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Questioning the Legality of the Patiot Act
The Depatment of Homeland Secuity
Afte the Septembe 11 attacks, the United States was, undoubtedly, in a state of fuy, sadness, despeation and geneal tumoil. Ou county's iconic positivity had to be ebuilt, and theats, above eveything else, had to be kept at bay and fa away fom U.S. soil. The State Depatment undetook a numbe of policies to achieve this goal, and one of these policies was instituting a depatment that would be able to shae infomation with both the CIA and the FBI, as well as focus on the things that the two pevious agencies had missed at such a high cost. The Depatment of Homeland Secuity (DHS), as this body was called, would thus be able to not only wok with fellow govenmental institutions, but also monito foeign and domestic theats. Yet, as it often happens, nobody is…… [Read More]
The obligation for homeland security inside the United States became obvious following the terrorist attacks that took place on September 11, 2001. The national debate that followed has concerned an amount of multifaceted and diverse difficulties. The issues linking to homeland security are a lot of the times blurred for the reason that the nation is dealing with a new kind of struggle, a new hazard right on American soil, and a new security idea -- every one of them needing some kind of changes that relates to how we must now protect the United States, its people and our critical structure. The national restructuring for homeland security has been one of the most important and debated subjects of conversation. In comparison, there has not been a lot written about it and plus there has been restrictive talks regarding the state level preparations that have been evolving over…… [Read More]
The attacks of September 11, 2001 have necessitated a new awareness of the shortcomings of the American security system. It follows that there also arose the need to reassess this security system and to enhance the measures already in place so that the possibility of future attacks can be minimized. The emotions aroused by 9/11 doubtlessly played a large part in allowing the government to use measures that would otherwise appear outrageous, or at the very least an infringement upon the right to privacy. Some of these measures have come under renewed scrutiny, while others have been deemed acceptable.
Homeland security has become more effective in terms of its structure. It is now controlled by a single dominant agency, whereas in the past several agencies controlled its various functions. The advantage of this is that a better chain of command is established, and fewer miscommunications can occur. Security…… [Read More]
The needs to be prepared for any disaster or attack constitute the need of standard operating procedures which need to be followed accurately. Standard operating procedures ensure that the right procedures are followed when dealing with any disaster affecting the society. The main purpose of having standard operating procedures is to guarantee that investigations are done in a consistent manner which should be correct. The use of standard operating procedures ensures that the organization collects the relevant information needed for the investigation and files it correctly. Deviations from the standard operating procedure should not be allowed as it leads to inconsistency in the information collected (Haider, 2006).
Emergency response to an explosive device in the university
This is a standard operating procedure for emergency response in the event of an explosive device in the university prepared by the patrol division's commander for excelsior university police department. The document…… [Read More]
How is command and control affected by "span of control"?
Command and control refers the actions of a properly designated commander. This commander will then exercise his or her authority over assigned forces in the accomplishment of the mission. This ability to oversee forces is directly related to the span of control, or how many people the commander oversees. If the commander does not have authority over personnel, equipment, communications, etc. then it may adversely affect the mission. Alternately, if command and control has too broad of a span of control, then the effectiveness of the mission may be diluted.
Discuss three issues important when determining the location of the incident command post.
The command post must be easily accessible to the disaster site and have easy access for support vehicles and resupply. It should have a securable perimeter and should be a place where telecommunications are readily…… [Read More]
Homeland Security and U.S. Intelligence
Formation of Department of Homeland Security & U.S. Intelligence on Terrorism
Definition of Intelligence
Rationale for Formation of DHS
Effectiveness of DHS
Importance of Intelligence & Analysts
Research Methods & Its Limitations
Data Collection & Analysis
National security has been a major concern for United States in past few decades. However, since 2001, this concern has turn into a serious threat for national security. The given research is performed with the intent of evaluating the effectiveness of Department of Homeland Security in terms of intelligence sharing on terrorism. For this purpose, the study is performed following a predictive form of research. This research methodology is best suited for the researches where the source of data is secondary. For the purpose of this research, the articles from peer reviewed journals and intelligence reports on Department of Homeland Security will be used.
For the purpose…… [Read More]
("Lynchburg Virginia Emergency Operations Plan," 2012)
Elements of Disaster esponse, ecovery, and Incident Command
In the event of a disaster, the City Manager is appointed as the local spokesperson for all issues, events and the coordination of resources. They work directly with the Mayor and the City Council (who sit as an advisory board to the City Manager). In the event that there are any political issues, the Mayor will interact with officials. This is streamlining communication and reducing the overall amounts of confusion. As a result, the incident command is split between the Mayor / City Council and the City Manager. ("Lynchburg Virginia Emergency Operations Plan," 2012)
Professional accountability rests with the Mayor serving as a go between for the City Council and City Manager. The City Council has the power of oversight and monitoring for potential abuses as well as where different resources should be utilized.…… [Read More]
However, information sharing is not indicative of any overall advancement in counterterrorism activity but is certainly a sign of an expanding bureaucracy. According to David Rittgers, DHS fusion centers do little more than label anyone who is critical of the federal government as a potential terrorist. Rittgers reports that DHS analysts are "labeling broad swaths of the public as a threat to national security."
With the passing of the National Defense Authorization Act, these reports may be seen by the public as potentially disconcerting now that persons deemed as "terrorists" may now be militarily detained without charges or trial. The basic eradication of due process makes the powers, scrutiny, and judgments of the DHS that much more intimidating for citizens already suspicious of tyranny in the federal government.
Today the DHS is focusing its attention ever-increasingly on border patrol. The DHS Press Office stated in February, 2013, that the Obama…… [Read More]
Homeland Security Strategies
The United Sates Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Strategic Plan outlines the Department's vision for homeland security as outlined in the Department's Quadrennial Homeland Security eview (QHS). The plan is a unified, strategic framework for homeland security missions and goals. The Bottom-Up eview (BU) compliments efforts to align DHS's programmatic activities and organizational structure to better serve the department's goals and missions. The plan enables the Department to prioritize frontline operations while maximizing the effectiveness and efficiency of the tax payer's money allocated to the Department. The department has five key missions namely: securing the United States from terrorist threats and enhancing security; securing the country's borders; enforcing immigration laws; securing cyberspace; and building resilience to disasters (DHS, 2013). The Department has also made an undertaking to provide essential support to national and economic security, as outlined in the FY 2012-2016, as it matures. This paper gives…… [Read More]
In addition to this, the transportation security administration, customs and boarder protection department, citizenship and immigration services, immigration and customs enforcement, secret service, federal emergency management, and coast guard are part of the Department of Homeland Security (Department of Homeland Security 2008). This organizational structure, while certainly extensive, is rather complex. Although the department has undergone serious transformations since its creation, the Washington Post called it "hampered by severe management and financial problems" in 2005 (Eggen 2005). A specific attack on the Department's organizational structure, the article suggested that the Federal Emergency Management Department was "overburdened" because of its Department of Homeland Security responsibilities (Egen 2005).
As a result of this complex structure, the Department of Homeland Security has taken upon itself duties that were already allocated to other branches of the government and government departments. Some of the duties of the Department include "assessing the nation's vulnerabilities" through information…… [Read More]
On the other hand, the Department in itself was projected to deal with a large number of aspects surrounding homeland security. The arguments supporting the idea were focused on the principle that the citizens must be protected from foreign threats, such as terrorism, and they must be given the help needed to face the treacheries of nature. In aiming to accomplish the latter, the Federal Emergency Management Directorate was established. Even if it somewhat enables smoother and more effective assistance in case of natural disasters, it merely coordinates the efforts and it does not replace the actions taken at local or state level. Therefore, the decisions taken in crisis situations must pass yet another test and must receive approval from yet another decision making body before action is taken in the areas affected by floods or other natural catastrophes. A similar fact can be presented even in the case of…… [Read More]
This is because DHS has maintained that it is established not to work alone in enhancing security and safety of the people but in collaborating with all the U.S. departments and agencies, as long as it uphold the overall vision of the department - to protect and provide security to the people.
Thus, it can be viewed that DHS is logically organized as it provide venues for different governmental and federal agencies to work hand in hand with the department. However, the DHS has its own limitations that may not live up to the science and technology policy. but, if its objectives are attained in an honest and credible manner with an unbiased support from the federal government, there is a greater chance for the department to run for a longer term. Its similarities with the science and technology policy are considerably the most important factor that the federal government…… [Read More]
Homeland Security Act
The terrorist attacks on the orld Trade Center last September 11, 2001 highlighted the growing need to safeguard domestic security. One of the Bush government's responses was the passage of the Homeland Security Act during the 107th Congress. This law provides the Bush government a legal and executive basis to respond to terrorism.
This paper examines some of the effects of and changes that have taken place since the passage of the Homeland Security Act of 2002. The first part of the paper looks at how the passage of the law has affected the federal bureaucracy. The second part then looks at the more specific effects of this federal law on the state of Texas. In the last part, the paper examines some of the economic effects the Homeland Security Act of 2002.
The most immediate change wrought by the Homeland Security Act of 2002…… [Read More]
The challenge for local and state homeland security planning lies with the top-down nature of disaster response and relief and the technologies that are needed in order for adequate response to become possible. As authors Schafer, Carroll, Haynes, and Abrams (2008) write,
"Emergencies often have causes and effects that are global. However, emergencies are also inherently local: They occur in a particular place and point in time. While it is critical for governments and society to better organize emergency management top-down, it is also important to become more aware of local community-level values, planning, involvement, knowledge, and skill. Local communities plan collaboratively for potential emergencies of varying scales."
This means that the federal government, though ultimately responsible for the state and local planning, must take a secondary or passive role in the planning at these lower levels due to the fact that the federal government is not equipped with the…… [Read More]
This goal is one that illustrates how accurate the statement by Charlie Allen, former Undersecretary of Intelligence and Analysis of the DHS is. The fourth goal of the DHS is to focus on mitigating and preventing attacks against the Homeland with specific focus on systems, facilities and individuals protected by the DHS Stakeholder Community. This goal is achieved through the use of an extensive framework created specifically for monitoring and defining deterrence to threats through the use of analytics and predictive modeling (Raghu, Ramesh, Whinston (2005), pp. 310, 311). The fifth goal is to serve Stakeholders throughout the intelligence, defense and law enforcement communities of the United States in addition to managing Stakeholder information requirements. The sixth goal is one that continues to be the leas quantifiable and the most important, which is the culture of the agency (Hyong (2003), pp. 55, 56). This goal centers creating a culture of…… [Read More]
The Department of Homeland Security: the National Terrorism Advisory System vs. The Homeland Security Advisory System
In the aftermath of the September 11th, 2001 attacks, a complete review of America's counter-terrorism operations took place. hat was seen as the fault in U.S. intelligence to predict the 9/11 attacks was a severe lack of information sharing between U.S. intelligence agencies, and the lack of protocol in the event of future terrorist attacks. Thus, the Department of Homeland Security was created in an attempt to bring together the informational capabilities of the various U.S. agencies working on counter-terrorism, with a command structure that penetrates the entire U.S. law enforcement system. The DHS quickly instituted its first recommendations on March 12, 2002, with the creation of the Homeland Security Advisory System (HSAS), based on a colored threat scale from green to red, and protocol to be followed nationwide in accordance to…… [Read More]
Homeland security-Boston Bombing
The Boston Bombing in relation to homeland security
Following the various hearings after the 9/11 bombings, one factor that came out clear to all Americans, from the technical people to the lay people is that one single most aspect that resulted in the success of the terrorist attack was lack of a seamless communication among the various security agencies and departments and not the lack of information. This was a scene that was replayed in the recent Boston Marathon bombing where three people lost their lives as 260 others maimed to amputation levels (Larry B., 2013).
Tamerlan Tsarnaev who was 26 and his brother Dzhokhar who was 19 years old have been held responsible so far in the bombings at Boston. They coordinated to have explosive devices planted among the crowds that were at the finish line and successfully did so. Hours later Tamerlan was shot dead…… [Read More]
In 1945, the United States put a final and definitive end to World War II when it used two atomic bombs on Japan, forcing their surrender. At that time the entire world learned of the terrible potential of weapons of mass destruction. Unfortunately, as the major nations have backed away from weapons of mass destruction (WWD), terrorist organizations have sought to acquire them. Worse, technological advances have made it possible for to be constructed on a small enough scale that they could feasibly be smuggled anywhere in the world.
We have seen isolated use of such weapons. Terrorists released the nerve gas Sarin into a Tokyo subway some years ago, anthrax was used in the United States with the Postal Service as the delivery method, and al-Qaeda killed thousands in 2001 by flying fuel-laden passenger planes into buildings (Quillen, 2002). The last event in particular demonstrated that some…… [Read More]
They were mostly former soldiers from Iraq, called in to help with the relief ops. Those supporting the use of the National Guard in these types of actions point out that "the National Guard already has a significant emergency response capability and the Constitution of the United States establishes the authority to employ the National Guard in significant and leading domestic roles against terrorism." (Oates, 2002) on the other hand, however, it can be said that the part time soldiers are stretched beyond their limits and are sometimes forced to work to exhaustion in order to achieve the task they were called in for. This can lead to poor performances, which in turn may cost lives. According to a study conducted in the Atlanta metropolitan area, "among 16 fire departments, an average of 22.2% of employees holds two or more public safety positions. Moreover, a significant percentage of the public…… [Read More]
Homeland Security and Criminal Justice Administration
OSEC and site security
Importance of personal accountability at scene of incident
ersonnel accountability mechanisms are the most important in any rescue operations to ensure that rescuers strive to protect themselves and mandatory at emergency scenes. Moreover, this system helps track the rescuers' identification, their role and location during emergency. It also ensures only authorized personnel who are trained and have been provided with specific instruction are operating within the scene of the incident. In most cases, these systems employ the use of badges, lists, tags, use of bar code readers and radio frequency identification (IAFC & NFA, 2009). Electronically-based systems, such as bar codes and RFIDs, are more often capable of relaying real-time information that can be transmitted to several stations at the same time providing more efficient monitoring and evaluation.
All rescuers in any rescue mission are responsible and accountable for their…… [Read More]
This leads the cycle back into the original planning stage as the new and improved plan can be put into practice.
The United States Department of Justice has created a website called "COPS: Community Oriented Policing Services" in order to advance "the practice of community policing in America's state, local, and tribal law enforcement agencies." ( "COPS: Community Oriented") There are three aspects of Community Policing which the Department of Justice promotes: Community Partnerships, Organizational Transformation, and Problem Solving. The COPS program also organizes conferences, grants and funding for improvements and technical assistance, as well as courses for local police officers to learn the most advanced techniques in community policing. Community Policing is one of the police organizations and operations listed in chapter 3 of Kenneth Peak's book entitled Justice Administration. (Peak, 2007) the Department of Justice's COPS website is the official site for the DOJ's office that…… [Read More]
The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) arose from the ashes of the Twin Towers on 9/11 as the federal government’s response to the threat of terror. That threat has been represented in a number of incarnations: the Saudi hijackers, Al-Qaeda, Saddam Hussein, Gaddafi, Assad, ISIS, and so on. Today, with ISIS being acknowledged as largely defeated in the Middle East, the new security threat that the U.S. faces is unclear (Cronin, 2015) and the old security threats—the specter of terrorism that continues to rear its head both abroad and domestically—appear to have shifted into new forms. In an ironic twist, Americans themselves appear to be more like homegrown terrorists in their attacks on fellow citizens, whether these attacks are conducted at schools or at social venues where crowds gather for enjoyment. Terrorism and mass killing appears to be the new chosen method of expressing one’s own personal jihad on…… [Read More]
The Department of Homeland Security was created in 2002 as a response to September 11. The goal of the creation of the new department was to centralize all decision-making authority under the rubric of homeland security, ensuring a common mission and philosophy for all the departments that come under the rubric of the Department of Homeland Security. The organizational structure of the DHS perfectly reflects its overall mission, goals, and culture.
Created in the aftermath of September 11, with the goal of centralizing national security procedures and protocols for maximum efficiency, the Department of Homeland Security comprises several previously independent or disparate government organizations. The mission of the Department of Homeland Security is “to ensure a homeland that is safe, secure, and resilient against terrorism and other hazards,” (DHS “Our Mission,” 2016). For example, customs and border security are housed under the rubric of the Department of Homeland…… [Read More]
Section I: Introduction
The formation of the Department of Homeland Security after September 11 was an organizational and administrative response to the failure of the intelligence community to mitigate the attack. Although it predated the 9/11 Commission, the Department of Homeland Security benefitted from the results of the 9/11 Commission report, which advised a stronger information sharing culture in the intelligence community. It has been assumed that intelligence sharing under an umbrella organization will prevent future attacks, facilitate intelligence gathering, and enable the formation of trans-national intelligence communities that can more effectively respond to the threat of non-state actors. On the other hand, research has not uniformly shown the Department of Homeland Security to be effective. The Department of Homeland Security has led to major changes in the role and function of law enforcement. Whether these changes are predicted to be positive in terms of achieving national security goals is…… [Read More]
Global Influence and the Challenges Facing Leaders in Homeland Security
Berger, L. (2014). Foreign policies or culture. Journal of Peace Research, 51(6): 782-796.
This study uses survey method to obtain data of the world’s three largest Muslim-majority nations in the world. The purpose of the study is to challenge conventional thinking in terms of what factors impact the public opinions of Muslims regarding political violence aimed at the U.S. The survey categorizes violence by distinguishing between violence towards civilians and violence towards military targets. Independent variables are identified that enable the researcher to also distinguish surveyors’ views on U.S. foreign policy as opposed to simply U.S. culture. The study analyzes the data using logistic regression models and finds that Egypt, Pakistan and Indonesia all have perceptions of U.S. policies relating to the Middle East (and the region’s oil), Israel, and an overall aim on the part of the…… [Read More]
National borders are far from arbitrary; they are important demarcations between one sovereign state and another. The foundation of national sovereignty depends on each nation protecting its own border, to achieve its own homeland security goals. In the United States, homeland security goals center on protecting the nation from foreign and domestic threats. To protect the nation from threats, it is essential to prevent would-be terrorists and criminals from entering, and also to prevent hazardous goods from crossing the border. Border security prevents the illegal flow of people, and therefore protects the world from human trafficking, illegal weapons trafficking, and drug trafficking. Preventing contraband from coming in is just one of many roles the border protection services provide in the interest of homeland security. One of the functions of border patrol is the maintenance of the nation’s domestic and foreign economic policy, essentially ensuring that all goods that enter the…… [Read More]
The most significant terrorist attack on American soil was the September 11 attacks by Al Qaeda terrorists. The attacks changed the perception that America cannot suffer such attacks, considering how far away it is from where terrorist organizations such as Al Qaeda are based. The attacks also initiated America’s war against terrorism, which continues to date. Before the September 11 attacks, Americans had never experienced a large scale terrorist incident within their country’s borders. Moreover, most local and state security agencies had no experience with such attacks and were, therefore, very ill-prepared to respond to them. The only historic attacks or incidents that compare to the September 11 attacks were the airplane hijackings of the seventies and the eighties. The fact that Americans were not prepared and for the attacks and never expected such attacks to happen on their soil resulted in many people being very surprised and mentally…… [Read More]
The maritime industry is increasingly moving towards the adoption of systems that rely heavily on digitization, automation, and integration (Hayes, 2016). The extensive use of advanced technological solutions in the maritime industry is driven by the urgent need to maintain the industry in sync with all other industries that seem to have a step forward in adopting technological solutions. As a result of this growth and development in technological solutions, the security of data and other sensitive information has increasingly become a huge concern for the industry (Bueger, 2015). Cybersecurity has become a priority for the maritime industry. With many of the operational and critical system having already been digitized, automated, and integrated, the concern has now shifted to how entities within the maritime industry should implement appropriate procedures and policies to respond to cybersecurity incidents effectively.
Cybersecurity refers to the ability of entities to prepare for possible…… [Read More]
Decision Support Paper: Department of Homeland Security (DHS) – U.S. Immigration and Custom Enforcement
Introduction and Background
This text analyses the budget plan of both the Department of Homeland Security and the U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement, one of DHS’s operating directories, with an aim of determining how the said directorate is impacted upon by the DHS budget plan. In so doing, the needs of the Immigration and Custom Enforcement will be analyzed, vis-à-vis the budget priorities of the DHS, with an aim of identifying misalignments. If any misalignments are identified, recommendations for aligning the Immigration and Customs Enforcement program priorities with the DHS strategic plan will be presented.
The U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) concerns itself with the enforcement of federal laws that relate to immigration and trade, customs, and border control so as to not only enhance public safety, but also promote homeland security. In essence, ICE…… [Read More]
Security of the Nation’s Critical Infrastructure
Many of the elements of the nation’s critical infrastructure are highly vulnerable to attacks due to remoteness (such as in the case of dams or water treatment facilities), size (such as in the case of water reservoirs) or other attributes of the facilities that can be exploited by terrorists. Because even minor disruptions in the nation’s critical infrastructure can have severe consequences for Americans, identifying these vulnerabilities and taking steps to prevent terrorist acts represents a timely and valuable enterprise. To this end, the purpose of this paper is to provide an explanation concerning how water facilities and other utilities can be targets of terrorist acts together with specific examples and supporting rationale and followed by a summary of the research and key findings concerning these issues in the conclusion.
The overwhelming majority of Americans take clean, fresh water, abundant cheap gasoline and unlimited…… [Read More]
Private Security and Homeland Defense
Questions 2 and 3
The Intelligence Community is comprised of 17 agencies. These agencies work with Federal, State, Local, Tribal and Territorial partners to protect the homeland. Four of these agencies are intelligence elements of the Department of Defense Services – Army, Navy, Marine Corps and Air Force. Please pick ONE of these Department of Defense Services intelligence elements and explain its mission. In what ways does it contribute to the intelligence cycle? Provide examples.
The Department of Defense Services intelligence element that I selected in this particular case is the Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA). The stated mission of DIA is “provide intelligence on foreign militaries to prevent and decisively win wars” (DIA, 2020). Thus, it is important to note, from the onset, that this particular agency largely concerns itself with not only the gathering, but also the production of military intelligence. As…… [Read More]
Private Security and Homeland Defense
Most of the critical infrastructure in the United States is regulated by the public sector, but owned by the private sector. As a result, protection of U.S. critical infrastructure is a major challenge because of complexities in both the public and private sectors. Moreover, safeguarding critical infrastructure is complicated by the sophisticated and growing assortment of cybersecurity challenges (Brooks par, 2). Given the involvement of the public and private sectors in U.S. critical infrastructure, public-private partnerships are vital. These partnerships refer to collaboration between the government and private sector entities in order to realize certain goals or objectives (Busch & Givens par, 4). Public-private partnerships continue to play an important role in homeland security through acting as a suitable means for protection of critical infrastructure. The creation of public-private partnerships provides risk management frameworks that address growing threats to homeland security and critical infrastructure across…… [Read More]
DHS: FEMA 2010 Compared to 2011
The objective of this study is to compare what happened within FEMA in 2010 and 2011. Toward this end, this study will conduct a review of literature in this area of inquiry.
The United States Congress appropriate more than $34 billion in grant funding for homeland security preparedness from fiscal year 2002 through fiscal year 2012. It is additionally reported that between 2002 and 2012 that Federal Emergency Agency (FEMA) administers grew "from 8…to 17…as the result of congressional and executive branch actions." (Government Accountability Office, 2013, p.1)
The Government Accountability Office reports that FEMA fails to "compare and coordinate grant applications across its preparedness programs to identify potential duplication." (Government Accountability Office, 2013, p.1) Additionally reported is that FEMA has failed to establish "…measurable goals or performance measures for preparedness capabilities to assist in effectively prioritizing national investments through preparedness grant programs." (Government…… [Read More]
The Congressional report card for 2007 goes on to say that an important part of leading an organization is to "provide clear statements of principles, priorities, and vision." But that said, it is unfortunate, according to the report card, that "...in spite of its mandate in the Homeland Security Act, neither the national policy nor the strategic plan...has been produced." During the fiscal year 2005 independent financial auditors reported that there were serious financial reporting difficulties for S&T that included "serious difficulties maintaining accurate financial records"; and moreover, the GAO has identified the same kinds of problems in 2007. So given that series of flaws, and the overall shaky management structure of DHS and S&T within the DHS, one can only conclude that the citizens of the U.S. should not feel safe, because they probably are not being protected as well as they could be.
Government Accountability Office.…… [Read More]
The United States Department of Homeland Security was formed in response to the growing threat of international terrorism. Since its official inception in 2002, the Department's mandate has expanded to encompass immigration law enforcement and bolstered response to natural disasters affecting the United States. The DHS represented a significant restructuring of several American federal government agencies.
The stated mission of the Department of Homeland Security, indicated on the Department's Web site, includes five core areas: the prevention of terrorism, the security of national borders, the enforcement of immigration law, the safeguarding of cyberspace, and the ensured resilience to natural disasters (DHS 2011 "Department of Homeland Security Missions and esponsibilities").
The Department of Homeland Security operates as a coordination body, which "leverages resources within federal, state, and local governments, coordinating the transition of multiple agencies and programs into a single, integrated agency focused on protecting the American people and their…… [Read More]
Introductions and Business Continuity Planning Strategy
Department of Homeland Security: Continuity Plans
Continuity planning is an essential component of the Department of Homeland Security.
Annual Department of Homeland Security (DHS) continuity planning exercises "test the readiness and capabilities of federal departments and agencies -- coordinating with the White House -- to execute their Continuity of Operations (COOP) plans" (Continuity plans, 2009, DHS). Additional exercises may be necessary in the wake of new threats or challenges faced by DHS. A critical component of the yearly exercise, called Eagle Horizon, simulates the need for federal departments and agencies to relocate during a national emergency to ensure the seamless performance of government functions. Contingency exercises test the "alert, notification, and deployment procedures as well as interagency continuity communications" (Continuity plans, 2009, DHS).
The Department of Homeland Security works in conjunction with a variety of federal agencies, such as FEMA, to engage in…… [Read More]
Beginning in October of 2005, organizational arrangements for emergency management functions on a federal level were put into place, in the reorganization begun by Secretary Chertoff.
Pros and Cons about the Homeland Security Program
There are good things about the Homeland Security Program in the U.S. A list of positives would include the fact that some safeguards must be implemented in order to keep the country safe. Local and national law enforcement efforts to this effect might keep thousands or millions of people in the U.S. from being wounded or killed. Counterintelligence efforts, legal or otherwise have turned up some plots by terrorists to wreak havoc, though the equal potential for abusing this privilege is omnipresent. Likewise, the prosecution of terrorists has instilled an awareness and deterrence of like crimes, though the potential for abuse has been raised as a legal issue. The people have come to rely on the…… [Read More]
Homeland Security and Information Technology
Security and Technology
Geospatial Information System
The 9/11 bombing of the World Trade Center raised the awareness of the American public relative to the need for increased national security. The agency that is in the forefront of providing this security is the Department of Homeland Security. This agency is responsible for a broad range of security issues and, as a result, is confronted with a wide range of technological needs. The agency is forced to confront individuals and organizations who have availability to the latest technological innovations available on the market and the Department of Homeland Security must not only be prepared to confront the latest technology it must also anticipate future innovations.
Security and Technology
In today's world dominated by technology possessing information is even more important than it once was. The old adage is that information is power and the adage…… [Read More]
At the same time, officials report an uptick in corruption-related investigations. Since October 2004, 136 Customs and Border Protection employees have been indicted on or convicted of corruption-related charges." (Becker, p. 1)
And on a broader institutional level, there is significant evidence that DHS, constructed to respond to threats of terrorism, has been used to justify the use of military and federal resources for preventing immigration along our shared border with Mexico. According to Sols (2010), "Through Sept. 7 this fiscal year, 176,736 criminal immigrants have been removed from the U.S. By Immigration and Customs Enforcement. That surpasses the total for all of last year, when 136,343 were removed." (Sols, p. 1) These figures suggest that Homeland Security's focus is highly susceptible to the political pressures of the time as opposed to the prevention of potentially catastrophic terrorist attacks.
Beyond this, because DHS is so generally unaccountable, it possesses an…… [Read More]
National Incident Management System:
NIMS has been designed with the sole purpose of integrating emergency practices on all levels of government. These practices include mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery and NIMS provides the single platform where all these practices would merge in order to better respond to national terrorist crises. The strengths of the program are:
1. It provides standards for organizational structures, processes and procedures
2. It also offers standards for planning, training and exercising of emergency practices
3. It integrates technologies such as voice and data communication systems, information systems and data display systems (Bullock, p. 53)
1. extensive training required to understand the system properly
2. not enough trained individuals available who can handle the complexities of NIMS
3. NIMS is dependent on NP for effective utilization of its capabilities and for its final success
National esponse Plan
With the help of NIMS, NP provides a…… [Read More]
Homeland Security and Preparedness, esponse, Activities and Programs in Disaster esponse or Disaster ecovery
The focus of this study is the homeland security issue as it relates to the preparedness of the U.S.A. government and citizens in response to the emergencies that may emerge.
The research question in this study is one that asks in light of the past disasters experienced by the United States such as the events of September 11, 2001, and Hurricane Katrina among others, are the emergency response agencies and the law enforcement agencies in a better position to handle disasters from preparation to response and ultimately recovery effectively in the event of disasters or terrorist attacks?
The significance of the research in this study is that the effectiveness of the preparedness of Homeland Security initiatives should be addressed as it is not possible to know where and when disaster will next strike and the…… [Read More]
They have also provided intelligent analysis to state, federal and local law enforcers promoting competency and improved support missions in and out of the United States. Navy and marine corps have participated in multi- service working groups to ensure to update and produce multi- service CRNE defense.
CRNE is also incorporated into air command, where the training is incorporated into courses; the instruction in the course includes instructions addressing the use of airlift and aerial re-fuelling assets in CRNE contaminated environments. General accounting has also responded to CRNE readiness and training assessment; where the secretary for defense recommended that current CRNE medical services should be reviewed. The review will promote tri- service CRNE training program which shall meet the standards of CRNE. Tri- service standards of procedure includes; recognition, detection, decontamination, forces protection and incident response.
Homeland department focuses on deterring and defeating direct attacks in the U.S., supporting civil…… [Read More]
The first problem identified by Dr. Lowenthal in his YouTube interview is that traditionally the U.S. has conducted domestic intelligence and foreign intelligence, but it wasn't until the September 11th, 2001 attacks that the U.S. became increasingly concerned with Homeland Security. Since this is a rather new development, the definition and scope of Homeland Security is still being worked out. Currently there are many different ideas about what constitutes Homeland Security and what should be included in its objectives.
Integration is another challenge for Homeland Security. This described as fixing the airplane while it is flying. That is, Homeland Security has to design processes and procedures on the fly to ensure that the country is safe. They must adapt to changing threats all the while trying to build an infrastructure on the state and local levels. Many areas face significantly different types of threats. Some regions might fear…… [Read More]
It provides the starling figure that private industry spends $150 billion dollars fighting the war on terror.
More money has been made available to entrepreneurs to address computer security demands, and the government has found itself in a kind of game of catch-up, often mimicking the security protocols already installed in businesses across the globe. here is 'big money' to be made, profiting off of the federal government's need to fight the war on terror on a variety of new fronts, suggests the author, as the government contracts R&D in the private sector. Although the article is told from an undeniably 'pro- business' slant, despite its inclusion in a journal of international affairs, it is also an important reminder that the war on terror is fought on a variety of 'fronts,' including that of industry, and that the development of new technology is a vital component to the nation's homeland…… [Read More]
And it does this by conducting investigations and enforcing laws that deal with public health, order, and decency.
"Morals" and "decency" are not words one would expect to see in the core values of a secular institution like a police department, but they are definitely in line with the stated core beliefs of SLU. As stated previously, SLU has it basis in a strong Catholic ideology, which is permeated with morality and decency. Catholic teachings, which are at the center of the core values of SLU, teach a person to be a moral individual who acts with decency. While maintaining the core values of maintaining excellence, respecting the law, protecting communities, and acting with integrity, the Lubbock Police Department does not forget to maintain a code of moral conduct that also expects society to act within the norms of decency.
One of the causes of the failure of the United…… [Read More]
S. faced during the Cold ar. And unlike in environmental and health issues, the debate on homeland security is one-sided, almost bi-partisan, both conservatives and liberals calling for gigantic security budget for homeland security and anti-terrorist activities. Friedman explains, "[b]oth parties see political reward in preaching danger. The massive U.S. national security establishment relies on a sense of threat to stay in business" ("The Terrible 'Ifs'" 38). The stakeholders financially benefitting from the colossal homeland security budget are allied with leaders of both political camps and thus are interested in perpetuating fear.
This is not, of course, to suggest that the Department of Homeland Security is unnecessary, or that there is no terrorist threat directed against the United States. The fact that terrorists were unable to strike at the United States in the American soil suggests that the law enforcement agencies have been successful in thwarting terrorist plots. It would…… [Read More]
Homeland Security and Justice Administration
In this paper, we are going to be studying the impact of the relationship between: an emergency operations plan (EOP) with a real time incident action plan (IAP). This will be accomplished by focusing on: the strategies that can be used by first responders and the relationship between an EOP in comparison with an IAP. Once this takes place, is when we provide specific insights as to how these areas can address the challenges that are impacting different stakeholders.
Over the last several years, the issue of first responders in dealing with terrorist related events has been increasingly brought to the forefront. This is because they are expected to go into areas where they may have to save lives. Yet, they are also must preserve evidence and protect any kind of possible crime scene. This is illustrating the constant amounts of planning and training that…… [Read More]
Homeland Security / Constitutional Issues
Civil Liberties: These are fundamental freedoms interpreted by policymakers and courts over the years or assured by the Constitutional Bill of ights (Pearcy, 2003-2016).
Bill of ights: This is an official statement of American citizens' fundamental rights, integrated into the U.S. Constitution in the form of ten Amendments, as well as into the constitutions of all states (Bill of rights, n.d.).
Thought Police: This denotes a cluster of individuals holding totalitarian views regarding a particular subject, and who continuously keep an eye on others for noting any deviations from the way of thinking approved (Thought Police, n.d.).
Thought Crime: This refers to a case of controversial or unconventional thinking, which is regarded as socially unacceptable or as a crime (Oxford Dictionaries, 2016).
Big Brother: A 'big brother' is an ever-present, apparently benevolent personage who represents the tyrannical control over the lives of individuals as exerted…… [Read More]
Evolution of the Incident Command System (ICS)
Out of concern for the lack of a uniform protocol for emergency management, the concept of the Incident Command System (ICS) was developed in combined effort by Federal, State, and local governments during the 1970s (Dudfield, 2008, p. 31). This system was developed in response to the catastrophic wildfires that occurred during 1970 in South California by fire agencies at the federal, state, and local levels (Cardwell, 2000, p. 10). The intent of ICS is to provide an organizational structure to use to coordinate response efforts to incidents of any scope ranging from minor to large-scale incidents such as natural disasters, fires, accidents, or attacks. The original ICS system has evolved into what is known today as the National Incident Management System (NIMS) that still utilizes the tenets of ICS.
According to the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA),
ICS is a standardized, on-scene,…… [Read More]
Terrorism as defined by the FBI is the illegal use of force against people or property with the intention of intimidating or coercing a government. It is always done to further political or social objectives. Further, according to FMA, there are three elements that constitute terrorism:
(1) Terrorist activities are illegal and involve the use of force. (2) The actions are intended to intimidate or coerce. (3) The actions are committed in support of political or social objectives. (FMA-SS) www.mema.domestic-preparedness.net/glossary.html
Many consider the cultural differences between law enforcement and the fire service to be based in training and training philosophy. According to Dan Jones, editor of Rescue Magazine, "Police officers are taught to function primarily on their own, but firefighters are taught to act as part of a team. It's a little like comparing tennis players to basketball players." Further, the philosophy of fire service personnel is basically one of…… [Read More]
limitations and capabilities of intelligence for corroborating homeland security efforts?
Sharing of intelligence and extensive threat analysis
There are quite many intelligent agencies working round the clock analyzing the data yet no single agency is working on analyzing the incoming data regarding terrorism in United States of America. No agency is presently working to gather intelligence and look for trends (DHS, 2002). Under the United States' president, a new department was formed which analyzed the data taken from government reserves such as DOE, DEA, INS, FBI, NSA, CIA and DOT along with public records. The department has the task of looking for trends keeping the big picture in mind. It is ready all-the-time to counter any probable terrorist activity underway (DHS, 2002).
An Example: Distribution of important pharmaceuticals
Potassium Iodide (KI) is quite a drug assisting in countering thyroid cancer when exposed to radiation. The drug needs to be taken…… [Read More]
Workplace enforcement includes the scrutiny of the I-9 form and the attached documents, in an attempt to discover identity fraud, fraudulent documents, and illegal workplace activities.
Another aspect of illegal immigration is weapons. Illegal immigrants bring guns and other weapons across the border, but there is also a growing trade in illegal firearms, obtained in the United States, traveling back into Mexico and being used in criminal activities there, especially by powerful drug cartels. The annual report states, "ICE launched Operation Armas Cruzadas in FY08 to provide a targeted law enforcement focus on arms smuggling between the United States and Mexico" (Torres, 2009). The problem has gotten so bad that the U.S. issued warnings to travelers to stay away from the country during the recent spring break season. The agency has had some success with stopping cross-border smuggling activities, but they have not had as much success as…… [Read More]
Breadth of Responsibilities
All of the DHS responsibilities relate back to the primary jurisdiction and mission responsibilities listed above. Information sharing and analysis, prevention and protection, preparedness and response, research, commerce and trade, travel security, and immigration all are functions of keeping our country safe from terrorists and responding to both manmade and natural disasters.
The auxiliary functions of the department such as the Secret Service, U.S. Coast Guard, FEMA, Immigration and Customs, the Transportation Security Administration, and the Office of the Inspector General (OIG) all add to the breadth of DHS functionality, and fall under the primary mission statement of the department. Even the OIG, which is responsible for auditing the internal functioning of DHS including fraud and abuse indirectly operates as a function of ensuring this primary mission is carried out effectively.
Is the DHS Effectively Organized?
After a couple of re-organizations over the years, yes, it is,…… [Read More]
The Distinction Between ISR and IAA
The intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance have capabilities that are aimed at improving the informational and situation awareness to the department of homeland security. The capabilities of ISR have increased in demand since the incident of Hurricane Katrina. The same capabilities of ISR are the ones that are termed Incident Awareness and Assessment (IAA). The Incident Awareness and Assessment (IAA) capabilities have been leveraged to respond to various kinds of threats such as hurricanes, wildfires or even ocean oil spill.
The ISR has the capability to provide invaluable situational awareness from various intelligence disciplines. The intelligence can be in the form of signals or imagery to the military commanders. Improved ISR provides the military commanders with the big picture, enables them to have a clear understanding of the issues as well as allow them to apply the available resources in an efficient manner.
The ISR…… [Read More]
One of the biggest problems with interagency communication is the computer technologies between agencies. Essentially, they do not coordinate because each agency uses different computer technologies. Author anum continues, "That's how the federal government's computer systems became an incompatible mess: Each agency does its own product selection, and no effort is made to coordinate" (anum, 2004, p. 171). Even today, Homeland Security cannot coordinate the computers of all the agencies it oversees, and this is a huge barrier to sharing information and intelligence, and it puts the country and her people at risk.
Clearly, communication is a key element of keeping the country safe. Not only is it important between agencies, it is incredibly important for the first responders on the scene of a homeland security incident. For example, during the 9/11 attacks, firefighters, medical personnel, and police could not pick up each other's radio frequencies, so they could not…… [Read More]
Perl (2008), the goals of terrorists are economic as well as political in nature. In addition to protecting high-profile political targets of the kind that were the focus of the 9/11 bombers, it is also essential to prioritize economic targets in a security policy. Perl argues that terrorism is given a relatively low ranking in terms of threats to energy infrastructure, it is often listed behind such factors as political instability and organized crime. Yet one could argue that many of these factors, particularly civil unrest, are critically linked to the risks posed by terrorism. In terms of recommendations, Perl suggests pursuing a more sustainable energy strategy regarding green power as the ultimate long-term 'back up' solution to the risks posed to sources of fossil fuels.
In the short-term, given the critical interdependence of the energy structures of the world on one another, cooperation between different nations is vital for…… [Read More]
Homeland Security and Emergency Management.
M7D1: Social Media and Risk Communications
According to Bullock (et al. 2013) the four methods of risk communication include mitigation or "to promote implementation of strategies, technologies, and actions that will reduce the loss of lives and property in future disasters; preparedness or "to communicate preparedness messages that encourage and educate the public in anticipation of disaster events;" response or "to provide to the public notification, warning, evacuation, and situation reports on an ongoing disaster and recovery or "to provide individuals and communities affected by a disaster with information on how to register for and receive disaster relief" (Bullock et al. 2013: 515). It is in the response phase which was critically lacking in the case of dealing with the threat posed by the D.C. sniper. There is always an element of fear in the case of spontaneous threats which emerge, as but a realistic…… [Read More]
M1D1: Concept of Homeland Security Enterprise
HSE (Homeland Security Enterprise) was designed to better coordinate the resources of all law enforcement functions that fall under the auspices of the DHS. DHA strives to provide law enforcement agencies with "the tools to identify and combat threats in their communities," including access to its information (Strengthening the Homeland Security Enterprise: Progress Report 2011, 2011, DHS). "Because state and local law enforcement are often in the best position to notice the first signs of a planned attack, homeland security efforts must be integrated into the police work that they do every day, providing officers on the front lines with a clear understanding of the tactics, behaviors, and other indicators that could point to terrorist activity" (Strengthening the Homeland Security Enterprise: Progress Report 2011, 2011, DHS). DHS has created 'fusion' centers "to train state and local law enforcement to recognize behaviors and indicators related…… [Read More]
HLS-355: CRITICAL THINKING FOR HOMELAND SECURITY Final Project
The fight against Hurricane Katrina in a political environment set on fighting terrorism
Improving security can be a particularly challenging mission and this makes a critical thinking technique particularly useful for a person or a community to effectively strengthen their position and legislations. One of the first things that someone dealing with the concept needs to consider is the fact that security can never be one hundred percent foolproof. Even the most advanced security systems can be defeated and caring for such a system thus entails having to be in constant alert and to attempt to improve it every minute. The better a security system is, the harder it is for a criminal to defeat it and the more successful the individuals benefiting from it are.
Many individuals have a limited understanding of the idea of security, as they only tend to…… [Read More]
M8D1: HSE and Criminal Justice: Critical Issues
Communication and education are critical issues in the field of homeland security. hat is why we have identified inter-agency cooperation as one of our key issues of concern: namely, the need for different law enforcement agencies to share intelligence with one another. Related to communication are issues pertaining to education, including the education of communities and first responders about how best to respond to security issues and how to share information in digital formats. Another issue also related to education is the need to strike a balance between the civil liberties of suspects and the security of the community.
Coordination between civil and military agencies
Sylves, R.. (2009). Civil-military relations in emergency management. Public Manager, 38(3),
According to this article, there has been increased coordination between civilian and military law enforcement agencies in recent years. "Few appreciate how dramatic the latest penetration…… [Read More]