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Hospitality is about helping people. Excellent service by employees can be one of the most important components of customer satisfaction, but contributions of employees can go even further. Employees who are visionary, creative and strategic thinkers can translate their interactions with customers into innovative choices that meet customer needs. Today, as the hospitality industry expands, challenge of meeting and exceeding customer expectations will only continue to grow.
Good restaurants, spas, and entertainment centers within a hotel play a crucial role in providing customers with the opportunity to fully enjoy their vacation. A successful hotel or resort must provide a wide range of exceptional services that allow the customer to rest and relax, and where their lodging, dining, and recreational expectations are met or exceeded during their stay.
Excellent service is a key component of helping people in the hospitality industry. A seemingly simple factor like the politeness of…
The author notes that this is one way to improve training for some 18,000 people at 1,800 locations with only 11 trainers, using nteractive web-based training, including instructor-led segments, to teach reservation operations, house-keeping duties, supervision, and even specific skills such as dealing with surly guests. Included in these packages are products to help deliver interactive audio and video to virtual classrooms and also to manage enrollment, self-paced learning, and testing and tracking. Internet training reduces training time by about 50%.
More specialized areas of training are becoming more necessary to provide better service, such as the diversity training program used by one chain. Adam's Mark Hotels & esorts launched a diversity training program for its nearly 11,000 employees chainwide at which all employees are to participate in a daylong seminar to learn sensitivity and to provide quality service to every guest (Tri-State Defender Publishing, 2001).
This is precisely the…
Bassi, L.J., & Van Buren, M. (1999). Sharpening the Leading Edge.
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Buckley, P.A. (1996). Nonpermanent Work Arrangements and Outsourcing. Manufacturers Alliance Economic Report, ER-388-December.
David, J.S., Grabski, S., & Kasavana, M. (1996). The productivity paradox of hotel-industry technology. www.highbeam.com/Search.aspx?q=%22hotel+industry%22+and+training+and+management%20publication:%5B%22Cornell%20Hotel%20&%20Restaurant%20AdministrationQuarterly%22%5DCornell Hotel & Restaurant Administration Quarterly. Retrieved August 10, 2007 at http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-18327746.html .
For this reason Torres suggests that using LEED information is a good way to mitigate mistakes that can come at a cost. It is also clear that mistakes such as this are much more limited in possibility as systems and products expand daily to meet the growing demand for "greener" options that are also safe and healthy.
The hospitality industry is clearly an area where "going green" can make a big impact. The industry has been historically wasteful in the past, in an attempt to provide quality for guests over quality and sustainable environmental practices. Though "going green" can be costly in its inception it will likely, if done correctly, pay the business back tenfold in savings and if marketed correctly bring people in at greater numbers than businesses that do not market and practice sustainably.
"Build Green: Orchard Garden Hotel," ND, etrieved May 2, 2009 http://www.coolcalifornia.org/case-study/orchard-garden-hotel-san-francisco
"Build Green: Orchard Garden Hotel," ND, Retrieved May 2, 2009 http://www.coolcalifornia.org/case-study/orchard-garden-hotel-san-francisco
Masses of Glass Wasted; Bars Bid to Recycle 18, 300 Tonnes of Bottles. (2007, July 28). The Journal (Newcastle, England), p. 27.
Motavalli, J. (2002, July/August). Green Hotels: Beyond Good Hospitality. E, 13, 31.
"Orchard Garden Hotel," 2009, Retrieved May 2, 2009 http://www.sanfrancisco.com/orchard-garden-hotel/
Hospitality Industry be Environmentally Friendly?
Studies have proved that companies and industries that have a negative impact on environment always surpass the industries that support and adopt measures for environmental friendliness. However, it doesn't mean at all that investment in environmental efforts be stopped. It is highly required by the industries to endeavor continuously for an enduring environment. Only then the greatest outcomes could be achieved. The industries that use wise strategies are aware of and completely understand the importance of sustainability as a 'designed production catalyst'. Such industries realize that the sustainability and ecological concerns are in fact opportunities that can be fruitful for a competitive future. Winslow's President, Jackson W. obinson, acknowledged that "companies that take advantage of environmental opportunities can gain a competitive advantage over their peers through cost reductions, quality improvements, increased profitability and access to new and growing markets" (McPeak, Devirian & Seaman, 2010). In…
Alexander, S. (2002). GREEN HOTELS: Opportunities and Resources for Success. In Zero Waste Alliance. Retrieved November 16, 2011, from http://www.zerowaste.org/publications/GREEN_HO.PDF
Current environmental issues. (n.d.). In NSW HSC Online. Retrieved November 16, 2011, from http://hsc.csu.edu.au/hospitality/hosp_240/comp_units/SITXENV001A/4042/issues.htm
McPeak, C., Devirian, J., & Seaman, S. (2010). Do Environmentally Friendly Companies Outperform the Market?. Journal of Global Business Issues, 4(1), 61+. Retrieved November 16, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5044915350
Waste Reduction and Recycling Recommendations For Las Vegas Hotels . (n.d.). In p2pays. Retrieved November 16, 2011, from http://www.p2pays.org/ref/01/00537.htm
Customers' expectations for an exceptional experience every time they interact with a hospitality provider, in addition to the ubiquity and speed of the Internet, are changing the value chain of the…
Baker, M.. (2007, December). Amadeus Launches Hotel Platform. Business Travel News, 24(22), 8.
Robin B. DiPietro, & Youcheng (Raymond) Wang. (2010). Key issues for ICT applications: impacts and implications for hospitality operations. Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes, 2(1), 49-67.
Rajnish Jain, & Sangeeta Jain. (2005). TOWARDS RELATIONAL EXCHANGE IN SERVICES MARKETING:INSIGHTS FROM HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY. Journal of Services Research, 5(2), 139-150.
Mathies, C.. (2010). Customer interfaces in the accommodation industry - enhancing and constraining factors of IT adoption. International Journal of Services Technology and Management, 14(2/3), 259.
Identification of the Articles
This essay intends to critique and analyze two important articles related to human resources management and this concept's relationship to the hospitality industry. The first article, "Strategic Human Resource Development in Hospitality Crisis Management: A Conceptual Framework for Food and Beverage Departments," is taken from the International Journal of Business Administration written by AbuKhalifeh, Som and AlBattat and was published in January of 2013. The second article that will be discussed is entitled " Linking Human Capital Management with Tourism Development and Management for Economic Survival: The Nigeria Experience." This article was authored by Esu and appeared in the June 2012 edition of the International Journal of Business and Social Science.
Abstract of Article #1
AbuKahlife et al. (2013) presented an argument that suggested that crisis management has been ignored in the realm of human resource development. This paper reviewed the literature on the hotel…
AbuKhalifeh, A. (2013). Strategic Human Resource Development in Hospitality Crisis Management: A Conceptual Framework for Food and Beverage Departments. International Journal of Business Administration, 3, 1.
Esu, B. (2012). Linking Human Capital Management with Tourism Development and Management for Economic Survival: The Nigeria Experience. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 3, 11.
Elliot, D. (2006). Crisis management into practice. Tourism Management Prospectives, 135-147.
Hillyard, M.T. (2000). Public crisis management, how and why organizations work together to solve society's most threatening problems. Journal of European Industrial Training, 23, 180-190.
Hospitality Industry: Segments
Segments: Hospitality Industry
Segments in the Hospitality Industry
The hospitality industry is a multi-billion dollar, complex industry covering a wide range of jobs, economic brackets, activities, and locations. It comprises of five major segments: lodging, food service, tourism, meeting and event planning, and the cruise line industry. These five segments and the employment prospects that they offer hospitality graduates have been discussed in the subsequent subsections. We begin with the largest segment in the industry --food service.
The food service industry, also known as the food and beverage industry, covers the various business segments that prepare food for customers. It is estimated that 50% of all meals eaten in the United States on any given day comes from the foodservice industry (BLS, 2012). The industry can be categorized into three: commercial food service, institutional food service, and food service within a consumer business. Commercial food service businesses…
AHLA. (2013). 2014 Lodging Industry Profile. American Hotel and Lodging Association. Retrieved November 11, 2015 from https://www.ahla.com/content.aspx?id=36332
BLS. (2012). Employed Persons by Detailed Industry, Sex, Race, and Hispanic or Latino Community. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Retrieved November 11, 2015 from http://www.bls.gov/cps/cpsaat18.pdf
California State University Dominguez Hills. (n.d.). Certificate of Completion in Meeting and Event Planning. California State University Dominguez Hills. Retrieved November 11, 2015 from http://www4.csudh.edu/ceie-business/on-campus-certificates/meeting-event-planning/
Cruise Ships Job Network. (2015). About the Cruise Ship Industry. Cruise Ships Job Network. Retrieved November 11, 2015 from http://www.cruiseshipjobsnetwork.com/cruise/cruise-ship-industry/
Hospitality Industry: The Lodging Segment
The Lodging Segment of the Hospitality Industry
The lodging segment of the hospitality industry covers organizations that provide bed and rest services for people at night. They could be anything from a fancy hotel to a youth hostel, a campground or a highway side motel. A typical lodging organization has four primary departments: the rooms department, food and beverage, the sales and marketing department, and the human resource department (Stephen F. Austin State University, 2010).
The rooms department is composed of three service areas: front office, unformed services and housekeeping (Stephen F. Austin State University, 2010). The front office function is responsible for receiving guests, assigning rooms and rates, and answering visitors' questions about the organization and its surrounding community. The core responsibilities here include night audit, telephone, reservations, and cashier. The uniformed services function covers the roles of valet, doorpersons, and bell staff. Most…
Stephen F. Austin State University. (2010). Lodging: Roles within the Hotel Industry. Stephen F. Austin State University. Retrieved December 2, 2015 from http://www2.sfasu.edu/cte/Michelle_Files/HMS_302_Web_Content/302_Roles_7.html
In the contemporary, there are several hot topics and issues flooding and influencing the food industry, such as food safety and technology. One of the main issues of interest is the case of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in the food industry and their labeling. This issue has come to be a hot button aspect for the food service sector and hospitality industry as a whole with the main point being deliberated as to whether parties in the food service sector ought to be required by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to label GMOs. There is also the linked issue of what role the government would play and at the end of the day, the impact on the farmers who are purposing to feed the populaces across the world. In several nations, this mandate for labeling foods is there as well as in the United States, with states…
Consumer Reports. (2015). GMO foods: What you need to know. Retrieved 22 December 2015 from: http://www.consumerreports.org/cro/magazine/2015/02/gmo-foods-what-you-need-to-know/index.htm
Craig, B. (2015). The Many Sides Of GMO Legislation. MenuTrinfo. Retrieved 22 December 2015 from: https://www.menutrinfo.com/the-many-sides-of-gmo-legislation/
Jalonick, M. C. (2015). GMO Labeling Is a Contentious Issue: Food industry pushing Congress to thwart mandatory GMO labeling by the end of the year. U.S. News. Retrieved 22 December 2015 from: http://www.usnews.com/news/politics/articles/2015/12/08/food-industry-pushing-to-thwart-gmo-labeling-by-end-of-year
Mercola. (2014). "The Future of Food" -- GMOs, Gene Patenting, and the Corporatization of Our Food Supply. Retrieved 22 December 2015 from: http://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2014/10/11/gmo-food-labeling.aspx
Often, an expanded market means that a company will need to undertake a strong marketing strategy based upon thorough research in order to see how the expansion would affect another market. The problem is, not all companies wish to do so because not all are good or successful at this undertaking. Yet again, if a company wishes to stay competitive, make its profits year after year, and enjoy a general lengthy business life, it will have to embrace the risks and rewards of globalizing its enterprises.
Hotels, the stalwarts of globalizing tourism, will be among them first affected by increasing competition. Hotel staff, unlike in the past, must thus undertake learning various concepts through which it can face any circumstance. ith expanding one's business, especially a hotel, comes an awareness towards the working habits of other countries. One must thus tailor rules and regulations to the people of that country.…
1. Cline, R. (2012). Hospitality Adjusts to Globalization. Arthur Andersen/Ideas and Trends. Retrieved from . -- Article chosen for paper.
2. Hodge, C. (2010). The connection between globalization and the hospitality industry. Helium. Retrieved from .
3. Shrivastava, S. (2012). How Globalization Influences the Hospitality Industry. Journal of Commerce and Behavioral Science 1(4). Retrieved from .
Generational Conflict in Hospitality Industry
Generational conflict in the hospitality industry
The history of the workforce today experience different generation employees who work side by side with people who are old as their parents and young as their children. It is coming to the attention of the managers that age likewise has much to do with employees' expectations, learning styles, and hopes just like gender, culture and other characteristics. Through understanding every generation as well as providing these employees with what can make them thrive, leaders may find that they will be in a position to increase employees morale and retention hence increase in productivity. Within the workplace, individuals from diverse generations will always compete for leadership positions. The same way Baby Boomers and generation X employees compete for similar jobs and younger generation always catch up with them. At times due to the post-industrial info-centered world of work, the…
Gordon, V.N., Steele, and M.J., The advising workplace: generational differences and challenges. NACADA Journal 25 (1), 26 -- 30. (2005).
Kogan, M., Human resources management: bridging the gap. (2007). Retrieved November 22nd 2013. http://www.govexec.com/features / 0901/0901s1.htmS.
Lancaster, L.C., Stillman, D., When Generations Collide. Harper-
Collins, New York. (2002).
Sexuality in the Hospitality Industry
The hospitality industry in the UK is big business, and sexuality is an important part of this business. If we define the hospitality industry as "hotels and a myriad of leisure and catering operations of different kinds" (Mills), then the hospitality industry in the UK brings in around 50 billion pounds each year. This is around 10% of Britain's total consumer expenditure each year. In addition, the hospitality industry employs about 70% of the individuals within the wider tourism industry (Mills).
The hospitality industry encompasses airlines, cruise liners, railways, restaurants, hotels, department stores, pubs, and leisure centers. Given that the hospitality industry encompasses such a wide range of business types and caters to such a large consumer basis, there is a wide opportunity for the appearance of sexuality within the industry.
In order to better understand the role of sexuality in the hospitality industry, it…
Hooters Air. Hooters Air Lands at Gary/Chicago. 17 May 2004. http://www.hootersair.com/about/press/2004/2004-04-29-Gary.asp
Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. Sexuality. 17 May 2004. http://www.merriam-webster.com/cgi-bin/dictionary?book=Dictionary&va=sexuality
Mills, Barrie. Higher Education in the UK Hospitality Industry. 12 May 2004. http://www.intstudy.com/articles/tweukhos.htm
The fastest growth registered among the top 20 markets came from: (1) China (+19%); (2) India (+18%); and (3) Spain (+10%). (American Hotel & Lodging Association, 2007)
In the work entitled: "Hotels in China, India and Mexico are Capturing the Imagination and Resources of the Hotel Industry" it is stated: "Take a look at the headlines these days and you will realize that overseas expansion for the hotel industry is hot, particularly in developing markets. In the last month alone, Starwood Hotels & Resorts Worldwide, UK-based InterContinental Hotel Group, Hong Kong's Shangri-La hotels and Marriott International announced major expansion plans in China. Starwood has plans to grow from 57 hotels in China, Hong Kong and Taiwan to 100 Greater China hotels by 2010.
InterContinental has 51 hotels now in China and intends to develop 74 more by the 2008 Summer Olympics. Shangri-La has 20 hotels and plans for 17 more…
Amann, Wolfgang (2003) the Impact of Internationalization on Organizational Culture a Comparative Study of International U.S. And German Companies" Dissertation Nr. 2791 Difo-Druck GmbH, Bamberg 2003 aus Deutschland. Online available at http://www.unisg.ch/www/edis.nsf/wwwDisplayIdentifier/2791/$FILE/dis2791.pdf
Butler, Jim (2006) Hotels in China, India, and Mexico are Capturing the Imagination and Resources of the Hotel Industry. Hotel Job Resource. 2007 Online available at http://hoteljobresource.com/trends-detail-sid-24867.html
Butler, Jim (2006) Hotel Online. News for the Hospitality Executive. News for the Hospitality Executive. Online available at http://www.hotel-online.com/News/PR2007_1st/Jan07_IndiaHotels.html
Scoviak, Mary (2008) New Territory. Hotels. Business Franchises - Buyer Zone 2008.
Globalization of the Hospitality Industry
The operational aspects of expansion are often the easiest for any hospitality provider to plan and execute, regardless of the global location of their latest hotel, resort or expansion property. The cultural and experiential factors however are far more difficult to manage and excel within the context of, and are often what challenges the growth of even the most highly-0regarded brands over time (Pei, Abdolali, Yong, 2005). Within the last decade hospitality providers are increasingly relying on advanced techniques for determining how they can anticipate and respond appropriately to cultural and customer-centric expectations and needs. In the peer-reviewed research presented in Service Quality: A Study of the Luxury Hotels in Malaysia (Pei, Abdolali, Yong, 2005) the researchers use the Service Quality (SERVQUAL) index to measure the variation between customer expectations and experience. Using this framework, the researchers provide a detailed analysis of the contributors and…
Hofstede, G., & McCrae, R.R. (2004). Personality and culture revisited: Linking traits and dimensions of culture. Cross - Cultural Research, 38(1), 52-88.
Parasuraman, A., Zeithaml, V.A., & Berry, L.L. (1988). Servqual: A multiple-item scale for measuring consumer satisfaction. Journal of Retailing, 64(1), 12.
Pei, M.L., Abdolali, K.A., & David Yong, G.F. (2005). Service quality: A study of the luxury hotels in Malaysia. Journal of American Academy of Business, Cambridge, 7(2), 46-55.
Furthermore, Lebanon enjoyed a considerable increase (+26%) on the already positive trend experienced in 2003, despite a politically rocky patch following the assassination of former prime minister afiq Hariri. Minister of tourism, Joseph Sarkis, described the new Beirut government's commitment to "enhancing the promotion of tourism in different sectors and encouraging investments in the country, in order to make Lebanon a first-class tourism destination in the Middle East" (quoted in Wells, 2006 at p. 48).
Even Jordan experienced healthy growth in tourism, and managed to overcome its losses from 2003; an enthusiastic managing director of Jordan's Tourism Board declared at the World Travel Market (WTM), Mazen Homoud, reported that, "As with all the countries that have seen terrorist attacks, the resilience and the professionalism of the (tourism) industry is already shining through and Jordan is back on track" (quoted in Wells, 2006 at p. 48). The proof is in the…
Hall, C.M., & Tucker, H. (2004). Tourism and postcolonialism: Contested discourses, identities and representations. New York: Routledge.
Montgomery, H., Lip*****z, R., & Brehmer, B. (2005). How professionals make decisions. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Salloum, H. (2001, June). Exploring the United Arab Emirates. Contemporary Review, 278(1625), 364.
Sheller, M., & Urry, J. (2004). Tourism mobilities: Places to play, places in play. London: Routledge.
Emotional Labor in the Hospitality Industry
Customer service, regardless of venue, albeit clinical, retail, collections, telemarketing, or hospitality, is one on the most difficult employment areas within which to be employed. Servicing people requires the service agent to be respectful, courteous, ethical, and have the ability to resolve problems, enquiries and/or complaints as quickly and expeditiously as possible at all times. Customer service representatives in all fields must be extremely cooperative in the face of adversity, competition, resistance, and sometimes degradation. Those who choose to be employed in a customer service related field are confronted on a daily basis with a myriad of diverse personalities, customs, ethnic profiles, and cultural differences. Service personnel are, therefore, the vanguards and frontline doughboys of the service world battle. Because of the continuous and mounting pressure put on service personnel it is no wonder that employment turnover and burnout is constantly high with attitudes…
Bass, B.M. (1990). Bass & Stogdill's Handbook of Leadership: Theory, Research, & Managerial
Applications (3rd ed.). New York: Free Press.
Hei-Lin Chu, Kay (2002). "The Effects of Emotional Labor on Employee Outcomes." Dissertation. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
Accreditation/Certification Schemes in Hospitality Industry
Accreditation and certification schemes exist to recognize best practices in any industry. In the hospitality industry some compulsory standards are established through variety of means including accreditation, legislation and industry membership requirements that are meant to recognize good practices in various areas including "health and safety, competence standards, occupational safety, land use planning, licensing of businesses and consumer protection." (Font and Harris, 2004)
Some voluntary standards also exist which come in the form of training manuals which help companies in the hospitality industry improve performance in different areas to meet membership requirements. For example Pearl Continental Hotel in Pakistan is a small five star hotel in the country. It has been a member of the Leading small five star hotels in the world for many years now. This kind of recognition however is not easily achieved. The hotel had to meet strict requirements and to…
Font, Xavier (2002) Environmental Certification in Tourism and Hospitality: Progress, process and prospects. Tourism Management Vol 23, No 3, 197-205
Font, Xavier and Harris, Catherine (2004) Rethinking standards from Green to Sustainable Annals of Tourism Research, Vol 31, No 4, 986-1007.
Fryxll, Gerald E, Wing-Hung Lo, Carlos, Chung, Shan (2004) Motivations for Seeking ISO14001 Certifications on Perception of EMS Effectiveness in China. Environmental Management Vol 33, No 2, 239-251
UNWTO 2008: Climate Change and Tourism -- Responding to Global Challenges Published by the World Tourism Organization and the United Nations Environment Programme. Printed by the World Tourism Organization, Madrid, Spain First printing 2008
The answers offered by the high profit seekers as stakeholders is to take advantage of the immigrant, by demanding high work hours, and even in some cases taking advantage of the individual's low level of knowledge about the rights and responsibilities of the employee and the employer, denying overtime pay, when earned, unauthorized deductions from pay, even things as simple as demanding less "ethnic" hairstyles from employees to the point of termination for violation and other issues that frequently go unchallenged by people who already feel their job is in jeopardy by the very nature of their cultural heritage. (Piatt, 1993, p. ix) (Levin-Waldman, 2000, p. 43)
Changes in the ethnic mix of the labour force are occurring. In the U.S. most growth in the non-white workforce will come from Asians and Hispanics who together will comprise 20 per cent in 2020, while the black population will only account for…
http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002294842 "Abernathy, W.B. (1998, September). A War against Wages. Security Management, 42, 35+. Retrieved April 18, 2007, from Questia database:
Consumer Trends in the Hospitality and Tourism Industry:
Effects on Hospitality and Tourism
The purpose of this work is to identify present consumer trends and to examine the facts and upon gaining understanding, explain the effects that consumer have upon trends in the hospitality and tourism business.
According to a Marketing Insight report of October 3, 2003, research that had been recently released stated that one in five Americans would be using the Internet for their personal and business booking and reservations. The recent report states that:
The online travel business is already the leading online revenue producer, but news of Cendant's pending acquisition of Orbitz, announced earlier in the month, has injected new vitality into the market, according to the latest eMarketer analysis. The Online Travel: Marketing and Selling report, released today, discusses strategies that are working in the space and offers insight for agencies looking to attract consumers…
"Online Travel Industry to Approach $50 Billion in 2004" (2003) Hospitality Trends 2004-10-26 [Online] http://www.htrends.com/article13455.html
Koumelis, Theodore (2004) KDS & Deutsche Bahn further extend their partnership for best online services to German corporate travelers 2004 March 16 [Online] at: http://www.traveldailynews.com/new.asp?newid=15903& ; subcategory_id=77
Rania Deimezi (2004) Ground Transportation: KDS offers its customers a direct access to the Europcar central reservation system
2004 October 26 [Online] http://www.traveldailynews.com/new.asp?newid=19126& ; subcategory_id=57
Arab Spring eshapes the Tourism and Hospitality Industry in the Middle East
Importance of Tourism in the Effected egions
Negative Impacts of Arab Spring on the Tourism Sector of the Middle Eastern egion
Selection of Keywords
ecommendations for Further esearch
The Arab Spring eshapes the Tourism and Hospitality Industry in the Middle East
The Arab Springs can be defined as a series of revolutions along the Middle Eastern countries, for example Tunisia and Egypt. On the 17th of December, in the year 2010, a vegetable vendor set himself on fire. The name of this vendor was Mohamed Bouazizi. This event occurred in a Tunisian town of Sidi Bouzid. As a result of this act great political upheaval was raised in the North Africa and the Middle East known. This political upheaval was known as "Arab Spring." (Youssef and Lafferty et al., 2013,…
Cooper, D.R. And Schindler, P.S. 1998. Business research methods. Boston: Irwin/McGraw-Hill.
Haerens, M. And Zott, L.M. 2013. The Arab Spring. Detroit: Greenhaven Press.
Hazbun, W. 2006. Explaining the Arab Middle East Tourism Paradox. The Arab World Geographer, 9 (3), pp. 201 -- 214.
Masetti, O., Friedman, J. And Froster, M. 2013. Arab Spring (2013): Two Years of Arab Spring. London: Consensus Economics Inc. pp. 1-5. http://www.consensuseconomics.com/News_and_Articles/Two_Years_of_Arab_Spring117.htm [Accessed: 23 Mar 2014].
The industry responded by moving services to where the roads moved, when it was possible during the interstate movement, as well as by implementing ergonomic changes to meet forever fickle consumer demands. (Goode, 2000, p. 10) Now, they have become innovators in SST on the internet, as they offer purchase and confirmation technologies at the click of a button to consumers that wish to do their own booking. Traditionally, bars, nightclubs, lounges, and taverns are the most longstanding entities of the service industry, and they have adapted and been innovators as well, providing SST that is both internal to the consumer experience and a convenience for the consumer, such as ATMs and high speed wireless internet, a location of SST that has grown foundationally as more and more people have become comfortable with internet and SST transactions on it. (Davis, Bagozzi & Warshaw, 1989, pp. 982-1001) Each entity, has changed…
Barrett, W.M. (2002, March). it's No Gamble: There's a Lot to Do at Mohegan Sun. USA Today (Society for the Advancement of Education), 130, 46.
Beatson, a. Coote, L.V. & Rudd, J.M. (2006) Determining Consumer Satisfaction and Commitment Through Self-Service Technology and Personal Service Usage. Journal of Marketing Management. 22, 853-882.
Berman, J.M. (2005). Industry Output and Employment Projections to 2014: Professional and Business Services and Health Care and Social Assistance Sectors Account for Almost Half of New Jobs from 2004-14; Construction Adds Jobs, While Agriculture and Manufacturing Employment Declines. Monthly Labor Review, 128(11), 45.
Bitner, M.J. Brown, S.W. & Meuter, M.L. (2000) Technology Infusion in Service Encounters. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science. 28 (1) 138-149.
Recommended solutions to all of yesterday's problems
The late check-in processes has always been functioning perfectly, and even though it was a delay, an audit of the process has to be done to establish the cause of the delay. The process audit will also have to determine the risk of another delay and how to prevent it. Nevertheless, this problems points to the fact that, the hotel now needs a standby backup check-in system, preferably a manual system (Nieves & Segarra-Ciprés, 2015). This is the work of the systems personnel and while it is currently working, the systems personnel will need to check it thoroughly to prevent any future delays or breakdowns bearing in mind this might have been a sign for a bigger problem with the system.
For the seafood delivery, the first step will be to contact the seafood supply to establish the reason for the delayed delivery…
Boella, M., & Goss-Turner, S. (2013). Human resource management in the hospitality industry: A guide to best practice. Routledge.
Mok, C., Sparks, B., & Kadampully, J. (2013). Service quality management in hospitality, tourism, and leisure. Routledge.
Nieves, J., & Segarra-Ciprés, M. (2015). Management innovation in the hotel industry. Tourism Management, 46, 51-58.
Tourism and Hospitality Industries
It is perhaps indicative of how interconnected the hospitality industry and the tourism industry are that they are often connected in literature as one broad industrial category, "the hospitality and tourist industry." Their aims and objectives certainly overlap, sharing a common goal of catering to the needs and desires of people who are traveling for one reason or another. It is a facile separation of the domains of each industry to suggest that hospitality pertains to where people stay and tourism pertains to what people do in the process of travel, particularly as the options become more elaborate and varied to reflect a simultaneous increase in technology and the sophistication of consumer demand. Instead of focusing upon debatable divisions between the functions of each industry, it is perhaps a better model to look at the ways in which they support each other's key services (Ottenbacher 2009).…
Brey, ET al. (2008). Standard Hospitality Elements at Resorts: An Empirical Assessment. Journal of Travel Research. 47: 2; 247-258.
Crouch, GI. (2011). Destination Competitiveness: An Analysis of Determinant Attributes. Journal of Travel Research. 50: 27-45
Denver ES et al. (2009). "A World Ranking of the Top 100 Hospitality and Tourism Programs" Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research. 33, 4: 451-470.
McCleary KW. (1993). Hotel Selection Factors as They Relate to Business Travel Situations. Journal of Travel Research. 32: 2; 42-48.
Tourism and Hospitality Industries: Management
Integration of Travel and Hospitality Companies
Vertical integration has been a major trend in corporate business in profit-based and consumer-based industries over the past several decades, particularly as more specialized and dynamic good and services are being offered with wider global distribution. There have been many examples of vertical integration in the travel and hospitality industry within the past several decades, although due to the volatility of industries based upon consumer activity with disposable income during the recession since 2008, it is a somewhat risky maneuver, particularly in the acquisition of transportation companies.
The general principle of vertical integration, however, leads to greater profit margins as two or more related ventures are purchased by the same entity, thus lowering overhead and eliminating external expenditure. Vertical integration is particularly of benefit for the development of travel and hospitality packages that seek to offer savings to customers…
Hargrave, A. (2011)"The Ownership of Travel and Tourism Organisations: Takeovers" http://www.bized.co.uk/educators/1619/tourism/business/activity/ownership.htm
George Lafferty, Anthony van Fossen, Integrating the tourism industry: problems and strategies, Tourism Management, Volume 22, Issue 1, February 2001, Pages 11-19.
John Tribe, The competitive, technological, political and sociocultural environment, The Economics of Recreation, Leisure and Tourism (Fourth Edition), Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, 2011, Pages 173-204.
Ludwig Theuvsen, Vertical Integration in the European Package Tour Business, Annals of Tourism Research, Volume 31, Issue 2, April 2004, Pages 475-478.
WOKPLACE LEANING AND MANAGE'S PEFOMANCE IN THE HOSPITALITY INDUSTY
elationship between Workplace Learning and Managers' Performance in the Hospitality Industry
elationship between Workplace Learning and Managers' Performance in the Hospitality Industry
Manager's ole as a Leader
Why is Workplace Learning Important
The 'ideal' Workplace Learning Situation
Methods of Workplace Learning
Hospitality Industry Supports and Values Training and Learning
Management Skills in Workplace Learning
Manager's ole in the Hospitality Industry
Optimize Communication between Managers and Employees
Effective Managers in Hospitality Industry
elationship between Workplace Learning and Managers' Performance in the Hospitality Industry
Impact of Managers' Performance
Why Should Managers be Involved in Workplace Learning in Hospitality Industry?
Skills Learnt in Workplace Learning in Hospitality Industry 13
There is a direct relationship between workplace learning and manger's performance in a hospitality industry. This paper deciphers the roles and responsibilities of the manager in…
Lucas, R.E. (2003). Employment Relations in the Hospitality and Tourism Industries. New York: Routledge.
Lucas, R.E. (2003). Employment Relations in the Hospitality and Tourism Industries. New York: Routledge.
Theresa, B., Blackbourn, S., Hussey, D., & Linda, N. (2009). Developing the Local Workforce: Is Work-Based Learning the Solution? British Journal of Occupational Therapy, 18-28.
Ahu, T., & Ozbilgin, M.F. (2009). Understanding Diversity Managers' Role in Organizational Change: Towards a Conceptual Framework. Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences, 45-52.
In the present day, casino resorts are amidst the most perceptible hospitality business operations across the world. The casino industry has had an astonishing and remarkable growth over the years. In particular, the casino industry is by far one of the most considerable developments in the hospitality industry, in the course of the past thirty years or so. Its coming together with the lodging and hospitality industries has been significant and astounding. It can easily be pointed out that the biggest hotels across the globe are casino resorts, which are located in the Strip of Las Vegas (Walker, 2013).
Some of the aspects that sets apart the casino industry from other hospitality entities, and gives it a competitive advantage is that aside from the casino itself, the industry offers a full spread of entertainment, lodging, food and beverage, and also retail services. Different from other hospitality entities, the…
Walker, J. (2013). Introduction to Hospitality. New Jersey: Pearson Higher Education.
Walker, J. R., Walker, J. T. (2013). Introduction to Hospitality Management. New Jersey: Pearson Higher Education.
The impact of technology and the increase of international travel and exploration, the global environment has provided a landscape that depends on the knowledge of other culture. The differences among the human race are everywhere and the denotation of such individualities create challenges for those wishing to attain a successful career based in international exposure.
The purpose of this essay is to explore various themes and ideas that relate to cross-cultural management theory applied in a practical and pragmatic manner. This essay aims to answer the following question:
Which international skills, knowledge, behaviours and experiences will be advantageous in the development of my future career?
My future career selection is not quite clear at this time but I have narrowed it down to becoming involved in hotel management in Central America. This essay will first examine the basics of culture to help give a theoretical background to my…
Branine, M. (2011). Managing across cultures: Concepts, policies and practices. Sage.
Crowne, K.A. (2008). What leads to cultural intelligence?. Business Horizons,51(5), 391-399.
De Bono, S., & Van Der Heijden, B. (2011). Managing cultural diversity. Meyer & Meyer Verlag.
Duncan, T. (2005). Current issues in the global hospitality industry. Tourism and Hospitality Research, 5(4), 359-366.
Effects of CM on the Hospitality Industry
At a very strategic level, CM has made the hospitality industry much more attuned to the preferences, wants and needs of guests. It has also created a more responsive industry by capturing the needs of customers more efficiently and economically than was ever possible before. Specific areas that have changed the most include more of a focus on making multichannel strategies, from websites to Facebook, Twitter and other social networks, more responsive to the needs of the guest to provide feedback (Lim, Saldana, Saldana, Zegarra, 2011). There are also more effective analytics being used than ever before, creating greater insights into guest's patterns of purchasing not only accommodations but amenities as well (Phillips, Louvieris, 2005). CM's effect on the hospitality industry is very significant, bringing a strong customer orientation to the industry and also giving hoteliers and service providers much greater insights into…
Ivanovic, S., Mikinac, K., & Perman, L. (2011). Crm development in hospitality companies for the purpose of increasing the competitiveness in the tourist market. UTMS Journal of Economics, 2(1), 59-68.
Lim, S., Saldana, a.Z., Saldana, P.E., & Zegarra. (2011). Do market oriented firms adopt web 2.0 technologies? An empirical study in hospitality firms. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 7(4), 465-477.
Murphy, J., Olaru, D., Schegg, R., & Frey, S. (2003). The bandwagon effect: Swiss hotels web-site and e-mail management. Cornell Hospitality Quarterly, 44(1), 71-87.
Phillips, P., & Louvieris, P. (2005). Performance measurement systems in tourism, hospitality, and leisure small medium-sized enterprises: A balanced scorecard perspective. Journal of Travel Research, 44(2), 201-211.
There are some cases where there can be a guest service agent who might be handling japans guests but may not understand what the guest exactly needs and hence will need to ask for help and may lead to a long period of waiting. This leads to decrease in the efficiency of the services the resort offers since there can be a time when there is no one available for translating and the guest has to wait until someone is available this leads to the guests getting impatient and hence it was discourage the guest from visiting the resort some other time. This is an eventual decline in international guests since there is no efficiency in handling them. The communication barrier between the staff and guests is something very bad and if not taken care of well can lead to serious negative implication to both the image of which will…
Rauch, R. (2011).Top 10 hospitality trends for 2012.Retrieved December 11, 2012 from http://hotelmarketing.com/index.php/content/article/top_10_hospitality_industry_trends_for_2012
Ako, D. (2012). Hawaii Hotel Industry Lags. Retrieved December 11, 2012 from http://www.hawaiinewsnow.com/story/6507725/hawaii-hotel-industry-lags
The Moscow times. (2012). Hospitality Industry Trends. Retrieved December 11, 2012 from http://www.themoscowtimes.com/business/business_for_business/article/hospitality-industry-trends/459453.html
Rauch, R. (2012).top 10 hospitality trends for 2013.retrieved December 11, 2012 from http://www.hospitalitynet.org/news/4058659.html
Pubs on account of operating costs, food prices, and the increase in minimum wages have therefore changed to the tenanted model. Some regulations have also curbed customer choice like ban on smoking in public places, and other interventions on customer freedom have resulted in the closure of two thousand pubs. Changing customer habits have resulted in the decline of the UK restaurant by three percent as a result of poor consumer spending. (Deoitte, 2011)
In England these different entities are representative of the fact that consumers have grown in variety and as well have begun to explore all that the hospitality industry has to offer. Apart from the changes in the eating habits of the natives, the demands from the tourists, and the peculiar tourist out for gastronomic experience has given birth to a new industry -- Gastronomic tour. There are many types of consumers of hospitality including the current…
Bowers, Simon. 2011. Mayfair Hotel: RBS Sells Top Mayfair Hotel to Indian
Billionaire. The Guardian, p. 6.
Deoitte. 2011. Issues and Trends. [Online] Available at:
The moment of truth was when the front desk people realized that the problem we reported was not just a minor complaint or just an example of customers being too picky or demanding. It was fairly clear that the hotel personnel immediately empathized with our situation and that they felt obligated to rectify the problem for us. The wrong response would have been to tell us that we should just try to live with the noise for one night until another room like the one we booked became available or to turn off the air conditioner when we wanted to go to sleep and then turn it back on in the morning. In addition to being insulting (because nobody needs to be told that they can do either of those two things), that type of response would have conflicted with any demonstration of reliability, assurance, or responsiveness.
There were both…
Influx of Money Impact Hospitality Sector in Brazil
how influx of money impact brazil'S HOSPITALITY SECTO
How Money Influx from World Cup 2014 Impact Brazil's Hospitality Sector
How Money Influx from World Cup 2014 Impact Brazil's Hospitality Sector
The literature review seeks to scrutinize and evaluate the probable effects of the influx of money from 2014 World Cup in Brazil in relation to growth and development of the country's hospitality industry (Jones 2012). Since the major declaration (October 2007) by FIFA that Brazil shall be hosting the biggest world event, the hospitality sector has embarked on building new hotels, bistros, and lodges. The sector has also stepped up efforts to renovate existing facilities ahead of the tournament slated for June 2014. Although preparations are still underway, an influx of visitors and money is inevitable with considerable accommodation bookings reported across the country (Jones 2012).
Influx of Money is…
Burt, J. (2012, May 25). Boys staying in brazil. The Daily Telegraph.
Davis, J.A. (2012). The Olympic Games Effect: How Sports Marketing Builds Strong Brands.
Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons
Global outlook: Sporting events - sporting chance. (2010). Foreign Direct Investment,, n/a.
Feminine Drives the Hospitality ndustry
What is the feminine? What is the current hospitality industry in relation to the feminine?
Care for me. Nurture me. All of these relate to an individual's ideal concepts of being mothered and mothering. Although sexual relations have changed considerably in recent years, when asked 'what are the favorite comfort foods of your childhood,' most individuals respond with the special foods their mothers prepared for them. Even individuals with absent, harried, or culinary incompetent mothers have the culturally idealized image of the female giver of sustenance and nurturing within their collective, if not their personal memory.
After a hard day at work, with mum far away, what does the average individual turn to in his or her own life for sustenance but the hospitality industry. t could be a place for drinks and friends, a place to get favorite comfort foods, or simply a place…
Interestingly enough, the online London Restaurant guide specifically associates the few ostentatiously masculine restaurants it advertises with what is American, noting recently, for instance, when taking a man out, "according to historians," the origins of Father's Day "are firmly rooted in American soil. The first Father's Day was honored as early as 1908, in West Virginia," though "as with most popular ideas, from across the pond, we Brits were soon to cotton on," and that to please dad, or any man, take him to TGIF. The site says this, it should be noted, in a momentary turning away from its usual stress upon English establishments. (http://www.londonrestaurantsguide.com/popups/articles_fathers_day.asp)
Like a woman, a London restaurant must be all things to all people, yet offer something that is unique and exclusive that makes people feel as though they are being cared and catered for like special children, and that their special needs are being indulged for an evening. Yet the industry itself remains dominated in a masculine fashion, in terms of chefs and owners, and London itself contrasts and constructs itself as feminine against more masculine dinning areas and arenas from American, which offer less ambience, or from more haute cuisine concerned areas of the world, such as Italy and France, where menus, chefs, and owners are more likely to dictate the needs of the diner's palate and the customers, rather than respond to the customer's own perceived comfort and needs of the moment.
What Does the Modern Hospitality Consumer Want?
Technological advances over the past decade have had a big impact on business in the hospitality industry. A more global economy and the increasing prominence of the Internet as a business tool have fueled the trend towards commoditisation in virtually every industry. This had led to a decline in prices in many goods and services, with a similar decline in profit margins. The modern hospitality consumer has rebelled against this trend by increasingly demanding an experience as a fundamental part of the transaction.
In many industries, the rise to prominence of information technology has facilitated this trend toward commodisation. This refers to an increasing similarity in goods provided that are selected by the consumer based on value for money. "Differentiation disappears, margins fall through the floor, and customers buy solely on the basis of price, price, price." (Pine & Gilmore, 1999).…
Olsen, M. & Connolly, D. (2000). Experience-based travel: How technology is changing the Hospitality industry. Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, Feb. 2000,
Pine, J., & Gilmore, J. (1999). The Experience Economy: Work is Theatre & Every Business a Stage. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.
Pine, J., & Gilmore, J. (2002). Differentiating hospitality operations via experiences: Why Selling services is not enough. Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly,
June 2002, 87-97.
The relationship between design and modern hospitality
What is the nature of (post) modern design? What is design's relationship to the modern hospitality industry?
Increasingly, the modern hospitality industry is becoming affected by, and more consciously aware of the postmodern stress upon the profound relationship that exists between the purveyor, the consumer, and the overall environment and ambiance created by a particular design of any establishment. In other words, eating out is an experience, not merely the act of consuming prepared food away from home.
Plan the answer and show the plan
The plan for the hospitality industry as a whole must be to integrate the design form and practical function of a restaurant in such a fashion that its design compliments the gustatory needs of the consumer and the owner of the restaurant, yet still conveys an atmosphere complementary with the food in a way that fulfills…
Status in Hospitality
How Class and Status are Reflected in the Modern Hospitality Industry
Issues of class and status are reflected in the modern hospitality industry as this consumer-driven marketplace seeks to respond more effectively to the demands of a diverse public. Class may be defined as one's "social class [or] socio-economic class -- people having the same social or economic status." (http://www.cogsci.princeton.edu/cgi-bin/webwn?stage=1& word=class). When class is considered together with income, the resulting "socioeconomic status" (SES, or, status) is a powerful demographic indicator that factors into many decisions in the hospitality industry. The hospitality industry is unique in that it combines services with a tangible good, usually a lodging room. Issues of class and status impact on the hospitality industry by requiring the industry to respond to the customer individually, on the level of service delivery as well as product provided.
One way the hospitality industry has responded to a…
Baranowski, Shelley. (2003). An Alternative to Everyday Life? The Politics of Leisure and Tourism. Contemporary European History 12.4. 561 -- 572.
Class (n.d.) Downloaded May 18, 2004 from Wordnet, Web site: http://www.cogsci.princeton.edu/cgi-
Harwood, A. (May 19, 2004). Eggs-Pensive: Our writer's verdict after he shells out for $1,000
menu drives London Hospitality (Discuss)
The Menu Drives London Hospitality!
hat is a menu? Simply a list, one might surmise from a basic definition of the word. Simply a written listing of a particular eating establishment's offerings, correct? But the British as a people, it has been alleged by many a foreign observer (and indeed, many a dyspeptic native writer), are an overly verbose and verbal nation, obsessed with the written word and what it 'says' about them as a people and as individuals. Thus, England as a nation may be excused for attaching importance overmuch to the importance of such a listings of offerings and the impression such a listing conveys about an establishment.
People chose a restaurant, and a restaurant establishes its reputation upon the quality of its menu in London. The quality of the food matters less, or even the location, than what the menu says about…
Restaurant Reviews. Top Table. Retrieved on April 3, 2 -- 4 at http://www.toptable.co.uk/details.cfm?rid=1848
Fire in Hospitality and Tourism Industry
Fire in the tourism industry
Fire according to the Greek tradition is well thought-out to be one of the key elements in the universe besides earth, air and water. Both the elements can be felt and smelt. However, fire is a concrete end product of matter unlike air, water and earth which are forms of matter.
There seems to be varying myths and legends concerning the origin of fire but in essence they all tend to be similar in the sense that there was the aspect of stealing fire from the gods. However, with the attainment of fire, challenges on how to preserve it arose. At onetime it was buried and later preserved in its own ashes; then came the development of fire sticks and finally man started working with metals and came up with a fire cover.
Coals were heaped up in…
Motivation Systems for Hospitality Organizations: A Case Study of Motel
Generally speaking, the hospitality industry competes on a global basis by providing food and beverages services as well as accommodations for tourists and travelers. For instance, according to Lucas, "The term hospitality industry serves as an overarching label for businesses whose primary purpose is to offer food, beverage and accommodation for sale on a commercial basis" (2003:3). By contrast, hospitality services are associated activities that take place within the hospitality industry which are provided within different segments of the marketplace. Such hospitality activities are primarily involved with providing food and beverage services for a wide range of institutional operations including educational facilities such as colleges and universities, passenger airline carriers, healthcare and long-term care facilities as well as penitentiaries and jails (Lucas 2003). For the purposes of this study, the focus will be on the hospitality industry and hotels in…
About Motel 6. (2010). Motel 6. [online] available: http://www.motel6.com /about/' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Ultimately the profitability of the hospitality industry is directly linked to how effective hospitality leaders and managers are in making this connection of experiences and measured performance over time.
The second major trend in the hospitality industry today is the growing reliance on business analytics software applications to better understand, anticipate and respond to customers' concerns (McKnight, 31). The use of business analytics software including predictive analytics that Harrah's has developed an expertise with example is a case in point (McKnight, 30). The ability to find the most profitable customer segments and tailor specific messaging, service offers, and coupons to them is keeping Harrah's profitable despite the recession that is going on right now. This filed of business analytics and predictive intelligence is one that continues to grow rapidly with the need for analysts, managers, directors and vice presidents to continually manage the large amount of data captured and used…
John C. Crotts, Bing Pan, and Andrew E. Raschid. "A survey method for identifying key drivers of guest delight." International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management 20.4 (2008)
Thomas Lee. "In hard times, change tack, or go extinct: Adapting to change: Post-Sept. 11, 2001, adversity led Bloomington software firm to adopt a successful new business model by shifting to the Internet." McClatchy - Tribune Business News 1 December 2008
William McKnight. "Hospitality Industry Business Intelligence: Checking in." DM Review 18.1 (2008):31
Sheila Muto. "Hotel Web Site Gets Personal to Lure Bookings. " Wall Street Journal 4 Jun 2003, Eastern edition
Terrorism Affects the International Tourism Industry
There is an undeniable relationship between terrorism and tourism. This is because of the industry power tourist sites are attractive avenues for terrorists to cause unprecedented magnitudes of economic and social disruption. The 21st century economy is dominated by three sectors namely information technology, tourism, and telecommunications. Tourism generates ten percent of international employment with a surplus of 30% in the Caribbean region. World tourism organization estimates that over two hundred million people across the world will be employed in the industry by 2015. The tourism and travel sectors have expanded by 700% in the last two decades (Gabbay & Ghosh, 2013). It is further projected that tourists will spend twice as much in foreign nations on tourism activities. For most developing nations, tourism is the leading source of income in terms of GDP thus a key influence in the economic growth. The issue…
Beirman, D. (2013). Restoring tourism destinations in crisis: A strategic marketing approach. Crows Nest, N.S.W: Allen & Unwin.
Gabbay, R. & Ghosh, R.N. (2013). Tourism and economic development: Case studies from the Indian Ocean region. Burlington, VT: Ashgate.
Keyes, D.C., & Jonathan L.Burstein. (2010). Medical response to terrorism: Preparedness and clinical practice. Philadelphia [u.a.: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Huggett, C., & Pownall, D. (2010). Teaching travel and tourism 14. Maidenhead: Open University Press.
Higher-end lodges or five-star establishments would focus more on specialty items that can be offered at a higher price for higher quality. Valet services, designer jewelry, personalized service, and specialty rooms are some of the means at the disposal of higher-end marketers.
These segmentation and targeting practices then combine to provide the lodging operation with its marketing position. Depending upon its offering and consumer target, lodging operations position themselves at certain levels within the market. Five-star hotels that generally target high-end, high-budget consumers would for example position themselves as such in the market, whereas lower-end, budget establishments position themselves at a different segment.
According to Feiertag (2010), hotel and lodge marketers often confuse the terms "leads" and "prospects." The author notes that the distinction between these is the key principle in successful prospecting. First, it is therefore important to distinguish between the terms. According to the author then, a marketing…
Feiertag, H. (2010, Aug. 13). Proper prospecting prevails in producing profits. Hospitality World Network. Retrieved from: http://www.hospitalityworldnetwork.com/boutique/proper-prospecting-prevails-in-producing-profits-0
O'Neill, J.W., Hanson, B. And Mattila, A. (2008). The Relationship of Sales and Marketing Expenses to Hotel Performance in the United States. Cornell University. Vol. 49, Iss. 4.
Retrieved from: http://www.personal.psu.edu/jwo3/Hotel%20Marketing%20Expenses%20Article.pdf
Rudra, S. (n.d.) Market Segmentation, Targeting, and Positioning. Retrieved from: http://www.scribd.com/doc/6356725/MARKET-SEGMENTATION-TARGETING-POSITIONING-By-Subha-Rudra
In this regard, Higgins (2002) reports that Micros Systems Inc. introduced a custom application specifically for the hospitality industry early on, and despite the lingering effects of the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks on the market, this company and others such as BDM International Inc. are continuing their efforts to provide hotels, restaurants and other organizations competing in the hospitality industry with the information technology they need to become more competitive (Bear 1999). More recently, companies such as Avendra have started offering integrated software applications that are specifically designed for various segments of the hospitality industry. This company's integrated software application provides purchasing support for food and beverage operations, room operations, engineering/building and construction, administrative, professional and financial services; cleaning solutions and sanitizing systems; grounds and agronomy maintenance; as well as gift shop and spa equipment operation and products (Avendra's purchasing programs 2010).
According to icher (201), a trend that…
Avendra's purchasing programs, 2010. Avendra. Retrieved from http://www.avendra.com / solutions/PurchasingPrograms/Pages/default.aspx.
Bassoppo-Moyo, T.C., Bassoppo-Moyo, S. & Dube, G., 2002. "Managerial Perceptions in the Application of Information Technology in the Public and Private Sector in Zimbabwe."
International Journal of Instructional Media 29(3): 289-290.
Bear, V., 1999, May 24. "Your Money; Movers & Shakers." The Washington Times: 8.
Ethics and security concerns
Despite the fact that the internet is a tool that cannot be outdone by any other when it comes to publicity of any business, there are risks and security threats and breaches that come alongside especially the hotel and accommodation industry.
Various government regulations on the hospitality industry have a dramatic effect on the internet and its usability in the hotel industry. The governments achieve this by introducing new regulations and limitations every other waking day and also highly throttles the exploitation of the internet, some of which work to the good and yet others to the detriment of the industry.
Due to the rampant nature of internet hackers and people out to cause damage to the industry by spying on the hospitality industry players with an aim of causing harm to the clients, there are privacy and security issues that must be observed in order…
Christoph Muller, (2011). The impact of the internet and social media on the hotel industry. http://www.grin.com/en/e-book/170753/the-impact-of-the-internet-and-social-media-on-the-hotel-industry
Nick Nikolos (2011). Internet Marketing in Hospitality Industry. http://www.singaporehotelsandrates.com/hospitality-industry/internet-marketing-in-hospitality-industry.html
Travel City, (2011). Benefits And Disadvantages Of Online Travel Agencies. http://travelcityhotel.org/travel-agency/benefits-and-disadvantages-of-online-travel-agencies
It was likely no accident that Vancouver was chosen as the site of the Globe '90 Conference. The enunciation of such bold guiding principles should of necessity take place in the heart of a region well-known for its environmental treasures. British Columbia's offerings accord with statements of previous tourism conferences in other places. The 1989 conference at The Hague could have had Vancouver Area Tourism in mind when it proclaimed that an, "unspoilt natural, cultural and human environment [was] a fundamental condition for the development of tourism." (Laws, Faulkner & Moscardo, 1998, p. 206)
In British Columbia, eco-tourism is seen as away of bringing together competing interests, not only human and natural, but also human vs. human. f interest to many visitors to the Vancouver Area are the many Aboriginal communities to be found amid the natural landscape. Tourists, who are attracted by the idea of visiting Native villages,…
Over the past decade, a determined assortment of community activists and design professionals has persuaded the City of Vancouver to act on its oft-stated commitment to urban sustainability. The issue that provided the immediate catalyst was Southeast False Creek -- a blighted patch of former industrial land that represented one of the last major redevelopment opportunities in the city core. Initially, there were fears that Southeast False Creek was destined for the usual big developer, upscale condo approach to urban renewal. But pressure by activists led to the city hiring Sebastian Moffat and his colleagues in the Sheltair Group, a small Vancouver consulting company, to report on how to go about planning a truly sustainable community. (Alexander, 2000, p. 10)
The redevelopment of Southeast False Creek reveals the typical approach of salvaging the best of the past, and bringing that past into intimate and tangible contact with a forward-looking urban scheme. Tourists visiting such an area can feel that they are taking in some of the Region's history while still having access to the latest in modern amenities, and while still being in the heart of Vancouver. The location of Southeast False Creek takes advantage, as well, of Vancouver's beautiful natural situation:
Southeast False Creek has a lot going for it as a potential redevelopment site: it is quite large for an inner-city site (creating opportunities for a healthy mix of land uses and innovative community design) and
It is a challenging task to harmonize the operations of the resort and the branches among different cultures till one achieves a smooth operation. It will involve first understand the varying cultures and train the employees to understand the culture of the various people and keep training them each time a new employee joins the group.
Technology; with the ever changing technological world, there is need for every business sector to keep in step with the changes otherwise it be left out and behind. The technology should therefore be adjusted with the business objective in mind. The old and outdated infrastructure must be updated in any resort that wants to remain relevant in the market today. This technological update goes all the way to the training of the employees and the application of the same in general management. This intersects with the security system of every resort. The issue of…
Gerald Oliver, (2005). Top 10 Global Issues & Challenges in Hospitality for 2005. Retrieved
December 15, 2011 from http://www.hedna.org/pdf/EMEA_Newsletter_Dec_2004 -- Top_10_Global.pdf
Wang Jin Zhoa & Wang Jing, (2009). Issues, Challenges, and Trends, that Facing Hospitality
Industry. Management Science and Engineering ISSN 1913-0341 Vol.3 No.4 2009
Human esources Management in Hotel Hospitality
Hotel Industry Human esources Management
Human esource Management in the Hotel Hospitality Industry
Authors Frank Go and Mary Monachello (1996) note, "effective management of human resources is required in all functions of hospitality in order to cultivate teamwork and sustain a competitive edge" (Go and Monachello, 1996, p.8). Because good management rests on both knowledge of human resource management and skill to implement effective human resource strategies, it is essential that those in the hotel hospitality industry fully understand and implement strategies for good management in order for their hotel to succeed to its highest capability. The purpose of such management is based on the need for high performance level and dedication of hotel employees. Despite the various resources and supplies that a company may require, human resources is actually the most important resource because without a labor force, no business can be done…
Addicott, R., McGivern, G. And Ferlie, E. (2006). Networks, organizational learning and knowledge management. Public Money and Management. 26(2), pp. 87-94. Retrieved from: LexisNexis Database.
Anthony, R. And Young. (1999). Management control systems. Chicago, IL: McGraw-
Boxwell, R. (1994) Benchmarking for competitive advantage. New York, NY: McGraw-
AH&LA: ecent Lobbying Initiative
The American Hotel & Lodging Association (AH&LA) is a lobbying group which supports the interests of the hotel industry in congress as well as provides educational and professional resources for members. Networking is a critical aspect of surviving in hospitality and AH&LA offers numerous conferences throughout the year, during which its members can "exchange ideas, strategies, and contacts with industry leaders" as well as with one another ("Conventions and events," 2015). The AH&LA has supported a number of recent acts of legislation to protect the industry including the ADA Education and eform Act of 2015, H.. 3765.
According to the AH&LA, the ADA Education and eform Act of 2015, H.. 3765 addresses what it calls the "unseemly practice of 'drive-by' lawsuits ... by specifying clear, unambiguous rules for identifying and correcting ADA access violations before allowing litigation or a drawn-out settlement process" ("AH&LA applauds," 2015). The…
AH&LA applauds House introduction of legislation to strengthen the ADA, Stop 'drive-by'
lawsuits. (2015). AH&LA. Retrieved from: https://www.ahla.com/pressrelease.aspx?id=38348
Conventions and events. (2015). AH&LA. Retrieved from:
Knowledge Management Best Practices in Services Industries
The ability to stay on in step with customers' rapidly changing needs is only possible when a company completely commits itself to transforming data into information, while also capturing and using tacit and implicit knowledge. As this analysis will illustrate, data, information and knowledge are multifaceted and have many implications across the lifecycle of a business in general and customers specifically. Concentrating on how the data pertaining to customers can be optimized, this analysis concentrates on the Service Quality (SEVQUAL) methodology and metrics. SEVQUAL measures five dimensions of the customer experience including reliability, assurance, tangibles, empathy and responsiveness (Parasuraman, Zeithaml, Berry, 1985). While the scope of this analysis concentrates on SEVQUAL from the standpoint of capturing data, information and knowledge from a customer standpoint, there are many ancillary implications that also apply to the knowledge-based theory of firms as well. The use of…
Anders, P.N. (2006). Understanding dynamic capabilities through knowledge management. Journal of Knowledge Management, 10(4), 59-71.
Dyer, J.H., & Nobeoka, K. (2000). Creating and managing a high-performance knowledge-sharing network: The Toyota case. Strategic Management Journal, 21(3), 345-367.
Enz, C & Siguaw, J (2000). Best practices in service quality. Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, 41(5), 20-29.
Gao, F., Li, M., & Nakamori, Y. (2002). Systems thinking on knowledge and its management: Systems methodology for knowledge management. Journal of Knowledge Management, 6(1), 7-7.
Analyze the industry environment of Four Seasons Hotel
Industry lifecycle: The state of the Four Seasons Hotels
The lifecycle of an industry takes the form of four distinct stages: the introduction of the product or service, growth, maturity, and decline (Product life cycle, 2012, Tutor2U). The Four Seasons is one of the most venerable hotels in the marketplace today. It made significant gains in the 1990s when egent International hotel sold its hotels to the chain, giving the Four Seasons "an instantly expanded position in Pacific Asia, and also created the basis for expansion of the Four Seasons brand in Europe and Asia" (Go 1996). Even before this international acquisition, the Four Seasons was an international brand, and was particularly famous for its New York incarnation, where its food was considered to rival that of four and five star free-standing restaurants, which is highly unusual for a hotel.
Barnett, C. (2003). Traveling in style; what your money should buy at a deluxe hotel. Network Journal, 11(1), 58-58. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/222647916?accountid=10901
Clifford, Stephanie. (2011). Sales of luxury goods are recovering strongly. The New York Times.
Four Seasons Hotels. (2012). Official website. Retrieved: http://www.fourseasons.com/
In general, The itz-Carleton compares very favorably to other competitive hotels. The key differences are mostly that this particular hotel is willing to go above and beyond the call of duty to satisfy its customers and provide a memorable hotel/resort experience. These differences are demonstrated in a number of palpable ways which are largely anomalies within the hotel and travel industry. The sort of "service innovation" (Enz et al., 2010, p. 6) this chain propagates is noteworthy. A perfect example of this fact is The itz-Carlton's policy about employee expenditures in the line of duty. The hotel enables employees to spend as much as $2,000 on guest. Such a policy is largely unheard of in this industry, and is a valued exception for those guests that are able to enjoy its benefits. Additionally, most other comparable hotels expect their employees to tend to the needs of their customers. The…
Emerald Group Publishing. Delighted, returning customers: service the Ritz-Carlton way. Strategic Direction. 20(11), 7-9.
Enz, C. A., Verma, R., Walsh, K., Kimes, S. E., & Siguaw, J. (2010). Cases in innovative practices in hospitality and related services: Set 3. Cornell Hospitality Report. 10(10), 6-26.
It is important that human resources within the airline devise strategies to minimize the possible negative effects that union relations may have on the workforce.
There are several issues that have impacted the airline industry as a whole, and present implications for the human resources challenges discussed thus far. The first of these issues is a drastically changing workforce demographic within the airline industry. In particular the workforce is aging. Establishments in the air transportation industry have a significantly higher proportion of employees in the 45 to 54 and 55 to 64-year-old age ranges than other industries (Wallace & Gonzalez, 2005). Specifically, employees in the 45 to 54-year-old age group comprise approximately 35% of the whole workforce (Wallace & Gonzalez, 2005). On the contrary, workers in the 14 to 24-year-old category comprise only 4% of the workforce (Wallace & Gonzalez, 2005).
This issue presents human resources challenges with regards to…
Appelbaum, S.H., Fewster, B.M. (2004). Human resource management strategy in the global airline industry -- a focus on organizational development. Business Briefing: Aviation Strategies, 70-5.
CNN (2004). Outsourcing has yet to really penetrate the travel industry. Local Needs and travel infrastructure tends to require local people on the ground. CNN.com Retrieved 6/13/07 from http://edition.cnn.com/2004/TRAVEL/12/23/bt.outsource.airlines/index.html .
Grassi, D.M. (2005). Outsourcing airline safety may prove costly. MichNews.com.
Pratt, M.K. (2002). Contingent employees raise host of benefit questions. Boston Business Journal. Retrieved 6/13/07 from http://boston.bizjournals.com/boston/stories/2002/04/08 .
The Green Hotel Association (GHA) suggests using "printed towel rack hangers and sheet changing cards" in the bathroom of hotel rooms. The sign on the hanger mentions that guests do not have to have their linens changed (sheets, pillow cases) if they prefer not to; they can help the hotel save water -- in fact the GHA notifies the hotel guest that "millions of gallons of water are used to wash bed sheets" every day. So when the "sheet-changing card is left on the pillow, the room attendants" know to just make the bed but don't wash the sheets (Fostering Sustainable Behavior).
The obvious positive aspect of this is not just water savings but the electricity that it takes to heat the water and run the huge industrial clothes washing machines represents even more savings. There is no negative aspect to asking the room attendants to leave the same sheets…
Albright, Evan. The Book on Going Green. Raleigh, NC: LuLu.com. 2008.
Fostering Sustainable Behavior. "Energy and Water Reduction: 'Green' Hotels." Retrieved
February 22, 2012, from http://www.cbsm.com . 2010.
Walmsley, Andreas. "Hotels and Climate Change: Setting the Scene." In Trends and Issues in Global Tourism 2011, R. Conrady and M. Buck, Editors. New York: Springer.
A great deal of the work is unpaid or low-paid, with a heavy reliance on females and young labor and, in some countries, migrants. Most work is regarded as semi-skilled or unskilled, with some deskilling. Training is often basic, with firms tending to buy in skills from the labor market. A large number of workers communicate directly with customers, while others have a more indirect customer relationship.
Part-time and nontraditional employment is commonplace, and may be increasing among the different nations' interest in creating more flexible labor markets. Mobility is high, which leads to high labor turnover rates. ecruitment and retention is particularly problematic, particularly for managers where a lack of professionalism may impede business success in developing and transitional economies.
This book is a very thorough approach to employment relations and a number of different areas that a hospitality H person needs to consider in order to do his…
Lucas, R.E. (2003). Employment Relations in the Hospitality and Tourism Industries.: New York. Routledge.
Trends in the meeting/convention industry
There are a number of trends in the meeting/convention industry. The industry struggled with respect to demand during the recession from 2008 onwards. hile there are some signs of recovery, the growth in the industry remains sluggish (Chen, 2012). This slow recovery is a problem, given that in 2008 at the beginning of the recession, there was a high likelihood that the industry was already suffering from overcapacity (Detlefsen & Vetter, 2008).
The rapid growth in the number of convention centers in the United States in particular has resulted in overcapacity, and this has increased the intensity of competition in the business (Davidson, 2008). The competition is necessary, because convention capacity is a perishable good -- a day of sitting empty is revenue that is lost forever, and fixed costs are still being incurred. This drives a high level of price competition in particular,…
Braley, S. (2012). Top 10 meeting trends. Meetings & Conventions. Retrieved May 14, 2013 from http://www.meetings-conventions.com/articles/top-10-meeting-trends/c46562.aspx
Chen, T. (2012). Convention industry is on slow road to recovery. AZ Central. Retrieved May 14, 2013 from http://www.azcentral.com/business/articles/2012/04/05/20120405phoenix-convention-industry-slow-road-recovery.html?nclick_check=1
Davidson, R. (2008). Conference trends. ICCA. Retrieved May 14, 2013 from http://www.iccaworld.com/cnt/docs/RobDavidson_IndustryTrends.pdf
Detlefsen, H. & Vetter, N. (2008). Convention centers: Is the industry overbuilt? HVS. Retrieved May 14, 2013 from http://www.hvs.com/Content/2504.pdf
Given that the new product would be manufactured using better, but more expensive technologies that protect the environment, Shaw Industries' target market would have to simultaneously meet the following criteria:
present an increased interest towards preserving the environment possess sufficient financial resources in order to afford the higher prices of the products manufactured using superior technologies.
In this order of ideas, Shaw Industries' target market is formed of both American citizens as well as foreigners, with ages between 25 and 65 and who register above medium incomes. The age limit is imposed by the belief that the population younger than 25 rarely possesses their own houses, shows reduced interest in carpets and does not possess sufficient financial resources to afford the relatively high prices of the new carpets. On the other hand, the retired population generally spends their pension money on medicines or journey around the world and…
Carlton, D.L., 2004, Shaw Industries: A history, Journal of Southern History, Volume 70
Patton, R.L., 2002, Shaw Industries: A History, Business and Economics
2007, Shaw Industries, Inc., Design Biz, http://www.designbiz.com/net/BrandCompany.asp?CompanyID=62913,last accessed on November 14, 2007
2007, Shaw Industries Website, http://www.shawfloors.com/,last accessed on November 14, 2007
Environmental Trends Impacting
Blogging and User-Generated Content Industries
The proliferation of blogging platforms and applications that are textually, graphically and video-based together reflect the design criterion and objectives originally defined in the Web 2.0 taxonomy created by Tim O'eilly CEO and Founder of O'eilly Media. Based on an egalitarian framework of collaboration and communication, Web 2.0 has since become the foundation of many of the blogging and social media platforms dominating the typical Internet user's hours online today (Bernoff, Li, 2008). Figure 1 provides a graphic representation of the Web 2.0 Meme Map as originally designed by Tom O'eilly and John Battelle (O'eilly, 2006). Web 2.0 continues to be the primary catalyst of the greater opportunities and threats to consumer-generated content.
Figure 1: Web 2.0 Meme Map
Source: (O'eilly, 2006)
Central to the concept of Web 2.0 technologies is that the Web is a platform not just for…
Bernoff, J., & Li, C. (2008). Harnessing the power of the oh-so-social web. MIT Sloan Management Review, 49(3), 36-42.
Carr, D.F. (2011). Klout-like tool lets employees rate each other. InformationWeek - Online, (19383371), n/a.
Davidson, E., & Vaast, E. (2009). Tech talk: An investigation of blogging in technology innovation discourse. IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication, 52(1), 40.
Griffith, E. (2011, Getting your Klout out. Adweek, 52(19), 15-15.
High-road competition focuses on service quality (Working for America Institute 2004), which means developing property in prime locations and the regular upkeep and upgrade of property. Hotels using high-road competition charge high room rates but provide top-class amenities, satisfying customer service and on-site attractions, such as restaurants, lounges, conference sites, gift shops and concierge service to attract customers and incline them to spend. Upper segments are likelier to engage in high-road competition and lower segments, in low-road competition. Hotels in the limited-service segments must differentiate themselves from low-cost providers by offering better service, while upper-upscale and upscale hotels must reduce costs to increase or maximize profit (Working for America Institute). The amount and quality of service in the upper segments allow them to charge higher prices and to directly reward investment.
The high-road strategy may, however, not be conducive to the level of productivity that owners and managers would want,…
Hospitality Online. Hyatt Hotel Corporation. Property Portfolio, 2004. http://profiles.hospitalityonline.com/20920/properties.html
Corporate Profile, 2004. http://profiles.hospitalityonline.com/209120.html
MKG Consulting. MKG Presents the Worldwide Ranking of Hotel Groups - Worldwide Supply of Hotel Groups Grows by 3% in 2001. Hospitality.Net, 2004. http://www.hospitalitynet.org/news/4012180
Worldwide Supply of Hotel Groups - a Total of 5 Million Rooms, Up by 1.9% in 2002. Hospitality Job Resource, 2004. http://www.hoteljobresource.com/menu/article6450.html
Role of Conferences in the trategic Development of the Hotel Industry
Case tudy of Five tar Hotels in Jordan
Jordan has a rich cultural and archaeological patrimony. Many natural wonders and a particularly welcoming people make tourism a natural resource and vehicle for Jordan's economy.
Conversely, the Jordan tourism industry has demonstrated poor performance in past few years relative to the volatile political situation in the region.
Analyzing both the natural potential for success and the historical evidence for failure within Jordan's tourism industry through scientific research methodology may well provide viable alternatives to current widely held practices and beliefs.
This study will delve into the specific revenue producing areas of developing conferences in Jordan, how to conduct them, facility use and maximization, and the issues that surround successful delivery of this medium. This thesis will also provide data on the means of offering the world a safe, beautiful, and…
Swan TW, 'Economic Growth and Capital Accumulation', Economic Record, 32, 1956.
Tourism Forecasting Council, Forecast, Commonwealth Department of Tourism, August 1994.
Wilcox DA, 'Lessons for Tourism Industries from the 1984 Olympics at Los Angeles' A Report by Economics Research Associates to THC'94, 1994
EHL International Hospitality program is for me the perfect opportunity to use my assets and talents. I will briefly describe some of them in the lines here below and discuss a little why EHL would make an excellent choice in selecting me for the EHL community.
A currently live in an ever expanding market, with enormous future possibilities for the tourism industry. Indeed, Russia has a large population, encouraging economic prospects and a cultural heritage that makes a trip to Russia worthwhile. However, Russia is no longer prepared for this challenge. There is a shortage of hotels and specialists in the tourism industry and a high demand for well trained personnel. I believe that I could be one of the well prepared specialists that could work in the Russian tourism and hotel industry and the EHL program could be a huge step forward in achieving my goal.
There are many…