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Questioning the Legality of the Patiot Act
The Depatment of Homeland Secuity
Afte the Septembe 11 attacks, the United States was, undoubtedly, in a state of fuy, sadness, despeation and geneal tumoil. Ou county's iconic positivity had to be ebuilt, and theats, above eveything else, had to be kept at bay and fa away fom U.S. soil. The State Depatment undetook a numbe of policies to achieve this goal, and one of these policies was instituting a depatment that would be able to shae infomation with both the CIA and the FBI, as well as focus on the things that the two pevious agencies had missed at such a high cost. The Depatment of Homeland Secuity (DHS), as this body was called, would thus be able to not only wok with fellow govenmental institutions, but also monito foeign and domestic theats. Yet, as it often happens, nobody is…
references come from: ACLU Website. (2011). USA Patriot Act. Retrieved from < http://www.aclu.org/national-security/usa-patriot-act >. DHS Website (2011). USA Patriot Act Fact Sheet. Retrieved from < http://www.dhs.gov/xnews/releases/press_release_0815.shtm>.]
Breaking down information is facilitated through breaking down barriers to share information to better protect the country.
This provision is contrary to the requirement set out in the constitution that mandates government to show reasonable suspicion/probable cause for searches and seizures.
The obligation for homeland security inside the United States became obvious following the terrorist attacks that took place on September 11, 2001. The national debate that followed has concerned an amount of multifaceted and diverse difficulties. The issues linking to homeland security are a lot of the times blurred for the reason that the nation is dealing with a new kind of struggle, a new hazard right on American soil, and a new security idea -- every one of them needing some kind of changes that relates to how we must now protect the United States, its people and our critical structure. The national restructuring for homeland security has been one of the most important and debated subjects of conversation. In comparison, there has not been a lot written about it and plus there has been restrictive talks regarding the state level preparations that have been evolving over…
Brook, D.A. (2008). Civil service reform as national security: The homeland security act of 2002. Public Administration Review, 17(7), 399-407.
Caudle, S. (2013). The balanced scorecard: A strategic tool in implementing homeland security strategies. Homeland Security Affairs,, 43(3), 41-56.
Getha-Taylor, H. (2010). Preparing leaders for high-stakes collaborative action: Darrell darnell and the department of homeland security. Public Administration Review, 9(2), 159.
Link, A.N. (2003). Deploying homeland security technology. Journal of Technology Transfer, 21(8), 363-368.
The attacks of September 11, 2001 have necessitated a new awareness of the shortcomings of the American security system. It follows that there also arose the need to reassess this security system and to enhance the measures already in place so that the possibility of future attacks can be minimized. The emotions aroused by 9/11 doubtlessly played a large part in allowing the government to use measures that would otherwise appear outrageous, or at the very least an infringement upon the right to privacy. Some of these measures have come under renewed scrutiny, while others have been deemed acceptable.
Homeland security has become more effective in terms of its structure. It is now controlled by a single dominant agency, whereas in the past several agencies controlled its various functions. The advantage of this is that a better chain of command is established, and fewer miscommunications can occur. Security…
Hatch, Orrin G. "Judiciary Statement: 'America After 9/11: Freedom Preserved Or Freedom Lost?'" Before the Senate Committee on the Judiciary. Nov. 18, 2003. http://hatch.senate.gov/index.cfm?FuseAction=PressReleases.View&PressRelease_id=215260
O'Brien, Katie. "Preserving America's freedoms: Civil liberties, national security and patriotism one year after." Zephyr, Spring 2002. http://zephyr.unr.edu/091102/911_obrien.html
Russell, Margaret M. "Civil Liberties in the U.S.: Why they matter in a post-9/11 world." Santa Clara University, School of Law. Fall 2003. http://www.scu.edu/bannancenter/publications/explore/fall03/civilliberties.cfm
The American Civil Liberties Union. "Civil Liberties after 9/11." 2004. http://www.garynull.com/Documents/ACLU/911_Report.htm
The needs to be prepared for any disaster or attack constitute the need of standard operating procedures which need to be followed accurately. Standard operating procedures ensure that the right procedures are followed when dealing with any disaster affecting the society. The main purpose of having standard operating procedures is to guarantee that investigations are done in a consistent manner which should be correct. The use of standard operating procedures ensures that the organization collects the relevant information needed for the investigation and files it correctly. Deviations from the standard operating procedure should not be allowed as it leads to inconsistency in the information collected (Haider, 2006).
Emergency response to an explosive device in the university
This is a standard operating procedure for emergency response in the event of an explosive device in the university prepared by the patrol division's commander for excelsior university police department. The document…
Haider, S.I. (2006). Validation standard operating procedures: A step-by-step guide for achieving compliance in the pharmaceutical, medical device, and biotech industries. New York: Taylor & Francis.
Maniscalco, P.M., & Christen, H.T. (2011). Homeland security: Principles and practice of terrorism response. Sudbury, Mass: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.
Schnepp, R., International Association of Fire Chiefs., & National Fire Protection Association. (2010). Hazardous materials: Awareness and operations. Sudbury, Mass: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.
How is command and control affected by "span of control"?
Command and control refers the actions of a properly designated commander. This commander will then exercise his or her authority over assigned forces in the accomplishment of the mission. This ability to oversee forces is directly related to the span of control, or how many people the commander oversees. If the commander does not have authority over personnel, equipment, communications, etc. then it may adversely affect the mission. Alternately, if command and control has too broad of a span of control, then the effectiveness of the mission may be diluted.
Discuss three issues important when determining the location of the incident command post.
The command post must be easily accessible to the disaster site and have easy access for support vehicles and resupply. It should have a securable perimeter and should be a place where telecommunications are readily…
Homeland Security and U.S. Intelligence
Formation of Department of Homeland Security & U.S. Intelligence on Terrorism
Definition of Intelligence
Rationale for Formation of DHS
Effectiveness of DHS
Importance of Intelligence & Analysts
Research Methods & Its Limitations
Data Collection & Analysis
National security has been a major concern for United States in past few decades. However, since 2001, this concern has turn into a serious threat for national security. The given research is performed with the intent of evaluating the effectiveness of Department of Homeland Security in terms of intelligence sharing on terrorism. For this purpose, the study is performed following a predictive form of research. This research methodology is best suited for the researches where the source of data is secondary. For the purpose of this research, the articles from peer reviewed journals and intelligence reports on Department of Homeland Security will be used.
For the purpose…
Best Jr., Richard A. Intelligence and Law Enforcement: Countering Transnational Threats to the U.S. 2001.
Best Jr., Richard A., Alfred Cumming and Todd Masse, CRS Report for Congress- Director of National Intelligence Statutory Authorities: Status and Proposals, 2007.
Department of State, Country Reports on Terrorism 2009, United States Department of State Publication, 2010.
Fiske, Daniel W. Defending the American homeland- Top Priorities For Improving Intelligence And Law Enforcement Capabilities, Intelligence and Law Enforcement.
("Lynchburg Virginia Emergency Operations Plan," 2012)
Elements of Disaster esponse, ecovery, and Incident Command
In the event of a disaster, the City Manager is appointed as the local spokesperson for all issues, events and the coordination of resources. They work directly with the Mayor and the City Council (who sit as an advisory board to the City Manager). In the event that there are any political issues, the Mayor will interact with officials. This is streamlining communication and reducing the overall amounts of confusion. As a result, the incident command is split between the Mayor / City Council and the City Manager. ("Lynchburg Virginia Emergency Operations Plan," 2012)
Professional accountability rests with the Mayor serving as a go between for the City Council and City Manager. The City Council has the power of oversight and monitoring for potential abuses as well as where different resources should be utilized.…
About Lynchburg. (2012). Lynchburg VA. Retrieved from: http://www.lynchburgva.gov/Index.aspx?page=14
Emergency Operations. (2012). Loudoun County. Retrieved from: http://www.loudoun.gov/index.aspx?NID=729
Lynchburg Virginia Emergency Operations Plan. (2012). City of Lynchburg. Retrieved from: http://www.lynchburgva.gov/Index.aspx?page=5248
Top Secret America. (2012). Washington Post. Retrieved from: http://projects.washingtonpost.com/top-secret-america/states/virginia/
However, information sharing is not indicative of any overall advancement in counterterrorism activity but is certainly a sign of an expanding bureaucracy. According to David Rittgers, DHS fusion centers do little more than label anyone who is critical of the federal government as a potential terrorist. Rittgers reports that DHS analysts are "labeling broad swaths of the public as a threat to national security."
With the passing of the National Defense Authorization Act, these reports may be seen by the public as potentially disconcerting now that persons deemed as "terrorists" may now be militarily detained without charges or trial. The basic eradication of due process makes the powers, scrutiny, and judgments of the DHS that much more intimidating for citizens already suspicious of tyranny in the federal government.
Today the DHS is focusing its attention ever-increasingly on border patrol. The DHS Press Office stated in February, 2013, that the Obama…
Andreas, Peter. "Redrawing the Line: Borders and Security in the 21st Century,"
International Security, Vol. 28, No. 2 (Fall 2003): 78-111.
Barr, Stephen. "DHS Withdraws Bid to Curb Union Rights," Washington Post. 20 Feb
Homeland Security Strategies
The United Sates Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Strategic Plan outlines the Department's vision for homeland security as outlined in the Department's Quadrennial Homeland Security eview (QHS). The plan is a unified, strategic framework for homeland security missions and goals. The Bottom-Up eview (BU) compliments efforts to align DHS's programmatic activities and organizational structure to better serve the department's goals and missions. The plan enables the Department to prioritize frontline operations while maximizing the effectiveness and efficiency of the tax payer's money allocated to the Department. The department has five key missions namely: securing the United States from terrorist threats and enhancing security; securing the country's borders; enforcing immigration laws; securing cyberspace; and building resilience to disasters (DHS, 2013). The Department has also made an undertaking to provide essential support to national and economic security, as outlined in the FY 2012-2016, as it matures. This paper gives…
DHS, (2007). The National Strategy for Homeland Security. Retrieved July 24, 2013 from http://www.dhs.gov/national-strategy-homeland-security-october-2007
DHS. (2013). Mission. Retrieved July 23, 2013 from http://www.dhs.gov/mission
DHS. (2012). Department of Homeland Security Strategic Plan FY 2012-2016. Retrieved July
23, 2013 from http://www.dhs.gov/xlibrary/assets/dhs-strategic-plan-fy-2012-2016.pdf
In addition to this, the transportation security administration, customs and boarder protection department, citizenship and immigration services, immigration and customs enforcement, secret service, federal emergency management, and coast guard are part of the Department of Homeland Security (Department of Homeland Security 2008). This organizational structure, while certainly extensive, is rather complex. Although the department has undergone serious transformations since its creation, the Washington Post called it "hampered by severe management and financial problems" in 2005 (Eggen 2005). A specific attack on the Department's organizational structure, the article suggested that the Federal Emergency Management Department was "overburdened" because of its Department of Homeland Security responsibilities (Egen 2005).
As a result of this complex structure, the Department of Homeland Security has taken upon itself duties that were already allocated to other branches of the government and government departments. Some of the duties of the Department include "assessing the nation's vulnerabilities" through information…
Bush Signs Homeland Security bill. (2002, November 26). Retrieved January 25, 2009, from CNN. Web Site: http://archives.cnn.com/2002/ALLPOLITICS/11/25/homeland.security/index.html
Department of Homeland Security. (2008). Department of Homeland Security Home
Page. Retrieved January 25, 2008, from the Department of Homeland Security. Web site: http://www.dhs.gov/index.shtm
Eggen, Dan. (2005, December 29). Homeland Security is Faulted in Audit. Retrieved January 25, 2008, from the Washington Post. Web Site: http://www.washingtonpost.com /wp-dyn/content/article/2005/12/28/AR2005122801515.html' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
On the other hand, the Department in itself was projected to deal with a large number of aspects surrounding homeland security. The arguments supporting the idea were focused on the principle that the citizens must be protected from foreign threats, such as terrorism, and they must be given the help needed to face the treacheries of nature. In aiming to accomplish the latter, the Federal Emergency Management Directorate was established. Even if it somewhat enables smoother and more effective assistance in case of natural disasters, it merely coordinates the efforts and it does not replace the actions taken at local or state level. Therefore, the decisions taken in crisis situations must pass yet another test and must receive approval from yet another decision making body before action is taken in the areas affected by floods or other natural catastrophes. A similar fact can be presented even in the case of…
Carter, a. (n.d.). The architecture of Government in the face of terrorism. Retrieved 17 January 2007, at http://bcsia.ksg.harvard.edu/BCSIA_content/documents/carter_winter_01_02.pdf
Drabek, T. (1990) Emergency Management. New York: Springer-Verlag.
Joseph, B. Macintyre, a.., DeAtley C. (2001). Ambulances to Nowhere: America's Critical Shortfall in Medical Preparedness for Catastrophic Terrorism. BCSIA Discussion Paper 2001-15, ESDP Discussion Paper ESDP-2001-07, John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University. Retrieved 17 January 2007, at http://www.gwu.edu/~icdrm/publications/Ambulances_to_Nowhere.pdf
Perry, R., K.J. Tierney, and M.K. Lindell. (2001) Facing the unexpected: disaster preparedness and response in the United States. Washington: Joseph Henry Press.
This is because DHS has maintained that it is established not to work alone in enhancing security and safety of the people but in collaborating with all the U.S. departments and agencies, as long as it uphold the overall vision of the department - to protect and provide security to the people.
Thus, it can be viewed that DHS is logically organized as it provide venues for different governmental and federal agencies to work hand in hand with the department. However, the DHS has its own limitations that may not live up to the science and technology policy. but, if its objectives are attained in an honest and credible manner with an unbiased support from the federal government, there is a greater chance for the department to run for a longer term. Its similarities with the science and technology policy are considerably the most important factor that the federal government…
About OSTP." 2006. http://www.ostp.gov/html/_whatwedo.html ."
Branscomb, L. "Science, Politics, and U.S. Democracy." 2004. Issues in Science and Technology. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3622/is_200410/ai_n9457074 .
Carafano, J., et. al. "Homeland Security Technology, Global Partnerships, and Winning the Long War." 2006. Backgrounder #1977. http://www.heritage.org/Research/HomelandDefense/bg1977.cfm .
Directorate for Science and Technology. http://www.dhs.gov/interweb/assetlibrary/DHS_StratPlan_FINAL_spread.pdf.2006.
Homeland Security Act
The terrorist attacks on the orld Trade Center last September 11, 2001 highlighted the growing need to safeguard domestic security. One of the Bush government's responses was the passage of the Homeland Security Act during the 107th Congress. This law provides the Bush government a legal and executive basis to respond to terrorism.
This paper examines some of the effects of and changes that have taken place since the passage of the Homeland Security Act of 2002. The first part of the paper looks at how the passage of the law has affected the federal bureaucracy. The second part then looks at the more specific effects of this federal law on the state of Texas. In the last part, the paper examines some of the economic effects the Homeland Security Act of 2002.
The most immediate change wrought by the Homeland Security Act of 2002…
ASSE Summary of Homeland Security Act of 2002." ASSE Summary of Homeland Security Act of 2002. 19 December 2002. The American Society. 18 March 2004 http://www.asse.org/govupdate_12-19-02_homeland.htm .
Bush, George. "Homeland Security Presidential Directive/Hspd-7." News releases. December 2003. The White House. 18 March 2004 http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2003/12/20031217-5.html .
Homeland Security Regulations May Affect Maquilas at Texas-Mexico Border." The Monitor 15 July 2003: 1+15.
Scardaville, Michael. "The Homeland Security Act of 2002: An Analysis." Web Memo. 24 July 2002. The Heritage Organization. 18 March 2004 http://www.heritage.org/Research/HomelandDefense/WM131.cfm .
The challenge for local and state homeland security planning lies with the top-down nature of disaster response and relief and the technologies that are needed in order for adequate response to become possible. As authors Schafer, Carroll, Haynes, and Abrams (2008) write,
"Emergencies often have causes and effects that are global. However, emergencies are also inherently local: They occur in a particular place and point in time. While it is critical for governments and society to better organize emergency management top-down, it is also important to become more aware of local community-level values, planning, involvement, knowledge, and skill. Local communities plan collaboratively for potential emergencies of varying scales."
This means that the federal government, though ultimately responsible for the state and local planning, must take a secondary or passive role in the planning at these lower levels due to the fact that the federal government is not equipped with the…
Christopher, K.E.; Frye, D.E.; and Reissman, S.G. (2010). "Domestic federal interagency planning: meeting a homeland security need." Journal of Homeland Security and Emergency Management, 7, 10-17.
Collier, S.J. And Lakoff, A. (2008) "Distributed preparedness: the spatial logic of domestic security in the United States." Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 26, 7 -- 28.
Duncan, D.R., Gribko, J.R., Kolschina, R., and Lee, M.T. (2009). "Modeling,
simulation, and analysis for state and local emergency planning and response: concept of operations." Final Report for Logistics Management Institution (LMI), McLean, VA.
This goal is one that illustrates how accurate the statement by Charlie Allen, former Undersecretary of Intelligence and Analysis of the DHS is. The fourth goal of the DHS is to focus on mitigating and preventing attacks against the Homeland with specific focus on systems, facilities and individuals protected by the DHS Stakeholder Community. This goal is achieved through the use of an extensive framework created specifically for monitoring and defining deterrence to threats through the use of analytics and predictive modeling (Raghu, Ramesh, Whinston (2005), pp. 310, 311). The fifth goal is to serve Stakeholders throughout the intelligence, defense and law enforcement communities of the United States in addition to managing Stakeholder information requirements. The sixth goal is one that continues to be the leas quantifiable and the most important, which is the culture of the agency (Hyong (2003), pp. 55, 56). This goal centers creating a culture of…
Raghu, T.S., R. Ramesh, and Andrew B. Whinston. "Addressing the Homeland Security Problem: A Collaborative Decision-Making Framework." Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 56, no. 3 (2005): 310-24.
Yi, Hyong. "Building a Department of Homeland Security: The Management Theory." Public Manager 32, no. 1 (2003): 55 -- 60.
The Department of Homeland Security: the National Terrorism Advisory System vs. The Homeland Security Advisory System
In the aftermath of the September 11th, 2001 attacks, a complete review of America's counter-terrorism operations took place. hat was seen as the fault in U.S. intelligence to predict the 9/11 attacks was a severe lack of information sharing between U.S. intelligence agencies, and the lack of protocol in the event of future terrorist attacks. Thus, the Department of Homeland Security was created in an attempt to bring together the informational capabilities of the various U.S. agencies working on counter-terrorism, with a command structure that penetrates the entire U.S. law enforcement system. The DHS quickly instituted its first recommendations on March 12, 2002, with the creation of the Homeland Security Advisory System (HSAS), based on a colored threat scale from green to red, and protocol to be followed nationwide in accordance to…
"Chronology of Changes to the Homeland Security Advisory System." DHS. Web. 24 Mar. 2012. .
Mathes, Michael. "AFP: New U.S. Terror Alert System Replaces Color Code." Google News. Web. 24 Mar. 2012. .
Homeland security-Boston Bombing
The Boston Bombing in relation to homeland security
Following the various hearings after the 9/11 bombings, one factor that came out clear to all Americans, from the technical people to the lay people is that one single most aspect that resulted in the success of the terrorist attack was lack of a seamless communication among the various security agencies and departments and not the lack of information. This was a scene that was replayed in the recent Boston Marathon bombing where three people lost their lives as 260 others maimed to amputation levels (Larry B., 2013).
Tamerlan Tsarnaev who was 26 and his brother Dzhokhar who was 19 years old have been held responsible so far in the bombings at Boston. They coordinated to have explosive devices planted among the crowds that were at the finish line and successfully did so. Hours later Tamerlan was shot dead…
Barry G. (2013). FBI, Homeland Security withheld information on Boston bombing suspects from local, state police. Retrieved July 20, 2013 from http://www.wsws.org/en/articles/2013/05/11/bomb-m11.html
Larry B., (2013). Boston bombing refocuses attention on homeland security. USA Today May 2, 2013. Retrieved July 20, 2013 from http://www.usatoday.com/story/news/nation/2013/05/02/minnesota-homeland-security-funding/2130441/
Remal G., (2013). Homeland Security chair: FBI not cooperating with Boston Bombing Probe. Retrieved July 20, 2013 from http://www.redicecreations.com/article.php?id=26052
In 1945, the United States put a final and definitive end to World War II when it used two atomic bombs on Japan, forcing their surrender. At that time the entire world learned of the terrible potential of weapons of mass destruction. Unfortunately, as the major nations have backed away from weapons of mass destruction (WWD), terrorist organizations have sought to acquire them. Worse, technological advances have made it possible for to be constructed on a small enough scale that they could feasibly be smuggled anywhere in the world.
We have seen isolated use of such weapons. Terrorists released the nerve gas Sarin into a Tokyo subway some years ago, anthrax was used in the United States with the Postal Service as the delivery method, and al-Qaeda killed thousands in 2001 by flying fuel-laden passenger planes into buildings (Quillen, 2002). The last event in particular demonstrated that some…
Bunn, Matthew. 2005. "Preventing a nuclear 9/11: presidential leadership is the key to accelerating progress on securing nuclear weapons and materials." Issues in Science and Technology, January.
Joyner, Christopher C. 2002. "Violence in the Middle East." World and I (17), July.
Levi, Michael A. 2005. "Averting Nuclear Terrorism." Congressional Testimony, April 14.
Laqueur, Walter. 2004. "The Terrorism to Come." Policy Review (126).
They were mostly former soldiers from Iraq, called in to help with the relief ops. Those supporting the use of the National Guard in these types of actions point out that "the National Guard already has a significant emergency response capability and the Constitution of the United States establishes the authority to employ the National Guard in significant and leading domestic roles against terrorism." (Oates, 2002) on the other hand, however, it can be said that the part time soldiers are stretched beyond their limits and are sometimes forced to work to exhaustion in order to achieve the task they were called in for. This can lead to poor performances, which in turn may cost lives. According to a study conducted in the Atlanta metropolitan area, "among 16 fire departments, an average of 22.2% of employees holds two or more public safety positions. Moreover, a significant percentage of the public…
Anderson, W. (2005) Katrina and the Never-Ending Scandal of State Management. Retrieved 17 January 2007, at http://www.mises.org/story/1909
Associated Press. (2006). Post Katrina analysis shows persistent FEMA flaws. FoxNews.com. Retrieved 18 January 2007, at http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,190338,00.html
Brown, D.M. (2005). Hurricane Katrina: The First Seven Days of America's Worst Natural Disaster. New York: Lulu Press.
CNN. (2005). Katrina hits Florida: 3 dead; 1 million in dark. CNN website. Retrieved 17 January 2007, at http://www.cnn.com/2005/WEATHER/08/25/tropical.storm/index.html
Homeland Security and Criminal Justice Administration
OSEC and site security
Importance of personal accountability at scene of incident
ersonnel accountability mechanisms are the most important in any rescue operations to ensure that rescuers strive to protect themselves and mandatory at emergency scenes. Moreover, this system helps track the rescuers' identification, their role and location during emergency. It also ensures only authorized personnel who are trained and have been provided with specific instruction are operating within the scene of the incident. In most cases, these systems employ the use of badges, lists, tags, use of bar code readers and radio frequency identification (IAFC & NFA, 2009). Electronically-based systems, such as bar codes and RFIDs, are more often capable of relaying real-time information that can be transmitted to several stations at the same time providing more efficient monitoring and evaluation.
All rescuers in any rescue mission are responsible and accountable for their…
Preparation for a chemical attack
An attack of chemical nature is the deliberate release of toxic chemicals such as gases, solids and liquids so as to harm people and the surrounding environment. With the current world trends and terrorist actions has prompted a need for preparedness by the relevant authorities so as to handle adequately such a situation in the event that it occurs. In most cases, the effect of a chemical attack could be very devastating in comparison with other natural and pandemic disasters experienced in the past. Due to this revelation, it appears appropriate to take preventive measures and try to prepare adequately for it (Tucker, 1999).
The medical arena in particular needs to be prepared for three general categories of possible chemical attacks. The first category involves those chemicals that affect the exposed victims immediately or within a short span and its effects can easily be linked to the type of chemical. The second category may involve a chemical substance that may take time to show symptoms in the exposed individual and therefore is able to spread to a wide population before the victims realize they have been exposed. Finally, if a chemical substance can be linked to a specific terror group, then the medical practitioners will act as surveillance and alert the proper authorities once they link the chemical to a particular terrorist. In lieu with this, the CDC now keeps a database with a list of the most likely biological and
This leads the cycle back into the original planning stage as the new and improved plan can be put into practice.
The United States Department of Justice has created a website called "COPS: Community Oriented Policing Services" in order to advance "the practice of community policing in America's state, local, and tribal law enforcement agencies." ( "COPS: Community Oriented") There are three aspects of Community Policing which the Department of Justice promotes: Community Partnerships, Organizational Transformation, and Problem Solving. The COPS program also organizes conferences, grants and funding for improvements and technical assistance, as well as courses for local police officers to learn the most advanced techniques in community policing. Community Policing is one of the police organizations and operations listed in chapter 3 of Kenneth Peak's book entitled Justice Administration. (Peak, 2007) the Department of Justice's COPS website is the official site for the DOJ's office that…
Retrieved from http://www.mass.gov/perac/disability/municipalpoliceofficers.pdf
Peak Kenneth. (2007). Justice Administration: Police, Courts, and Corrections
Management. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Print.
The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) arose from the ashes of the Twin Towers on 9/11 as the federal government’s response to the threat of terror. That threat has been represented in a number of incarnations: the Saudi hijackers, Al-Qaeda, Saddam Hussein, Gaddafi, Assad, ISIS, and so on. Today, with ISIS being acknowledged as largely defeated in the Middle East, the new security threat that the U.S. faces is unclear (Cronin, 2015) and the old security threats—the specter of terrorism that continues to rear its head both abroad and domestically—appear to have shifted into new forms. In an ironic twist, Americans themselves appear to be more like homegrown terrorists in their attacks on fellow citizens, whether these attacks are conducted at schools or at social venues where crowds gather for enjoyment. Terrorism and mass killing appears to be the new chosen method of expressing one’s own personal jihad on…
Atkinson, J. (2005). Towards an understanding about complexities of alternative media: Portrayals of power in alternative media. Qualitative Research Reports in Communication, 6(1), 77-84.
Brittain, V. (2016). The Counterterrorism Industry. The Political Quarterly, 87(4), 609-611.
Bush, G. (2001). Address to joint session of Congress. Retrieved from http://edition.cnn.com/2001/US/09/20/gen.bush.transcript/
Coletta, G. (2018). Politicising intelligence: what went wrong with the UK and US assessments on Iraqi WMD in 2002. Journal of Intelligence History, 17(1), 65-78.
Cronin, A. K. (2015). ISIS is not a terrorist group: why counterterrorism won\\'t stop the latest jihadist threat. Foreign Affairs, 94, 87-98.
Department of Homeland Security. (2018). Retrieved from http://www.allgov.com/departments/department-of-homeland-security?detailsDepartmentID=571
Ganderton, P. T., Brookshire, D. S., & Bernknopf, R. L. (2004). Improving the Homeland Security Advisory System: an experimental analysis of threat communication for national security. In The Economic Impacts of Terrorist Attacks, ed. James Elliott Moore.
Gunlock, J. (2009). IWF Policy Brief. Retrieved from http://www.iwf.org/files/b0bb665d576c219e1d5549450fcdaa7b.pdf
The Department of Homeland Security was created in 2002 as a response to September 11. The goal of the creation of the new department was to centralize all decision-making authority under the rubric of homeland security, ensuring a common mission and philosophy for all the departments that come under the rubric of the Department of Homeland Security. The organizational structure of the DHS perfectly reflects its overall mission, goals, and culture.
Created in the aftermath of September 11, with the goal of centralizing national security procedures and protocols for maximum efficiency, the Department of Homeland Security comprises several previously independent or disparate government organizations. The mission of the Department of Homeland Security is “to ensure a homeland that is safe, secure, and resilient against terrorism and other hazards,” (DHS “Our Mission,” 2016). For example, customs and border security are housed under the rubric of the Department of Homeland…
Council on Foreign Relations (2006). Department of homeland security
Department of Homeland Security (n.d.). About DHS. Retrieved online: https://www.dhs.gov/about-dhs
Department of Homeland Security (2016). Our mission. Retrieved online: https://www.dhs.gov/our-missionhttps://www.dhs.gov/our-mission
Department of Homeland Security (n.d.). Organizational chart. Retrieved online: https://www.dhs.gov/sites/default/files/publications/Public%20Org%20Charts%202017.08.15.pdf
Kettl, D.F. (2003). Contingent coordination. The American Review of Public Administration 33(3):253-277.
“Outline Organizational Structure and Design,” (n.d.). Retrieved online: https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=2&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0ahUKEwjlx4yh8dLWAhUP7GMKHWmWCn8QFggqMAE&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.bhsu.edu%2FPortals%2F78%2FBADM%2520360%2520Ch.%25208%2520 (Not%2520Texts).ppt&usg=AOvVaw2PVbcoiRCE5WLeUMnMD3hr
Wise, C.R. (2006). Organizing for homeland security after Katrina. Public Administration Review 66(3): 302-318.
Section I: Introduction
The formation of the Department of Homeland Security after September 11 was an organizational and administrative response to the failure of the intelligence community to mitigate the attack. Although it predated the 9/11 Commission, the Department of Homeland Security benefitted from the results of the 9/11 Commission report, which advised a stronger information sharing culture in the intelligence community. It has been assumed that intelligence sharing under an umbrella organization will prevent future attacks, facilitate intelligence gathering, and enable the formation of trans-national intelligence communities that can more effectively respond to the threat of non-state actors. On the other hand, research has not uniformly shown the Department of Homeland Security to be effective. The Department of Homeland Security has led to major changes in the role and function of law enforcement. Whether these changes are predicted to be positive in terms of achieving national security goals is…
Brodeur, Jean-Paul, 2007, “High and Low Policing in Post-9/11 Times.” Policing: A Journal of Policy and Practice, Volume 1, Issue 1, 1 January 2007, Pages 25–37, https://doi.org/10.1093/police/pam002
DeBruijn, Hans, 2006. “One Fight, One Team.” Public Administration, Vol. 84, Issue 2, June 2006, pp. 267-287.
Marks, Daniel E. and Ivan Y. Sun, 2007, “The Impact of 9/11 on Organizational Development Among State and Local Law Enforcement Agencies.” Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, Vol. 23, No. 2, pp. 159-173.
Parker, Charles F. and Erik K. Stern. “Blindsided? September 11 and the Origins of Strategic Surprise.” Political Psychology, Vol. 23, Issue 3, Sept 2002, pp. 601-630.
Tierney, Kathleen, 2003. “Disaster Beliefs and Institutional Interests.” In Lee Clark (Ed.) Terrorism and Disaster: New Threats, New Ideas. Emerald Group Publishing Limited, pp.33 – 51.
Global Influence and the Challenges Facing Leaders in Homeland Security
Berger, L. (2014). Foreign policies or culture. Journal of Peace Research, 51(6): 782-796.
This study uses survey method to obtain data of the world’s three largest Muslim-majority nations in the world. The purpose of the study is to challenge conventional thinking in terms of what factors impact the public opinions of Muslims regarding political violence aimed at the U.S. The survey categorizes violence by distinguishing between violence towards civilians and violence towards military targets. Independent variables are identified that enable the researcher to also distinguish surveyors’ views on U.S. foreign policy as opposed to simply U.S. culture. The study analyzes the data using logistic regression models and finds that Egypt, Pakistan and Indonesia all have perceptions of U.S. policies relating to the Middle East (and the region’s oil), Israel, and an overall aim on the part of the…
bibliography must consist of five or six articles from peer-reviewed journals . Each annotation must be clear and concise descriptions of the articles in terms of the point of the article, research method the study used and other information that indicate that serious library research resulted in the selection of these articles..
National borders are far from arbitrary; they are important demarcations between one sovereign state and another. The foundation of national sovereignty depends on each nation protecting its own border, to achieve its own homeland security goals. In the United States, homeland security goals center on protecting the nation from foreign and domestic threats. To protect the nation from threats, it is essential to prevent would-be terrorists and criminals from entering, and also to prevent hazardous goods from crossing the border. Border security prevents the illegal flow of people, and therefore protects the world from human trafficking, illegal weapons trafficking, and drug trafficking. Preventing contraband from coming in is just one of many roles the border protection services provide in the interest of homeland security. One of the functions of border patrol is the maintenance of the nation’s domestic and foreign economic policy, essentially ensuring that all goods that enter the…
“Border Security,” (n.d.). U.S. Customs and Border Protection. Retrieved online: https://www.cbp.gov/border-security
“Border Security Overview,” (n.d.). Department of Homeland Security. Retrieved online: https://www.dhs.gov/border-security-overview
Bullock, J.A., Haddow, G.D. & Coppola, D.P. (2013). Homeland Security: The Essentials. Cambridge, MA: Elsevier.
Caldwell, L.A. (2016). The U.S. already spends billions on border security. NBC News. Retrieved online: http://www.nbcnews.com/politics/2016-election/trump-s-wall-would-add-billions-u-s-spends-border-n640251
The most significant terrorist attack on American soil was the September 11 attacks by Al Qaeda terrorists. The attacks changed the perception that America cannot suffer such attacks, considering how far away it is from where terrorist organizations such as Al Qaeda are based. The attacks also initiated America’s war against terrorism, which continues to date. Before the September 11 attacks, Americans had never experienced a large scale terrorist incident within their country’s borders. Moreover, most local and state security agencies had no experience with such attacks and were, therefore, very ill-prepared to respond to them. The only historic attacks or incidents that compare to the September 11 attacks were the airplane hijackings of the seventies and the eighties. The fact that Americans were not prepared and for the attacks and never expected such attacks to happen on their soil resulted in many people being very surprised and mentally…
The maritime industry is increasingly moving towards the adoption of systems that rely heavily on digitization, automation, and integration (Hayes, 2016). The extensive use of advanced technological solutions in the maritime industry is driven by the urgent need to maintain the industry in sync with all other industries that seem to have a step forward in adopting technological solutions. As a result of this growth and development in technological solutions, the security of data and other sensitive information has increasingly become a huge concern for the industry (Bueger, 2015). Cybersecurity has become a priority for the maritime industry. With many of the operational and critical system having already been digitized, automated, and integrated, the concern has now shifted to how entities within the maritime industry should implement appropriate procedures and policies to respond to cybersecurity incidents effectively.
Cybersecurity refers to the ability of entities to prepare for possible…
Decision Support Paper: Department of Homeland Security (DHS) – U.S. Immigration and Custom Enforcement
Introduction and Background
This text analyses the budget plan of both the Department of Homeland Security and the U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement, one of DHS’s operating directories, with an aim of determining how the said directorate is impacted upon by the DHS budget plan. In so doing, the needs of the Immigration and Custom Enforcement will be analyzed, vis-à-vis the budget priorities of the DHS, with an aim of identifying misalignments. If any misalignments are identified, recommendations for aligning the Immigration and Customs Enforcement program priorities with the DHS strategic plan will be presented.
The U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) concerns itself with the enforcement of federal laws that relate to immigration and trade, customs, and border control so as to not only enhance public safety, but also promote homeland security. In essence, ICE…
Department of Homeland Security - DHS (2014). The 2014 Quadrennial Homeland Security Review. Retrieved from https://www.dhs.gov/sites/default/files/publications/2014-qhsr-final-508.pdf
Department of Homeland Security - DHS (2014). Bottom-Up Review Report. Retrieved from https://www.dhs.gov/sites/default/files/publications/bur_bottom_up_review.pdf
Department of Homeland Security - DHS (2014). Fiscal Years 2014-2018 Strategic Plan. Retrieved from https://www.dhs.gov/sites/default/files/publications/FY14-18%20Strategic%20Plan.PDF
Department of Homeland Security - DHS (2014). FY 2015 Budget in Brief. Retrieved from https://www.dhs.gov/sites/default/files/publications/FY15-BIB.pdf
U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement – ICE (2017). Who we Are. Retrieved from https://www.ice.gov/about
Security of the Nation’s Critical Infrastructure
Many of the elements of the nation’s critical infrastructure are highly vulnerable to attacks due to remoteness (such as in the case of dams or water treatment facilities), size (such as in the case of water reservoirs) or other attributes of the facilities that can be exploited by terrorists. Because even minor disruptions in the nation’s critical infrastructure can have severe consequences for Americans, identifying these vulnerabilities and taking steps to prevent terrorist acts represents a timely and valuable enterprise. To this end, the purpose of this paper is to provide an explanation concerning how water facilities and other utilities can be targets of terrorist acts together with specific examples and supporting rationale and followed by a summary of the research and key findings concerning these issues in the conclusion.
The overwhelming majority of Americans take clean, fresh water, abundant cheap gasoline and unlimited…
Brimelow, Ben. “A retired US Navy admiral just laid out a major threat from North Korea — and experts warn it could wipe out 90% of the population.” Business Insider (2018, April 26). Online: http://www.businessinsider.com/north-korea-emp-attack-us-danger-2018-4.
Caudle, Sharon. “Homeland Security: Advancing the National Strategic Position.” Homeland Security Affairs, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 37-39.
“How you can get involved.” U.S. Department of Home Security (2018). Online: https://www. dhs.gov/cisr-month.
“Prevent Terrorism and Enhance Security.” U.S. Department of Homeland Security (2018). Retrieved from https://www.dhs.gov/prevent-terrorism-and-enhance-security.
Private Security and Homeland Defense
Questions 2 and 3
The Intelligence Community is comprised of 17 agencies. These agencies work with Federal, State, Local, Tribal and Territorial partners to protect the homeland. Four of these agencies are intelligence elements of the Department of Defense Services – Army, Navy, Marine Corps and Air Force. Please pick ONE of these Department of Defense Services intelligence elements and explain its mission. In what ways does it contribute to the intelligence cycle? Provide examples.
The Department of Defense Services intelligence element that I selected in this particular case is the Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA). The stated mission of DIA is “provide intelligence on foreign militaries to prevent and decisively win wars” (DIA, 2020). Thus, it is important to note, from the onset, that this particular agency largely concerns itself with not only the gathering, but also the production of military intelligence. As…
Private Security and Homeland Defense
Most of the critical infrastructure in the United States is regulated by the public sector, but owned by the private sector. As a result, protection of U.S. critical infrastructure is a major challenge because of complexities in both the public and private sectors. Moreover, safeguarding critical infrastructure is complicated by the sophisticated and growing assortment of cybersecurity challenges (Brooks par, 2). Given the involvement of the public and private sectors in U.S. critical infrastructure, public-private partnerships are vital. These partnerships refer to collaboration between the government and private sector entities in order to realize certain goals or objectives (Busch & Givens par, 4). Public-private partnerships continue to play an important role in homeland security through acting as a suitable means for protection of critical infrastructure. The creation of public-private partnerships provides risk management frameworks that address growing threats to homeland security and critical infrastructure across…
DHS: FEMA 2010 Compared to 2011
The objective of this study is to compare what happened within FEMA in 2010 and 2011. Toward this end, this study will conduct a review of literature in this area of inquiry.
The United States Congress appropriate more than $34 billion in grant funding for homeland security preparedness from fiscal year 2002 through fiscal year 2012. It is additionally reported that between 2002 and 2012 that Federal Emergency Agency (FEMA) administers grew "from 8…to 17…as the result of congressional and executive branch actions." (Government Accountability Office, 2013, p.1)
The Government Accountability Office reports that FEMA fails to "compare and coordinate grant applications across its preparedness programs to identify potential duplication." (Government Accountability Office, 2013, p.1) Additionally reported is that FEMA has failed to establish "…measurable goals or performance measures for preparedness capabilities to assist in effectively prioritizing national investments through preparedness grant programs." (Government…
Homeland security/Law enforcement (2012) Government Accountability Office. Retrieved from: http://www.gao.gov/modules/ereport/handler.php?1=1&path=/ereport/GAO-11-318SP/data_center/Homeland_security -- Law_enforcement/FEMA_needs_to_improve_its_oversight_of_grants_and_establish_a_framework_for_assessing_capabilities_to_identify_gaps_and_prioritize_investments
FEMA's Efforts To Recoup Improper Payments in Accordance With the Disaster Assistance Recoupment Fairness Act of 2011 (6) Department of Homeland Security. Retrieved from: http://www.oig.dhs.gov/assets/Mgmt/2013/OIG_13-100_Jun13.pdf
The Congressional report card for 2007 goes on to say that an important part of leading an organization is to "provide clear statements of principles, priorities, and vision." But that said, it is unfortunate, according to the report card, that "...in spite of its mandate in the Homeland Security Act, neither the national policy nor the strategic plan...has been produced." During the fiscal year 2005 independent financial auditors reported that there were serious financial reporting difficulties for S&T that included "serious difficulties maintaining accurate financial records"; and moreover, the GAO has identified the same kinds of problems in 2007. So given that series of flaws, and the overall shaky management structure of DHS and S&T within the DHS, one can only conclude that the citizens of the U.S. should not feel safe, because they probably are not being protected as well as they could be.
Government Accountability Office.…
Government Accountability Office. "Department of Homeland Security: Science and Technology Directorate's Expenditure Plan." June 22, 2007. Retrieved Dec. 22, 2007, at http://www.gao.gov/news.items/do7868.pdf .
House Committee on Government Reform - Minority Staff Special Investigations Division.
The Growth of Political Appointees in the Bush Administration." May 2006. Retrieved Dec. 23, 2007 at http://oversight.house.gov/documents/20060503.pdf .
House Committee on Homeland Security. "The State of Homeland Security 2007: An Annual
The United States Department of Homeland Security was formed in response to the growing threat of international terrorism. Since its official inception in 2002, the Department's mandate has expanded to encompass immigration law enforcement and bolstered response to natural disasters affecting the United States. The DHS represented a significant restructuring of several American federal government agencies.
The stated mission of the Department of Homeland Security, indicated on the Department's Web site, includes five core areas: the prevention of terrorism, the security of national borders, the enforcement of immigration law, the safeguarding of cyberspace, and the ensured resilience to natural disasters (DHS 2011 "Department of Homeland Security Missions and esponsibilities").
The Department of Homeland Security operates as a coordination body, which "leverages resources within federal, state, and local governments, coordinating the transition of multiple agencies and programs into a single, integrated agency focused on protecting the American people and their…
Department of Homeland Security (DHS 2011). Department of Homeland Security Missions and Responsibilities. Retrieved online: http://www.dhs.gov/xabout/responsibilities.shtm
Department of Homeland Security (DHS 2011). Department Six-Point Agenda. Retrieved online: http://www.dhs.gov/xabout/history/editorial_0646.shtm
Department of Homeland Security (DHS 2011). History.
Department of Homeland Security (DHS 2011). Mature and Strengthen the Homeland Security Enterprise. Retrieved online: http://www.dhs.gov/xabout/gc_1240838201772.shtm
Beginning in October of 2005, organizational arrangements for emergency management functions on a federal level were put into place, in the reorganization begun by Secretary Chertoff.
Pros and Cons about the Homeland Security Program
There are good things about the Homeland Security Program in the U.S. A list of positives would include the fact that some safeguards must be implemented in order to keep the country safe. Local and national law enforcement efforts to this effect might keep thousands or millions of people in the U.S. from being wounded or killed. Counterintelligence efforts, legal or otherwise have turned up some plots by terrorists to wreak havoc, though the equal potential for abusing this privilege is omnipresent. Likewise, the prosecution of terrorists has instilled an awareness and deterrence of like crimes, though the potential for abuse has been raised as a legal issue. The people have come to rely on the…
Center for Defense Information. (2001). Organization for Homeland Security: issues and options. CDI Terrorism Project. 21 Dec 2001. Retrieved April 29, 2008 at http://www.cdi.org/terrorism/homelandsecurity.cfm .
Committee on Homeland Security. (2007). Homeland Security failures: TWIC examined. U.S. House of Representatives. 31 Oct 2007. Retrieved April 29, 2008 at http://homeland.house.gov/hearings/index.asp?ID=98 .
Grant, a. (2007). Remarks at the 2007 Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism Law Enforcement Conference. U.S. Department of State. 15 Jun 2007.
Hall, M. (2004). Ex-official tells of Homeland Security failures. U.S.A. Today. 12 Dec 2004.
Introductions and Business Continuity Planning Strategy
Department of Homeland Security: Continuity Plans
Continuity planning is an essential component of the Department of Homeland Security.
Annual Department of Homeland Security (DHS) continuity planning exercises "test the readiness and capabilities of federal departments and agencies -- coordinating with the White House -- to execute their Continuity of Operations (COOP) plans" (Continuity plans, 2009, DHS). Additional exercises may be necessary in the wake of new threats or challenges faced by DHS. A critical component of the yearly exercise, called Eagle Horizon, simulates the need for federal departments and agencies to relocate during a national emergency to ensure the seamless performance of government functions. Contingency exercises test the "alert, notification, and deployment procedures as well as interagency continuity communications" (Continuity plans, 2009, DHS).
The Department of Homeland Security works in conjunction with a variety of federal agencies, such as FEMA, to engage in…
Continuity plans. (2009). Department of Homeland Security (DHS). Retrieved:
Federal guidelines encourage employers to plan now for upcoming influenza season. (2009).
Department of Homeland Security (DHS). Retrieved:
Homeland Security and Information Technology
Security and Technology
Geospatial Information System
The 9/11 bombing of the World Trade Center raised the awareness of the American public relative to the need for increased national security. The agency that is in the forefront of providing this security is the Department of Homeland Security. This agency is responsible for a broad range of security issues and, as a result, is confronted with a wide range of technological needs. The agency is forced to confront individuals and organizations who have availability to the latest technological innovations available on the market and the Department of Homeland Security must not only be prepared to confront the latest technology it must also anticipate future innovations.
Security and Technology
In today's world dominated by technology possessing information is even more important than it once was. The old adage is that information is power and the adage…
Federal Bureau of Investigation. (n.d.). Cybercrime. Retrieved March 3, 2011, from The FBI: http://www.fbi.gov/about-us/investigate/cyber/cyber
Goodchild, M.F. (2010). Twenty years of progress: GI Science in 2010. Journal of Spatial Information Science, 3-20.
John D. Woodward, N.M. (2002). Biometrics: Identity Assurance in the Information Age. Columbus, OH: McGraw-Hill Osborne Media.
Jussi, P. (2007). Digital Contagions: A Media Archaeology of Computer Viruses. New York: Peter Lang.
At the same time, officials report an uptick in corruption-related investigations. Since October 2004, 136 Customs and Border Protection employees have been indicted on or convicted of corruption-related charges." (Becker, p. 1)
And on a broader institutional level, there is significant evidence that DHS, constructed to respond to threats of terrorism, has been used to justify the use of military and federal resources for preventing immigration along our shared border with Mexico. According to Sols (2010), "Through Sept. 7 this fiscal year, 176,736 criminal immigrants have been removed from the U.S. By Immigration and Customs Enforcement. That surpasses the total for all of last year, when 136,343 were removed." (Sols, p. 1) These figures suggest that Homeland Security's focus is highly susceptible to the political pressures of the time as opposed to the prevention of potentially catastrophic terrorist attacks.
Beyond this, because DHS is so generally unaccountable, it possesses an…
Becker, a. (2012). Homeland Security Office Accused of Faking Reports on Internal Investigations. Huffington Post.
Cordes, J.J.; Yezer, a.; Young, G.; Foreman, M.C. & Kirschner, C. (2006). Estimating Economic Impacts of Homeland Security Measures. George Washington Institute of Public Policy.
Martinez, C. (2008). Homeland Security's new border-crossing rules prompt concern over economic impact. The Monitor.
Sols, D. (2010). Homeland Security Secretary Janet Napolitano: Focus is on criminal immigrants. Dallas News.
National Incident Management System:
NIMS has been designed with the sole purpose of integrating emergency practices on all levels of government. These practices include mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery and NIMS provides the single platform where all these practices would merge in order to better respond to national terrorist crises. The strengths of the program are:
1. It provides standards for organizational structures, processes and procedures
2. It also offers standards for planning, training and exercising of emergency practices
3. It integrates technologies such as voice and data communication systems, information systems and data display systems (Bullock, p. 53)
1. extensive training required to understand the system properly
2. not enough trained individuals available who can handle the complexities of NIMS
3. NIMS is dependent on NP for effective utilization of its capabilities and for its final success
National esponse Plan
With the help of NIMS, NP provides a…
Jane Bullock, George Haddow. Introduction to Homeland Security, Second Edition (Butterworth-Heinemann Homeland Security) Butterworth-Heinemann; 2 edition (April 13, 2006)
Homeland Security and Preparedness, esponse, Activities and Programs in Disaster esponse or Disaster ecovery
The focus of this study is the homeland security issue as it relates to the preparedness of the U.S.A. government and citizens in response to the emergencies that may emerge.
The research question in this study is one that asks in light of the past disasters experienced by the United States such as the events of September 11, 2001, and Hurricane Katrina among others, are the emergency response agencies and the law enforcement agencies in a better position to handle disasters from preparation to response and ultimately recovery effectively in the event of disasters or terrorist attacks?
The significance of the research in this study is that the effectiveness of the preparedness of Homeland Security initiatives should be addressed as it is not possible to know where and when disaster will next strike and the…
Bowman, M.E. (2007) Law Enforcement Technology Intelligence, and the War on Terror. JFQ. Issue 46, 3rd Quarter 2007. Retrieved from: http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=9dfc7c9b-537f-44b9-a461-ed45b8fa1a76%40sessionmgr12&vid=1&hid=11
Central Intelligence Agency, (2011). About CIA. Retrieved June 30, 2012 from Cowper, TJ and Buerger, ME (nd) Improving Our View of the World: Police and Augmented Reality Technology. Retrieved from: http://www.fbi.gov/stats-services/publications/police-augmented-reality-technology-pdf
Edwards, John B. (2012) Intelligence Led Policing Connecting Urban and Rural Operations. Retrieved from: http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=1afefbff-3d5c-4282-bcda-00e357218031%40sessionmgr11&vid=1&hid=12
They have also provided intelligent analysis to state, federal and local law enforcers promoting competency and improved support missions in and out of the United States. Navy and marine corps have participated in multi- service working groups to ensure to update and produce multi- service CRNE defense.
CRNE is also incorporated into air command, where the training is incorporated into courses; the instruction in the course includes instructions addressing the use of airlift and aerial re-fuelling assets in CRNE contaminated environments. General accounting has also responded to CRNE readiness and training assessment; where the secretary for defense recommended that current CRNE medical services should be reviewed. The review will promote tri- service CRNE training program which shall meet the standards of CRNE. Tri- service standards of procedure includes; recognition, detection, decontamination, forces protection and incident response.
Homeland department focuses on deterring and defeating direct attacks in the U.S., supporting civil…
Department of Defense Chemical Biological Defense Program Annual Report. Atlanta: DIANE, 2005.
Punaro, a. Commission on the National Guard Reserves. Atlanta: DIANE, 2008.
The Need for a Policy Framework to Develop Disaster Resilient Regions. Journal of Homeland Security Emergency Management 2005.
Department of Defense Chemical Biological Defense Program Annual Report (Atlanta: DIANE, 2005).
The first problem identified by Dr. Lowenthal in his YouTube interview is that traditionally the U.S. has conducted domestic intelligence and foreign intelligence, but it wasn't until the September 11th, 2001 attacks that the U.S. became increasingly concerned with Homeland Security. Since this is a rather new development, the definition and scope of Homeland Security is still being worked out. Currently there are many different ideas about what constitutes Homeland Security and what should be included in its objectives.
Integration is another challenge for Homeland Security. This described as fixing the airplane while it is flying. That is, Homeland Security has to design processes and procedures on the fly to ensure that the country is safe. They must adapt to changing threats all the while trying to build an infrastructure on the state and local levels. Many areas face significantly different types of threats. Some regions might fear…
It provides the starling figure that private industry spends $150 billion dollars fighting the war on terror.
More money has been made available to entrepreneurs to address computer security demands, and the government has found itself in a kind of game of catch-up, often mimicking the security protocols already installed in businesses across the globe. here is 'big money' to be made, profiting off of the federal government's need to fight the war on terror on a variety of new fronts, suggests the author, as the government contracts R&D in the private sector. Although the article is told from an undeniably 'pro- business' slant, despite its inclusion in a journal of international affairs, it is also an important reminder that the war on terror is fought on a variety of 'fronts,' including that of industry, and that the development of new technology is a vital component to the nation's homeland…
The U.S. 9/11 Commission on Border Control." (Sep., 2004). Population and Development Review, 30, 3. 569-574.
Border security is one of the most critical and passionately debated issues in the question of how best to fight the war on terror. Before 9/11, border security was primarily seen as an issue of stemming drug trafficking and illegal immigration, not one of fighting terrorism. This reprint of a commission report on border control contains the surprising fact that as many as 15 of the 19 hijackers could have been intercepted by border authorities and better monitoring of travel documents and travel patterns ("The U.S. 9/11 Commission on Border Control," 2004: 571).
However, the article advances a controversial recommendation, namely that Americans should not be exempt from carrying biometric passports and to ensure that certain individuals are screened with greater care, frequent travelers should be able to enroll in prescreening programs, for 'fast' check-ins at the airports. Although some of these programs have begun to be instated at most major airports, their fairness and security is still in dispute. Regardless of whether one agrees with the article, however, it is a portrait of how the U.S. government views border security and how it thinks it best to fight terrorism through screening measures. Thus it can be useful to read, to gain insight into how the government views it must protect our borders, and where technology to screen passengers should progress in the future.
And it does this by conducting investigations and enforcing laws that deal with public health, order, and decency.
"Morals" and "decency" are not words one would expect to see in the core values of a secular institution like a police department, but they are definitely in line with the stated core beliefs of SLU. As stated previously, SLU has it basis in a strong Catholic ideology, which is permeated with morality and decency. Catholic teachings, which are at the center of the core values of SLU, teach a person to be a moral individual who acts with decency. While maintaining the core values of maintaining excellence, respecting the law, protecting communities, and acting with integrity, the Lubbock Police Department does not forget to maintain a code of moral conduct that also expects society to act within the norms of decency.
One of the causes of the failure of the United…
Casteel, Philip. (2011, Feb. 24). "Mayor Reacts to Terrorist Arrest in Lubbock." KCBD
Webpage. Retrieved from http://www.kcbd.com/story/14136417/mayor-reactas-to-terrorist-arest-in-lubbock?redirected=true
"Core Values." (n.d.) St. Leo University Webpage. Retrieved from http://www.saintleo.edu/About-SLU/Florida-Catholic-University
"Lubbock Police Department swears in 13 New Officers." (2011, Sept. 9). Lubbock
S. faced during the Cold ar. And unlike in environmental and health issues, the debate on homeland security is one-sided, almost bi-partisan, both conservatives and liberals calling for gigantic security budget for homeland security and anti-terrorist activities. Friedman explains, "[b]oth parties see political reward in preaching danger. The massive U.S. national security establishment relies on a sense of threat to stay in business" ("The Terrible 'Ifs'" 38). The stakeholders financially benefitting from the colossal homeland security budget are allied with leaders of both political camps and thus are interested in perpetuating fear.
This is not, of course, to suggest that the Department of Homeland Security is unnecessary, or that there is no terrorist threat directed against the United States. The fact that terrorists were unable to strike at the United States in the American soil suggests that the law enforcement agencies have been successful in thwarting terrorist plots. It would…
Friedman, Benjamin. "HOMELAND SECURITY." Foreign Policy 149 (2005): 22-28. Academic Search Premier. EBSCO. Web. 20 Feb. 2011.
Friedman, Benjamin. "The Terrible 'If.'" Regulation 30.4 (2008): 32-40.
Light, Paul. "The Homeland Security Hash." Wilson Quarterly 31.2 (2007): 36-44. Academic Search Premier. EBSCO. Web. 20 Feb. 2011.
Niskanen, William a., "The Several Costs of Responding to the Threat of Terrorism," Public Choice 128 (2006): 351-356.
Homeland Security and Justice Administration
In this paper, we are going to be studying the impact of the relationship between: an emergency operations plan (EOP) with a real time incident action plan (IAP). This will be accomplished by focusing on: the strategies that can be used by first responders and the relationship between an EOP in comparison with an IAP. Once this takes place, is when we provide specific insights as to how these areas can address the challenges that are impacting different stakeholders.
Over the last several years, the issue of first responders in dealing with terrorist related events has been increasingly brought to the forefront. This is because they are expected to go into areas where they may have to save lives. Yet, they are also must preserve evidence and protect any kind of possible crime scene. This is illustrating the constant amounts of planning and training that…
Emergency Operations Plan. (2011). Rollins University. Retrieved from: http://www.rollins.edu/safety/documents/EOPRev03122012.pdf
FEMA Incident Action Planning Guide. (2012). FEMA. Retrieved from: http://www.uscg.mil/hq/cg5/cg534/nsarc/FEMA%20Incident%20Action%20Planning%20Guide%20 (IAP).pdf
Bennett, G. (2010). Cross Training for First Responders. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
Kirkorian, M. (2007). Are Immigrants a Homeland Security Risk? CFR. Retrieved from: http://www.cfr.org/immigration/immigrants-homeland-security-risk/p14660
Homeland Security / Constitutional Issues
Civil Liberties: These are fundamental freedoms interpreted by policymakers and courts over the years or assured by the Constitutional Bill of ights (Pearcy, 2003-2016).
Bill of ights: This is an official statement of American citizens' fundamental rights, integrated into the U.S. Constitution in the form of ten Amendments, as well as into the constitutions of all states (Bill of rights, n.d.).
Thought Police: This denotes a cluster of individuals holding totalitarian views regarding a particular subject, and who continuously keep an eye on others for noting any deviations from the way of thinking approved (Thought Police, n.d.).
Thought Crime: This refers to a case of controversial or unconventional thinking, which is regarded as socially unacceptable or as a crime (Oxford Dictionaries, 2016).
Big Brother: A 'big brother' is an ever-present, apparently benevolent personage who represents the tyrannical control over the lives of individuals as exerted…
Bill of rights. (n.d.). Dictionary.com Unabridged. Retrieved May 21, 2016 from http://www.dictionary.com/browse/bill-of-rights
IndiaAllouche. (2012). 1984 Dystopian Society. Writing About Literature. Retrieved May 21, 2016 from http://12fwritingaboutliterature.blogspot.in/2012/10/1984-dystopian-society.html
Nolo. (2016). Appeals and the Writ of Habeas Corpus FAQ. Retrieved May 21, 2016 from http://www.nolo.com/legal-encyclopedia/appeals-writ-habeas-corpus-faq-29096-5.html
Oxford Dictionaries. (2016). Thought Crime. Retrieved May 21, 2016 from http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/english/thoughtcrime
Evolution of the Incident Command System (ICS)
Out of concern for the lack of a uniform protocol for emergency management, the concept of the Incident Command System (ICS) was developed in combined effort by Federal, State, and local governments during the 1970s (Dudfield, 2008, p. 31). This system was developed in response to the catastrophic wildfires that occurred during 1970 in South California by fire agencies at the federal, state, and local levels (Cardwell, 2000, p. 10). The intent of ICS is to provide an organizational structure to use to coordinate response efforts to incidents of any scope ranging from minor to large-scale incidents such as natural disasters, fires, accidents, or attacks. The original ICS system has evolved into what is known today as the National Incident Management System (NIMS) that still utilizes the tenets of ICS.
According to the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA),
ICS is a standardized, on-scene,…
Beckering, D. (2005). National Incident Management System (NIMS) Update. Minnesota Fire Chief, 41(3), 20. http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&AuthType=ip , uid&db=f5h&AN=16261367&site=ehost-live
Cardwell, M.D. (2000). Nationwide Application of the Incident Command System. (cover story). FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, 69(10), 10.
Terrorism as defined by the FBI is the illegal use of force against people or property with the intention of intimidating or coercing a government. It is always done to further political or social objectives. Further, according to FMA, there are three elements that constitute terrorism:
(1) Terrorist activities are illegal and involve the use of force. (2) The actions are intended to intimidate or coerce. (3) The actions are committed in support of political or social objectives. (FMA-SS) www.mema.domestic-preparedness.net/glossary.html
Many consider the cultural differences between law enforcement and the fire service to be based in training and training philosophy. According to Dan Jones, editor of Rescue Magazine, "Police officers are taught to function primarily on their own, but firefighters are taught to act as part of a team. It's a little like comparing tennis players to basketball players." Further, the philosophy of fire service personnel is basically one of…
ESF #3 -- Public Works and Engineering
ESF #4 -- Firefighting
ESF #5 -- Information and Planning Energyhttp://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/frp/frpesf.htm FEMA
limitations and capabilities of intelligence for corroborating homeland security efforts?
Sharing of intelligence and extensive threat analysis
There are quite many intelligent agencies working round the clock analyzing the data yet no single agency is working on analyzing the incoming data regarding terrorism in United States of America. No agency is presently working to gather intelligence and look for trends (DHS, 2002). Under the United States' president, a new department was formed which analyzed the data taken from government reserves such as DOE, DEA, INS, FBI, NSA, CIA and DOT along with public records. The department has the task of looking for trends keeping the big picture in mind. It is ready all-the-time to counter any probable terrorist activity underway (DHS, 2002).
An Example: Distribution of important pharmaceuticals
Potassium Iodide (KI) is quite a drug assisting in countering thyroid cancer when exposed to radiation. The drug needs to be taken…
Department of Homeland Security (2002). The Department of Homeland Security as approved by the President of the United States. Defense Homeland Security.
Kate Martin. (2004). Domestic Intelligence and Civil Liberties. SAIS Review 24, no. 1 (Winter-Spring 2004): 8.
Logan, K. (2010). Homeland Security and Intelligence. Santa Barbara, Calif: Praeger Security International.
National Security Strategy (2010). National Security Strategy as approved by the President of the United States. Defense Homeland Security.
Workplace enforcement includes the scrutiny of the I-9 form and the attached documents, in an attempt to discover identity fraud, fraudulent documents, and illegal workplace activities.
Another aspect of illegal immigration is weapons. Illegal immigrants bring guns and other weapons across the border, but there is also a growing trade in illegal firearms, obtained in the United States, traveling back into Mexico and being used in criminal activities there, especially by powerful drug cartels. The annual report states, "ICE launched Operation Armas Cruzadas in FY08 to provide a targeted law enforcement focus on arms smuggling between the United States and Mexico" (Torres, 2009). The problem has gotten so bad that the U.S. issued warnings to travelers to stay away from the country during the recent spring break season. The agency has had some success with stopping cross-border smuggling activities, but they have not had as much success as…
Cox, A.B., & Posner, E.A. (2007). The second-order structure of immigration law. Stanford Law Review, 59(4), 809+.
Dillin, J. (2006). How Eisenhower solved illegal border crossings from Mexico. Christian Science Monitor.
Green, T.C., & Ciobanu, I.M. (2006). Deputizing - and then prosecuting - America's businesses in the fight against illegal immigration. American Criminal Law Review, 43(3), 1203+.
Headley, B. (2006). Giving critical context to the deportee phenomenon. Social Justice, 33(1), 40+.
Breadth of Responsibilities
All of the DHS responsibilities relate back to the primary jurisdiction and mission responsibilities listed above. Information sharing and analysis, prevention and protection, preparedness and response, research, commerce and trade, travel security, and immigration all are functions of keeping our country safe from terrorists and responding to both manmade and natural disasters.
The auxiliary functions of the department such as the Secret Service, U.S. Coast Guard, FEMA, Immigration and Customs, the Transportation Security Administration, and the Office of the Inspector General (OIG) all add to the breadth of DHS functionality, and fall under the primary mission statement of the department. Even the OIG, which is responsible for auditing the internal functioning of DHS including fraud and abuse indirectly operates as a function of ensuring this primary mission is carried out effectively.
Is the DHS Effectively Organized?
After a couple of re-organizations over the years, yes, it is,…
The Distinction Between ISR and IAA
The intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance have capabilities that are aimed at improving the informational and situation awareness to the department of homeland security. The capabilities of ISR have increased in demand since the incident of Hurricane Katrina. The same capabilities of ISR are the ones that are termed Incident Awareness and Assessment (IAA). The Incident Awareness and Assessment (IAA) capabilities have been leveraged to respond to various kinds of threats such as hurricanes, wildfires or even ocean oil spill.
The ISR has the capability to provide invaluable situational awareness from various intelligence disciplines. The intelligence can be in the form of signals or imagery to the military commanders. Improved ISR provides the military commanders with the big picture, enables them to have a clear understanding of the issues as well as allow them to apply the available resources in an efficient manner.
One of the biggest problems with interagency communication is the computer technologies between agencies. Essentially, they do not coordinate because each agency uses different computer technologies. Author anum continues, "That's how the federal government's computer systems became an incompatible mess: Each agency does its own product selection, and no effort is made to coordinate" (anum, 2004, p. 171). Even today, Homeland Security cannot coordinate the computers of all the agencies it oversees, and this is a huge barrier to sharing information and intelligence, and it puts the country and her people at risk.
Clearly, communication is a key element of keeping the country safe. Not only is it important between agencies, it is incredibly important for the first responders on the scene of a homeland security incident. For example, during the 9/11 attacks, firefighters, medical personnel, and police could not pick up each other's radio frequencies, so they could not…
Huang, M.P. (2007). After reorganization: A leadership journey. The Public Manager, 36(1), 67+.
Ranum, M.J. (2004). The myth of Homeland Security. Indianapolis: Wiley.
Perl (2008), the goals of terrorists are economic as well as political in nature. In addition to protecting high-profile political targets of the kind that were the focus of the 9/11 bombers, it is also essential to prioritize economic targets in a security policy. Perl argues that terrorism is given a relatively low ranking in terms of threats to energy infrastructure, it is often listed behind such factors as political instability and organized crime. Yet one could argue that many of these factors, particularly civil unrest, are critically linked to the risks posed by terrorism. In terms of recommendations, Perl suggests pursuing a more sustainable energy strategy regarding green power as the ultimate long-term 'back up' solution to the risks posed to sources of fossil fuels.
In the short-term, given the critical interdependence of the energy structures of the world on one another, cooperation between different nations is vital for…
Dhakal, S. (2011). Political anthropology and anthropology of politics. Dhaulagiri Journal of Sociology and Anthropology, 5: 217-34. Retrieved from:
Galimberri, K. (2015). Impending monsoon season creates dire situation for Nepal's post-
earthquake tent cities. Accuweather. Retrieved from:
Homeland Security and Emergency Management.
M7D1: Social Media and Risk Communications
According to Bullock (et al. 2013) the four methods of risk communication include mitigation or "to promote implementation of strategies, technologies, and actions that will reduce the loss of lives and property in future disasters; preparedness or "to communicate preparedness messages that encourage and educate the public in anticipation of disaster events;" response or "to provide to the public notification, warning, evacuation, and situation reports on an ongoing disaster and recovery or "to provide individuals and communities affected by a disaster with information on how to register for and receive disaster relief" (Bullock et al. 2013: 515). It is in the response phase which was critically lacking in the case of dealing with the threat posed by the D.C. sniper. There is always an element of fear in the case of spontaneous threats which emerge, as but a realistic…
M1D1: Concept of Homeland Security Enterprise
HSE (Homeland Security Enterprise) was designed to better coordinate the resources of all law enforcement functions that fall under the auspices of the DHS. DHA strives to provide law enforcement agencies with "the tools to identify and combat threats in their communities," including access to its information (Strengthening the Homeland Security Enterprise: Progress Report 2011, 2011, DHS). "Because state and local law enforcement are often in the best position to notice the first signs of a planned attack, homeland security efforts must be integrated into the police work that they do every day, providing officers on the front lines with a clear understanding of the tactics, behaviors, and other indicators that could point to terrorist activity" (Strengthening the Homeland Security Enterprise: Progress Report 2011, 2011, DHS). DHS has created 'fusion' centers "to train state and local law enforcement to recognize behaviors and indicators related…
HLS-355: CRITICAL THINKING FOR HOMELAND SECURITY Final Project
The fight against Hurricane Katrina in a political environment set on fighting terrorism
Improving security can be a particularly challenging mission and this makes a critical thinking technique particularly useful for a person or a community to effectively strengthen their position and legislations. One of the first things that someone dealing with the concept needs to consider is the fact that security can never be one hundred percent foolproof. Even the most advanced security systems can be defeated and caring for such a system thus entails having to be in constant alert and to attempt to improve it every minute. The better a security system is, the harder it is for a criminal to defeat it and the more successful the individuals benefiting from it are.
Many individuals have a limited understanding of the idea of security, as they only tend to…
Bullock, J., Haddow, G, & Coppola, D.P., "Introduction to Homeland Security: Principles of All-Hazards Risk Management," (Elsevier, 2012)
Kiltz, Linda, "Journal of Homeland Security and Emergency Management," Retrieved October 22, 2014, from http://www.innovative-analytics.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/DevelopingCriticalThinking.pdf
Matthews, J. "Mass Shootings: Six Steps to Survival," (eBooks2go, 10 Jan 2014)
Purpura, P. "Terrorism and Homeland Security: An Introduction with Applications," (Butterworth-Heinemann, 29 Aug 2011)
M8D1: HSE and Criminal Justice: Critical Issues
Communication and education are critical issues in the field of homeland security. hat is why we have identified inter-agency cooperation as one of our key issues of concern: namely, the need for different law enforcement agencies to share intelligence with one another. Related to communication are issues pertaining to education, including the education of communities and first responders about how best to respond to security issues and how to share information in digital formats. Another issue also related to education is the need to strike a balance between the civil liberties of suspects and the security of the community.
Coordination between civil and military agencies
Sylves, R.. (2009). Civil-military relations in emergency management. Public Manager, 38(3),
According to this article, there has been increased coordination between civilian and military law enforcement agencies in recent years. "Few appreciate how dramatic the latest penetration…
Training in all-hazards responses or "grouping classification encompassing all conditions, environmental or manmade, that have the potential to cause injury, illness, or death; damage to or loss of equipment, infrastructure services, or property; or alternatively causing functional degradation to social, economic, or environmental aspects" is an effective and efficient way to ensure that all law enforcement and safety management agencies are capable of being responsive to a wide variety of potential threats to citizens' security in a comprehensive fashion, regardless of what threats may be posed in the future (Hart & Ramsey 2001)
Commensurate with improved education is improved intelligence-sharing. Once there is greater trust between agencies and more unified training methods and a shared perspective on the issue of homeland security, there will be greater willingness to break down institutional barriers regarding this issue and engage in constant dialogue. Digital sharing of information and resources can be facilitated, particularly as the issue of homeland security becomes addressed in a more expansive way by security experts at every level of government. Innovative solutions to security concerns are not limited to arising only in the upper echelons of government. Local law enforcement agencies often have a unique perspective which can enhance early detection because of their advantageous location.
As well as training existing law enforcement personnel, it is important to have an eye upon the future. With this in mind, improving the training and qualifications of new law enforcement agents who specialize in homeland