Street journal 1January2001:B2.

Coyle, Adrian. "Lesbian and Gay Psychology; New Perspectives." Oxford, UK. Maiden, MA, Bps Blackwell, 2002, p.23

Diaz, Johnny. Study: "Young gays lax about safe sex" Miami Herald - Sunday, June 10, 2001,p6
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Sex and AIDS in Young

Words: 2389 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 14256484



For the many African-Americans who struggle with poverty, concerns about HIV and AIDS often fall to the bottom of their lists of concerns (Messina, 1994). When feeding their families, paying the rent or taking a sick child to the emergency room are everyday problems, concern about a disease that might be fatal in a decade is unlikely to be a priority.

In African-American communities, childbearing is extremely important. Various researchers have suggested that for African-Americans "who live in poverty, having children is often the only way they have to prove that they are socially productive and to demonstrate their manhood or womanhood (de la Vega, 1990). HIV / AIDS prevention messages that encourage condom use are in direct conflict with this cultural values, as condoms prevent pregnancy.

Denial

Denial of the threat of HIV / AIDS is common in African-American communities. Most people assume that they are safe from infection,…… [Read More]

References (March 18, 1998). The Untold Story: AIDS and Black American: A Briefing on the Crisis of AIDS among African-Americans. The Kaiser Family Foundation Survey of African-Americans on HIV / AIDS.

Andriote, John-Manuel. (2005). HIV / AIDS and African-Americans: A 'State of Emergency. Population Reference Bureau.

CDC. (2003) Late vs. early testing of HIV -- 16 sites, United States, 2000-2003. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report: 581-86.

A de la Vega, Ernesto. (March, 1990). Considerations for Reaching the Latino Population With Sexuality and HIV / AIDS Information and Education. SIECUS Report 18 (3), p.3.

Essien et al. (2005). Strategies to prevent HIV transmission among heterosexual African-American men. BMC Public Health: 5: 3.
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Argue Whether African Americans Contributing to the Rise of AIDS in the Black Community

Words: 1556 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 25942919

African-Americans and AID Risk

The increased incidence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immunodeficiency yndrome (AID) among the African-American population is an alarming issue. 35% - more than one third - of all cases reported in the United tates and 43% of newly reported AID cases are among African-Americans, even though this population only comprises 12% of the American population (PR Newswire, 1998). Among all new AID cases reported by women, African-American Women account for 60%, and African-American men comprise 39% of all new cases among men. This latter rate is six times the rate of reported AID cases by white men (PR Newswire, 1998). Overall, African-Americans have the highest transmission rates of HIV in the United tates (Adimora & choenbach, 2002), and AID is the leading cause of death of African-Americans between the ages of 25 and 44 (Hodge, 2001). What are the factors underlying these distressing statistics,…… [Read More]

Sanders-Phillips, K. "Factors Influencing HIV / AIDS in Women of Color." Public Health Reports 117.1 (2002): S151-6.

Sterk, C.E. "The Health Intervention Project: HIV Risk Reduction Among African-American Women Drug Users." Public Health Reports 117.1 (May - June 2002): S88-95.

Stoskopf, C.H., Richter, D.L., Kim Y.K. "Factors Affecting Health Status in African-Americans Living With HIV / AIDS." AIDS Patient Care and STDS 15.6 (June 2001): 331-8.
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Latina & AIDS Hispanic Population

Words: 1617 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 15524811

The colorful and rich culture and heritage should be used to counter such menaces by the community or non-governmental organizations working for the prevention and awareness of AIDS/HIV.

Ethnicity

Latino is a large group comprising further sub-categories like Mexican, Mexican-American, Chicano, people born in the U.S. Of Mexican descent that identify as American and other Indian civilizations. Each group cannot be targeted with the same message. These different groups have different social mindsets and have different social status. For example, people born in the U.S. Of Mexican descent will be more aware of the issues and problems related to their health and well being then new immigrants in the country belonging to this community. The migrant people belonging to this community have more pressing needs like housing, food, and employment as compared to Chicanos who are more concerned with political implications. Hence, one message fits all strategy cannot work with…… [Read More]

References

Borges-Hernandez, Adalisse, Gonzalez-Rodriguez, Rafael a. & Velez-Pastrana, Maria C. 'Family Functioning and Early Onset of Sexual Intercourse in Latino Adolescents.' Adolescence. 40.160 (2005): 777+.

Diaz, Rafael M. 'Macho, Latino HIV+'. The Advocate. 747(November 25, 1997): 9.

Peterson, John L. 'Introduction to the Special Issue: HIV / AIDS Prevention through Community Psychology'. American Journal of Community Psychology. 26.1. (1998): 1+.

Carmona, Jennifer Vargas, Mitchell-Kernan, Claudia, Newcomb, Michael D., Romero, Gloria J., Solis, Beatriz, Tucker, M. Belinda, Wayment, Heidi a. & Wyatt, Gail E 'Acculturation, Sexual Risk Taking and HIV Health Promotion Among Latinas'. Journal of Counseling Psychology. 45.4(1998): 454.
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Women in NY USA With AIDS HIV Disease

Words: 2287 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 15040850

Women and AIDS in New York City:

Hidden Cases, Hidden Problems

Ask most people what group of people you think of when you think of AIDS, and most people will name gay men. While it's undeniable that the AIDS epidemic was first noticed among gay men, AIDS has become an equal opportunity illness, and currently women represent the fastest growing sector of people with HIV / AIDS in the United States. This fact is true in New York City as well.

The growth in the rate of HIV / AIDS among women in New York City is a growing concern for a variety of reasons. Worse than the increase in infection among women is the death rate. Although overall, the death rate from AIDS has dropped significantly, the death rate for women with AIDS is significantly higher than that of men.

How widespread is the problem?

A look at recent…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Author not available. Fall, 1998. "The Children Left Behind. Harvard AIDS Institute. Accessed via the Internet 10/13/02.  http://www.hsph.harvard.edu/hai 

Author not available. "It Helps To Know." Brooklyn AIDS Task Force, Inc. Accessed via the Internet 10/13/02.  http://www.batf.net/ .

Cadman, Jill. Spring 1998. "Strategies for Interrupting Mother-to-Child Transmission." CRIA Update: Vol. 7, No. 2. Accessed via the Internet 10/13/02. http://www.criany.org/treatment/treatment_edu_springupdate1998.html

Center for Disease Control. "CDC: National Center for HIV, STD and TB Prevention." Divisions of HIV / AIDS Prevention." Accessed via the Internet 10/13/02.  http://www.cdcnpin.org/topic/stats.htm .
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Should HIV Testing Screening Be Made Part of Primary Prevention

Words: 3311 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 44959222

HIV testing/Screening be made part of Primary Prevention?

This analysis backs up research on behavioral interventions that lower HIV transmission. The aim of the analysis are to reinforce interdisciplinary research that develops, implements, and evaluates practically and theoretically based interventions intended to prevent HIV transmission. This knowledge needs to progress understanding of the interaction between psychological, behavioral, biological and social factors that influence the acquirement of HIV in our populations. The analysis supports research that acts as the base for an empirically-based public health policy plan to prevent several new HIV infections as possible. Similarly, ASPQ supports basic prevention and intervention research that tackle multiple levels factors that facilitate or obstruct lowering of HIV risk.

Introduction

Immense progress have been made over the ancient times decade in behavioral research on how to assist people prevent contracting HIV infections (primary prevention) and how to reduce or alleviate unfavorable consequences among individuals…… [Read More]

WORK CITED

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2009). HIV / AIDS Surveillance Report. Vol. 19. Atlanta: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services,

CDC (2004). Cases of HIV infection and AIDS in the United States

HIV / AIDS, Surveillance Report 2005; 16:16 -- 45.

CDC. (2001) Revised recommendations for HIV screening of pregnant women. MMWR; 50(No. RR-19):63 -- 85.
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Dynamics of Awareness and Prevention in HIV AIDS Policymaking

Words: 820 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75944823

ates and Preventative HIV / AIDS Policy: A Disconnect in African Countries

The primary focus of research in HIV / AIDS has been on the disease itself: transmission, prevalence, prevention, treatment, etc. (Aldashev & Baland, 2013). The responses to the HIV / AIDS academic have varied widely and are not intuitive, showing no logical patterns with regard to prevention policies and prevalence (Aldashev & Baland, 2013). That is to say that high prevalence rates in regions or nations do not trigger more aggressive policies. A key example of this phenomenon can be seen in Senegal's response to early proactive education programs for AIDS prevention that was completely out of proportion to its very low prevalence rate of 1% of the population of Senegal in 2003 (Aldashev & Baland, 2013). In comparison, Swaziland and Zimbabwe, countries that experienced extremely high prevalence rates of 24.6% in 2003 and 42.6%, respectively, exhibited limited…… [Read More]

References

Aldashev, G. And Baland, J. (2013, October). Awareness and AIDS: A political economy perspective.

Alsan, M. And Cutler, D. (2010). The ABCDs of health: Explaining the reductionin AIDS in Uganda. NBER working paper 16171.

AVERT (2012). HIV and AIDS in Uganda. Retreived from http://www.avert.ogr/aids-uganda.htm.

McElroy, A. And Townsend, P. (1989). Medical anthropology in ecological perspective. Medical Anthropology Quarterly, New Series, 3(4), 405-407.
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Developing an Intervention for HIV AIDS Population

Words: 3037 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 29045878

HIV patients.

Identify and Describe the Aggregate

This paper focuses on a particular section of HIV patients - that of men having sex with men, in the United States. There is also an identification and description of the aggregate, its needs and risk factors. The advantages, applications, limitations and adaptability of the interventions for the aggregate form the bulk of the discussion in this paper.

In almost every country in the world, it can be said with certainty, that there are men who have sex with men (MSM). Globally, however, this is a very diverse group. Some of these men label themselves as bisexual; others as gay and a large number simply refer to themselves as heterosexual men who just have sex with other men. In the global HIV and AIDS context, sex between men is a key front in the fight against the spread of this disease, because such…… [Read More]

References

Aceijas, C., Stimson, G., Hickman, M., & Rhodes, T. (2004). Global overview of injecting drug use and HIV infection among injecting drug users.

Avert.org. (2014). Men who have sex with men (MSM) and HIV / AIDS. Retrieved from Avert:  http://www.avert.org/men-who-have-sex-men-msm-hiv-aids.htm 

Beyrer, C. (2007). HIV Epidemiology Update and Transmission Factors: Risks and Risk Contexts -- 16th International AIDS Conference Epidemiology Plenary. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 981-987.

CDC. (2013, Novemeber 29). HIV Testing and Risk Behaviors Among Gay, Bisexual, and Other Men Who Have Sex with Men -- United States. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR), pp. 958-962.
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Behavioral Risk for HIV Infection Among Gay and Bisexual Men in the United States

Words: 1273 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 47726134

Behavioral risk for HIV infection among gay and bisexual men in the United States

According to reports published by the Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), they state that by the year 2004, more than nine hundred and forty thousand individuals in the United States of America had been diagnosed with AIDS, majority of who were gay men and African-Americans. This report including others have brought the issue of HIV infection in gay and bisexual men into sharp focus and more in particular the behavioral risks that the group exposes themselves to, which have contributed to the sharp increase in HIV infection amongst members of this group. This research intends to focus of this behavioral risk and preventive measures that have been established to prevent HIV infection in gay and bisexual men in the United States.

Behavioral risk

Another recent research conducted by Centre for Disease Control and Prevention…… [Read More]

References

Hockenbury, D., & Hockenbury, E., (2008), Psychology, Word publishers, pp 232-234

Kelly, J.A. (1992). HIV risk behavior reduction following intervention with key opinion leaders of population: An experimental analysis. American Journal of Public Health, 82, 1483 -- 1489.

Latkin, C.A., Sherman, S., & Knowlton, A. (2003). HIV prevention among drug users: Outcome of a network-oriented peer outreach intervention. Health Psychology, 22, 332 -- 339.

Wasserheit, J.N., & Aral, S.O., (1996), the dynamic topology of sexually transmitted disease epidemics: Implications for prevention strategies. The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 201 -- 213.
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Everything You Ever Wanted to Know About HIV in the USA

Words: 1652 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 83204211

Epidemiology of HIV

Epidemiology & Communicable Disease

Description of HIV

HIV is short for human immunodeficiency virus, and it the viral infection that can lead to AIDS or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The HIV virus remains in the body for life as the human body cannot rid itself of the virus; this is true even if the overt symptoms of HIV are absent ("CDC," 2015). The HIV virus spreads through body fluids, affecting specific cells (CD4 or T cells) associated with the immune system ("CDC," 2015). HIV destroys many CD4 cells over time to a degree that compromises the body's overall immune system leaving it incapable of fighting off infections and disease: this end stage of HIV infection is referred to as AIDS ("CDC," 2015). The CD4 cell count is fundamental to monitoring people living with HIV ("CDC," 2015).

HIV progresses through several stages with the first stage often -- but…… [Read More]

References

Osmond, DH (2003, March). Epidemiology of HIV / AIDS in the United States. HIV InSite Knowledge Base Chapter, University of California at San Francisco. Retreived from  http://hivinsite.ucsf.edu/InSite?page=kb-01-03#S2X 

____. (2013). Global Health Observatory (GHO) Data. World Health Organization (WHO). Retreived from  http://www.who.int/gho/hiv/en/ 

____. (2012). Epidemiology of HIV Infection through 2012. National Center for HIV / AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD & TB Prevention. Division of HIV / AIDS Prevention. Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Retrieved from ____. (2015). HIV 101. Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

Retreived from  http://www.cdc.gov /hiv/basics/index.html
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Program Development and Evaluation for HIV MSM Population

Words: 1523 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 51735174

Program Development and Evaluation

The proposed program is intended for, and targets the students of both secondary and tertiary institutions. The program is known as "MSM Initiative for Colleges." "

The ability of this program to use ICT as a way of helping the aggregate is one important technique that will give the program a new edge. This is to help develop an effective combination of avoidance intervention that will be able to deliver BCC-behavioral change in communication. These behavioral changes in communication can be in the form of products, services, messages, as well as referrals, as a way of promoting and improving the use of condoms and condom-compatible lubricants, HIV tests, reporting cases of violence, and using complementary services. This inventive online 'cyber educator' MSM intervention, virtually provides a one-on-one HIV and BCC counseling, and test referrals (Adams, Klindera, Walsh, & Wold, 2014).

Interventions for the Aggregate

Distribution of…… [Read More]

References

Adam, D., kinder., K., Walsh, C.S., & Wold, R.C (2014), November 14). Innovative programmatic approaches to HIV prevention and care services for gay men, other men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender persons using information and communication technology (ICT). Digital Culture & Education (DCE). Retrieved from Digital Culture and Education: http://www.digitalcultureandeducation.com/uncategorized/v6_i3_editorial_html/

Cohen, L. M., & Gelbrich, J. (2015, October 16). Sample Educational Philosophy Statements . Retrieved from Oregun State University:  http://oregonstate.edu/instruct/ed416/sample.html 

PEPFAR (2011).Technical Guidance on Combination HIV Prevention. The U.S. President's Emergency plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR).
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Nepal AIDS Strategy

Words: 1282 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Other Paper #: 82683385

Strategic Management Health Care

I will use AIDSCAP Nepal as my organization. AIDSCAP has a mission to reduce the incidence of AIDS/HIV among Nepalese sex workers. The organization is not competitive in nature -- it is not a corporate but a not-for-profit entity. It is funded by USAID, so there might be some element of competition for funding that demand it show results for its efforts, but ultimately there is not much competitive posture for AIDSCAP at all.

Strategic thinking is essential to successful performance of any organization (Goldman, 2007), so the leaders of the organization must set a strategy that takes into account the external and internal environments. This is the case even when the organization is not engaged in active competitive, something that AIDSCAP as a not-for-profit entity does not engage in.

An adaptive strategy is defined as one that deals with the environment and its challenges by…… [Read More]

References

Goldman, E. (2007). Strategic thinking at the top. MIT Sloan Management Review. Retrieved November 16, 2014 from  http://sloanreview.mit.edu/article/strategic-thinking-at-the-top/ 

Hawthorne, M. (2014). The purpose of mission and vision statements in strategic planning. Houston Chronicle. Retrieved November 16, 2014 from  http://smallbusiness.chron.com/purpose-mission-vision-statements-strategic-planning-13161.html 

Martin, R. (2014). Adaptive strategy is a cop-out. Harvard Business Review. Retrieved November 16, 2014 from  https://hbr.org/2014/05/adaptive-strategy-is-a-cop-out 

Poister, T. (no date). Strategic planning and decision making in state departments of transportation. Transportation Research Board.
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AIDS to Prevent Infection A Bargain And

Words: 848 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56129822

AIDS to prevent infection: a bargain?" And is written by Julie Steenhuysen for Reuters and published April 17, 2012. The article begins by describing why AIDS is still a very much-discussed topic within the medical community, despite many breakthroughs, after so many years of being in the news, and so many advances in the technology that treats it. According to the article, one of the most successful treatments in preventing AIDS for healthy individuals is called Truvada, which is a combination of Emtriva, and Viread. (Truvada, 2012) This treatment was created in an effort to create a "pre-exposure prophylaxis" or PrEP. (Steenhuysen, 2012). This treatment would require men who are at high risk of contracting HIV to take a daily pill in order to provide a better defense from this disease.

This treatment may greatly reduce the number of men who contract HIV each year, already at a very high…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Steenhuysen, J. (2012). Abs-cbn news. Retrieved from  http://www.abs-cbnnews.com/lifestyle/04/17/12/using-aids-drugs-prevent-infection-bargain 

Truvada. "About TRUVADA - TRUVADA." TRUVADA.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Apr. 2012. .
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AIDS on Gay the Community

Words: 1427 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 52104630

Community-level programs can also reach large numbers of young men. Societal homophobia may impede implementing effective prevention programs for gay youth and may discourage young gay men from accessing prevention services.

This stigma has manifested itself in the forms of discrimination and fear of "people living with AIDS" (PLWAs). As a result, the social implications of the disease have been removed from people with other life threatening conditions to PLWAs. Unfortunately, they are not only faced with a terminal illness but also social isolation and constant discrimination throughout society. Various explanations have been suggested as to the underlying causes of these discriminatory stigmas. Many studies point to the relationship the disease has with deviant behavior, while others suggest that fear of contagion is the actual culprit. When examining the existing literature and putting it into societal context, it could lead one to believe that there is no one cause of…… [Read More]

References

Conduct Unbecoming: Gays and Lesbians in the U.S. Military: Vietnam to the Persian Gulf. New York: St. Martin's, 1993.

Hodgson, I. Culture, meaning and perception: explanatory models and the delivery of HIV care. Abstract MoPeD2772, XIIIth International AIDS Conference, Durban, South Africa, 2000. Available at www.brad.ac.uk/staff/ijhodgson/summaries/Publications/durban2000.htm.

Shilts, Randy. And the Band Played on: Politics, People, and the AIDS Epidemic. New York: St. Martin's, 1987.

UNAIDS (United Nations Joint Programme on HIV / AIDS). 2002. Report on the Global HIV / AIDS Epidemic, 2002. Switzerland: UNAIDS.
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AIDS and Offer Solutions to

Words: 1392 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 93708541

A group of researchers write, "To effectively respond to this pandemic, HIV / AIDS must be treated as both an emergency and a long-term developmental issue" (Da Cruz, Da Cruz & Hammers, 2007). First, additional research must be developed to help find an ultimate cure for this disease. This would be the ultimate form of control and eradication, and would eliminate this social problem from the world.

However, this research is costly and takes time. Simply developing drugs that help combat the disease effectively has taken decades, and there is still no cure or preventative for AIDS, other than abstinence. There is an office of AIDS research in the Federal Government that coordinates research and development activities, and there is research under way to help develop an AIDS vaccine to prevent the disease. esearch should be heavily funded, and if federal funds are not available, they should be sought through…… [Read More]

References

Da Cruz, J.D., Da Cruz, B.K., & Hammers, C. (2007). HIV / AIDS: The pandemic hits the 'sleeping giant'. International Social Science Review, 82(1-2), 55+.

Editors. (2008). AIDS. Retrieved 8 Feb. 2008 from the AIDS.gov Web site:  http://www.aids.gov/ .

Editors. (2007). Basic information: AIDS. Retrieved 8 Feb. 2008 from the CDC.gov Web site:  http://www.cdc.gov /hiv/topics/basic/#origin
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HIV Management

Words: 1538 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 30136805

communicable disease for discussion is HIV. HIV is the precursor to AIDS and is a virus with possible origins within the monkeys and chimp population of Africa. Some humans in certain areas of Africa ate these animals and may have been exposed to the virus where it transformed into aids. Because of HIV's ability to destroy CD4 cells, a particular kind of white blood cell, which plays a big part in aiding the body fight illness, it severely weakens a person's immune system. Eventually, it can progress to AIDS. This happens when an individual's CD4 count goes below 200 or experience complications that define AIDS like tuberculosis.

Transmission of HIV comes from infected semen, blood, or vaginal secretions that must enter a person's body. Ordinary contact does not result in infection like hugging, dancing, or kissing a person with HIV. HIV cannot be transmitted through water, insect bites, or air.…… [Read More]

References

Aids.gov,. (2015). Presidential Advisory Council on HIV / AIDS. Retrieved 1 April 2015, from  https://www.aids.gov/federal-resources/pacha/about-pacha/ 

Layzell, S., & McCarthy, M. (1993). Specialist or generic community nursing care for HIV / AIDS patients?. J Adv Nurs, 18(4), 531-537. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2648.1993.18040531.x
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Impact HIV AIDS Has on Governance in Botswana

Words: 1769 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Discussion Chapter Paper #: 86685477

HIV / AIDS Implication in African Governance

Implications of HIV / AIDS on Botswana's Governance

This dissertation paper is a research study that foresees on the governance structure of African nations, in particular, Botswana. The country has had a declining development on the improvements being instigated in government. This has been attributed to ht increasing rates of HIV / AIDS in the country; more so, it has been rated top among nations with the highest rate of HIV / AIDS infection. This paper raises concerns being implicated on in the social and economic aspects of Botswana government structure and Africa in general. The future is also prospected with a close analysis on the disease's trend in the country, and the importance of reducing the rate of infection for the betterment of governance.

Impact of HIV / AIDS on Botswana's Governance

Introduction

Governance is the act of utilizing institutional resources in…… [Read More]

References

Adepoju, A., Naerssen, A. L & Zoomers, E.B. 2008. International migration and national development in Sub-Saharan Africa. New York: BRILL.

Bell, C., Shantayanan, D & Hans, G. 2003. The long-run economic costs of AIDS: Theory and an application to Southern Africa. Heidelberg: Heidelberg University.

Deacon, H., Stepheny, I & Prosalendis, S. 2005. Understanding HIV / AIDS stigma: a theoretical and methodological analysis. Chicago: HSRC Press.

EPub. 2002. Botswana: Selected Issues and Statistical Appendix. New York: International Monetary Fund.
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How to Help the Older Population With HIV

Words: 1477 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 29376071

HIV in the Older Population

To Congress:

It has come to the attention of the medical community that enough is not being done to help the older population of HIV-infected individuals. This population makes up 1/4th of the total population of persons infected with HIV (CDC, 2016). In order to protect this population and to help to mitigate the risk of spreading HIV, there are a number of steps recommended to Congress that Congress can implement as part of a national policy to address the issue facing the older HIV population.

These steps are the following:

Establish more HIV clinics in inner city neighborhoods

Address housing, medical care, educational and financial assistance issues related to older populations needs

Set up a special fund that can be used to provide financial assistance for older HIV-infected adults

Support the medical community with direct grants and subsidies that go to providing free counseling…… [Read More]

References

AIDS. (2015). Newly diagnosed: Older Adults. Aids.gov. Retrieved from  https://www.aids.gov/hiv-aids-basics/just-diagnosed-with-hiv-aids/overview/aging-population/ 

CDC. (2016). HIV Among People Aged 50 and Over. CDC.gov. Retrieved from  http://www.cdc.gov /hiv/group/age/olderamericans/index.html

Population Reference Bureau. (2009). HIV / AIDS and Older Adults in the United States.

PBR, 18: 1-6. Retrieved from  http://www.prb.org/pdf09/TodaysResearchAging18.pdf
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Impact of AIDS on African Development

Words: 2794 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 39638956

AIDS on South African Development

Today, the chromium, platinum, gold and diamond mining sectors provide the largest percentage of export revenues for South Africa. One of the inevitable consequences of these natural resource extraction industries is the proliferation of mining camps that house the migrant domestic and foreign workers from neighboring countries that support the industry. Although conditions vary, most mining camps are squalid affairs that lack running water, electricity or the other basic amenities of modern life that most people take for granted. These harsh living conditions, combined with the loneliness that results from being forced to spend long periods of time away from family and friends, create an ideal environment for the spread of communicable diseases, especially human immunodeficiency virus / acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV / AIDS). This paper provides a review of the related primary and secondary literature concerning mining camps and their role in the spread…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Boe, Hans-Petter and Crush, Jonathan. HIV / AIDS, Population Mobility and Migration in Southern Africa: Defining a Research and Policy Agenda. Pretoria: Regional HIV / AIDS

Programme for Southern Africa of the Netherlands' Embassy in Pretoria, 2005.

Lurie, M. et al. (1999). "Circular Migration and Sexual Networking in Rural KwaZulu-Natal:

Implications for the Spread of HIV and Other Sexually Transmitted Diseases." Health
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Communicable Disease HIV

Words: 1160 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90527718

Communicable Disease - HIV

Since its discovery as a wasting disease, "gay-related immune deficiency" and "slim" in the mid-1980's, HIV has posed a significant health problem for the United States and the World. Initially considered mysteriously devastating, HIV ultimately caused the deaths of hundreds of thousands, yet failed to attract sufficient funding and attention. hrough the efforts of health professionals and activists, HIV was finally accorded the funding and attention it deserved. oday, HIV is addressed globally, federally and locally through multiple well-funded programs/groups and agencies.

History of HIV

According to the AIDS Healthcare Foundation, blood analysis showed that the HIV virus existed in humans as early as the 1940's and that HIV-1 -- the most common viral strain -- was transmitted from chimpanzees to humans at some point in the early to mid-20th Century (AIDS Healthcare Foundation, n.d.). In the early 1980's medical professionals noticed that a "wasting disease"…… [Read More]

The nurse's role in education about and prevention of HIV stems from his/her core value of becoming a knowledgeable, effective advocate for the highest attainable quality of patient care. This core value requires several key activities by nurses, presented here numerically but in equal order of importance. First, the nurse must become educated about HIV-related issues (Association of Nurses in AIDS Care, 2012). Secondly, the nurse must make his/her voice heard. Nurses can make their voices nationally and regionally heard by: joining professional organizations that exert greater impact on the response to HIV / AIDS issues (Association of Nurses in AIDS Care, 2012); contacting public officials (Association of Nurses in AIDS Care, 2012); calling media attention to HIV / AIDS to the epidemic and in pressuring for a more aggressive governmental response (Association of Nurses in AIDS Care, 2010, p. 4); taking a clear-cut stance on effective education and prevention (Association of Nurses in Aids Care, 2012). Nurses can make their voices locally and specifically heard by: participating in community programs, organizations and support groups dedicated to education, prevention and high quality treatment. In their professional lives, nurses can contributed to prevention by educating patients about the causes, prevention, treatment and day-to-day aspects of living with of HIV / AIDS. Some use a widespread approach, such as published materials like What nurses know…HIV and AIDS (Farnan & Enriquez, 2012); others directly address those issues with their individual patients, such as forming an alliance with the patient to enhance adherence to treatment (Association of Nurses in AIDS Care, 2010, p. 47).

Community Programs / Organizations / Support Groups

As HIV / AIDS awareness increased, the numbers of community programs, organizations and support groups also increased. Given San Francisco's large at-risk gay/bisexual male population, for example, there are several key programs, organization and support groups. There is, of course, the San
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Origin of HIV the Mystery of HIV

Words: 6006 Length: 22 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35184502

Origin of HIV

The mystery of HIV and its origins is one that cannot be easily solved. In the thirty-odd years which have passed since the official recognition of AIDS by the CDC and the subsequent search for its cause, various theories have been floated regarding its nature, its development, its ability to adapt, our ability to combat it, and -- most importantly for some -- its origin. How did the virus come into being? Viruses are known for altering over time and according to circumstances. They have a way of "bending" in order to make due -- of manipulating themselves in such a way so as to survive. This is no less true for HIV than for influenza. Just as variants of influenza appear each year to wreak havoc on the human population, variant-strains of HIV continue to be discovered, suggesting that the virus is still developing, still finding…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Apetrei, C., et al. (2005) 'Molecular epidemiology of simian immunodeficiency virus

SIVsm in U.S. primate centers unravels the origin of SIVmac and SIVstm', J Virol, 79(14):8991-9005.

Clavel, F., et al. (1986) 'Isolation of a new human retrovirus from West African patients

with AIDS', Science, 233(4761):343-346.
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Cultural Beliefs and Religious Values Related to HIV AIDS

Words: 1352 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91057210

Collaborative Learning Community on Issues elated to HIV / AIDS

Culture refers to a complex set of material, intellectual, spiritual and emotional characteristics that define a social group or a society. It comprises of fundamental rights, ways of life, traditional beliefs, and value systems in society. Some cultural beliefs, practices, and norms related to sexuality contribute to the spread and increased risk of HIV acquisition. Cultural beliefs such as negative attitudes towards the use of protective mechanisms such as condoms as well discussing its use among societies is one among the contributing factors. For example, men in some communities do not prefer using condoms because they consider flesh-flesh sex with masculinity and promotion of health.

Practices such as the male circumcision influence the risk of HIV disease. Studies show that the social practice significantly reduces the risks of HIV disease among them male during penile vaginal sex. Social practices embedded…… [Read More]

References

Hall, J.C., Hall, B.J., & Cockerell, C.J. (2011). HIV / AIDS in the post-HAART era: Manifestations, treatment, and epidemiology. Shelton, CT: People's Medical Pub. House- USA.

Jenkins, C.L. & Robalino, D.A. (2003). HIV / AIDS in the Middle East and North Africa: The costs of inaction. Washington, DC: World Bank

Stolley, K.S., & Glass, J.E. (2009). HIV / AIDS. Santa Barbara, Calif: Greenwood Press

World Bank (2001). HIV / AIDS in the Caribbean: Issues and options. Washington, DC: World Bank
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Levels of Prevention

Words: 794 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40241845

Public health screening activities in programs are also essential in ensuring this level of prevention is ensured. A good example is organized screening programs targeted at the community.

The third level of prevention, tertiary prevention, involves bother rehabilitative and therapeutic measures once the person already has the symptoms and signs of the disease. Tertiary prevention has several goals, which include preventing damage and pain that may arise from the disease, slowing down the progression of the disease, preventing the disease from causing complications, giving optimum care to people with signs of the disease, and helping those with the disease to live healthy lives afterwards. A quintessential example of tertiary preventive activities includes treating diabetics to prevent complications that occur as a result of the disease such as liver and kidney failure. Other examples are management of patients with chronic heart disease with therapy and medication, physical and occupational therapy as…… [Read More]

References

Baker, J.E.L. (1992). Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary Prevention in Reducing Pesticide-Related Illness in Farmers. Journal of Community Health Nursing, 9(4), 245-254. doi: 10.2307/3427201

Flaskerud, J.H. (1992). HIV Disease and Levels of Prevention. Journal of Community Health Nursing, 9(3), 137-150. doi: 10.2307/3427251

Green, M.M. (1971). The Expanded Role of the Public Health Nurse. Canadian Journal of Public Health / Revue Canadienne de Sante'e Publique, 62(2), 147-152. doi: 10.2307/41984635

Ureda, J., & Yates, S. (2005). A SYSTEMS VIEW of HEALTH PROMOTION. Journal of Health and Human Services Administration, 28(1), 5-38. doi: 10.2307/41288055
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Health Prevention Programs

Words: 2666 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 64756401

Health Promotion Lesson Plan

The concept of health promotion is thought of as "the science and art of helping people change their lifestyle to move toward a state of optimal health" (Dunphy et al., 2011, p 25). Serious heart conditions can be prevented, which is why it is so important to utilize community education techniques in order to help try to warn community members of the complications before they occur. This current lesson plan works to create three separate community lesson plans, based on specific age ranges. The age 18-29 focuses primarily on the use of social media and health advocacy efforts in association with the American Heart Association. For ages 30-49, there is also a focus on these two, combined with more community oriented issues, and for 50-60, there is much more of a focus on financial training along with community organized workshops.

Prevention has become a major issue…… [Read More]

References McLeod, Saul. (2010). Erik Erikson. Developmental Psychology. Simply Psychology. Web.  http://www.simplypsychology.org/Erik-Erikson.html
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Why Does Ghana Has Less AIDS in the Sub-Saharan Africa

Words: 1000 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 9618147

AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa?

AIDS in Ghana

AIDS, or Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, has devastated much of Africa, hitting this continent worse than any other in the world. In fact, in the year 2000, 80% of the world's total AIDS-related deaths were within Africa. (C 2000) One of the areas hit the hardest by this virus has been the Sub-Saharan region. Ghana, within that region, has also been ravaged by AIDS, but it has a significantly lower percentage of AIDS cases than much of the rest of Africa. While the AIDS within Ghana has many of the same causes and effects on the people who are infected with the disease, it is a unique situation within Africa because of its particular effects on the women of the country, and the fact that there are comparatively fewer AIDS cases within this country.

The first reported cases of AIDS in Ghana were…… [Read More]

Bibliography

BBC. 2003. "Africa's Aids burden." UK: BBC News, Retreived December 1, 2003. ( http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/1045156.stm )

Ghana AIDS Commission [1]. 2003. "Brief Statistics on HIV / AIDS." Ghana: Ghana AIDS Commission, Retreieved December 1, 2003. ( http://www.ghanaids.gov.gh/functionalities/statusandimpact/articledescription.asp?ArticleID=13 )

Ghana AIDS Commission [2]. 2003. "Women and AIDS." Ghana: Ghana AIDS Commission, Retreieved December 1, 2003. ( http://www.ghanaids.gov.gh/barefacts/practicalinformation/articledescription.asp?ArticleID=24 )

Ofeibea Quirst-arcton. 2003. "Aids Treatment Plan Begins In January." Accra: AllAfrica.com, Retreived December 1, 2003. ( http://allafrica.com/stories/200311300172.html )
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Women With HIV Have Reproductive

Words: 3942 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 18245249

" (International Conference on Population and Development ICPD) (ibid)

However the meaning of reproductive right extends into other areas. For example, this includes the right to non-discrimination based on sex/gender and the right to privacy as well as the right to information. The issue of the reproductive rights for women becomes problematic and often fraught with controversy when it is applied to those infected with the HIV virus. This dilemma has far-reaching implications for the millions of women with HIV throughout the world.

3.2. Different perspectives

The different views on the subject of reproductive rights range from the more conservative view that all reproductive rights should be denied in Women with HIV to more perceptive views that links the denial of reproductive rights to other human rights issues. For example, one view from a survey conducted by the International Community of Women Living with HIV / AIDS (ICW) states that,…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Albury, R.M. (1999). Beyond the Slogans. St. Leonards, N.S.W.: Allen & Unwin.

Almond, B., & Ulanowsky, C. (1990). HIV and Pregnancy. The Hastings Center Report, 20(2), 16+. Retrieved June 15, 2005, from Questia database,  http://www.questia.com .

Amaro, H., & Raj, a. (2000). On the Margin: Power and Women's HIV Risk Reduction Strategies. 723. Retrieved June 15, 2005, from Questia database,
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Gay Lesbian HIV Grant Proposal

Words: 1736 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 48627508

Agency/Program

EJAF or the Elton John AIDS Foundation has a mission statement centered on eradicating AIDS from the Americas and the Caribbean. They raise funds for evidence-based policies and programs and speak out openly about the harsh reality of those suffering with AIDS and HIV. Becoming the world's biggest HIV grant-makers, it holds to main offices in London and New York. EJAF has raised over $349 million for the prevention and treatment of AIDS/HIV ever since it was founded in 1992. With an estimated $7 million invested in the Americas spread across 120 organizations each year, half of this effort is focused on the Caribbean and the Southern U.S.

The agency in addition to its fundraising efforts, offers a unique perspective on issues, tackling the most difficult problems those with HIV / AIDS face. The organization focuses on sustainability and innovation, communicating regularly to allies and their grantees about any…… [Read More]

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Etiology Symptoms Prevention and Treatment HIV

Words: 1764 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 15431072

Etiology

Symptoms

Prevention and Treatment

HIV / AIDS is one of the most prevalent and devastating diseases in the world today. It has already killed millions throughout the world, especially in developing countries like Africa. I chose this topic due to the importance of HIV for world heath issues and because of the larger social issues that this virus has for many countries. The statistics over the last decades are evidence of the growth and devastating effect of this virus. The total number of recorded deaths due to HIV / AIDS, between 1981 and 2003, was a staggering 20-million. The number of children in Sub-Saharan Africa who were orphaned by the end of 2003 was an estimated 12-million. Later figures indicate that the situation in Africa is not improving, with these figures increasing in 2004, especially among women in Africa. "y December 2004 women accounted for 47% of all people…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Approved Medications to Treat HIV Infection. 2004. Accessed January 3, 2004  http://aidsinfo.nih.gov/other/cbrochure/english/05_en.html 

Acute HIV Infection. New Mexico AIDS InfoNet. 2004.  http://www.thebody.com/nmai/acute_infection.html 

Background Information on Fourteen FDA Approved HIV / AIDS Drugs. Consumer projects on technology. 2000. Accessed January 4, 2004.  http://www.cptech.org/ip/health/aids/druginfo.html 

Death Stalks a Continent. Time Magazine, February 12, 2001
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Funding for AIDS in Africa

Words: 3546 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 1779188

The weaker segments in Africa, women and children, were and are the worst hit by HIV / AIDS, which then is spread to the families and communities. (Bage 2004)

Dealing with this is a great scientific, social, and moral challenge that every organization and country, especially developed countries must rise up to. It is time to mobilize resources and contribute to make changes in the policies so that we at the United Nations can do something worthwhile to combat Africa's problem with this disease. There were commercial interests earlier that would not allow the developed nations to provide subsidized medicine. For instance the United States, there was a stance that there could be no recognition of the problem and a denial of need. This was followed by a policy that placed the solving of the problem on the affected countries. Until George W. Bush, the United States and many developed…… [Read More]

References

Bage, Lennart. 2004. HIV / AIDS in Africa: Shifting the Horizons of Development. UN

Chronicle, vol. 41, no. 3. September-November, pp: 49-54.

DeConde, Alexander. 1963. A History of American Foreign Policy. Charles Scribner's

Sons: New York.
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Public Policy on People With AIDS

Words: 1586 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 95659724

Public AIDS Policy -- And the Band Played on, for Republicans and Democrats alike, during this public health crisis of the 1980's

Today, it hard to remember a day before 'AIDS alks' through Central Park, before television advertisements in the voice of hoopi Goldberg proclaimed that "AIDS affects everyone," before AIDS became a public health enemy 'Number One.' But one must look back to the days when AIDS was a disease of secrecy and shame to truly learn from the illness, as it exists today. Most of us of Generation Y mercifully cannot even remember a time when AIDS was not even a name, but something called 'the gay cancer.' During America of the 1980's the disease of Acquired Immune Deficiency Disorder, it was thought only to affect those marginalized by society because of their sexuality.

Randy Shilt's book And the Band Played On acts as an important journalistic and…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Shilts, Randy. And the Band Played On.

Siplan, P. Aids & The Policy Struggle In the U.S. Georgetown Press, 2000.
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Community Prevention Drug Use Among

Words: 1195 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 3917255

The selective type would enable me to make optimal use of the specific factors that are relevant to my target group. This IOM type would also enable me to identify cases of prior and current drug use, and to refer these to specialized groups and programs for help. The selective type is therefore optimal for the specific sector of society that I want to target.

Best Practice Program

From the "Best Practice Programs," I chose "Athletes Training and Learning to Avoid teroids: The ATLA Program," because it specifically focuses on high school athletes as a target group. While it focuses mostly on one particular kind of drug, I would perhaps modify it to address the specific problems, risks and protective factors of my target group.

The ATLA program focuses on male high school athletes and aims at reducing the risk factors involved in the use of anabolic steroids and other…… [Read More]

Sources

CASAT. Best Practice: Athletes Training and Learning to Avoid Steroids: The ATLAS Program

http://casat.unr.edu/bestpractices/view.php?program=7

Institute of Medicine. Projects: Adolescent Health Care Services and Models of Care for Treatment, Prevention, and Healthy Development http://www.iom.edu/CMS/12552/35625.aspx
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Research on AIDS Control

Words: 814 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19167685

Statistical Evidence Used to Support Early Study Termination

Study population, comprising two clusters, namely AIDS patients and those suffering from AIDS-related complex, was a factor that supported early termination of the study. Statistical evidence employed was that AIDS patients who suffered from pneumonia many times were included in the study. On the other hand, patients who suffered multiple Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) episodes were excluded from the study. Thus, the research, comprising 27 participants who had spent 24 weeks in the study, 152 participants with16 weeks' participation and others had completed at least 8 weeks' of participation. At this point, 19 recipients of placebo and 1 recipient of 1 AZT (Azidothymidine) died during the study (Fischl et al., 1987).

Are you for or against the early termination and why?

The idea of early termination is not considered favorable, since the study proved valuable in treating the clinical condition, virus replication…… [Read More]

References

A Priority Research Agenda. (2010). Retrieved October 24, 2015, from  https://www.iasociety.org/Web/WebContent/File/Consensus_Statement_Asking_the_Right_Question_March_2010.pdf 

Brookmeyer, R. (2010, January 11). Measuring the HIV / AIDS Epidemic: Approaches and Challenges. Retrieved October 24, 2015, from  http://epirev.oxfordjournals.org/content/32/1/26.full 

Fischl, M. A., Richman, D. D., Grieco, M. H., Gottlieb, M. S., Volberding, P. A., Laskin, O. L., ... & King, D. (1987). The efficacy of azidothymidine (AZT) in the treatment of patients with AIDS and AIDS-related complex. New England Journal of Medicine, 317(4), 185 191.

Knox, R. (2010, November 4). The Lucky Genetic Variants That Protect Some People From HIV. Retrieved October 24, 2015, from  http://www.npr.org/sections/healthshots/2010/11/04/131064382/the-lucky-genetic-variants-that-protect-some-peopleagainst-HIV
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Impact of Title I On HIV AIDS Programs in Dade County

Words: 2097 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 67184641

programs and actions taken by health agencies to support cities and communities in their fight against the spread of HIV and AIDS virus. It will also discuss the demographic information of cities with high rate of HIV / AIDS, as well as other statistics in relation HIV / AIDS. Particular in this study is a discussion on one of the HIV / AIDS major areas - Miami.

Moreover, this section will provide the reader with an overview of the benefits that the health programs provide in different states and what they bring to communities of HIV / AIDS. It will explore on the success of such programs in terms of combating the disease.

A combat against HIV and AIDS, through an increased funding for health centers and services, is the main objective of this study. This specifically focuses on areas where most of the HIV / AIDS patients are financially…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Miami-Dade County Neighborhood Profiles.

Miami-Dade County Health Department. 25 May 2004. http://www.dadehealth.org/hiv/HIVprofiles.asp

Health Education and Risk Reduction Program.

Miami-Dade County Health Department. 26 May 2004. http://www.dadehealth.org/hiv/HIVed.asp
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Predisposition to HIV AIDS in the USA

Words: 1067 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20921201

Demographics of Population Vulnerable to HIV / AIDS

Undoubtedly, AIDS has become an epidemic of color. Additionally, the menace has affected hay and bisexual men who have sex with other men (MSM). Today, these groups depict the highest risk rates compared to other groups and communities. In this paper, we endeavor to analyze the high rates of HIV / AIDS prevalence in these two groups. Further, we explore the implementation of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) in the U.S. and the impact it has brought regarding the prevention and care of these vulnerable populations.

The African-American community has occurred as the ethnic community that has suffered a severe blunt of this disease to a devastating degree. Historically, the African-American community has experienced neglect in healthcare and prevention regarding AIDS control. The changing demographics have exemplified the urgent need of concern and actions towards alleviating the spread of this disease, especially…… [Read More]

References

Kates, J., Garfield, R., & Young, K., Quinn, K., Frazier, E. and Skarbinski, J. (2014, Jan 7). Assessing the Impact of the Affordable Care Act on Health Insurance Coverage of People with HIV. The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. Retrieved from  http://kff.org/report-section/assessing-the-impact-of-the-affordable-care-act-on-health-insurance-coverage-of-people-with-hiv-issue-brief/ 

Kliff, S. (2013, March 23). Obamacare's five biggest challenges. The Washington Post. Retrieved from  https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/wonk/wp/2013/03/23/obamacares-five-biggest-challenges/ 

National Institute on Drug Abuse (2010). Diagnosis of HIV Infection among Adults and Adolescents, by Transmission Category (2010).NIH Retrieved from  http://www.drugabuse.gov/longdesc/diagnosis-hiv-infection-among-adults-adolescents-by-transmission-category-2010 

Weitz, R. (2012). The Sociology of Health, Illness, and Health Care: A Critical Approach. New York: Cengage Learning