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Their brains reflect the major centers that control these functions. The human brain is over and above those animals, such as advanced cognitive skills.
hat about the mathematical and scientific abilities of the geniuses? Do their unsurpassed talents have something to do with their brain development? Some studies say that the capacity of learning is greatest when we are young, and as we grow older, it diminishes. Various results of studies suggest that the mathematical abilities result from the integration of two non-numerical circuits in the brain. It is said that the left frontal lobe of the brain controls the linguistic representations of exact numerical values. The other involves the parietal lobes, which is responsible in the control of visuospatial representations of approximate quantities. These lobes are part of the neural circuit that also controls hand shapes and finger movements. There is a possibility that these brain regions contribute to…
Discovery Channel (September, 2007). "Development >> How Does the brain develop?" http://dsc.discovery.com/video/player.html?bctid=16927418,Retrieved12 Apr 2008.
Enchanted Learning. (2008). "The Brain." http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/anatomy/brain/index.shtml . Retrieved10 Apr 2008.
Gloria Lau. "Keep Your Brain Active." Media News and Journal (2007). Investor's Business
Daily, 05 June 2007. http://www.bookrags.com/news/keep-your-brain-active-moc/.Retrieved10 Apr 2008.
One of the most complex organs in the universe, the human brain, continues to be a scientific mystery. In vertebrate and most invertebrate animals, the brain is the central aspect of the nervous system. The brain can be simple, as in some insects, or extremely complex, as in the human brain which can encompass anywhere from 15-33 billion neurons linked with 10,000 or more synaptic connections. The brain is the control and interpretive mechanism for the senses -- vision, hearing, balance, taste, and smell. The brain also controls other body systems and organs with the release of chemicals allowing a more centralized, and often speedier, coordinated response to environmental stimuli. In vertebrates the spinal cord is the communication track that links the brain with the rest of the body. And, while scientific progress in many other areas of human physiology has been rapid over the past few decades,…
Black, J.a., et.al. (1995). In the Axon. Oxford University Press.
Carlson, B. (2008). Human Embryology and Developmental Biology. Mosby.
Carter, Rita. (2009). The Human Brain Book. DK Adult Books.
"DNA from the Beginning." (2007). Dolan DNA Learning Center. Cited in:
The frontal lobes rely on processing of internal information, including memories, in order to guide behavior, while the parietal lobes specialize in processing of externally-based sensory information, in order to guide behavior. Both sources of information are needed to self-regulate one's own behaviors but internal mnemonic sources are crucial to resist enslavement to external and salient events (p. 72)."
While McNamara has explained the technical functions taking place in the hippocampus, he ends his explanation above by helping us understand, in short, the hippocampus is our "self-regulation" of our behavior, or our personality (p. 72). It is how we, or others, might describe us.
Injury or disease can interrupt or alter the processes taking place between the frontal systems and the posterior parietal systems, and since the frontal lobes rely on processing information, including memories, damage can result in how that information is processed and can impact, of course, the…
http://www.questia.com /PM.qst?a=o&d=5002533602' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Challenges Faced in Inventing Computers
Many scientists who tried to come up with computers functioning like the human brain have encountered several challenges that void their efforts. Their intentions have always been to come up with a highly intelligent device that can store data, but that can facilitate easy retrieval (Risinger, 2015). As a result, the mechanical computer created by Charles Babbage cannot resemble computers used today because it was highly ineffective and heavy. The word ‘computer’ was used for the first time in 1613 to refer to individuals who could perform calculations and computations. Therefore, computers were intended to do the same function with significant ease. However, the proper path of development was hampered by some challenges such as lack of funds, difficulty in searching for resources to create computers, and eh ineffectiveness of the early computers among others. The challenges almost stalled the whole process of developing computers.…
Nigon, K. (2013). Advanced specification Drafting Issues: Electronic and Computer Inventions Part II. Computer and Internet Lawyer, 30(5), 7-20.
Risinger, C.F. (2015). Teaching about How Inventions and technology have Changed U.S. History. Social Education, 79(2), 115-116.
Swanson, R.D. (2012). Section 101 and Computer-Implemented Inventions. Stanford Technology Law review, 1(1), 161-187.
Left Brain, ight Brain
The human brain is one of the most complex organs of the body. In vertebrate animals, it is the central focus of the neural system and is responsible for the control and interpretation of the senses = of vision, bearing taste and balance. The brain helps us maintain balance, allows us to think past the "now," and to positive probably futures and ways of reaching that goal. Using complex chemical messages called neurotransmitters, part of the brain also controls a more central, sometimes speedier, coordinated response to the environment (breathing, sweating, itching, etc., Yet, while in the last several decades, we know more and more about the universe, the deepest parts of the ocean, and other scientific phenomena than we do about the complex nature of the brain. The brain itself is quite complex; consisting of six major regions, but needs constantly creative reinforcement or it…
Naaten, R. (1999). Attention and Brain Function. New York: Lawrence Erlbaum.
MacNeilage, P. (June 2009). Evolutionary Origins of Your Right and Left Brain.
Scientific American. Retrieved from:
(Thompson, Clive, Sept. 25, 2007).
Following are the reviews of few people on this article, "That is so true. I can no longer separate the internet from my own brain. I don't know if that's a "good thing" or not. I even link URL's together in my sleep. As far as network surveillance goes...I hope that everything I've done HAS been recorded somewhere. If it has, it's been a great service to humanity. If not, it's been a lot of time wasted" (Unknown, October 22, 2007). "If you go to pay in cash for anything nowadays, the cashiers get flustered, say for example, you give them $11.35 for a $6.35 purchase. They have to try to figure it out the old fashioned way, not rely on what the computer states as change. Most younger cashiers get frustrated with this, and at times can't do it. I always told my children…
Thompson, Clive. "Your Outboard Brain Knows All" Monarch October 22, 2007 http://www.godlikeproductions.com/bbs/message.php?messageid=452943.It's a tremendous article about biotechnology and human brain. Author have explained in this article about how the modern technology is making human lives easier but human's especially younger generation are relying so much on it which can effect them.
Lindsey. "Our We Losing Our Minds?" Lindsey Thoughts September 30, 2007 http://lindsey-lindseysthoughts.blogspot.com/2007_09_01_archive.html . In this review the author is totally opposed from the article. She has written that if a human is using some kind of technology than dose it means that they are lazy?
Fallibility of Memory
The human brain is an amazing thing. Scientists argue that every experience we have ever had is located within the brain as a memory, even ones we are not aware that we have. Memory is something which dominates a person's life. Both the good and bad memories will likely influence such wide-ranging things as decision-making, relationships with other people, and even modification of our personality. Some memories are easily retrieved from the subconscious and others bury themselves deep, so deep that they cannot be accessed. However, memory is completely imperfect. The way a person remembers a situation, a conversation, or even how they remember another person will not necessarily be an exact duplication of the thing itself. The human memory can be modified by different factors so that what we believe to have happened is not what did occur.
Researcher Jonah Lehrer conducted research into this topic…
Brayton, Ed. "The Fallibility of Human Memory," 2012. Print.
Lehrer Jonah. "How Friends Ruin Memory: the Social Conformity Effect." Wired. 2011, Print.
Artificial intelligence has been at the center of many science fiction stories in the last fifty years. Some have become obsessed with proving or disproving the idea that computers can possess real minds, real consciousness. The latest take on this has been HBO's Westworld, a show about androids achieving consciousness. However, realistically many say this is an impossibility. While true artificial intelligence seems, unrealistic many have tried to actualize such a dream through AI projects and development of new, robotic technologies. However, will the goal of real consciousness derived from artificial intelligence be achieved in the future? Will humanity ever possess the technology and understanding to cultivate life from machine?
In "The Library of Toshiba" the chapter opens up with a quote from John Maynard Smith. He shares the notion that humans are just programmed robots designed to keep their genes going through copulation and breeding. Humans are after all,…
Human and Machine Intelligence
The similarities and differences between human and machine intelligence doesn't seem to be the most important issue. It seems clear that both have been shown to exist, though they have very fundamentally different characteristics. The issue now centers more on supremacy: Is one better, more authoritative than the other? And if so, does this influence whether a "superintelligence" (Bostrom, 2003) exists that takes us to the paradigm when words (Zadeh, 2009) and emotions are most important (Dennett, Chapter 16)?
The early writings about projects like the Turing test tried to explain intelligence as being some kind of understanding about knowledge and its function. They often used simple conceptualizations similar to the way computers use the characters of "1" and "0" as a mathematical language. Philosophers use this approach to speculate about how a logical person might be able to "see" one color by itself, independent of…
Block, N. (____). The mind as the software of the brain. Chapter 14.
Bostrom, N. (2003). Creating Superintelligence involves less risk than waiting. In S. Engdahl, Artificial Intelligence. Green Press: Detroit.
Can a Machine Think? Chapter 5.
Chatham, C. (2011). 10 important differences between brains and computers. Developing Intelligence [over time, across species, cross-platform]. Viewable at http://scienceblogs.com/developingintelligence/2007/03/why_the_brain_is_not_like_a_co.php .
hen the behavior is followed by a favorable consequence, the behavior is more likely to recur over and over. However, if the behavior is followed by a negative consequence or a painful consequence, then the behavior is less like to happen again.
The third type of learning is Motor Learning. Carlson says that motor learning is "the establishment of changes within the motor system." (433). He claims that this type of learning is a component of the stimulus-response type of learning. However, this type of learning must involve some form of sensory guidance from the environment and it elicits a reaction from the body.
Finally, the fourth type of learning that Carlson describes is Relational Learning. This is the most complex type of learning and it "involves learning the relationship among individual stimuli." (431) Relational Learning involves spatial learning which is the actual process of identifying similarities and differences among…
Carlson, Neil. Physiology of Behavior, Ninth Edition. Published by Allyn and Bacon in Institute of Perceptual Learning. How Perceptual Learning Works. Retrieved on December 10, 2009 from http://www.perceptuallearning.com/plearn.php.
Motor Teaching and Motor Learning. Retrieved December 10, 209 from http://moon.ouhsc.edu/dthompso/mtrlrng/mtrlrng.htm
Lauren Slater's (2005) article "Who holds the clicker?," Susan Blackmore's excerpt "Strange Creatures" -- taken from her book The Meme Machine, and Alain De Botton's chapter "On Habit" from his book The Art of Travel are very different pieces that all challenge the idea of the self in human kind. Is there a self? Or are we all controlled by things outside of our control? While science may be able to find ways of changing or enhancing our bodies, and though there may be some truth in the idea that our genes don't allow us to have complete free will over our selves, we cannot deny that most humans believe that there is something inside each and every one of us that gives us a purpose on this earth. Whether manipulated by a remote control clicker or partially-governed by memes, the fact that we are able to challenge…
Blackmore, S. (2003). Strange creatures. Extract from The meme machine. Accessed on 8
De Botton, A. (2004). On habit. From The art of travel. Vintage.
It is not startling that some remarkable variation exists between the great apes as well as humans with regard to mental capabilities. Humans possess a lot higher intricate types of verbal communications compared to any other primates. Humans are the sole animal to make and apply symbols as a way to communicate with each other. Humans also have diverse as well as complex forms of social organizations compared to that of the other nonhuman primates. The most unique characteristic of humans lies in human mental capability to build novel ideas as well as intricate technologies. This has been considered to be important in the fight for endurance. (O'Neil 2007)
Further, the relatively negligible structural variations among humans and apes are generally an outcome of regular bipedalism observed in human beings. Quite a number of alterations in human bodies were linked to the growth of this type of locomotion. As opposed…
Berg, Kate; Bonham, Vence; Boyer, Joy; Brody, Larry; Brooks, Lisa; Collins, Francis;
Guttmacher, Alan; McEwen, Jean; Muenke, Max; Olson, Steve; Wang, Vivian Ota; Rodriguez, Laura Lyman; Vydelingum, Nadarajen; Warshauer-Baker, Esther. 2005, 'The Use of Racial, Ethnic, and Ancestral Categories in Human Genetics Research', American Journal of Human Genetics, vol. 77, no. 4, pp: 519-532.
Bethesda, MD. 2006, 'Present-Day Non-Human Primates May Be Linchpin in Evolution of Language' Terra Daily. 25 Jul., p. 4
British Union for the Abolition of Vivisection, 2007, the Zero option, Available at http://www.buav.org/campaigns/primates/zerooption.html
However, the most important area in terms of the connection between brain development and adolescent delinquency seems to be the prefrontal cortex, located immediately behind the forehead. In many respects, the prefrontal cortex is the "control center" of the human brain because it is substantially responsible for planning, mood modulation, organization, and working memory.
he fact that the prefrontal cortex is not fully developed in adolescence becomes critically important when the adolescent brain is simultaneously flooded by sex hormones during puberty. Especially among males, the combination of an underdeveloped prefrontal cortex with highly elevated levels of testosterone typically results in moodiness, short-temperedness, aggression, the need to exhibit social status and dominance, and rage as response to frustration, conflict, and disappointment. Naturally, there are many other factors that contribute to adolescent behavior. Whereas all teenagers experience the same types of brain development patterns and hormonal surges, not all teenagers necessarily exhibit…
The fact that the prefrontal cortex is not fully developed in adolescence becomes critically important when the adolescent brain is simultaneously flooded by sex hormones during puberty. Especially among males, the combination of an underdeveloped prefrontal cortex with highly elevated levels of testosterone typically results in moodiness, short-temperedness, aggression, the need to exhibit social status and dominance, and rage as response to frustration, conflict, and disappointment. Naturally, there are many other factors that contribute to adolescent behavior. Whereas all teenagers experience the same types of brain development patterns and hormonal surges, not all teenagers necessarily exhibit delinquent tendencies. Brain development and hormones are only two contributing factors.
Gerrig, R.J. And Zimbardo, P.G. (2009) Psychology and Life. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Robert Bly also speaks about the "three brains" of man, but unlike in the more scientific description above, he calls them the reptilian, the mammalian, and the new brain, in order to have them correspond better to our evolution stages thus, in a way, building upon MacLean's ideas. According to Bly, the first brain is "cold and ruthless" and deals with survival issues. he mammalian part deals with comforts such as family, friends, relationships, belonging, society, religion, home, etc.
he "new" brain is "very thin, incredibly dense" and is basically a "cellular layer surrounding the rest of the brain," according to Bly. his, according to scientists, has "no purpose." Bly states that "it deals with transcendence and grows on miserly." Just as in the description above, in Bly's description all brain exist simultaneous but shrink or grow, depending upon where energy is focused. For example, each can control energy, and…
The New Dawn: The More You Know It, the Less You Know It. (2011). OSHO Library. Retrieved October 4, 2011, from .
The New Dawn: The More You Know It, the Less You Know It. (2011). OSHO
Library. Retrieved October 4, 2011, from .
In real time, the elements occur all at once, thus the rules of language are independent of meaning. A sentence can be grammatical but meaningless, or meaningless but grammatical. Syntax, although it varies from language to language, is what makes language uniquely 'human,' no other animal species uses syntax in its communication system. No matter how different our language systems may seem to one another, all human language systems are more similar to one another than to animal systems of communication. Animals do not communicate on a conceptual level, and their language exists only in time. Human language can convey absence, like the fact there is 'no giraffe next to me,' and people who know a language can figure out the meaning of new words by the place of the word and the meaning of other words in a sentence. Language also changes and grows over time, and within the…
Marian Diamond addressed the nature vs. nurture issue so long debated by researchers and scientists by actually observing the effects of living in different environments on young rats. The beginnings of her research with Donald Head occurred in the 1960's, a time when the brain was not viewed as plastic. When presenting the results of their early research demonstrating a small but significant thicker cerebral cortex in rats raised in enriched environments vs. rats raised in impoverished environments she was actually told, "Young lady, that brain cannot change" (Diamond and Hobson, 1998-page 8). Nonetheless, Diamond believed the neurological basis that the environment provided for brain enrichment is the spreading of dendritic spines in the neuron as a result of environmental stimulation (Diamond and Hobson, 1998-page 25). In fact, research from her lab along with other researchers found that even honey bees' brains responded to environmental stimulation. Based on the…
Diamond, M.C., and Hopson, J., 1998: Magic Trees of the Mind: How to Nurture Your Child's
Intelligence, Creativity, and Healthy Emotions from Birth Through Adolescence, Dutton,
The topic of sleep and dreaming is interesting to me because of the complex nature of the brain. It seems we know so much about human physiology, yet the brain is still mysterious. e know about neurochemicals, for instance, but do not really understand how memory is stored, accessed, or how dreaming affects our abilities during waking life. e know that a chemical upset, even minor, can make a huge difference in our state of consciousness, or our ability to perform in daily activities. Dreaming is fascinating to me because we know that the brain is a machine, and like any machine, it must be maintained (through nutrition) as well as rest and sleep. I find it personally interesting that dreams can be so vivid, unreal, frightening, pleasurable, and yet still mysterious.
Dreaming is part of sleep -- and a recurring stage in which our state of consciousness is…
Obringer, L. (2012, October). How Dreams Work. Retrieved from How Stuff Works: http://science.howstuffworks.com/environmental/life/inside-the-mind/human-brain/dream3.htm
Osterweil, N. (2010). The Health Benefit of Dreams. WebMD. Retrieved from: http://www.webmd.com/mental-health/features/the-health-benefits-of-dreams
Zhang, J 2004, Memory Process and the Function of Sleep, Journal of Theoretics, 6 (4): 14-21.
Brain Might Contextual
The information we receive from the surrounding is analyzed in different areas in the brain. These areas are interconnected. Visual impulses reach the occipital lobe in the brain from where they are carried to the somatosensory are in the parietal lobe. The parietal lobe also receives sensory information from other areas of the brain. These stimuli are integrated and stored. The stored information is used to reason similar stimuli in the future. This creates a quicker response in recognition. This theory is consistent to the top down process created by ichard Gregory.
The brain is a complex body organ consisting of two cerebral hemispheres, two cerebellums and a brain stem. The brain stem is a continuation of the spinal cord. It consists of the mid brain, pons and medulla. The brain is made up of complex neurons that transmit impulses to other body organs. These impulses help…
Dewey, R. (2007). Top down and bottom up processing. Retrieved from http://serendip.brynmawr.edu/bb/kinser/Structure1.html
Hamilton, K.E. (2001). Sensation and perception. Retrieved from http://webhome.idirect.com/~kehamilt/psy2.html
Kavanagh, P. (n.d.). Top down processing in vision. Retrieved from http://www.visionlab.harvard.edu/members/patrick/pdf.files/topdownmitecs.pdf
Serendip. (2005, June 3). Brain structures and their functions. Retrieved from
Human biological, social, and cognitive evolution has depended on food. That much seems obvious, but what is less obvious is the specific ways that first fire, and then agriculture, and then the combination of advanced cooking and food preservation methods have contributed to the quality of the human brain and the efficacy of the human body. Even at its most basic, cooking transforms the available nutrients in plants, and renders some otherwise inedible plants both edible/nonpoisonous or better able to provide bioavailable nutrients. Even just sticking plants and animal parts into a fire and waiting for a transformation to take place fueled human biological evolution because "cooking made available to our ancestors unprecedented nutrients that fueled brain growth over time, and reduced the need for energy-expensive chewing of tough foods," (King). Bioavailability increases from just 30 to 40% of nutrients in raw plants to a full hundred percent (Mott). Cooking…
Adler, J. (2013). Why fire makes us human. Smithsonian Magazine. Retrieved online: http://www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/why-fire-makes-us-human-72989884/
King, Barbara. "Cooking Or Slicing Food: What Drove Early Human Evolution?" NPR. Retrieved online: http://www.npr.org/sections/13.7/2016/03/17/470784072/cooking-or-slicing-food-what-drove-early-human-evolution
Mott, Nicholas. "What Makes Us Human?" National Geographic. 26 Oct, 2012. Retrieved online: http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2012/10/121026-human-cooking-evolution-raw-food-health-science/
Managers from three different HR departments (from three separate companies) were interviewed concerning the management, job duties and focus of their respective HR departments. A summary of each of their responses is included below.
All three companies look to hire experienced HR personnel and then require them to attend training courses. In addition to outside courses, both the second and the third companies required their HR personnel to attend conferences and in-house sessions as well.
The first company's ROI is determined by calculating the average length of employment and the company turnover rate. The average cost per hire is not calculated by the first or the second company and although the third company does not specifically calculate the average cost per hire they do have a focus on retention due to the cost of hiring new employees.
Each company presented different answers in regards to trends effecting their…
Human esources Management Employee Attitudes and Job Satisfaction
The research by Saari & Judge (2004) does lay the foundation of three specific gaps between the Human esources practice and the scientific research that support theories that provide insight onto how to properly integrate workers into a workforce to meet organizational goals and the mission. The gaps outlined by Sarri & Judge are below.
The Causes of Employee Attitudes
The esults of Positive or Negative Job Satisfaction
How To Measure and Influence Employee Attitude
The Causes of Employee Attitudes are a subdivided into core categories including Dispositional Influences, Cultural Influences, Work Situation Influences. The gaps are a function of these categories as the real job work environment is subject to differentiation and variation from the underlying theory. "In addition, one of the most important areas of the work situation to influence job satisfaction -- the work itself -- is often overlooked…
Sarri L.M., Judge T.A. (2004) "Employee Attitudes and Job Satisfaction" Human Resource Management Vol. 43, No. 4, Pp. 395-407. Wiley Periodicals.
" This allows the palm of the hand to go either up or down when in motion. The radius and the ulna connect with the bones which that are attached to the wrist and hand.
The thumbs of the human hand make it possible for the hand to lift and carry objects. The movement of the human hand is due to evolutionary development of bipedalism. The human hand consists of twenty seven bones. The wrist has cube shaped bones placed in rows of two or four each. The palm of the hand consists of bones called the carpals. hen lifting a glass of water the striated muscle pulls the radius and ulna allowing the arm to reach for the glass. The flexor muscles in the hand and fingers are used to flex the fingers around the glass making it possible to grip. The flexors which are located near the elbow…
"sliding filament theory." A Dictionary of Biology. 2004. Feb 13, 2010.
Another psychological approach studied the physical basis for emotion. LeDoux (1995, p. 209+) noted, "Scientists concerned with human nature have not been able to reach a consensus about what emotion is and what place emotion should have in a theory of mind and behavior." He proposed, however, that "findings about the neural basis of emotion might also suggest new insights into the functional organization of emotion that were not apparent from psychological findings alone. The brain, in other words, can constrain and inform our ideas about the nature of emotion." This would seem to play into any discussion of genetics vs. culture as emotion is viewed, accurately or not, as a construct of societal norms in large part. Because fear is a common part of human life, LeDoux uses it to investigate his theories. "The expression of fear is conserved to a large extent across human cultures and at least…
Moore, J. (2002). Some thoughts on the relation between behavior analysis and behavioral neuroscience. The Psychological Record, 52(3), 261+. Retrieved November 19, 2004, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com .
Suh, Eunkook M. 2002. Cultural influences on personality. Annual Review of Psychology;
Retrieved November 19, 2004 from Highbeam database, http://www.highbeam.com .
Twin Studies and the Acquisition of Human Intelligence
The question of nature vs. nurture has been a topic of conversation, a hotly debated issue and reason for researchers to gather copious amounts of material for thousands of years. Philosophers discussed whether a child was mainly constructed of inborn (nature) or learned/observed traits (nurture) before Alexander the Great had conquered anything. Nature refers what is commonly called genetics today; nurture, conversely, is what an individual picks up from the environment. Many have been in one camp or another, but only recently have scientists had the ability to truly assess which is more correct.
One facet of this study, that of intelligence, may be the single greatest issue of discussion among scientists and lay persons. Intelligence as nature has taken a beating in the public arena due to such publications as "The Bell Curve." Many did not appreciate the findings,…
Collins, W.A., Maccoby, E.E., Steinberg, L., Hetherington, E.M., and Bornstein, M.H., 2000. Contemporary research on parenting: The case for nature and nurture. American Psychologist, 55(2). pp. 218-232.
Farber, S.L., 1981. Identical twins reared apart: A reanalysis. New York: Basic Books.
Gander, E., 2003. On our minds: How evolutionary psychology is reshaping the nature- versus-nurture debate. Baltimore, MD: John Hopkins University Press.
Mackintosh, N.J., 1998. IQ and human intelligence. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
The brain can be understood in terms of its lobe-like structures, or it can be mapped out according to the regions that seem to dictate and influence certain behaviors and processes. The three major areas of the brain in this schema are the motor areas, the sensory areas, and the association areas, though in reality almost all human functions and behaviors involve interactions between these areas. Interestingly, large and imprecise movements have been found to originate in a very small space of the motor areas, whereas more precise yet much smaller movements require large brain areas. The sensory area consists of three composite areas -- the somatosensory area, the auditory area, and the visual area.
The association areas of the brain are believed to control higher-level thinking and processes that regulate behavior in a larger sense, such as turning Phineas Gage from a hardworking and responsible…
Hewett (2006) stated Locke believed that merely facts from abstract ideas are eternal "as the existence of things is to be known only from experience," this moreover emphasize his line of reasoning that related to morality for he added that "the truth and certainty of moral discourses abstracts from the lives of men, and the existence of those values in the world, whereof they treat." Locke believed in inquiring everything and denying the authority either of the past or of the clergy for he desired everyone to depend on their own judgment and reasoning which is exactly the he created an contention to defend believing in God, and made sure to rebut the thought that reason is different to faith, saying that faith can never sway us of anything that opposes our knowledge and disagreeing that, apart from in the instance of divine revelation, people must constantly look first…
Binga, T. (2000). Voltaire. Retrieved on March 19, 2009, from Council for Secular Humanism: http://www.secularhumanism.org/index.php?section=hall_of_fame&page=voltaire
Hewett, C. (2006). The Life of Voltaire. Retrieved on March 19, 2009, from the Great Debate:
Hewett, C. (2006). John Locke's Theory of Knowledge. Retrieved on March 19, 2009, from the Great Debate: http://thegreatdebate.org.uk/LockeEpistem.html
This showed not only the mapping of the brain that was possible -- that is, the association of certain specific areas of the brain with certain function and/or sensations from certain parts of the body -- but also that the adult brain was capable of changing in response to new stimulation. This finding was taken to new heights by Dr. amachandran, whose work with amputees and mirrors showed how profound the brain's malleability can really be (amachandran 2007). As he describes in his lecture, many amputees experienced phantom limbs (as well as other organs), and a significant number of these had phantom pain due to a "paralyzed" phantom limb. With the simple use of a mirror, Dr. amachandran's patients were able to trick their brains into thinking the reflection of their healthy limb was in fact their phantom limb, alleviating the perceived paralysis and pain, and eventually (for some) even…
Ramachandran, V. (2007). "Ramachandran on your mind." Accessed 30 July 2009. http://www.ted.com/talks/lang/eng/vilayanur_ramachandran_on_your_mind.html
Schwartz, J. & Begley, S. (2002). The Mind & The Brain: Neuroplasticity and the Power of Mental Force. New York, NY: Harper Perennial.
This tested their temporal memory. Additionally, subjects were asked whether or not the test stimuli and the study stimuli were the same or different in location, which tested their spatial memory organization. Interference and non-interference tasks were combined with the memory tasks. The study showed that while memory for temporal information was impaired by some interference tasks, the spatial organization task was not. The conclusion of the data supported the idea that temporal and spatial memory organization are different, in that each task is made more difficult through the use of different interference. This data suggests that the memory organizational structures are different (Halbig, 1998).
Another study by Smith (2001) showed similar results, using brain imaging information. In this study, subjects were asked to perform a memory tasks while simultaneously verifying equations. While the subjects performed the tasks, positron emission tomography scans were taken. When the two tasks were done…
Westen, D. (2002). Psychology. Boston, M.A.: Boston University.
Wilson, B.A., Clare, L., Young, A.W., Hodges, J.R. (1997). Knowing where and knowing what: a double dissociation. Cortex, 33, 529-541.
Halbig, T., Mecklinger, A. Schriefers, H.J. And Friederici, A.D. (1998). Double dissociation in the processing of temporal and spatial information in working memory of intact human subjects. Neuropsychologia, 36 (4), 305-312.
Smith, E.E., Jonides, G.A., Miller, A. Reuter-lorenz, P., Koeppe, R.A. (2001). The neural basis of task switching in working memory: effects of performance and aging. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 98, 2095-2100.
This bill was sent to the U.S. Senate and set for vote mirroring a bill previously passed by the House during the Summer of 2003 which failed to pass the Senate because of vehement disagreement that was even "within the parties over the prohibition of therapeutic cloning.(National Legislation Concerning Human and Reproductive Cloning, 2004; paraphrased) As of the date of the report on legislation eight U.S. states had passed laws that explicitly prohibited reproductive cloning using human embryos and another five U.S. states have placed a prohibition on cloning for any purpose whatsoever with 22 other U.S. states introducing bills outlawing the reproductive cloning of humans. (Ibid; paraphrased) Patenting laws for genetics allow inventors to patent genetics but only specific genetic factors may be patented and inventors are required to:
1) Identify novel genetic sequences;
2) Specify the sequence's product, 3) Specify how the product functions in nature --i.e. its…
O'Connor, Sean M. (nd) Intellectual Property Rights and Stem Cell Research: Who Owns the Medical Breakthroughs?
Kadereit, Suzanne & Hines, Pamela J. (nd) Overview of Stem Cell Research New England Law Journal 2005 Mar 28. Online available at http://www.nesl.edu/lawrev/vol39/3/13%20Kadereit%20Final.pdf .
Chadwick, Ruth et al. (2004)HUGO Ethics Committee Statement of Stem Cells (2004) November
Legal Protection of Digital Information (2006) Chapter 5: Software-Based Inventions Online available at:. http://digital-law-online.info/lpdi1.0/treatise63.html
Music on Brain and Emotions
The Effect of Music on the Brain and Emotions
The study of human's mental state on subjection to music has been a research subject to many with interest. Over the past decade, interconnection between human's physical and mental strength and music has been subject to research with a number of positive outcomes. These research endeavors suggest that music exhibits the healing power in certain elements, in a human's life. A sample of music with the best or strongest healing power is the Indian music. What music does is that it injects a calming effect into a human's mind. This speeds recovery-time of certain health ailments. Music positively effects the human's hormone system allowing easy brain concentration and information assimilation (Adalarasu, K.K. et al., 2011). This means that music boosts the learning process thereby augmenting cognitive skills. This paper outlines a brief overview of the various…
Adalarasu, K.K., Jagannath, M.M., Naidu Keerthiga Ramesh, S.S., & Geethanjali, B.B. (2011). A Review on Influence of Music on Brain Activity Using Signal Processing and Imaging System. International Journal of Engineering Science & Technology, 3(4), 3276-3282.
Figueiredo P, Pereira CS, Castro SL, Teixeira J, Figueiredo P, Xavier J, et al. (2011). Music and Emotions in the Brain: Familiarity Matters. PLoS ONE 6(11): e27241. Doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0027241]
Koelsch, S. (2009). A Neuroscientific Perspective on Music Therapy. Annals Of The New York Academy Of Sciences, 1169374-384. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.2009.04592.x
A Teenagers Brain
The teenage brain is different from the normal adult's brain in which "…various parts of the brain work together to evaluate choices, make decisions and act accordingly in each situation." (Edmonds, 2010) The teenage brain can be compared to an entertainment center, according to Edmonds "that hasn't been fully hooked up. There are loose wires, so that the speaker system isn't working with the DVD players, which in turn hasn't been formatted to work with the television yet. And to top it all off, the remote control hasn't even arrived." (2010)
Edmonds (2010) explains that the remote control for the brain is the 'prefrontal cortex' described as "a section of the brain that weighs outcomes, forms judgments, and controls impulses and emotions. This section of the brain also helps people understand one another." (Edmonds, 2010) Synapses are used by the prefrontal cortex in…
Edmonds, M. (2010) Are Teenage Brains Really Different From Adult Brains? Discovery Health. Brain and Central Nervous System. Retrieved from: http://health.howstuffworks.com/human-body/systems/nervous-system/teenage-brain2.htm
Adolescent Brain Development (2002) ACT for Youth -- Upstate Center of Excellence. Cornell University, University of Rochester and the NYS Center for School Safety. May 2002. Research Facts and Findings. Retrieved from: http://www.actforyouth.net/documents/may02factsheetadolbraindev.pdf
Sohn, Emily (2005) Teen Brains, Under Construction. Science News. 28 Sept 2005. Retrieved from: http://www.sciencenewsforkids.org/articles/20050928/Feature1.asp
Winters, KC and McLellan, AT (2008) Adolescent Brain Development and Drug Abuse. Jan 2008. TRI Science Addiction (Treatment Research Institute) Philadelphia PA Retrieved from: http://www.tresearch.org/archives/2008Jan_TeenBrain.pdf
Mind and the Brain by Schwartz and Begley
In their book, The Mind and the Brain: Neuroplasticity and the Power of Mental Force, Jeffrey Schwartz and Sharon Begley look into the concept of the mind as something separate and distinct from the physical brain. They do so by beginning with a discussion of behaviorism, an approach that has had tremendous influence on the world of psychology, not just in theory but in shaping of treatments for people who exhibited disordered or disturbed reasoning. They talk about how behaviorism strips the humanity from people, placing human learning on roughly the same level as animal conditioning. Moreover, they also discuss the idea that, even if behaviorist approaches can effectuate therapeutic results, such as in habituation training for patients suffering from Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, there are other means that do not involve the same level of cruelty towards the patients, but can still achieve…
Schwartz, J. & Begley, S. (2002). The Mind and the Brain: Neuroplasticity and the Power of Mental Force. New York: Regan Books.
Plato and Socrates -- Human Soul
There are a number of philosophical tenets that have been the subject of intense scrutiny since humans coalesced into formal societies. ho are we as a species? here do we fit in with the universe? hat is morality? Do the ends justify the means? Moreover, most of all, why are we here and are we free to act as individuals toward greater good? Free will, for instance, or the idea of that human's make choices unconstrained, has been contested even as a concept. The paradigm that humans may make rational choices and that life is not predetermined from "divine" beings allows one to look at a number of philosophical constructs that are on a continuum between the idea that determinism is false and that of hard determinism, or the idea that determinism is true and free will completely impossible forms the crux of a…
Baird, F. And W. Kaufman. From Plato to Derrida. New York: Prentice Hall, 2008. Print.
Huard, R. Plato's Political Philosophy. New York: Penguin, 2006. Print.
MacIntyre, A. A Short History of Ethics, Routledge, New York and London, 2006. Print.
Plato. "The Republic." June 2009. classics.mit.edu. Ed. B. Jowett. Web. May 2013. .
Psychopathology Criminal Behavior Part
What might be some of the implications for the forensic field of the differences between the "low-fear hypothesis" and the "high-impulsive" subtypes of psychopathy? In other words, how might the differences in the models help inform us about best practices for such activities as police work on the streets, interrogation methods, trial and sentencing practices, providing treatment, or evaluating recidivism risks?
In retrospect, theorists view Lykken's conceptual framework as a first step toward distinguishing between primary and secondary psychopathy (Baskins-Sommers, 2010). As theory building continues in this decade, the typology is supported by the notion of trait-like sensitivities and trait-like cognitive capacities that suggest the following implications for criminal justice procedures. Primary psychopathy is characterized by disinhibition, which is an inability to abort a dominant response, integrate socialization, or adopt alternative objectives. An individual who is considered to have primary psychopathy will fail to consider emotional…
Baskin-Sommers, A.R., Wallace, J.F., MacCoon, D.G., Curtin, J.J., and Newman, J.P. (2010, October 1). Clarifying the Factors that Undermine Behavioral Inhibition System Functioning in Psychopathy. Personal Disorders, 1(4), 203 -- 217. doi: 10.1037/a0018950. PMCID: PMC2992384. NIHMSID: NIHMS211679. Retrieved http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2992384/#!po=74.5614
Baskin-Sommers, A.R., Curtin, J.J. And Newman, J.P. (2013, May). Emotion-modulated startle in psychopathy: clarifying familiar effects. Journal of Abnormal Pychology, 122(2), 458-468. 10.1037/a0030958. Epub 2013 Jan 28. Retrieved http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23356218
Blonigen, D.M., Hicks, B.M., Krueger, R.F., Patrick, C.J. & Iacono, W.G. (2005, May). Psychopathic personality traits: heritability and genetic overlap with internalizing and externalizing psychopathology. Psychological Medicine, 35(5): 637 -- 648. doi: 10.1017/S0033291704004180. PMCID: PMC2242349. NIHMSID: NIHMS38985. Retreived http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2242349/#__ffn_sectitle
Franklin, K. (2010, May 30). Psychopathy guru blocks critical article. Will case affect credibility of PCL-R test in court? In the News: Forensic psychology, criminology, and psychology-law. Retrieved http://forensicpsychologist.blogspot.com/2010/05/psychopath-guru-blocks-critical-article.html
Brain Learns to ead
The human brain is an incredibly complex structure. It learns common actions and skills in an intensely intriguing manner that we often take for granted. Take for example the case of reading, an incredibly complicated process which is learned over time through repeated exposure and emulation that builds and strengthens knowledge about language in print.
The process of learning to read is incredibly complex yet is incredibly interesting. Interestingly, many fundamental skills involved with early reading learning are done before the child even beings on his or her journey. For example, phonetic learning helps establish a strong foundation for future reading capabilities. It is important that young readers focus on learning and recognizing phonemes that are at the base of the words they are seeing. Here, the research states that "Learning to read starts with the awareness that speech is composed of individual sounds," (Sousa 2005…
Sohn Design Studio. (2011). Give young readers books that sing and rhyme: Build confidence, motivation and reading stamina! Nellie Edge. Web. http://www.nellieedge.com/articles_resources/Resources_singRhyme.htm
Sousa, David A. (2005). How the Brain Learns to Read. Corwin Press.
The accident occurred while the actress was taking a skiing lesson. She initial experienced no symptoms from her fall, but later complained of a headache and was taken to a local hospital. Reports indicate that her fall was not very spectacular and occurred at a low speed on a beginner run. She was not wearing a helmet at the time of the accident. (Quinn, 2009)
However, while it is true that sometimes there are no immediately obvious signs of a severe brain injury, at other times there are.
Severe Traumatic Brain njury
The symptoms of a severe traumatic brain injury (which can result in permanent neurological damage) include a number of cognitive problems including inability to concentrate, problems with memory, problems in focusing and paying attention, ability to process new information at a normal rate, a high level of confusion, and perseveration, which is the action of doing something over…
In describing the course of their patients, experienced clinicians who use HBOT to treat patients with brain injury, cerebral palsy, and stroke refer to improvements that may be ignored in standardized measures of motor and neuro-cognitive dysfunction. These measures do not seem to capture the impact of the changes that clinicians and parents perceive. Caregivers' perceptions should be given more weight in evaluating the significance of objective improvements in a patient's function. Unfortunately, studies have not consistently measured caregiver burden, or have assessed it only by self-report. Studies in which the caregivers' burden was directly observed would provide much stronger evidence than is currently available about treatment outcome. (AHRQ Publication Number 03-E049, 2003)
In other words, this somewhat alternative treatment produces results that are more meaningful to the injured person and his or her caregivers.
I have focused here primarily on the biochemical end of treatments for those with traumatic brain injury because it is this level of treatment that offers the long-term possibility of the greatest level of treatment. Such treatments as are described here have the chance to cure traumatic brain injury. But until these are perfected, every other kind of treatment and therapy -- from drug treatments to speech therapy to the love of friends -- will remain priceless.
The user's mouth feels dry, and he or she may suddenly become very hungry and thirsty. His or her hands may tremble and grow cold. The euphoria passes after awhile, and then the user may feel sleepy or depressed. Occasionally, marijuana use produces anxiety, fear, distrust, or panic http://www.starliterecovery.com/marijuana.asp.
Marijuana use impairs a person's ability to form memories, recall events (see Marijuana, Memory, and the Hippocampus), and shift attention from one thing to another. THC also disrupts coordination and balance by binding to receptors in the cerebellum and basal ganglia, parts of the brain that regulate balance, posture, coordination of movement, and reaction time.11 Through its effects on the brain and body, marijuana intoxication can cause accidents. Studies show that approximately 6 to 11% of fatal accident victims test positive for THC. In many of these cases, alcohol is detected as well http://www.starliterecovery.com/marijuana.asp.
"An interesting study was done with airline…
Aukerman, Melissa. Alcohol on trial: the evidence.(Featured CME Topic: Alcohol)
Southern Medical Journal; 1/1/2005; Epidemiological Considerations of Alcohol Consumption
Herrman, Judith. . The teen brain as a work in progress: implications for pediatric nurses.(Updates & Kidbits). Pediatric Nursing; 3/1/2005;
Amodios, Joseph. Why pot's not cool: how marijuana messes with your brain and body.(DRUGS & ALCOHOL). Current Health 2, a Weekly Reader publication; 3/1/2005;
The complex dynamic processes that underlie the development of the various functionalities of the infant brain and its maturation into an adult brain continue to be studied by researchers working to uncover the pattern of brain development. Earlier, there was a battle between the role of nature and nurture in brain development of a Child. Today, neurologists have concurred that both nature and nurture play a significant role during the initial years of development of the brain. Advancements in neuroimaging techniques including the various refinements in MRI and optical tomography have made possible the focused study of the various developmental stages of the brain in an infant. Particularly, the portable, safe and easy to use Optical tomography has brought the scanning device to the infant instead of having to carry the infant to the scanning device. It is also now a known fact that the emotional and behavioral development of…
1) Sean Brotherson, 'Understanding Brain Development in Young Children', Accessed Mar 29th 2010, available at, http://www.ag.ndsu.edu/pubs/yf/famsci/fs609w.htm
2) Nelson, C.A., & Bloom, E. (1997). Child development and neuroscience.
Child Development, 68,970-987.
3) Miguel et.al, 'Withdrawn and intrusive maternal interaction style and infant frontal EEG asymmetry shifts in infants of depressed and non-depressed mothers', Infant Behav Dev. 2006 April; 29(2): 220 -- 229., Available Online at, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1712668/
Stress on Human Memory and Cognitive Capabilities
Types of Stresses on Short-Term Memory
Symptoms of Short-Term Memory
Stress weakens a human's ability to be able to pass proper chemicals through the blood-brain barrier. The blood-brain barrier is an assemblage of blood vessels that defends the brain from toxins that circulate through one's body (Franklin Institute, 2004).
Evidence of stress on the short-term memory includes difficulty to learn new things, dizziness, headaches, and nausea (Franklin Institute, 2004).
Effects of Stress on Short-Term Memory
When stress takes place in the human body, hormones are released that divert blood glucose from the brain's hippocampus (Franklin Institute, 2004).
The lack of energy that is provided by the lost glucose creates the hippocampus to become concerned about the lack of energy. This fright causes an inability to create accurate new memories (Franklin Institute, 2004).
This can be a result o a onetime traumatic event in…
Bower, B. (2005). Early stress in rats bites memory later on. Science News, 186(17), Retrieved
from http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?index=11&did=918673191&SrchMode=1&sid=4&Fmt =3&VInst=PROD&VType=PQD&RQT=309&VName=PQD&TS=1294957038&clientI d=77774
Franklin Institute. (2004). The human brain-stress. Retrieved January 13,2011 from http://www.fi.edu/learn/brain/stress.html
HelpGuide.org. (2010). Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD): Symptoms, treatment, and self- help. Retrieved January 13, 2011 from http://helpguide.org/mental/post_traumatic_stress_disorder_symptoms_treatment.htm
wiring of the teenage brain?
The teenage brain undergoes major restructuring during the formative teen years. The frontal cortex goes through a growth spurt right before puberty. This leads to a thickening of the area brain responsible for thinking. Typically the human brain is already ninety-five percent the size of an adult's by age six. However, during the teenage years the growth spurt results in new neural interconnections and pathways.
It is hypothesized that skills that are in constant use during the teenage are reinforced by the brain. While those skills or areas of the brain that are not in use, do not get the same reinforcement. This is known as the "use it or lose it" principal. For example, those students who engage in high levels of music and art see those neural pathways reinforced, therefore poised to flourish in the latter years, while other skill sets and pathways…
The most arrangement of these hominids is as shown in the table above (antala, 2007, p.17).
Humans have undergone a series of evolution from the most primitive hominids to the modern man. The development in the structure of the hominids was gradual; with almost half being upright and the rest being bent creatures. Evolution is expected to continue and man is expected to evolve into a different creature depending on the use and disuse of his limbs.
Macroevolution gives finer details about the origin of humans and tries to bring out substantive information from carbon dating that indicate that for real man is a product of a continuous evolution and thus is thus not the final product of evolution. However, the theory of evolution has faced a lot of criticism especially from the Theologians whose views about the origin of humans are contrary to those of macroevolution. The theory…
Barsh, G. (2003). What controls variation in human skin colour? Journal on Biological
Principles. 11(7), 19-22.
Fleagle, J. (1998). Primate Adaptation and Evolution, Second Edition. New York: Academic
Health -- Nursing
Piaget Theoretical Perspective On Human Development
Piaget's Theoretical Perspective on Human Development
Piaget's Theoretical Perspective on Human Development
The theory of cognitive development by Piaget presents a comprehensive approach in evaluating human intelligence development and nature in developmental psychology. Piaget shares that children play active roles in growing of intelligence through learning by doing and by examples. The intellectual development theory involves a focus on believing, reasoning, perceiving and remembering the natural environment. The primary term for this is developmental stage theory dealing with knowledge and how humans gradually acquire, use, and construct nature. Piaget adds that the cognitive development provides progressive mental reorganization for thinking processes resulting from environmental experience and biological maturation. Children construct an appreciation of the real world through experience discrepancies between their knowledge and their discoveries within the environment. According to Zastrow & Kirst-Ashman (2009), the theory insists that the cognitive development…
Ashford, J., LeCroy, C. (2009). Human Behavior in the Social Environment: A Multidimensional Perspective. New York: Cengage Learning
Kail, R., Cavanaugh, J. (2012). Human Development: A Life-Span View. New York: Cengage Learning
Kail, R., Cavanaugh, J. (2013). Essentials of Human Development: A Life-Span View. New York: Cengage Learning
Newman, B.M., Newman, P.R. (2010). Theories of Human Development. New York: Psychology Press
brain regions are activated by emotional stimuli?
There has been a great deal of interest within the medical and scientific community in studying the response of various regions of the brain to emotional stimuli. Much research has focused on the role of the amygdala in response to emotional stimuli, and the effects of such stimuli on learning and memory retention. The amygdala "is a structure in the medial temporal lobe that is known to participate in emotional and motivational functions in animals" (CGN, 2004) however its role in human emotional response has not yet been fully uncovered. It has been directly implicated however, in emotional stimulus related examinations. The amygdale is not the only brain region activated by emotional stimuli. Recent research has suggested that many areas of the brain are activated and affected by emotional stimuli, not just the amygdala. In fact, depending on the type of emotional stimulus…
CGN. (2004). "Current Research." Center for Cognitive Research. Retrieved February 13, 2004: http://www.mind.duke.edu/level2/faculty/labar/research2.htm
Hyder, F., Phelps, E.A., Wiggins, C.J., LaBar, K.S., Blamire, A.M. & Shulman, R.G. (1997). "Willed Action: A Functional MRI Study of the human prefrontal cortex during a sensor motor task." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 94: 6989-6994. Available: http://www.mind.duke.edu/level2/faculty/labar/1997(2).pdf
LaBar, K.S. & Phelps, E.A. (1998). "Arousal-mediated memory consolidation: Role of the medial temporal lobe in humans." Psychological Science, 9, 490-93, Available: http://www.mind.duke.edu/level2/faculty/labar/1998(2).pdf
Paller, K.A., Ranganath, C., Gonsalves, B., LaBar, K.S., Parrish, T.B., Gitelman, D.R., Mesulam, M., & Reber, P.J. (2003). "Neural Correlates of Person Recognition." Learning and Memory, 10, 253-260. Available: http://www.mind.duke.edu/level2/faculty/labar/2003(1).pdf
Mind and Human Behavior
Define and discuss a particular theory of consciousness
Consciousness can be best grasped in context as a facet of an interactive wakeful state wherein most cognitive processing occurs non-consciously. However, on combining non-conscious and conscious processing in the wakeful state, how can we differentiate one from the other, how can consciousness be defined, and what purpose does it serve? The conclusions drawn with respect to the former question critically influence how the latter question is answered. What property makes a state non-conscious rather than conscious? This section will support the argument that, out of all possible answers commonly put forth (i.e., accessibility, intentionality, reflexivity, subjectivity), the element-- reflexive, auto noetic-consciousness -- is the only one observed solely in the state of consciousness (Peters, 2013).
The Quantum Theory of Consciousness
The consciousness issue has opposed traditional approaches, in which the human brain is perceived as a computer…
Albensi, B.C. and Janigro, D. (2003).Traumatic brain injury and its effects on synaptic plasticity. Brain Inj. 17(8): p. 653-63.
Anderson, J. R. (1990). Cognitive psychology and its implications. New York: Freeman.
Cerasoli, C. P., & Ford, M. T. (2014). Intrinsic Motivation, Performance, and the Mediating Role of Mastery Goal Orientation: A Test of Self-Determination Theory.JournalOf Psychology, 148(3), 267-286. doi:10.1080/00223980.2013.783778
Eccles, J. S., & Wigfield, A. (2002).Motivational beliefs, values, and goals.Annual Review of Psychology, 53, 109-132.
" (ND, p.1) According to Ryan the human brain is an "evolved system" and one that is organized "to an underlying evolutionary logic." (ND, p.1) It is the claim of evolutionary psychologists that "the human brain has not changed" and furthermore, that it has not been "under any evolutionary pressure to do so -- in any significant way over the past 100,000 years, and therefore, modern man maintains the 'mind' of his Stone Age ancestors." (ND, p.1)
Lynch (2004) author of 'The Neuro Revolution: How rain Science is Changing Our World" states that "emotions and feelings are mediated by distinct neural systems. Whereas emotions are automatic responses to stimuli, feelings are 'private, subjective experiences' that emerge from the cognitive processing of an emotion eliciting state."(p.1) Therefore, it can be understood that indeed human brains are to some extent hardwired however, the individual's cognitive processing capacity has a great deal to…
Clark, William R. & Grunstein, Michael. Are We Hardwired?: The Role of Genes in Human Behavior. Oxford University Press, New York, NY, 2000.
Benderly, B.L. Are We Hardwired? The Role of Genes in Human Behavior. Genome News Network. 2000 Nov 3. Online available at: http://www.genomenewsnetwork.org/articles/11_00/Hardwired_review.php
Tancredi, L. Hardwired Behavior. What Neuroscience Reveals about Morality. 2005. Cambridge University Press. Online available at: http://assets.cambridge.org/97805218/60017/sample/9780521860017ws.pdf
Ryan, Terry. Review: How Hardwired is Human Behavior? The 21st Century Learning Initiative. Online available at: http://www.21learn.org/archive/articles/ryan_nicholson.php
Norepinephrine is usually quickly removed from the synapse and pumped back into the cell that released it in order to turn off and reset the system. By blocking the removal of norepinephrine, tricyclics appear to prolong or intensify norepinephrine's message to the post-synaptic cells.
However, the fundamental biochemical effect of antidepressants on the brain that is responsible for their benefit remains a mystery. It is thought that the change in neuroamine signaling at the synapse caused by anti-depressants "may set off a cascade of events involving second messenger systems that eventually results in the improvement of the symptoms of depression" (Enna, 1991, 187). Unfortunately, how these medications truly operate remains largely unknown.
Another group of anti-depressants is called selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors, first introduced in 1988. Unlike the tricyclics, these new anti-depressants have little direct effect on norepinephrine in the brain; instead, they block the re-uptake of serotonin which gives…
Davis, Joel. (1984). Endorphins: New Waves in Brain Chemistry. New York: Dial Press.
Dunn, Adrian J. (1989). Functional Chemistry of the Brain. New York: Spectrum Publications.
Enna, J.S., Ed., et al. (1991). Antidepressants: Neurochemical, Behavioral and Clinical Perspectives. New York: Raven Press.
Kendler, K.S., et al. (1992). "Major Depression and Generalized Anxiety Disorder." Archives of General Psychiatry. 49: 716-22.
function of the brain as it relates to psychology. Understanding the function of the human brain is critical in understanding how and why people think and act the way they do. Studying the brain can also explain many different types of behaviors, such as emotions, stress, and even the development of language, and all of these are extremely useful in the study of psychology.
The brain is divided into four sections, called lobes. Emotions are associated with the Frontal lobe, along with reasoning, movement, planning, parts of speech, and problem solving. The neurological pathways associated with perceiving and producing emotions come from two individual neurological pathways. Two scientists found, "The first pathway connects the prefrontal cortex, the brain's emotional command center, to the nucleus accumbens, a region linked primarily to positive emotion; the second connects it to the amygdala, which is linked primarily to negative emotion" (Editors, 2008). Studies have…
Editors. (2008). Columbia neuroscientists identify brain regions responsible for warding off negative emotion. Retrieved 23 Oct. 2009 from the Columbia University Web site: http://www.stat.columbia.edu/~martin/emotion.html .
Pinker, Steven. (2009). Language and the brain. Retrieved 23 Oct. 2009 from the Thinkquest Web site: http://library.thinkquest.org/C004367/la4.shtml.
Taber, K.H., and Hurley, R.A. (2009). PTSD and Combat-related injuries: Functional neuroanatomy. Journal of Neuropsychiatry 21:iv-4, Winter.
The Effect of Trauma on the Brain
In John Rigg’s talk on the effect of trauma on the brain and how it impacts our behaviors, I learned that when we talk about the human brain we are actually talking about two brains—the intelligent brain and the animal brain. The intelligent brain is what allows us to reason, think and essentially “rule the world” as Rigg (2017) puts it. The animal part of the brain, which is smaller, but is still very much a part of the brain, is what reacts to the environment and controls the body’s response. So, in the example Rigg uses, if he were to challenge us to run across the street but to keep our hearts from beating, we would not be able to do it—and the reason is that our animal brain is in control of that function for us. It is not something that…
THE ROLE OF CULTURE AND ENVIRONMENT IN THE EVOLUTION OF HUMANITY
Undestanding the evolution of humanity has been one of the most citical quests fo most individuals in the cuent society. The intesection between envionmental influences and cultue ceates an aea of social inteest with a focus on human evolution. Empiical eseach shows that the society plays a significant ole in shaping the evolution of human beings as evidenced by psychological analysis of human evolution. The extaodinay coopeative natue of human beings aises moe questions on the peceived changes of human behavio and inteaction ove time (Hawkes, Paine, & School, 2006). Among the factos that dive human beings to stive to undestand thei evolution, include paleoanthopology esults that povide unique infomation that povides significant evidence to the aspects of human evolution postulated to have occued millions of yeas ago. Results fom fossil studies such as inceasing bain size and…
references: Evolutionary hypotheses tested in 37 cultures. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 12(01), 1 -- 14.
Croll, E., & Parkin, D. (2002). Bush Base, Forest Farm: Culture, Environment, and Development. Routledge.
Darlington, P.J. (1978). Altruism: Its characteristics and evolution. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 75(1), 385 -- 389.
Eagly, A.H., & Wood, W. (1999). The origins of sex differences in human behavior: Evolved dispositions vs. social roles. American Psychologist, 54(6), 408 -- 423.
Foley, R. (1995). The adaptive legacy of human evolution: A search for the environment of evolutionary adaptedness. Evolutionary Anthropology: Issues, News, and Reviews, 4(6), 194 -- 203
The experiment should be broad enough to encompass many demographic variables, and be done over time to validate the results.
Part 4 - Language is the human capacity for using complex systems for communication. This may be through verbal, visual, or written means. cholars disagree about the origin of language, but it is likely that it evolved through a necessity for humans to need to learn from each other and remember techniques and events that would allow them to survive. yntax, or the way in which we put sounds together to form words, then words to other concepts, is hierarchical in nature. From an evolutionary perspective, it would focus on the issues for survival and procreation of the social unit. The labeled-line theory would tell us that each portion of the language is focused on a very specific quality. The across-fiber pattern system focuses on patterns, and the way stimuli…
Kalat, J. (2010). Biological Psychology, 11th ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Cenage
Mental epresentations and the Mind-Brain elationship
MENTAL EPESENTATIONS AND THE MIND-BAIN
The Dualism Argument
Pure Materialist Viewpoint
Visual Stimuli vs. Speech stimuli
Neurons and Synapses
Mental epresentations and the Mind-Brain elationship
In cognitive (neuro) science all through the last few decades, as in philosophy in the last 100 years, the issue of the mind-body (or mind-brain) occurrences is still open to discussion. Illogically, ever since Descartes nobody has suggested a workable alternate view of this problem. esearchers and thinkers have offered some approaches, yet none has gained the assent of the majority of thinkers. During a person's daily toils the separation that goes on between an individual mind and consciousness is hardly ever thought about or talked about. But then again it is the primary cause for the majority of your existence problems. This separation is not even a recognized fact, as consciousness and mind seem to…
Baars, J.B. (2013). An architectural model of consciousand unconscious brain functions: Global workspace theory and IDA. Neural Networks, 20, 955-961.
Bartels, A. (2010). Visual perception: Converging mechanisms of atten-tion, binding, and segmentation. Current Biology, 7(9), 56-78.
Gabbard, G.O. (2013). Mind, Brain, and Personality Disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry, 34-45.
Sevush, S. (2013). Single-neuron theory of consciousness. Journal ofTheoretical Biology, 21(9), 704-725.
Touch, Itch and Tickle
The human brain plays a crucial role in the sensations of touch, itch and tickle as well as the perception of these sensations. This is primarily because the brain enables us to feel these sensations and the processes that contribute to them. While the brain allows us to feel these sensations, it sometimes plays tricks on us with regards to touch, itch and tickle. Generally, sensations like touch, itch and tickle can be described as conscious or unconscious awareness of internal or external stimuli. The perception of these sensations is in turn described as the conscious understanding and interpretation of these feelings. The role of the brain in sensations and their associated perceptions is attributable to brain components that obtain sensory input, integrate and hoard information, and convey motor reactions.
Touch, itch and tickle are examples of sensory experiences brought by either internal or…
Cherry, K. (n.d.). 5 Ways Your Brain Plays Tricks On You. Retrieved November 16, 2015, from http://psychology.about.com/od/cognitivepsychology/tp/5-Ways-Your-Brain-Plays-Tricks-On-You.htm
Goldstein, E.B. (2010). Encyclopedia of perception. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications Inc.
Kenny, M.K. (n.d.). Sensory, Motor & Integrative Systems. Retrieved from Department of Biology -- Suffolk County Community College website: http://www2.sunysuffolk.edu/kennym/Ch16A.pdf
Middleton, J. (2008, February 14). Sense of Touch: The Perception of Touch. Retrieved November 16, 2015, from http://www.nursingtimes.net/clinical-subjects/dermatology/sense-of-touch-the-perception-of-touch/736367.fullarticle
Sociological and Therapeutic Implications of the Brain Disease
Inspiration for professionals who authored the account on chronic brain illnesses came from findings on drugs' impacts on the human brain. The assurance that strong anti-addiction medicines can be found appeared great. The budding scientific branch, addiction biology, implies that addiction --a condition which starts off with the clear, intentional decision to have a go at drugs, spiraling quickly down to an irrepressible, involuntary state --would now be considered seriously, and forever, as an ailment. Using this knowledge, authors hoped to sensitize lawmakers as well as the society to drug-addicts' needs, including improved coverage of private insurance and public treatment access. The agenda also included moderating of puritanical outlooks and smoothing of penal law enforcement. The neuro-centric approach supports unjustified optimism with regard to pharmaceutical treatments, overrating the requirement of professional aid. Conditions characteristically remitted in young adulthood are branded as "chronic."…
Clark, M. (2011).Conceptualizing addiction: How useful is the construct. International Journal of Humanities & Social Science, 1(13), 55-64.
Deviance and Addiction. (n.d.). Retrieved November 17, 2015, from http://alcoholrehab.com/addiction-articles/deviance-and-addiction/
GOODE, E. (2011, March 19). THE SOCIOLOGY OF DRUG USE. Retrieved November 17, 2015, from https://edge.sagepub.com/system/files/Ballantine5e_6.2SK_0.pdf
May, C. (2001).Pathology, Identity and the Social Construction of Alcohol Dependence Sociology 35, 385-40.
Maybe there is a reason for these great apes to fling things at us in the zoo through the bars of the cage. There but for the grace of Darwin go I.
As the A's, C's, G's and T's switch on an off, it's fascinating to think about the minor and major changes, environmental and otherwise that could have made things different. The stray transcription factor would make the difference. Is there such a thing as counterfactual evolution (like counterfactual history)? It is fun to think about this.
Most of the 2% differential applies to factors we would absolutely expect, such as olfaction and reproduction. Sapolsky points out a fascinating fact that what makes the human and chimpanzee brains different. A neuron in a sea slug and a neuron in a human are essentially the same. Both chemically and physiologically are the same. As he points out, the number of…
Sapolsky, Robert. "The 2% Difference." Discover April 2006: 42-45.
Zyga, Lisa. "Cro Magnon Skull Shows That Our Brains Have Shrunk." Physorg.com.
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Social Web and Technology: Moving Humans Into Uncharted Territory
The internet has changed the way humans interact with each other in every way. It has helped shape an entire generation of social interactions as well as helped people learn in ways that were not possible before. Within these interactions, the very roots of society are created. S these interactions have changed media and shape, the preferences and habits of socialization have changed as well. As a technology, social web has given people the ability to connect with other people and places that were at one time inaccessible. It also gives people unfettered access to information through first hand reports and stories. This access to information on a global scale is also changing the way socialization occurs.
Human beings have always had a certain access to information, whether within a small group or over technologies like TV, radio, or printed media.…
Blossom, J. (2009). Content nation: surviving and thriving as social media technology changes our lives and our future. Social Media: New York.
Dorfman, L., Martindale, C., Gassimova, V., & Vartanian, O. (2008). Creativity and speed of information processing: A double dissociation involving elementary vs. inhibitory cognitive tasks. Personality and Individual Differences, Vol. 44, No. 6, April 2008, 1382-1390.
Postman, N. (2001). Deus Machina. Technos: Quarterly for Education and Technology, Vol.
10, No. 27. Retrieved February 22, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com /PM.qst?a=o&d=5002395759' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
The meaning of humanity is difficult to grasp. It is complex and often layered. People do not think of humanity as being one of animals or being. It is often seen as a combination of the two. Humans bleed, have instincts, and mate. Human females carry babies within the wombs. This is how any normal mammal behaves. Yet, humans also think and perform conscious actions against their instincts.
Humans have, since 5,000 years ago, formed intricate and complex societies. They use games for recreation to relieve stress and promote bonding. They carry out detailed plans to build towns and cities. Humans even use religion in order to connect with each other and their perceived spiritual world.
There are many wonderful aspects of humanity that make them, us, more than just animals. So how does this apply to the meaning of being human? Perhaps the struggle between animal and being,…
Lynne Lee, Wendy. "The Aesthetic Appreciation Of Nature, Scientific Objectivity, And The Standpoint Of The Subjugated: Anthropocentrism Reimagined." Ethics, Place & Environment 8, no. 2 (2005): 235-250.
(Lynne Lee 2005)
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Rochat, Philippe. "What does it mean to be human?" Evolutionary Anthropology: Issues, News, and Reviews 17, no. 2006 (2006): 48-51.
Alternatively, degeneration of the ascending cholinergic and catechola- minergic neuronal systems may contribute, at least in part, to the occurrence of this frontal-lobe-like symptomatology associated with Parkinson's disease. (Dubois & Pillon, 1996, pp.2-8)
The development of a greater understanding, over time of the causal factors as well as the manifestations and possible interventions for cognitive function in Parkinson's disease has continued since this time. Greater functional understanding of neurotransmitters and receptors as well as brain function in general have also significantly aided in the treatment Parkinson's Disease. esearch has even led to the conclusion that standards dopamine (pharmacological) treatments while they improve some cognitive function (switching between two tasks "thought to depend on circuitry connecting the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the posterior parietal cortex to the dorsal caudate nucleus) might impair others that are usually spared by PD (probabilistic reversal learning, which; "implicates orbitofrontal cortex -- ventral striatal circuitry." involvement)…
Aarsland, D. Laake, K. Larsen, J.P. & Janvin, C. (2002) Donepezil for cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease: a randomised controlled study. Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery & Psychiatry. 72 (6), 708-712.
Cools, R. Barker, R.A. Sahakian, B.J. & Robbins, T.W. (December 2001) Enhanced or Impaired Cognitive Function in Parkinson's Disease as a Function of Dopaminergic Medication and Task Demands. Cerebral Cortex, 11 (12), 1136-1143.
Drapier, D. Peron, J. Leray, E. Sauleau, P. Biseul, I. Drapier, S. Le Jeune, F. Travers, D. Bourguignon, a. Haegelen, C. Millet, B. & Verin, M. (September 2008) Emotion recognition impairment and apathy after subthalamic nucleus stimulation in Parkinson's disease have separate neural substrates. Neuropsychologia 46 (11), 2796-2801.
Dubois, B. Pillon, B. (November 1996) Cognitive deficits in Parkinson's Disease. Journal of Nuerology. 244 (1), 2-8.
brain structures and functions associated with the motivation to engage in certain types of behavior. The specific behavior that I have selected in order to perform the analysis refers to life style habits, namely exercising. In order to better understand the mechanisms which influence motivation, I will be taking into consideration both intrinsic and extrinsic factors, such as genetic or the environment.
Right from the beginning, I must underline that the motivation of a person to engage in such a type of behavior is powerfully influenced by the environment in which he or she grows up and lives. It is a general known truth that the manner in which parents educate their children and the values that they teach them are fundamental for the manner in which the children will behave- even as adults. Therefore, it is safe to say that adults who grew up in families which encouraged them…
Deckers, L., (2005). Motivation: Biological, Psychological, and Environmental, (2nd Edition). Allyn and Bacon.
Goldberg, E. Attention and motivation- The Dana guide (November 2007). The Dana guide to brain health, Retrieved March 24, 2011 from http://www.dana.org/news/brainhealth/detail.aspx?id=10052
Kouneiher, F., Charron, S., Koechlin, E. Motivation and cognitive control in the human prefrontal cortex, Nature neuroscience, volume 12, number 7 (July 2009). Retrieved March 25, 2011 from http://www.cognition.ens.fr/Pdf/Kouneiher.pdf
The brain's motivation station in Science Daily (may 4, 2006). Retrieved March 25, 2011 from http://www.sciencedaily.com /releases/2006/05/060504070834.htm' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Technology has emerged and pervaded the lives of many people as it becomes more advanced and more a part of society. A good and prominent example of this is video games. Even with the leisure and perceived positive effects of video games, their effect on the brain is a cause for concern among many in the scientific and academic communities. While many of the effects could absolutely be good, there are other effects that could be bad with age and stage of brain development being important factors to keep in mind.
One factor that clearly aggravates the situation of people playing video games and it might or does affect the brain is the fact that the younger people who still have the development of their brains in motion. As such, verifying whether or not there are effects on cognition and that development of the brain structure is an important item…
Assignment 4: Erikson's Stages of Development.
According to Erik Erikson, every child passes through eight stages of 'man' or development. Erikson attempted to introduce a theory of development that incorporated other human needs and elements of culture into a human being's socialization process, unlike Freud who focused only on the family romance, of family…
Dement, William. (Sept 1997). "What All Undergraduates Should Know About How Their Sleeping Lives Affect Their Waking Lives." Stanford University Center of Excellence for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Sleep Disorders. Retrieved 24 May 2007 http://www.stanford.edu/~dement/sleepless.html