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Issues Surrounding the Homestead Strike
The Homestead Strike of 1892 represented one of the bloodiest encounters between Union members and industrial officials in history. The strike revolves around a Carnegie steel mill located in Homestead, Pennsylvania. The entire town of Homestead rose to support the Carnegie Steel Mill, and the steel mill was the lifeblood of the town. Soon, class divisions would become the cause of one of the most violent union strikes in history. This essay will explore the issues surrounding the Homestead Strike including its causes and effects.
Causes of the Homestead Strike
After the Civil War, American ingenuity was at its finest and America became a center for growth and industry. For those that built the industrial institutions that would make the country strong, a particularly privileged lifestyle arose. The small percentage that was able to enjoy this lifestyle hardly stopped to realize that it…
Brody, David. (1969) if Steelworkers in America: The Nonunion Era. New York: Harper
"Homestead and its Perilous Trades - Impressions of a Visit." Retrieve from http://ehistory.osu.edu/osu/mmh/HomesteadStrike1892/GarlandHomestead/GarlandHom estead.cfm
Johnson, S. (2008). Battle of the Monongahela: Homestead Steel, 1892 if. Retrieved from http://www.pabook.libraries.psu.edu/palitmap/Homestead.html
Carnegie Steel Co. is one of the largest manufacturing companies in the world and it's success is largely dependent upon the workers who manufacture the best steel anywhere. It is not Andrew Carnegie, or his lapdog Henry Frick, who toil in the difficult conditions with intense heat and compounded by dangers that would make those men cringe. It is the worker who risks his life so that men like Carnegie and Frick can sit in the lap of luxury enjoying the fruits of other men's labor. The owners may have invested their money, but we the workers invest our lives and souls into the company and deserve more than to be used and discarded as though we're just another piece of machinery. Not only are the we an instrumental part of the factory, we are the most important aspect of the manufacturing process and Carnegie and Frick are…
"1892 Homestead Strike." AFLCIO: America's Union. Web. 6 Oct. 2013.
Brecher, Jeremy. "The Homestead Strike, 1892." libcom.org, 12 June 2013. Web. 6
American History Between 1870 and 1920
The years between 1870 and 1920 had been the period of astonishing changes because of the political, social and military upheaval that occurred during the period. Typically, the United States had witnessed several changes that affected the American way of life during the period. For example, period of 1877 -1900 had witnessed the rise of the industrial revolution. The years between 1870 and 1920 were the period of momentous and dynamic changes in the American history because they set in motion the industrial and socio- economic development that shaped the country for several generations which include industrialization, labor strike, westward expansion, immigration, urbanization, and integration of millions of freed American Americans.
The objective of this paper is to explore the fundamental changes that occur between 1870 and 1920 and the impacts on the American life. The paper also explores different labor strikes and massacres…
It is essential to realize that strike had played a major role in the economic, social and political life of the United States during the period. In 1880s, workers in the United States fought equally with their peers in Europe. Unlike the strikes in Europe, the United States recorded the bloodiest fatalities in the American labor history. The outcome of the strikes had influenced the life of workers because during the process, workers had been able to win increase for wages, and improved working condition that led to the increase of workers standard of living.
The study explores the American history between 1870 and 1920 revealing that the period has witnessed a fundamental change in the American history. The period marked the time of American industrial revolution, rise of mechanized agriculture and economic boom. In this period, the United States also witnessed the influx of immigrants from different part of the world that the country had ever experienced. People from all over the world immigrated into the United States to search for the economic opportunities. Despite the significant economic and political benefits that the country has experienced during the period, the United States also recorded several bloody labor strikes leading to the loss of thousands of workers. For example Pullman strike led to the loss of life of many workers. However, the strikes had led to the fundamental changes in the American labor relations.
The Gilded Age witnessed industrial progress and accumulated wealth that boosted the growth of the middle class, yet at the same time there was the spread of "appalling" conditions in the slum areas of the cities, the farmers were in desperate times, and factory workers and others were trampled upon by the wheels of progress (Progressive pp). The "war between capital and labor" demonstrated that Americans were willing to fight for their economic rights, and many historians believe that if the conditions of the working poor had not been addresses, the country very likely would have been thrown into another revolution (Progressive pp). Yet, a revolution did actually take place, just not on the battlefield (Progressive pp). It was called the Progressive Movement, and as a basic conservative movement, it was not meant to cause as stir, but to address the problems of society and find solutions in…
The Age of Franklin D. Roosevelt, 1933-1945. Retrieved October 17, 2005 from:
Boom or Bust. Retrieved October 17, 2005 from:
The Great ailroad Strike of 1877 was the nations' first major rail strike and witnessed the first general strikes in the country's history. The strikes and the violence it brought about temporarily paralyzed the country's commerce and led governors in ten states to mobilize sixty thousand militia members to reopen rail traffic. The strike would be broken within a few weeks, but it also helped set the stage for later violence in the 1880's and 1890's, including the Haymarket Square bombing in Chicago in 1886, the Homestead Steel Strike near Pittsburgh in 1892, and the Pullman Strike in 1894 (1877: The Great ailroad Strike, 2006).
There have been many protests in American history against corporations, industrialists, bankers, Wall Street and the economic devastation their unregulated activities including the 19th-century labor movement that featured thousands of strikes and protests. The current protest that can be compared to that of the Great…
1877: The Great Railroad Strike. (2006). Retrieved from http://libcom.org/history/articles/us -rail-strikes-1877
Hogarty, R.A. (2001). Leon Abbett's New Jersey: the emergence of the modern governor.
Philadelphia, PA: American Philosophical Society.
Mullen, S. (2011). The Strikes of 1877 & 1886: Historic Precedents For Occupy Wall Street.
To intimidate striking workers or escort strike breakers, workers who would replace the individuals striking, across picket lines some employers contracted private companies like the Pinkerton Detective Agency.
The United States Department of Labor reports that the Coal Strike of 1902 proved to be a turning point in U.S. policy. On October 3, 1902, to address the strike in the Pennsylvania anthracite coal fields that he perceived to threaten a coal famine, President Theodore oosevelt resolved to end the strike by setting a precedent for the Federal Government's interventions. After a bitter battle, with President oosevelt's intervention, both sides of the coal labor dispute agreed to the findings of the Anthracite Coal Strike Commission. As a result, labor and industry accepted that the public possessed overriding rights as well as vital interests. President oosevelt's voice and negotiation skills returned peace to the coalfields (the Coal Strike of 1902…, 2010).
A Brief History of the Labor Movement. (2006). NPR. Retrieved March 8, 2010 from http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=5758863
Florida State Union. (2009). Unions.org. Retrieved March 8, 2010 from http://www.unions.org/home/umap9-.htm
Greenhouse, S. (2010). Most U.S. union members are working for the government, new datashows. The New York Times. Retrieved March 8, 2010 from http://www.nytimes.com/2010/01/23/business/23labor.html
History at the Department of Labor. (2010). United States Department of Labor.
Sixty-hour weeks, no insurance, no compensation for injuries or overtime, and no pensions symbolized the workers' plight. And when the workers went on strike over the inequities, the government sided with the owners.
The mass society of the late nineteenth century had no diversity. It was a society in which the rich and powerful manipulated the existence of the politically and economically powerless mass through overwhelming mass production, mass communication, and mass distribution.
Examples (oyer 2, 2001) Mass production transformed the way Americans lived and worked at the beginning of the twentieth century. Thanks to its role in creating mass consumer culture (mass society), it constitutes a vital part of contemporary life. It was responsible for the dehumanizing assembly-line work of the late nineteenth and early twentieth century as well as the physical comfort enjoyed by most people in industrialized countries. The 1926 edition of the Encyclopedia ritannica…
Boyer, P.S. (2001). Early republic, era of the. Retrieved February 20, 2009, from encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O119-EarlyRepublicEraofthe.html
Boyer, P.S. 2 (2001). Gilded age. Retrieved February 23 from encylcopedia. com, 2009, from The Oxford companion to U.S. history: h ttp:/ / www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O119-GildedAge.html
Calhoun, C.W. (2006). The Gilded Age: Perspectives on the origins of modern America. New York: Rowman and Littlefield. ( http://books.google.com/books?id=XrZTTCaCRAUC&printsec=frontcover ) enotes.com. (n.d.). Overview: 1900's. Retrieved February 25, 2009, from Enotes.com:
Industrialization After the Civil War
The United States economy grew to unprecedented levels and very quickly, after the American Civil War. This economic and industrial growth comprised of a number of causative factors such as technological innovation, westward expansion, and immigration to the United States that have witnessed tremendous development over the years. American economic and industrial growth was a kind of mixed blessing; but at the same time, it raised the living standard of some Americans, made certain goods easily accessible, and equally helped the United States become world military and economic power. These same forces, on the other hand and at the same time, increased the gap between the rich and the poor, enhanced and reduced political corruption at different levels of government, and also created some lasting legacy for environmental destruction (Shultz, 2014).
This paper contends to most effect, that industrialization was nothing more than a mere…
Campbell, B.C. (1999). Understanding Economic Changes in the Gilded Age. OAH Magazine of History.
Hofstadter, R. (1989). The American Political Tradition. New York: Vintage.
Karson, M. (1958). American Labor Unions and Politics, 1900-1918. Carbondale: Southern
Oshinsky, D. (1997). Worse Than Slavery: Parchman Farm and the Ordeal of Jim Crow
Finally it also represented an important means of conducting the foreign policy from the point-of-view of the French occupation. In this sense, "the North America fur trade of the 17th and 18th centuries had usually been viewed, until recently, as merely another commercial enterprise governed by the premise "buy cheap, sell dear" in order to rip the maximum of profit. Of late the Canadian end of the trade has come to be regarded as having been more a means to a noncommercial end than a pursuit conducted solely for economic gain. As European penetration and dominance of the continent progressed, the trade, which had begun as an adjunct of the Atlantic shore fishery, became a commercial pursuit in its own right. After 1600 (...) it became a means to finance and further the tragic drive to convert the Indian nations to Christianity."
Aside from the Algonquin tribes, the Huron tribes…
Eccles, W.J. "The fur trade and eighteenth- century imperialism." William and Mary Quarterly.
3rd Ser., Vol. 40, No. 3. pp. 341-362.
Jenkins, P. A history of the United States. New York: Palgrave, 1997.
Michigan Pioneer and Historical Collections vol. XXXIV.
Although it had lost some pop, Andrew was still a Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale Category 3 hurricane on the second go around. but, the first round was enough to know that Andrew was bad. From a business perspective, Hurricane Andrew crippled the offshore oil facilities on its second approach throughout the gulf coast and in Louisiana where the storm added another billion dollars in damage.
These financial losses did not even take into consideration the badly deteriorated Everglades ecosystem which would be restored several years later after a second hurricane, Opal, crippled the ecosystem even more.
The state of Florida had one of its worst hurricane seasons on record in 2004 yet the state was much better prepared. The state seemed to have learned some valuable lessons from 1992. "As hundreds of millions of dollars in hurricane relief become available to Florida, Lt. Gov. Toni Jennings declared ednesday that she…
Biscayne National Park Plaque Commemorates 10th Anniversary of Hurricane Andrew. Ed. NOAA. NOAA Hurricane Service. Retrieved on 13 Nov. 2004, from http://www.srh.weather.gov/mfl/newpage/biscayne_andrew_plaque.html.
Hurricane Andrew. 8/23/1992. National Weather Service. Retrieved on 13 Nov. 2004, from http://www.srh.weather.gov/srh/jetstream/tropics/andrew.htm.
Hurricane Andrew CSC. August 16-28, 1992. csc.noaa.gov. Retrieved on 13 Nov. 2004, from http://www.csc.noaa.gov/crs/cohab/hurricane/andrew/andrew.htm.
Hurricanes: Unleashing Natures Fury. Ed. NOAA. National Weather Service. 13 Nov. 2004 http://www.nws.noaa.gov/om/brochures/hurr.pdf .
Civil War and Its Meaning
The Civil War defined Americans because it was the war fought over the Constitution as it was written. It was the war of States' ights and the War of Northern Aggression. It was the war that brought about the totalitarian drive of the central state, where the President assumed for himself authoritarian powers. There were actually many facets to it: the election of Lincoln, the low tariffs set by Southern Congressmen, which upset Northern Industrial magnates, the Homestead Act and the rise of the transcontinental railroad -- both of which could be seen as maneuvers by Northern states to take over the Midwest in a move to block out Southern influence and expansion to the West (Egnal, 2001, p. 30); and the issue of slavery (flamed to inferno-like levels by men like the radical abolitionist John Brown).
The South regretted surrendering because they didn't just…
Egnal, M. (2001). The Beards Were Right: Parties in the North, 1840-1860. Civil War
History, 41(1): 30-56.
Foote, S. (1958). The Civil War. NY: Random House.
Gettysburg Casualties. (2015). History.net. Retrieved from http://www.historynet.com/gettysburg-casualties
) They are, in the popular imagination, a peaceful people who spend their time going to church and making preserves, while the rest of us lost our spiritual way, got jobs moving paper around, became obsessed with buying stuff, and watched our families fall apart. (Issenberg, 2004, p. 40).
Today, tourism is second only to agriculture as Pennsylvania's leading industry and Lancaster County accounts for $1.6 billion of the state's $20.5 billion in annual tourism revenue (Goodno, 2004). While the tourism industry in Lancaster County is booming, many observers suggest that unless something is done soon, the Amish will have significant problems in being able to sustain their way of life - and the burgeoning tourism industry -- in the future. Although the Amish are not unique in being reclusive (Paige & Littrell, 2002), they remain the most important tourism element in this region of the country. For example, in…
Boissevain, J. (1996). Coping with tourists: European reactions to mass tourism. Providence, RI: Berghahn Books.
Forsyth, T. (1997). Environmental responsibility and business regulation: The case of sustainable tourism. The Geographical Journal, 163(3), 270.
Friesen, J.W. (2003). Garden spot: Lancaster County, the Old Order Amish, and the selling of rural America. Utopian Studies, 14(1), 274.
Goodno, J.B. (2004, June). Living with tourism: Michael Foley did what many visitors to Maui dream of doing. Planning, 70(6), 16.
Levitttowns, and the suburban communities that were later modeled upon these ideas were designed "to make more possible, more efficient, this good life of postwar prosperity" (Clark, 2007). Ownership, space, the right to shape one's environment through material consumption -- all of these ideals resonated powerfully in the American mindset. ith no ties to particular plots of land based upon family or ethnicity that were deeply and powerfully rooted in history, as in Europe, America was a socially as well as economically mobile society. Americans were ready to move and to buy homes to formulate their own environments. ithin the suburbs there was still the promise of community, exemplified by the home's creation of a common area (the central living room in most suburban homes featured a television, of course) but the community was of the family, not the wider environment.
This ideal of privacy and creating one's own unique…
Franz, Douglas & Catherine Collins. Celebration, U.S.A. Living in Disney's Brave New
Town. Henry Holt and Company, 1999. Chapter 1 available 19 May 2007 at http://www.nytimes.com/books/first/f/frantz-celebration.html?_r=1&oref=slogin
Hales, Peter Bacon. "Building Levittown: A Rudimentary Primer. The University of Illinois. 2007. 19 may 2007. http://tigger.uic.edu/~pbhales/Levittown/building.html
For example, the scene in which Andrea stands before the statue of Marat and sings "Credi al destino" fails to evoke for me any real sensation. Perhaps it is because, as Grout suggests, the opera is "laden with harmonies that are heavy and oldfashioned [and] has little of special interest" (p. 495). Such could explain why the scenes feel at time clunky and abysmally lacking in flair. Still, at other times, they are vibrant and alive with life -- and those times are when the drama calls for gaity (not for fatalism or idealism).
The opera may, therefore, be interpreted as a political piece -- but I do not wish to convey that interpretation, for I think there is already too much omanticism in contemporary politics today. I think Andrea fits better as a period piece that should be left in the period for which it was written: one that…
Andre Chenier. (2011). YouTube. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WDiBdeUxYfk
Badaire, J. (1926). Review of French Literature. DC: Heath and Co.
Beacham, R. (1996). The Roman Theatre and Its Audience. Cambridge, MA: Harvard
Bregenzer Festspiele. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.bregenzerfestspiele.com/en/mainmenu/programme/opera-lake/andre-chenier
Counterterrorism Training Program
Terrorism is a fact of modern life. On one level, it cannot be understood; it is difficult to empathize with those who have no empathy of their own and cause enormous suffering in the name of their own beliefs. On another level, however, there are components of terrorism that can be understood -- their tactics and methods, their choice of targets and more. Because terrorism is aimed at entire societies, and is carried out in a guerrilla fashion, it is necessary to develop tactics for deterring terrorism that address terrorism's wide and deep sources, tactics and effects.
Terrorism has been a fact of life for 200 years, since the French evolution. At that time, Cottam et al. (2004) suggest that the rise of the nation-state made it more possible than ever before for individuals to want to maintain identities that were very like those of their community;…
Alibek, K., and S. Handelman. (1999). Biohazard. New York: Random House.
Almog, D. (2004) Cumulative Deterrence and the War on Terrorism. Parameters, 34(4), p. 4+.
Block, S.M. (2001, January) The Growing Threat of Biological Weapons. American Scientist, 889(1), p. 28.
Bush, G.W. (2003, February) National Strategy for Combating Terrorism (Washington: The White House, February 2003), p. 15,
African-Americans and Western Expansion
Prior to the 1960s and 1970s, very little was written about black participation in Western expansion from the colonial period to the 19th Century, much less about black and Native American cooperation against slavery. This history was not so much forbidden or censored as never written at all, or simply ignored when it was written. In reality, blacks participated in all facets of Western expansion, from the fur trade and cattle ranching to mining and agriculture. There were black cowboys and black participants in the Indian Wars -- on both sides, in fact. Indeed, the argument over slavery in the Western territories was one of the key factors in breaking up the Union in the 1850s and leading to the election of Abraham Lincoln in 1860. In the past thirty years, much of the previously unwritten and unrecorded history of the Americas since 1492 has been…
Foner, Eric. Free Soil, Free Labor, Free Men: The Ideology of the Republican Party before the Civil War. Oxford University Press, 1970, 1995.
Foner, Philip S. History of Black Americans. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1983.
Katz, William Loren. The Black West: A Documentary and Pictorial History of the African-American Role in the Westward Experience of the United States. NY: Random House, Inc., 2005.
Katz, William Loren. Black Indians: A Hidden Heritage. NY: Simon & Schuster, 1986.
Evans-Pritchard was the founder and first president of the Association of Social Anthropologists. His seminal work on indigenous, African tribes has preserved a unique perspective of primitive societies or societies that retain their aboriginal features even in modern times -- their mental processes more than the social constructs. This essay will present a societal perspective of the Azande tribes of southern Sudan. This research was conducted at a time when every Zande (singular for Azande) paid abeyance to either the British or the Arabs, whichever happened to wield influence at the time. The thesis of this essay: "The Azande society (as a whole) and each individual was driven by a quest to avoid the ill effects of witchcraft." The significance of witchcraft is necessitated by a unique context and definition. This entire essay is about defining societal ramifications of witchcraft among the Azande, which will make the meaning of witchcraft…
Morris, B. (1987) Anthropological Studies of Religion, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
SalemWeb (1992) The Salem Witch Trials 1692 December 17, 2002 at http://www.salemweb.com/memorial/default.htm
Tacitus (1877) The Agricola and Germania, Macmillan, London.
Catholic Church in Mexico underscored both its conquest and its independence. Organizationally, the church prior to the liberation theology of the 20th century has always been more cogent than the Mexican government. The church has traditionally been amalgamated with conservative interests that include the military and wealthier landowners. The institution of tithing and the role of the church as a colonizer through its missions helped to make the church the most powerful pre-revolutionary institution in Mexico. Additionally, at a time before the existence of broad-based commercial lending, the church not only acted as the principal lender in the colony and early republic, but served as the nexus for all public activity in many smaller communities. However, the influence of the church was severely limited under liberalism. Although the iaz government returned to the Catholic church some of its former glory, the 1916 Constitution ultimately spelled an end to the church's…
Despite this relatively recent accommodation, the Church has not remained quiet on the issue of poverty. Historically, as the government failed to care for the people, the Church assumed greater responsibility and became more vocal in complaining about the government's shortcomings. Today the Church, which once strove mainly to preserve its own authority, has emerged as an outspoken opponent of the government. Yet aggressive Church actions were evident early in the century, both in opposition to the anti-clerical language of the 1917 constitution and in the violent Cristero rebellion of the 1920s. From 1926 to 1929 Mexico faced strong resistance by Catholics who opposed the anticlerical component of the Constitution of 1917 that regulated the affairs of the Catholic Church. After the emergence of liberation theology among Latin American Catholic priests in the 1970s, Mexican clerics became vocal in their condemnation of oppressive government policies. In 1991 clerical officials leveled a broad range of charges against the government including torture, abuse of prisoners, political persecution, corruption, and electoral fraud. These charges were repeated by Pope John Paul II in his 1999 visit when he called for an end to "violence, terrorism, and drug trafficking." The Church has been critical of the government by supporting the rebellion in the southern state of Chiapas. Tension between church and state emerged again as recently as 1994 when the government attempted to blame the Chiapas uprising on the language and actions of various clerics.
Traditionally regarded as a woman's issue, birth control has become a mainstream political issue since the 1970s. After all, through the combined effects of cultural expectations to raise large families and the Catholic Church's ban on birth control, the population grew dramatically. Women who chose not to have children resorted to crude abortions. In 1970, the year Luis Echeverr'a became the first Mexican president to call for a reduction in the nation's population, as many as 32,000 Mexican women died from abortion complications. Although discussions of population control have long been taboo by the Catholic Church, 1972 saw a reversal when Mexican clerics called for reduced family size. Thereafter government support enabled family planning clinics and educational programs to be developed. By 1988 the Mexican annual population growth rate was nearly halved, to 1.8%.
Women in Mexico have been pushing for significant changes within the political and social arenas, and they are slowly gaining access to previously male-dominated spheres. For example, they are now elected as state governors and as representatives in the Chamber of Deputies. Increasingly they are leaving bad marriages in spite of condemnation from the Church and hostility from their own families. Indeed, there is growing liberation from the traditional roles and expectations for women in Mexican society.
UNSTUCTUED PLAY AND CHILDEN'S DEVELOPMENT
Unstructured play in childhood
The effect of lack of unstructured play on children's development
Unstructured play as a form of therapy for children was readily accepted when it was first introduced in both homes and schools. In fact, sand-play in its early form was used to allow children interact, enhance their creativity and develop their social skills (Frost & Norquist, 2007). esearch shows that a fundamental aspect of human development is attained in the early childhood stages. As such, any measures to facilitate future development of an individual needs to be cultivated in the early stages of their lives (Miller & Almon, 2009). Over time, unstructured play -- once a highly regarded child development measure -- has lost its meaning and place (Miller & Almon, 2009). Increasing cases of poor child development evidenced by volumes of mental illness antisocial behaviors and physical challenges…
Barros, R.M., Silver, E.J., & Stein, R.E. (2009). School recess and group classroom behavior. Pediatrics, 123(2), 431-436.
Campbell, K.J., & Hesketh, K.D. (2007). Strategies which aim to positively impact on weight, physical activity, diet and sedentary behaviours in children from zero to five years. A systematic review of the literature. . Obes Rev., 8(4), 327-338.
Cleland, V., & Venn, A. (2010). Encouraging physical activity and discouraging sedentary behavior in children and adolescents. J Adolescent Health, 47(3), 221-222.
Council on Sports Medicine and Fitness, & Council on School Health. (2006). Active healthy living: prevention of childhood obesity through increased physical activity. Pediatrics, 117(5), 1834-1842.
Natalie Merchant’s song “Gold Rush Brides” offers an impression of history, and also reflects on the one-sided nature of historiography. The song simultaneously evokes the myth and mystique of the wild west, of the days of frontier settlement when men and women ventured west seeking their fortunes and in the process encountered the native people who they would kill. Merchant draws interesting parallels between the frontier mentality and patriarchy, too, showing that the stories of women have vanished (“who were the homestead wives? Who were the gold rush brides?”) just as Native American stories and whole cultures were being obliterated, driven by nothing but a “lust for gold.” In fact, Merchant makes the connection between women and Native Americans even more direct in the line, “Dakota on the wall is a white-robed woman.” As Foner discusses the start of the gold rush in the Dakotas, Merchant mentions this lesser-known start…