517 results for “Human Reproduction”.
The organs developed in the first semester grow bigger, even though the seeds of development have been sown and "except for certain parts of the brain and lungs, all the cells the baby will ever have are there" by now (Bontragaer 2005, p.5). The third trimester, which takes place between 28 and 32 weeks, is a process of maturation: "In the first two trimesters, most fetuses are pretty much the same size at the same age…in the third trimester, babies start to grow at different rates" (Bontragaer 2005, p.6). Behaviors as well as anatomical structures are obvious, and third trimester fetuses swallow, breathe, sleep, wake, and even suck their thumbs (Bontragaer 2005, p.6). Thus the baby during the third trimester seems to be preparing itself to live in the outside world. "In the third trimester the fetus increases the surface area of its brains to astronomical proportions. In fact,…
Bailey, Regina. (2010). Sex chromosome abnormalities. About.com. Retrieved July 3, 2010 at http://biology.about.com/od/basicgenetics/a/aa110504a.htm
Bailey, Regina. (2010). Sexual reproduction. About.com. Retrieved July 3, 2010 at http://biology.about.com/od/basicgenetics/a/aa062708a.htm
Bontragaer, Jennifer. (2010). Fetal and embryo development. Pregnancy Today.
Retrieved July 3, 2010 at http://www.pregnancytoday.com/articles/fetal-development/embryo-development-6022/6/
Procreation and human reproduction is one of the great and mysterious blessings human kind can experience. Females have a special relationship to this process due to the biological functions assigned to their bodies, requiring responsibility in choice in utilizing this gift of life. The purpose of this essay is to explore the factors affecting fertility by specifically examining the issue of the factors that contribute most to a woman's decision whether or when to have children. This essay will divide this argument into two different perspectives that will help highlight and explain the current situation that dictates much of the reproduction trends in today's world.
The False Pressures From Society
Currently, society, as a group, does not present strong values to women. Although a great impulse of seemingly sexually liberating events have occurred in recent times, things are still pretty bleak if a women is drawing her social cues from mainstream…
Another psychological approach studied the physical basis for emotion. LeDoux (1995, p. 209+) noted, "Scientists concerned with human nature have not been able to reach a consensus about what emotion is and what place emotion should have in a theory of mind and behavior." He proposed, however, that "findings about the neural basis of emotion might also suggest new insights into the functional organization of emotion that were not apparent from psychological findings alone. The brain, in other words, can constrain and inform our ideas about the nature of emotion." This would seem to play into any discussion of genetics vs. culture as emotion is viewed, accurately or not, as a construct of societal norms in large part. Because fear is a common part of human life, LeDoux uses it to investigate his theories. "The expression of fear is conserved to a large extent across human cultures and at least…
Moore, J. (2002). Some thoughts on the relation between behavior analysis and behavioral neuroscience. The Psychological Record, 52(3), 261+. Retrieved November 19, 2004, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com .
Suh, Eunkook M. 2002. Cultural influences on personality. Annual Review of Psychology;
Retrieved November 19, 2004 from Highbeam database, http://www.highbeam.com .
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a virus that causes warts. HPV is one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). It belongs to the Papovaviridae family. HPV is a small oncogenic DNA virus, which infects epithelial cells of skin and mucous membranes. The epithelial surfaces include all areas covered by skin and/or mucous membranes of the mouth, genital and anus (the area that poop comes out of). A definitive diagnosis of HPV infection depends on the detection of nucleic acids (DNA or NA) or proteins.
HPV is a relatively small, non-enveloped virus, and 55 nm in diameter. It has an icosahedral capsid composed of 72 capsomers, which contain at least two capsid proteins, L1 and L2. Each capsomer is a pentamer of the major capsid protein, L1. Each virion capsid contains several copies (about 12 per virion) of the minor capsid protein, L2. The virus is said to somewhat resemble a…
Anderson, N. And Pearsall, R. (2004). Microbiology a human Perspective. New York: Mc-Graw Hill
Burd, E. (2003) Human Papillomavirus and Cervical Cancer -- Burd 16 (1): 1 -- Clinical
Microbiology Reviews [Online]. [Accessed 25th April 2005]. Available from World Wide
Although the recently used term "Emotional Intelligence" is an offshoot of decades of psychological study, much confusion exists on its meaning and application. In addition, the amount of academic studies in this area has been relatively few. Most of the writings have been done in nonscientific ways. The purpose of this thesis would be to conduct a thorough historical overview of the topic and recommendations for further study to see how this measurement tool could best be used in a business setting.
In 1985, graduate student Wayne Leon Payne wrote a doctoral dissertation including the term "emotional intelligence." Five years later, a paper by professors at American University of New Hampshire, State University of New York and Yale University (Mayer, DiPaolo, and Salovey, 1990) clarified the definition of emotional intelligence (EI) as "the accurate appraisal and expression of emotions in oneself and others and the regulation of emotion in a…
Ashkanasy, N.M. (2003). Emotions in organizations: A muhilevel perspective. In F. Dansereau & F.J. Yammarino (Eds.), Research in multilevel issues, vol. 2: Multi-level issues in organizational behavior and strategy, 9-54. Oxford, UK: Elsevier Science.
Bar-On, R. (1997). The Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i): A test of emotional intelligence. Toronto: Multi-Health Systems.
Cadman C, Brewer J (2001) Emotional intelligence: a vital prerequisite for recruitment in nursing. Journal of Nursing Management. 9(6), 321-324.
Cherniss, C. And Adler, M. (2000). Promoting Emotional Intelligence in organizations. Alexandria, Virginia: ASTD.
science marches forward, reproductive cloning of humans will likely become a reality. It has already been accomplished with dogs, cats, cows and monkeys. This means that one day a person will be able to have a child with his/her own cells. hat do you think some of the family law issues will be as this form of alternative reproduction becomes a reality?
As soon as Dr. Ian ilmut made a breakthrough announcement that he, and his team, had successfully cloned an adult sheep in 1997, the salience of the controversy about cloning humans and genetic modifications in the human genome virtually erupted (Rose, 1999). It became clear at this point that it was feasibly possible to conduct a range of scientifically assisted reproduction such as human cloning for example. There could also be a mix of genetic information bestowed on a child. For example, family planning could resemble something along…
Aldrich, L. (2010). New York's One Judge-One Family Response to Family Violence. Juvenille Family Court, 77-86.
Berman, D., & Alfini, J. (2012). Lawyer Colonization of Family Mediation: Consequences and Implications. Marquette Law Review, 95-887.
Edwards, L. (2008). Child Protection Mediation: A 25-Year Perspective. Family Court Review, 69-80.
MacDowell, E. (2011). When Courts Collide: Integrated Domestic Violence Courts and Court Pluralism. Texas Journal of Women and the Law, 95.
Ethics of Human Cloning
In 1971, Nobel Prize winning-scientist James atson wrote an article warning about the growing possibility of a "clonal man." Because of both the moral and social dangers cloning posed to humankind, atson called for a worldwide ban on any research leading to cloning technology (atson 8).
Until then, cloning had been largely relegated to the realm of science fiction. Scientific research concerning cloning and in vitro fertilization was obtuse and technical, and hardly written about in the news. atson, however, was a highly-respected scientist, a Harvard professor famous for his discovery of the double helix structure of the DNA. The article he wrote sparked an intense debate over cloning, a debate that was renewed with the 1996 birth of Dolly the lamb, the first cloned mammal.
The argument no longer centers on whether cloning is possible, but on whether cloning is ethical. This paper examines the ethical arguments…
Annas, George. "Scientific Discoveries and Cloning: Challenges for Public Policy." Flesh of My Flesh: The Ethics of Cloning Humans. Gregory E. Pence, ed. Oxford: Rowman and Littlefield, 1998.
Bailey, Ronald. "Cloning is Ethical." Ethics. Brenda Stalcup, ed. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 2000.
Garcia, Jorge L.A. "Cloning Humans is Not Ethical." The Ethics of Genetic Engineering. Lisa Yount, ed. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 2002.
Kass, Leon. "The Wisdom of Repugnance." Flesh of My Flesh: The Ethics of Cloning Humans. Gregory E. Pence, ed. Oxford: Rowman and Littlefield, 1998.
If it were his child or grandchild, he might have a different opinion - especially if that child was horrifically malformed or only lived a short time, dying of a painful debilitating disease.
atson is not the only one that seems to look at the debate with a lax attitude. Lori Andrews, a law professor at Chicago-Kent College of Law, believes that more caution should be taken when experimenting with life. She states, "It's like we've become deadened to the ethical dimensions of this... e're viewing biology as playing with Tinker Toys. There seems to be less resistance to the whole idea of tampering with life" (Andrews qtd. In Lyon). Richard Hayes also sees the lack of concern disconcerting. The executive director of the Exploratory Initiative on the New Human Genetic Technologies sees the lack of an outcry to be "chilling" (Hayes qtd. In Lyon). He states:
Many of these academics…
Andrews, Lori. "Playing God: Has Science Gone Too Far?" Women's Day.
Hayes, Richard. "Playing God: Has Science Gone Too Far?" Women's Day.
Lyon, Jeff. "Playing God: Has Science Gone Too Far?" Women's Day.
Pethokoukis, James. "Our Biotech Bodies, Ourselves."
Within Human esources Development
The literature which describes and analyzes the important aspects of adult education - within the Human esources Development genre - is vitally important in relating to today's employees who seek - and deserve - learning opportunities within their workplace environment. It provides a point of reference, it offers stimulating ideas for digestion and analysis, and it zeros in on the issue at hand, which is that learning should be encouraged and facilitated by employers, and it should be done in such a way that gains in individual learning and knowledge will transfer to competency on the job, and ultimately, profitability for the employer.
An exceptionally useful article by Theodore J. Marchese, entitled, "Insights from Neuroscience and Anthropology, Cognitive Science and Work-Place Studies": e.g., the brain is "remarkably plastic across the lifespan..."
Early experiences and genetic inheritance are very important," Marchese writes in his piece, 'The New Conversations…
Glastra, Folke J; & Hake, Barry J.; & Schedler, Petra E. "Lifelong Learning as Transitional Learning." Adult Education Quarterly 54 (2004): 291-306.
Hodkinson, Phil; & Hodkinson, Heather; & Evans, Karen; & Kersh, Natasha; & Fuller,
Alison; & Unwini, Loma; & Senker, Peter. "The significance of individual biography
In workplacelearning." Studies in the Education of Adults 36, (2004): 6-26.
International Human ights, Women and Gender
International Human ights: Women and Gender
Women are the most assaulted segment of the human society. A shocking statistic reveals that a majority of the females are subjected to violence and sexual violence by the time they reach their late teens (Fergus, 2012).
Definitions of Violence against women, constitutes the mental and physical torture they are subjected to by way of restricting their right to freedom in the broader sense of the term. The crimes and exploitation against younger girls implies, by definition, violence based on gender discrimination. It has been observed that this act of violence is fallout of the negligence shown towards equality of the female child and womenfolk in general (Fergus, 2012).
The act of violence exposes the women and specifically the younger female child to isolation, loss of identity, unhealthy overall development, psychological and social stigma (WHO, 2006) and hence cause HIV and/or AIDS,…
Arbour, L. (2007). Human Rights. Yes! Human Rights Resource Center, University of Minnesota.
Bhattacharya, D. (2013). Global Health Disputes and Disparities: A Critical Appraisal of International Law and Population Health. Routledge.
CEDAW (n.d.). Strengthening Health System Responses to Gender-based Violence in Eastern Europe & Central Asia: A programmatic package. A United Nations Publication.
CEDAW. (2010). General recommendation No. 28 on the core obligations of States parties under article 2 of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women. United Nations Publications.
Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) is linked to genetic inheritance, and more than 250 genes have been explored as having potential links with CAD. Although these genes are thought not to directly pass on CAD, research has seen that some mutations within these particular genes actually increase the risk of CAD within an individual who as immediate family members who have already suffered from the affects of CAD. Further research has pinpointed six genes out of that larger batch which may also play a role in heart disease. As seen in people who have experienced heart disease, variations of these six genes prove relatively common in individuals under the age of sixty-six years old. Researchers are using these new and continuous findings regarding heart disease's genetic base in order to compile genetic testing which can prepare individuals to have to potentially take measures to avoid heart disease. Utilizing genetic testing…
The circulatory or cardiovascular system is responsible for moving nutrients, wastes and gases between body cells, transporting blood across the whole body and battling disease (Circulatory System). Its principal elements are the heart, numerous blood vessels, and blood.
The heart forms the circulatory system's core. This 2-sided, 4-chambered pump which distributes blood to various arteries comprises of the right and left ventricles, and right and left atria. The ventricles, situated within the heart's lower half, are responsible for pumping blood to the whole body (away from our heart), whilst the atria, situated within the heart's upper half are in charge of receiving blood from different parts of the human body. The right and left ventricles pump de-oxygenated and oxygenated blood, respectively; de-oxygenated blood is pumped to lungs while oxygenated blood is pumped to the remainder of the human body (smith, 2013). These 4 chambers are connected to one another by means…
(iii) in the United States, Brazil, Germany and France, humans have been receiving their own stem cells to re-grow heart muscle in the unforeseen incident of heart attack or injury. This was found to be successful in majority of the cases. (iv) in one more incident, the vision of 23 patients was restored after limbal adult stem cell transplants. This line of therapeutic care has assisted a lot of people who have been suffering from blindness for years together that includes the sufferers of mustard gas attacks in Iraqi. (Life Issues Institute, 2006) v) Crohn's disease patients have in fact been treated with stem cells evolved from their own blood. (vi) Among the 90% of the 19 patients having several autoimmune disorders like systemic lupus has been on the path to recovery following treatment with their own blood stem cells. (vii) a research of Parkinson's disease displayed an average…
AAAS Center for Science, Technology and Congress. (2007) "AAAS Policy Brief: Human
Cloning" Retrieved 28 March, 2008 at http://www.aaas.org/spp/cstc/briefs/cloning/
Barnes, Deborah. (n. d.) "Research in the News: Creating a cloned sheep named Dolly"
Retrieved 28 March, 2008 at http://science-education.nih.gov/home2.nsf/Educational+ResourcesTopicsGenetics/BC5086E34E4DBA0085256CCD006F01CB
On the other hand there is another side to the vision of human life. There is the experience of human joy and happiness that also has to be taken into account. We find this side in works that resonate with color, joy conviviality and friendship. In this exhibition works by Renoir and Picasso have been selected to show this side of the human condition. In this context the famous painting by Renoir entitled, the Luncheon of the Boating Party portrays a very different sense of the human condition compared to that of Bacon. We also this sense of the gentleness and beauty of human life in Picasso's the Bathers.
Another artist who has much to say about the human condition is Giacometti. This famous sculptor portrays human being in terms existential searching and mystery. His sculptures refuse to comment directly on the human condition but leave us with a sense of…
6. Picasso; "The bathers" ( 1918). Oil on canvas.
7. Giacometti: Standing Woman, bronze, 1959.
It also appeals to conservatives who are interested in charity-based social supports, and wish to see individuals and communities, rather than the state, providing solutions to persistent problems such as poverty or social exclusion. It also holds appeal for neo-liberal states that seek to bolster social engagement without addressing structural issues such as changes in employment forms and decreases in social service expenditure (Bezanson,2006)."
On the other hand, the versatility of the theory has been criticized. Some have asserted that the theory may become "all things to all people" and as such it will become a theory that is not viable in any format (Bezanson,2006). With all these factors taken into consideration it is also apparent that, the theory of social capital does single out the importance of informal caring relationships to the quality of life afforded to individuals and groups (Bezanson,2006).
Each of the three aforementioned types of social capital…
Bezanson, K. (2006). Gender and the Limits of Social Capital. The Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology, 43(4), 427+.
Dakhli, M. De Clercq, D. (2004). Human capital, social capital, and innovation: a multicountry Study. ENTREPRENEURSHIP & REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT, 16, MARCH (2004), 107-128
More Social Capital, Less Global Poverty? The World Bank. http://www1.worldbank.org/devoutreach/summer00/article.asp?id=67
The medical term assigned to this phenomenon is called 'microchimerism'. In the case of more children being born, this can lead to some of the older child's DNA to be transferred from the mother to the younger child's fetus.
In an attempt to study microchimerism, J. Lee Nelson, an immunologist from the Fred Hutchinson Cancer esearch Center in Seattle conducted an experiment with assistance from his colleague Natalie. Blood samples from 32 healthy women revealed over 20% of them to bear white blood cells which belonged to their mother. It is hard to understand how these cells reside there instead of being rejected immediately by the host body. One assumption stated by Nelson indicates this to be a way to enhance the mother's immunity to prepare for the development of the fetus which can be deemed as a foreign organ on its own. They might even actively participate in the…
Halder Ashutosh " Placental chimerism in early human pregnancy." Original Communication 11.2(2005): 84-88 Web. Web 8 Apr.2010
Nicholas, J.W.,Jenkins W.J. And Marsh W.L "Human Blood Chimeras -- A study of surviving twins" The British Medical Journal 1.5033(1957): 1458-1460 Web 8 Apr.2010
"What is Chimerism ?" Wisegeek. Web. 8 Apr.2010.
"The Stranger Within." Katewerk. Web. 8 Apr.2010
Hormone (or endocrine) disruptors interfere with the normal functioning of the endocrine system. They can: mimic a natural hormone and thus fool the body into responding a certain way, interfere with the reception of hormones by hormone receptors, directly alter a hormone and impede its function, cause the body to overproduce or under produce natural hormones, or decrease or increase the number of hormone receptors. These effects are especially potent during prenatal development, when even minute exposure to hormones can severely disrupt the normal development process. Potential hormone disruption effects include abnormalities of the reproductive system, birth defects, behavioral changes, depressed immune systems, and lowered intelligence. (Pettit, 2000, p. 413)
Patrick, G.T. (1929). What Is the Mind?. New York: The Macmillan Company.
Pettit, H.E. (2000). Shifting the Experiment to the Lab: Does EPA Have a Mandatory Duty to equire Chemical Testing for Endocrine Disruption Effects under the Toxic…
Patrick, G.T. (1929). What Is the Mind?. New York: The Macmillan Company.
Pettit, H.E. (2000). Shifting the Experiment to the Lab: Does EPA Have a Mandatory Duty to Require Chemical Testing for Endocrine Disruption Effects under the Toxic Substances Control Act? Environmental Law, 30(2), 413.
Environmental Influences, Domain Specificity, and Heterozygous Potential:
Environmental influences have also contributed profoundly to human sexual behavior, which becomes particularly evident when one examines certain statistical tendencies pertaining to both conscious and unconscious choices in female mate selection (Gerrig & Zimbardo 2005). As is the case with many sexually reproducing organisms, human females have evolved a marked preference for both physical and behavioral male traits consistent with the ability to provide physical protection and to garner both natural and social resources. Females of many species prefer male suitors who display characteristics such as large relative body size, robustness, good health, and those suggesting physical strength, aggressiveness, and leadership (Margulis & Sagan 1999).
Whereas some of those traits are observable externally (such as relative size), others are imperceptible on any conscious level. This is particularly true as regards heterozygous potential conducive to healthy offspring, such as the marked unconscious preference demonstrated by human…
Ackerman, D. (1995) a Natural History of Love.
New York: Vintage
Barash, D.P., Lipton, J.E. (2001) the Myth of Monogamy.
New York: Henry Holt.
The following images show certain disorders that result due to mutation. Children born from the same family members' shows higher similarity index regarding the genetic disorder number inclusive of the Indian community (Cummings, 2010, pg 333).
Curbing gene disorders
Stoppage of varying types of disorders is possible through learning in consideration of human development the number of genes contained in a single genome, their respective location and the establishment of functions or roles in the various genetic processes. This is achievable through strategized genetic mapping, where the establishment of specified genes having same linkage involved. The mapping establishes the respective linkages between genes and as a result of their location in the same gene, the crossing over frequency with the existing distance amid them is notable (Cummings, 2010, pg 333). esearch on the various risks factors involved can also be considerable as beneficial. This enables the development of certain preventive measures…
Benson, B. (2012). Advances in Child Development. London: Academic Press.
Bowden, V.G. (2009). Children and Their Families. Atlanta: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins.
Cummings, M. (2010). Human Heridity; Principles and Issues. New York: Cengage Learning.
Sex and Culture
What are the advantages and disadvantages of sexual reproduction (animal/human world)?
Sexual reproduction is an evolutionary phenomenon, which entails the cooperation of two species: the male and the female. In any aspect of sexual reproduction, the energy of male spermatozoa and the female oocyte must both be expended in order to reproduce, as opposed to the efficient method of asexual reproduction, which only involves the singular (female) organism. Furthermore, sexual reproduction has a failing in that humans and animals tend to reproduce much less than organisms that reproduce asexually. However, this evolutionary method of reproduction allows for genetic variation and adaptable feasibility. The offspring of the sexually reproductive parents will have gained half of the mother's genetic characteristics and half of the father's genetic characteristics. Genetic variation increases the immunity against otherwise deadly genetic diseases.
Is the capacity that female primates have for orgasm detrimental to their reproductive success?
Additionally, the utilitarian position presents the advantage of objectively quantifying the interests of everyone affected by the decision, for the sole purpose of promoting common welfare. Thus, harvesting, fertilizing, genetically screening, implanting and researching human embryos at the risk of damaging or destroying them - is entirely justified from this perspective, and any progressive endeavor is encouraged.
Nevertheless, this approach might involuntarily discourage many IVF clients as it appears to be too rigid and provides them with little autonomy in making decisions regarding their own embryos. Interestingly, a utilitarian might not even support IVF treatment, due to the risks involved in the whole process - namely a large financial loss if the process should fail -, an therefore it is uncertain whether or not this infertility treatment would meet the Utilitarian requirements of avoiding pain and creating the most amount of happiness; there might be a lot of future un-happiness…
Balasubramanian, J. And Narayanan, N. "Assisted Reproductive Technology: life cycle of reproduction." Discovery Life Journal, Vol. 3 No. 9, March 2013:13-16.
Beauchamp T.L. And Childress, J.F. Principles of Biomedical Ethics (5th ed.). New York: Oxford University Press, 2001.
Botkin, J.R. "Ethical Issues and Practical Problems in Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis." In Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics, 16 (1998): 17-28.
Kolata, G. "Robert G. Edwards Dies at 87; Changed Rules of Conception With First 'Test Tube Baby'." The New York Times. The New York Times Company, 10 Apr. 2013. Web. 4 June 2013. Available: http://www.nytimes.com/2013/04/11/us/robert-g-edwards-nobel-winner-for-in-vitro-fertilization-dies-at-87.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0 .
Whatever happened you vanished, and neither you nor your actions were ever heard of again" (Orwell, 1949, p.168).
Principles of mass production are very clear in the novels. Huxley for instance, applied the idea of mass production in human reproduction, since the people has abandoned the natural method of reproduction. Mass production as the conventional feature of capitalism and Huxley's novel reinforces such. He talked about the requirement of the World State about constant consumption, which is considered as foundation of its stability. Huxley apparently criticizes the commercial dependence of the world towards goods. Conditioning centers teaches people to consume. Orwell similarly provides criticism to capitalism as well: "The centuries of capitalism were held to have produced nothing of any value." The Proles are the symbols of the capitalist system as they constitute the working class who work in assembly lines.
Destruction of the concept of family
oth novels dispose the concept…
Bessa, Maria de Fatima (2007). Individuation in Aldous Huxley's Brave New World and Island: Jungian and Post-Jungian Perspectives. Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais.
Beniger, James K. (1986) the Control Revolution. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 61.
Greenberg, Martin H., Joseph D. Olander and Eric S. Robbon. No Place Else: Expectations in Utopian and Dystopian Fiction. Southern Illinois: University Press, 1983. 29-97.
Grieder, Peter. "In Defense of Totalitarianism Theory as a Tool of Historical Scholarship" Totalitarian Movements and Political Religions 8.314 (September 2007) Academic Search Premier. EBSCO. Grace Van Dyke Bird Library, Bakersfield, CA. 15 November 2008 ( http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct-true&db=aph&an=27009808&site=ehost-live .
For some the issue then arises when the pluripotent cells are removed from the blastocyst, as this very act negates the ability for the cell group to develop into a human being. "Note that the process of changing from totipotent to pluripotent to multipotent cells is not reversible -- that is, pluripotent stem cells do not produce totipotent stem cells, and multipotent stem cells do not produce pluripotent stem cells."
Borror, O'Rourke and Skirboll 54) Additionally, the proponents of stem cell work cite the pluripotent as incapable of producing a human being therefore not a destruction of life, hence leading to the Bush decision to ban the creation of new lines of stem cells, as it would require the destruction of further human totipotent cells.
Multipotent. The pluripotent stem cells undergo further specialization into multipotent stem cells, which are committed to giving rise to cells that have a particular function. Examples of…
Bagley, Margo A. "Patent First, Ask Questions Later: Morality and Biotechnology in Patent Law." William and Mary Law Review 45.2 (2003): 469+. Questia. 17 Jan. 2005
Researchers at Cornell University discovered that Monarch butterfly caterpillars died when they ate plants dusted with the pollen of Bt corn that was growing in nearby fields, and many scientists worry that with so much insecticide in the corn plants, insects might develop a resistance to it (Dyer 2002). These fears and concerns are echoed by Francis Fukuyama who believes that genetic enhancement will undermine the system of human rights by disrupting the boundary that encloses all humans in a single group, thus believes society should limit genetic science to allow therapy but prohibit enhancement, such as genetically altered food crops, and non-therapeutic procedures (Tobey 2003). In other words, enhancement will allow society to increase genotypic and phenotypic diversity, yet such diversity will press society to the point of losing its shared humanity (Tobey 2003).
Adams, endy a. (2002, January 01). Reconciling private benefit and public risk in biotechnology:…
Welsh, Whitney. (2005, March 01). Brave new worlds: philosophy, politics, and science in human biotechnology. Population and Development Review. Retrieved July 09, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site: http://www.highbeam.com /library/doc3.asp?DOCID=1G1:132710930&num
This article discusses the ethics and political landscape concerning genetic engineering, particularly the current White House administration. It includes some twenty references.
3. Embryonic stem cells can be used to help human beings who suffer from debilitating diseases for which no other solution offers hope. For this reason alone, the research should be legal, considering that the embryos from which the stem cells are derived cannot be shown to possess any type of noticeable consciousness. There is no moral reason to favor the use of animals in medical research over the use of embryonic stem cells, considering that the former are fully developed creatures who clearly have the potential to feel pain, whereas the latter demonstrate little more than potentiality. Furthermore, most embryonic stem cells are culled from discarded tissues used for in vitro fertilization. If in vitro fertilization is legal then so too should be the proper use of the leftover cell mass.
Human Reproduction and Development. (2004). Retrieved 22 Sept 2005, from the Ipui Department of Biology eb Site: http://www.biology.iupui.edu/biocourses/N100/2k4ch39repronotes.html
Human Reproduction and Development. (2004). Retrieved 22 Sept 2005, from the Ipui Department of Biology Web Site: http://www.biology.iupui.edu/biocourses/N100/2k4ch39repronotes.html
Irving, Dianne N. (2005). Framing the Debates on Human Cloning and Human Embryonic Stem Cells: Pluripotent vs. TOTIPOTENT. Retrieved 22 Sept 2005 at http://www.lifeissues.net/writers/irv/irv_100debatecloning1.html
Kischer, C. Ward. (2004). Human Development and Reconsideration of Ensoulment. Retrieved 22 Sept 2005 at http://www.lifeissues.net/writers/kisc/kisc_10humandevelopment.html
For example, the 1984 British government committee report suggested that "it is inconsistent with human dignity that a woman should use her uterus for financial profit and treat it as an incubator for someone else's child," in part because this threatens to undermine the traditional belief in an inviolable mother-child bond.
Opponents who criticize commercial surrogacy from this perspective frequently attempt to differentiate between commercial surrogacy and "altruistic" surrogacy, in which a surrogate carries a child without a fee, but this distinction is merely nominal, because the lack of an explicit payment structure does not make the decision to become a surrogate any less transactional, and furthermore, the potential for exploitation exists in either case.
Before considering how the law actually treats surrogacy, then, it is becoming clear that a general prohibition on commercial surrogacy represents a kind of undue restriction on the personal and financial autonomy of women, because there is…
BERKHOUT, S.G., 2008. Buns in the Oven: Objectification, Surrogacy, and Women's
Autonomy. Social Theory and Practice,34(1), pp. 95-117.
BRINSDEN, P.R., APPLETON, T.C., MURRAY, E., HUSSEIN, M. And AL, E., 2000.
Treatment by in vitro fertilisation with surrogacy: Experience of one British centre.
A scientist is a person who engages in systematic activities in order to gain knowledge. A person who makes use of scientific methods is also a scientist. The person must be an expert in one scientific field. A scientist will study the world, perform experiments, develop theories and write all this in papers (Weingart, 2012). Any person who is interested in the sciences is a scientist. From amateurs to professionals, provided the individual is curious to find out what would happen when he performs an experiment, the person is a scientist. Some of the famous scientists are Charles Darwin, Aristotle, Albert Einstein, Isaac Newton, and Leonardo Da Vinci. These scientists have been widely covered and spoken of in the media. These individuals have excelled in their respective fields. They have experimented and made theory discoveries that are still in use to date. Most of their works have not been…
Brossard, D., & Scheufele, D.A. (2013). Science, new media, and the public. Science, 339(6115), 40-41.
Jarman, R., & McClune, B. (2010). Developing students' ability to engage critically with science in the news: identifying elements of the 'media awareness' dimension. The Curriculum Journal, 21(1), 47-64.
Weingart, P. (2012). The lure of the mass media and its repercussions on science The Sciences' Media Connection -- Public Communication and its Repercussions (pp. 17-32): Springer.
Albert Schweitzer once stated, "A man is truly ethical only when he obeys the compulsion to help all life which he is able to assist, and shrinks from injuring anything that lives" (n.d.). A pronouncement that in 1952 - when he won the Nobel Peace Prize for his philosophy of "Reverence for Life" -- may have had a different meaning than it does today. Nowadays, one lives in a world where artificial insemination is a normal practice, where in vitro fertilization is a common practice, where life has the potential to begin outside the womb in a test tube, where the very definition of "life" has become increasingly complex. Consequently, the issue of what is considered "ethical" and what is considered "unethical" with regards to human reproduction methods has also become more complicated. To understand the ethical minefield that is modern human reproduction, one should consider the situation of Nadya…
Dobuzinskis, A. (1 June 2011). Octomom Doctor Loses California Medical License.
Reuters. Retrieved from http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/06/01/us-octomom -
Komaroff, A. (1999). Harvard Medical School Family Health Guide. Boston,
But if you want a baby badly enough, you will do it" (The Women's Health Council). Women are subjected to a wide range of drugs which have harmful side effects. Some drugs induced to facilitate ovulation have also caused infertility in the male child. When women are put through the consumption of such drugs, the chances of multiple births increases, thus the woman gives birth to twins, triplets or even more.
In 2000, 53% of infants born through AT were multiple births, compared to 3% of births in the general population. The twin rate was 22 times higher than the general population; the triplet and higher multiples rate was 50 times higher. Their higher risk for birth defects and low birth weight add to already over-burdened health care costs." (Marie Anderson and John Bruchalski)
Many couples cannot afford to bring up more than one child at a time and hence in…
1) Tomorrow's Child - Plot Synopsis [online website] Available at http://www.vh1.com/movies/movie/35838/plot.jhtml[Accessed on: 07/09/2005]
2) Magisterium of the Catholic Church. Instruction on respect for human life in its origin and on the dignity of procreation: replies to certain questions of the day (22 February 1987), Vatican City.
3) Steinbock B. Life before birth: the moral and legal status of embryos and fetuses. New York, Oxford University Press, 1992. Pages: 59-71.
4) Claudia Kalb with Karen Springen - "Brave New Babies" [online website] Available at http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/3990134/site/newsweek/ [Accessed on 07/09/2005]
Do patients understand what it means to donate tissue to science? Not only that, but use of EG cells confuses stem cell research with the debate over abortion, bring up the risk of biasing emotions (McDonald 7).
So, while stem cell research is an exciting new field that holds much promise, ethical problems arise to delay research, discovery of benefits or dangers, and involve many who have no knowledge of the complexities of the field. Though controversies usually accompany new discoveries in science, this biotechnological process involves manipulating the basis of life itself in embryonic stem cells. But the field is rapidly changing. hat is true today may be outmoded tomorrow. A neutral substitute for stem cells may be discovered that will prove to be the answer to these ethical questions.
Ethics Committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine. "Financial incentives in recruitment of oocyte donors." Fertil Steril 2004;…
Ethics Committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine. "Financial incentives in recruitment of oocyte donors." Fertil Steril 2004; 82:Suppl 1:S240-S244.
Hwang, W.S., Roh, S.I., Lee, B.C., et al. -- Patient-specific embryonic stem cells derived from human SNCT blastocysts." Science 2005;308.
Magnus, David and Cho, Mildred K. "Issues in oocyte donation for stem cell research." Science Express Magazine, Stanford Center for Biomedical Ethics and Department of Pediatrics, Vol. 308. no. 5729, June 2005. http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/summary/308/5729/1747 .
McDonald, Chris. "Stem cells: a pluripotent challenge." BioScan Vol. 13, Iss. 4, (Toronto Biotechnology Initiative.) Fall 2001.
Women Science Fiction Writers as Probing Pathfinders
Author Marge Piercy's Woman on the Edge of Time was written in 1976, and it has received critical acclaim for the science fiction future it depicts, but it was likely given literary wings by a bizarre science fiction tale written in 1818, according to a scholarly essay in Critique: Studies in contemporary Fiction (Seabury, 2001). The science fiction tale Seabury alludes to is in fact "often called the first work of science fiction," and that is the classic story of Frankenstein.
Additionally, Seabury uses a quote to tip the cap to Frankenstein's author, Mary Shelley, who, in penning Frankenstein, has written "perhaps the single most influential work of science fiction by a woman." And so, in the genre of feminist science fiction, even though Frankenstein is quite the opposite of feminine, to say the least, the author was clearly a pathfinder of tremendous significance for…
Davidson, Phebe. "Lost in Space: Probing Feminist Science fiction and Beyond." Belle
Lettres: A Review of Books by Women 9, 27-29.
Piercy, Marge. Woman on the Edge of Time. New York: Fawcett Crest, 1976.
Rudy, Cathy. "Ethics, reproduction, Utopia: Gender and Childbearing in 'Woman on the Edge of Time' and 'The Left Hand of Darkness'." NWSA Journal 9 (1997): 22-39.
His most famous work is his Utopia, a book in which he created his version of a perfect society and gave his name to such conceptions ever after as "utopias." The word is of Greek origin, a play on the Greek word eutopos, meaning "good place." In the book, More describes a pagan and communist city-state in which the institutions and policies are governed entirely by reason. The order and dignity of the state in this book contrasted sharply with the reality of statecraft in Christian Europe at the time, a region divided by self-interest and greed for power and riches. The book was also an expression of More's form of Humanism (Maynard 41). The term can also have broader application as a reference to any plans of government or schemes for social improvement which present the possibilities of a good society.
The society depicted in Never Let Me Go…
Ishiguro, Kazuo. Never Let Me Go. New York: Vintage Books, 2005.
Maynard, Theodore. Humanist as Hero: The Life of Sir Thomas More. New York: Macmillan, 1947.
High enaissance Movement and Its Most Celebrated Artists
The enaissance is referred to as a period of time where there was a great cultural movement that began in Italy during the early 1300's. It spread into other countries such as England, France, Germany, the Netherlands, and Spain. This era continued into the late 1400's and ended during the 1600's. The enaissance times were a period of rebirth and during this time many artists studied the art of ancient Greece and ome. Their desire was to recapture the spirit of the Greek and oman cultures in their own artistic, literary, and philosophic works. The cultures of ancient Greece and ome are often called classical antiquity. The enaissance thus represented a rebirth of these cultures and is therefore also known as the revival of antiquity or the revival of learning.
The artists' works include many aspects of the medieval times and incorporated a religious…
Leonardo da Vinci." Authors and Artists for Young Adults, Volume 40. Gale Group, 2001. Reproduced in Biography Resource Center. Farmington Hills, Mich.: The Gale Group. 2004. http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/BioRC
Michelangelo Buonarroti." Authors and Artists for Young Adults, Volume 43. Gale Group, 2002. Reproduced in Biography Resource Center. Farmington Hills, Mich.: The Gale Group. 2004.
Teratogens and Fetal Development
Teratogens can be described as agents that contribute to fetal injury and birth defects or an abnormality because of fetal exposure during pregnancy. Some of these agents that lead to fetal injury or birth defects include chemicals, environmental contaminants, infections, and drugs. These agents tend to result in such abnormality in fetal development when a woman is exposed to them during the term of the pregnancy. The agents are always discovered following an increased prevalence of a specific birth defect or abnormality. Pregnant women are increasingly susceptible to teratogens since these agents can be found in various settings at home in the working environment. Notably, the effect of the agents on fetal development is dependent on the kind of agent, duration, and extent of the exposure. Generally, teratogens and fetal development can be about legal and/or illegal drugs and the effects on the fetus while in uterus…
Aboubakr et. al. (2014). Embryotoxic and Teratogenic Effects of Norfloxacin in Pregnant
Female Albino Rats. Advances in Pharmacological Sciences, 2014, 1-6.
Bercovici, E. (2010). Prenatal and Perinatal Effects of Psychotropic Drugs on Neuro-cognitive
Development in the Fetus. Journal on Developmental Disabilities, 11(2), 1-20.
Parents be Allowed to Choose their aby's Gender?
THE TWO SIDES
Should Parents be Allowed to Choose their aby's Gender?
A revolutionary lab technique, called sperm sorting, can now establish the gender of an offspring (Mail Online, 2013). The sperm carries the sex chromosome of a future child and sorting involves choosing the desired sex chromosome and then inseminating a woman with it. Gender can also be selected by abortion and before the embryonic stage through IVF or in vitro fertilization. Gender selection has been the subject of much debate because of its many consequences (Mail Online).
Artificial insemination consists of inserting concentrated sperm into the uterus to achieve a greater chance of fertilization (Stephens, 2011). Other methods are used to choose the gender of the baby. One is by using a dye on the desired gender from the sperm and then returning the dyed cell into womb. The Ericsson method identifies the…
Dahl, E. (2003). Ethical issues in new uses of pre-implantation genetic diagnosis:
should parents be allowed to use pre-implantation genetic diagnosis to choose the sexual orientation of their children? Vol. 18 # 7, Human Reproduction. Retrieved on November 11, 2013 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12832358
Knoppers, B.M. et al. (2006). Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis: an overview of socio-
ethical and legal considerations. Vol. 7, Annual Review of Genomic and Human
Sex can be described as a biological distinction between males and females, particularly regarding reproductive functions. On the other hand gender tends to concentrate on socially constructed differences between men and women that reveal masculinity and feminity. More importantly while gender can be applied to individual difference, it can also be applied to institutional, cultural as well as structural difference.
There are theories that explain gender: Among them are biological theory and sociological theory. In terms of sociological theory, there are three concepts involved in explaining social science of gender. They include socialization, gender role, and opportunity structure. Gender role is described as a collection of acceptable behavior which is dissimilar in terms of sex within a given behavioral domain, such as parenting, in support of gendered norms. The sex determines the boundary of acceptable behavior, and where these boundaries have been violated there are consequences that follow as well…
Barbara L. Frankowski, Sexual Orientation and Adolescents, 2004.American Academy of Pediatrics.
J. Richard Udry, "The Nature of Gender" Vol.31, No4. Population Association of America . http://www.jstor.org/stable/2061790.
Susan E. Short, PhD, Yang Claire Yang, PhD, and Tania M. Jenkins, MA,. (2013) FRAMING HEALTH MATTERS Sex, Gender, Genetics, and Health, Vol 103, No. S1 | American Journal of Public Health
PSYCHOLOGICAL PESPECTIVES OF BEHAVIO AND MENTAL POCESSES
The behavioral theory by Watson, Pavlov, and Skinner provides a psychological perspective that facilitates the understanding of human behavior and mental processes. Ivan Pavlov investigated the classical conditioning while Watson used experimental laboratory techniques to reject introspective theories of behavior. However, Skinner focused on behaviorism related to common sense. Despite the variability of the researches conducted, they converge on an observable conclusion that behavior forms the basis of understanding one's mental activities. Environment plays a role in determining behavior. From their findings, observing one's behavior provides clues about their mental and psychological processes. Primarily, one's behavior is determined by the association between environmental stimuli and the magnitude of pleasure and pain that result from their actions. The stimuli have a profound effect on one's psychological and mental processes. The subconscious mind stores these pleasures and pain, which affects the mental process and psychological at…
Coon, D., Mitterer, J.O., Talbot, S., & Vanchella, C.M. (2010). Introduction to psychology: Gateways to mind and behavior. Belmont, Calif: Wadsworth Cengage Learning
innovations in agricultural technologies, the dire predictions of global famine made by Stanford University Professor Paul . Ehrlich in his book, The Population Bomb (1968) have not materialized to date. Nevertheless, hunger continues to persist in many regions of the world, especially its major cities, due in large part to urbanization and 7.5 million people die of hunger each month (Holmes, 2008). The hunger that does exist in the world today is largely the result of increased urbanization and national political leadership that either uses food as a weapon or lacks the resources or will to ensure that adequate food distribution is achieved in their countries (Wurwag, 2014). To determine the facts, this paper provides a review of the relevant literature concerning urbanization and the urban structure to identify those factors that are most responsible for preventing adequate distribution of food to urban residents. A summary of the research…
Ehrlich, P.R. (1968). The population bomb. New York: Ballantine Books.
Gonzalez-Pelaez, A. (2005). Human rights and world trade: Hunger in international society. London: Routledge.
Holmes, J. (2008, June-September). Losing 25,000 to hunger every day. UN Chronicle, 2-3, 14-
The organic compound Bisphenol-A, often abbreviated as BPA, is used to make polycarbonate plastic and epoxy resins. In the past, it was used primarily as a clear, strong plastic which was most often utilized in products such as baby bottles. This was because the BPA plastic is strong and easily-sterilized. Products like baby bottles require lots of use and quite a bit of abuse, such as being thrown around by a small child. Consequently, it proved useful to consumers because they would not have to replace the product regularly. BPA is also used in eyeglass lenses, medical materials, water bottles, CDs and DVDs, cellular telephones, computers, electronics, household appliances, safety shields, sporting equipment, and cars (Bisphenol A). This material is used in many products and consequently is an important factor in the manufacturing of other consumer products. However, there has been a debate in recent years about whether or not…
Baker, Nana (2008). The Body Toxic: How the Hazardous Chemistry of Everyday Things
Threatens our Health and Well-Being. New York: North Point Press.
"Bisphenol A (BPA)" (2010). FDA. Retrieved from http://www.fda.gov/newsevents/publichealthfocus/ucm064437.htm
"Bisphenol A: Information Sheet" (2002). Bisphenol A Global Industry Group.
Buddhist Psychology in the Poetry of Philip Larkin
Philip Larkin is not ordinarily thought of as a Buddhist. Larkin was -- in the opinion of many literary critics -- the quintessential English poet of the latter half of the twentieth century, and the world (and worldview) captured in his poems is largely one that reflects Britain in its new post-war and post-imperial identity. To some extent this made Larkin's poetry a clear-eyed examination of a society in the process of making do with less -- this is, I think, the meaning behind Larkin's often-quoted caustic comment, regarding the sources of his poetic inspiration, that "deprivation is for me what daffodils are for Wordsworth." But the simple fact is that Larkin is basically a pessimist, and it seems that in many cases -- most famously Schopenhauer, in addition to the long list of European writers who were directly influenced by Schopenhauerian thought…
Ancient Egyptian Gynecology
In ancient Egypt, sex was open and untainted by guilt. It was considered an important part of life and both single and married couples had sex. Ancient Egyptian religious shows signs of adultery, incest, homosexuality, masturbation and necrophilia. Masculinity and femininity were strongly linked with the ability to conceive and bear children.
Ancient Egyptians saw fertile women as the most attractive ones. A woman who had children was believed to be more fortunate than a woman without children. Similarly, men who bore children were seen as more masculine than those who did not.
The Egyptians enjoyed close family relationships in Egyptian mythology. The fact that they had no taboo against incest leads to the conclusion that incest may have been normal in ancient Egypt.
Egyptian men had false penises attached to their mummies while Egyptian women had artificial nipples attached. oth would become fully functional in the afterlife, where they were…
Antelme, Ruth...(et al.). Sacred Sexuality in Ancient Egypt: The Erotic Secrets of the Forbidden Papyrus. Inner Traditions 1997.
Women In History. Encyclopedia Britannica 2001. http://www.britannica.com/women/articles/contraception.html
Tour Egypt Website 1996. http://www.touregypt.net/magazine/mag05012001/magf4.htm
Lesko, Barbara. The Remarkable Women of Ancient Egypt. Scribe 1987.
Five years would be the period selected, given that the only other long-term study of such couples, that of Johansoon's et al. (2009), was selected. These questionnaires would solicit information regarding fertility treatments the couple sought, what kinds of treatment, if the treatment was successful, and the relative health of the participants' marriage.
The longitudinal nature of this study would examine the relative long-term impact of infertility upon marriage, and use a cross-comparison of different subgroups. The main groupings would be individuals in what would be called 'happy' or 'healthy' marriages. For the purposes of this study, happiness would be defined as marriages in which the participants answered similarly for their single responses for the questionnaire, had not sought counseling for their marriage, had not contemplated divorce or separation, and expressed realistic attitudes about the prospect of having a child and its role in making their marriage more or less…
Benasutti, R.D. (2003). Infertility: Experiences and Meanings. Journal of Couple & Relationship Therapy: Innovations in Clinical and Educational Interventions, 2 (4), 51-72. Retrieved July 15, 2009, from
Chou, K.L, & I. Chi. (2004, May). Childlessness and psychological well-being in Chinese older adults. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 19 (5), 449-457.
H. Holter, L. Anderheim, C. Bergh, et al. (2006). First IVF treatment-short-term impact on psychological well- being and the marital relationship, Human Reproduction, 21 (12),
The papacy of Pope John Paul II is indicative of this inevitable clash occurring. During his reign the pope refused to change the Catholic Church's conservative stance towards various social issues despite facing increasing dissent from within. When he allied himself with conservative Muslim leaders in an attempt to influence the outcome of the 1994 United Nations International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo he was regarded by the secular world as having caused a major controversy ("John Paul II," 2005). This example reveals how due to lack of compromise church and state will continue to experience conflict so long as issues such as the practice of homosexuality, abortion, "artificial" methods of human reproduction and birth control, and euthanasia remain up for debate within secular societies.
John Paul II" (N.D.) in the Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia Standard…
John Paul II" (N.D.) in the Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia Standard 2005 CD.
Abortion trends varied widely by state as well. "Teenage abortion rates were highest in New York (41 per 1,000), New Jersey, Nevada, Delaware and Connecticut. By contrast, teenagers in South Dakota (6 per 1,000), Utah, Kentucky, Nebraska and North
Dakota all had abortion rates of eight or fewer per 1,000 women aged 15 -- 19. More than half of teenage pregnancies ended in abortion in New Jersey, New York and Connecticut" (Guttmacher, 2010). It is important to keep in mind that teenage abortion rates may reflect multiple issues. First, they may reflect that teenager's own personal beliefs and desire to raise a baby. However, they may also reflect prevailing societal norms in that geographic area, which can make it difficult, and even practically impossible, for pregnant teenagers to obtain abortions.
Portrayal in popular culture
Perhaps one of the most alarming things about teen pregnancy is that it is receiving more and more…
Cape Fear Teen Health Council. (2006). Why is teen pregnancy a problem? Retrieved April 2,
2012 from http://www.capefearteen.org/cfthc.php?section=statistics&record_id=1
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2012). Prepregnancy contraceptive use among teens with unintended pregnancies resulting in live births- Pregnancy risk assessment monitoring system (PRAMS), 2004-2008. Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 61(2), 25-29.
Drayton, V., Montgomery, S., Modeste, N., Frye-Anderson, B. (2002-2003). The health belief model as a predictor of repeat pregnancies among Jamaican teenage mothers. International Quarterly of Community Health Education, 21(1), 67-81.
Murdock (4 functions family) Paragraph 2 - Describe evaluate Parsons (2 functions
When attempting to identify the various different functions that the family provides to both individuals and to collective groups in society, it becomes necessary to illustrate the principles of a number of different vantage points on this subject. This document will consider those of functionalists, Marxists, radical feminists and interpetivists in attempts to reach a consensus opinion.
George Murdock was one of the principle functionalists, and advanced the viewpoint that the family provides four vital functions for individuals and units within society. He believed that the family was a basic social unit that lived in a single residence that consisted of at least a pair of adults of both sexes and at least one child. One of the four main functions that Murdock believed the family provided for individuals was a means of having a sexual relationship that was…
Cohen, D, & Crabtree, B 2006 'The Interpretivist Paradigm', Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, http://www.qualres.org/HomeInte-3516.html
Delphy, C, & Leonard, D 1988 'Patriarchy, Domestic Mode of Production, Gender, and Class', Marxism and the Interpretation of Culture, University of Illinois Press, Urbana.
Haralambos, M 2008, Sociology: Themes and Perspectives, 7th revised edn. Collins, New York.
McLellan, DT, & Chambre, H 2012, 'Marxism', Encyclopedia Britannica. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/367344/Marxism
For instance, according to Begley, "Men who were promiscuous back then were more evolutionarily fit since men who spread their seed widely left more descendants. By similar logic, evolutionary psychologists argued, women who were monogamous were fitter; by being choosy about their mates and picking only those with good genes, they could have healthier children" (2009, p. 52). Although modern men and women may not look like Cro-Magnums, they all want to act like them deep down inside because of these primordial drives. In sum, Begley concludes that, "We all carry genes that led to reproductive success in the Stone Age, and that as a result men are genetically driven to be promiscuous and women to be coy, that men have a biological disposition to rape and to kill mates who cheat on them, and that every human behavior is 'adaptive' -- that is, helpful to reproduction" (emphasis added)…
Begley, S. (2009, June 29). Why do we rape, kill and sleep around? Newsweek, 153(26), 52.
Black's law dictionary. (1991). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.
Druzin, B.H. & Li, J.C. (2011, Spring). The criminalization of lying: Under what circumstances, if any, should lies be made criminal? Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 101(2), 529-540.
Duke, S. (2009, April 27). Kinsey: Deviancy is the new normal. The New American, 25(9), 33-35.
It deals with inbuilt societal problems that cannot simply be dealt with due to the fact that they are so internalized. They therefore require a restructuring of societal systems -- that is, a transition and this can be done -- according to Rotman and Loorbach (2008) - by looking into the social structure of the problem
Transition management has already come a long way. As Rotman and Loorbach D (2008) observe:
The progress made in practice as well as the theoretical developments shows that modern times require experimental, innovative, multidisciplinary and participative forms of governance like transition management. In line with the underlying philosophy we cannot be certain about this, but transition management seems to be in tune with present societal demands, research and policy.
At the same time: "We are, however, also a long way from realizing a sustainable society, which means that there are ample challenges for the future" (ibid).
Australian Govt (2007)Tackling Wicked Problems. pdf.
BBC How many people can live on planet earth?
Castro (2004) Sustainable Development: Mainstream and Critical Perspectives Organization Environment; 17; 195
imilarly, the phases of the image evolves from art reflecting basic reality, through three progressive stages that culminate in art that has no relation to reality at all. The same happens with utopian and science fiction writing. The first stage requires no such writing, as the world is viewed as utopian in its current state. The second stage recognizes the world as imperfect, and compensates for this by means of romantic dreams (Mann). The third stage revolves around technological dreams such as robots and machines, while the final stage once again culminates in an end to science fiction: the hyperreal absorbs science fiction into a new genre related to the Internet and other types of mass media.
There are many examples of the hyperreal in the modern media. Perhaps the most striking of these is entertainment centers such as Disney World. These worlds are presented as reality to visitors, who willingly…
Benjamin, Walter. "The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction." 1936.
Kazis, Richard. "Benjamin's age of mechanical reproduction." Jump Cut, no. 15, 1977. http://web.bentley.edu/empl/c/rcrooks/toolbox/common_knowledge/general_communication/benjamin.html
Mann, Doug. "Jean Baudrillard: A Very Short Introduction." 2009. http://publish.uwo.ca/~dmann/baudrillard1.htm
red wolf and different aspects related to this species. I have included information about its taxonomy, morphology & anatomy, distribution, habitat, feeding, predators, behavior, reproduction, development and economic value. Over all, I have given thorough information regarding the life and habits of the red wolf that is now an endangered animal.
The red wolf is a species of wolf that is smaller in size and its color varies from reddish gray to almost black. It is commonly known as red wolf. The red wolf is considered as the most beautiful of all the wolves on the planet (Sutton, 1998). However, it has been given the scientific name of Canis rufus. It belongs to the Family Canidae and Order Carnivora (Kelly & Phillips, 2000, p. 247). As far as the status of red wolf is concerned, it has been categorized as an endangered living creature as this species of wolf has…
Dahl, M. (1997). The Wolf. Minnesota: Capstone Press. Retrieved March 22, 2013, from http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=HomHpmeIyWkC&printsec=frontcover&dq=the+ wolf&hl=en&sa=X&ei=f_FNUZ2tHeqR7AbG5YHwBA&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAA
Kelly, B.T., & Phillips, M.K. (2000). Red Wolf. Endangered Animals: A Reference Guide to Conflicting Issues (p. 247+). Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. Print.
Mech, L.D., & Boitani, L. (2003). Wolves: Behavior, Ecology, and Conservation. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. Print.
Paradiso, J.L., & Nowak, R.M. (1972, November 29). Canis rufus. Mammalian Species, 22, 1-4. Retrieved March 22, 2013, from http://www.science.smith.edu/msi/pdf/i0076-3519-022-01-0001.pdf
The focus of this work is to examine multi-ethnic literature and focus on treating humans like farm animals that can be manipulated for various purposes. Multi-Ethnic literature offers a glimpse into the lives of the various writers of this literature and into the lives of various ethnic groups and the way that they view life and society and their experiences. Examined in this study are various writers including Tupac Shakar, Dorothy West, Petry, and others.
A Rose Grows From Concrete
One might be surprised to learn that Tupac Shakar was the writer of many sensitive poems. Upon his death in 1996, Tupac's mother released a collection of poems entitled 'A Rose Grows From Concrete', which includes various love poems among the 72 poems in the collection. Tupac writes:
Things that make hearts break.
And people who dream with their eyes open
And souls who have given up hoping.
It is reported…
Jones, SL (2012) Rereading the Harlem Renaissance: Race, Class and Gender in the Fiction of Jessie Fauset, Zora Neale Hurston and Dorothy West. Greenwood Publishing Group. 2002. Retrieved from: http://books.google.com/books?id=NeRtokbeXDEC&dq=social,+political+and+economic+oppression,+created+a+climate+in+which+Dorothy+West+felt+compelled+to+refrain+from+completing+or+actively+pursuing+a+publisher+for+The+Wedding.+West%E2%80%99s+nearly+half-a-century+space+between+publication+of+The+Living+Is+Easy+ (1948)+and+The+Wedding+(1995)+signifies+the+complexities+of+African+American+literature+and+the+debate+over+which+aesthetics%E2%80%94folk,+bourgeois,+and+proletarian%E2%80%94should+take+preeminence+at+a+given+time&source=gbs_navlinks_s
Edwards, Walter. "From poetry to rap: the lyrics of Tupac Shakur. " The Western Journal of Black Studies. 26.2 (Summer 2002): 61(10). Expanded Academic ASAP. Gale. College of Alameda. 17 Sept. 2008
Hale, JC (1985) The Jailing of Cecelia Hale. University of New Mexico Press. Retrieved from: http://books.google.com/books?id=eW6RGpubQ9UC&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=false
Pat Mora (2012) Artist Page. Retrieved from: http://voices.cla.umn.edu/artistpages/mora_pat.php
Microbiome can be defined as the sum of microbes, their genetic genomes and their environmental interactions in a particular environment. The word Microbiome was inverted by Joshua Lederberg, one of the giants of molecular biology to designate all microbes. He emphasized that microorganisms inhabiting the human body should be included as part of the human genome, reason on the influence on human body physiology (Predator, 2012).
However, microbes are seen to be the dominant life form of Earth. Its bacteria organisms which live on the plant are outnumbering all other bacteria combined. According to Joshua Lederberg, Microbiome bacteria dominate not only the planet, but also new people. However, the body of each one of us is ten (10) times more microbial cells than other cells which are contained in the human body (Predators, 2012). Therefore, the number of microbial genes in the human body is one hundred and fifty (150) times…
NAS. Interplay of the Microbiome, Environmental Stressors, and Human Health [workshop], 27 -- 28 April 2011, Washington, DC. Washington, DC:National Academies of Sciences (2011). Available: http://tinyurl.com/4xotab3 [accessed 19 Jul 2011]
Rappaport SM, Smith MT. Environment and disease risks. Science 330(6003):460 -- 461. 2010. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1192603
The Human Microbiome Project is an NIH program intended to characterize microbial communities at several different sites on the human body (nose, mouth, gastrointestinal tract, skin, and urogenital tract) and to investigate their role in health and disease.
The European Commission's Metagenomics of the Human Intestinal Tract consortium investigates associations between human intestinal microbiota, human health, and disease.
All living things are complex organisms that are made up of cells. Some are made up of a single cell while others comprise of numerous cells working together. Cells are the basic functional and structural units of living organisms and are known to be the building blocks of life. In humans it is from a group of cells that tissues are made and from tissues that organs are made which enable beings to live.
Cells obtain food and oxygen through their membranes and each membrane has a specific area which can serve contents of only a given volume. Any increase in volume of the cell requires that the area of the membrane increases. Basically, when cells grow the membrane becomes insufficient in aiding the movement of substances in and out and thus to maintain a favourable surface area to volume ratio, cell division must take place. Furthermore, cell division ensures…
Bolsover, S., E. Shephard, H. White, and J. Hyams. Cell Biology: A Short Course. 3. Wiley-
Blackwell, 2011. 432.
Conger, Krista. "Scientists turn skin cells into neural precursors, bypassing stem-cell stage." Stanford School of Medicine. n. page. Print.
Morgan, David. The Cell Cycle: Principles of Control. New Science Press, 2007.
Social capital can have both positive and negative effects, as is evidenced in the benefits of 'teamwork,' of sharing ideas, of using distinct talents of different workers, and also of soliciting input from individuals with different experiences, both cultural and knowledge-based, that can add to the organization's efficiency. An it person, a person of Japanese-American background, and someone who has studied abroad, for example, could all add input to improve a marketing campaign directed to Far East clients.
However, in our diverse society where culture is inexorably bound to one's identity, and personal and cultural identity are often seen as synonymous, it is difficult to 'put aside' one's identity at the door of a friendly, informal American company. The workers' diverse social networks outside the company have created a clash of diverse identities, rather than generated a workplace made strong by diversity. The manager must create a common mission statement…
Gould's and Mayr's biological species concept, as presented by Stamos (2008). According to these scientists and to this species concept, two populations are termed as belonging to the same species if they are capable of interbreeding.
So, as Stamos further exemplifies, the chimpanzees form a single species, because they are capable of interbreeding, they are producing offspring. Human beings and chimpanzees are not capable of producing offspring together, so they belong to two different species. Furthermore, two races of dogs belong to the same species: they are capable of interbreeding and the resulting dog is also fertile. However, a horse and a donkey belong to different species: while they are able to interbreed, their resulting offspring is not itself fertile.
To sum up, my understand is that humans belong to the same species because of reproductive compatibility. At the same time, the human species is formed of different races, whereby the…
1. Stamos, David, (2011). Evolution and the Big Questions: Sex, Race, Religion, and Other Matters. John Wiley & Sons
2. Barnosky, A. et al. (2011). Has the Earth's sixth mass extinction already arrived? 3 MARCH 2011 | VOL 471 | NATURE | 51-55
3. Hill, Kevin, (1993). The Endangered Species Act: What Do We Mean
by Species? Boston College Environmental Affairs Law Review. Volume 20, Issue 2, Article 3
But when it just recently occurred in 2004 at a store in Jonquiere, British Columbia, the reader must appreciate that a real battle had been won. The original efforts of that particular store for example had the local labor Commission reject certification by a margin of 74 to 65. When the union announced that it won the coveted certification at Quebec, it was quite a blow to the retailer. The Quebec Labour elations Commission issued the order certifying the United Food and Commercial Workers Union (UFCW) as the bargaining agent of employees in Wal-Mart's store in Jonquiere. As noted, the reason a victory of this magnitude is huge is because of the policies and tactics used by Wal-Mart. The retailer works diligently to prevent its workforce from engaging in any collective action and they have consistently shown that they are willing to cross the line to guarantee their position.
Baek, Seung Wook. (2000.) "The Changing Trade Unions in China." Journal of Contemporary Asia: March.
Budd, John W. (1994). "The Effect of Multinational Institutions on Strike Activity in Canada." Industrial and Labor Relations Review.
Corbett, Brian (2002). "Southern hospitality." Ward's Auto World, August.
Delsohn, Gary. (1997.) "UPS Strike May Revive American Labor Movement." Knight Ridder/Tribune Business News: Sept.
He has to object to it to keep from confronting it in himself. The Oklahoman is not so cynical, however, for he immediately grasps hold of Parr's contradiction and cries out, "Yeah, and how about hanging the bastard? That's pretty goddam cold-blooded too" (Capote 306). The Oklahoman objects to the murder, which he views as a product of that coldness which he hears in Parr's words. The Oklahoman may represent a kind of outsider, not yet tainted by the American thirst for blood and sentimentality. To save the killer, he is willing to grant mercy, if only it will help put an end to the coldness.
At this point another man, the Reverend Post, interjects his thoughts. He seems to understand something of mercy, but at the same time he despairs of ever seeing it: "ell,' he said, passing around a snapshot reproduction of Perry Smith's portrait of Jesus, 'any…
Capote, Truman. In Cold Blood. NY: Vintage, 1994.
Mechanisms of Interspecies Senescence
The nature of human experience has impelled us throughout time to ponder mortality and immortality. Today, biologists are actually beginning to provide answers to what were formally purely philosophical and religious questions. hat follows is a discussion of the mechanisms underlying biological mortality and immortality, otherwise known as senescence.
In terms of biological immortality, the cnidarian Hydra stands out. Some hydra species have been shown to survive indefinitely under laboratory conditions, by relying on asexual reproduction (Bosch, 2009, p. 484). Bosch suggests that asexual budding confers an evolutionary advantage to Hydra, because it provides a mechanism for generating enough offspring to survive competition and predation pressures from other species. Rapid asexual budding, in turn, requires cells to proliferate continuously. In other words, the stem cell populations in Hydra, which give rise to the various cell types required to make a complete organism, appear to be immortal. This is…
Bosch, Thomas C.G. (2009). Hydra and the Evolution of Stem Cells. Bioessays, 31, 478-486.
Metcalfe, Neil B. And Alonso-Alvarez, Carlos. (2010). Oxidative stress as a life-history constraint: The role of oxygen species in shaping phenotypes from conception to death. Functional Ecology, 24, 984-996.
Rando, Thomas A. And Chang, Howard Y. (2012). Aging, rejuvenation, and epigenetic reprogramming: Resetting the aging clock. Cell, 148, 46-57.
Obedience, Morality and the Scientific Process in Milgram
During the period between 1963 and 1974, social psychologist, professor and theorist Stanley Milgram published a landmark series of findings regarding the nature of morality, authority and obedience. Compelled by the recently revealed atrocities of the Holocaust, Milgram was driven to better understand the kinds of institutional forces that could make ostensibly ordinary men and women commit acts of such heinous proportions as did the Nazis. This would lead to a series of experiments that were as controversial as they were revelatory. In spite of the many criticisms that have been applied to Milgram's experiment, both in terms of its empirical control and its ethicality, the discussion here makes the case that the Milgram Shock experiments would illustrate the connection between obedience and the surrender of personal moral responsibility.
This is to argue that in spite of the flaws in his experiments, Milgram would…
Gibson, S. (2011). Milgram's Obedience Experiments: A Rhetorical Analysis. British Journal of Social Psychology, 52(2), 290-309.
Navarick, D.J. (2012). Historical psychology and the Milgram paradigm: Test of an experimentally derived model of defiance using accounts of massacres by Nazi Reserve Police Battalion 101. The Psychological Record, 62, 133-154.
Nicholson, I. (2011). Torture at Yale: Experimental Subjects, Laboratory Torment and the 'rehabilitation' of Milgram's 'Obedience to Authority'. Theory & Psychology, 21(737).
Russell, N.J.C. (2010). Milgram's Obedience to Authority Experiments: Origins and Early Evolution. British Journal of Social Psychology, 50, 140-162.
The notion of originality relates necessarily to the idea of authenticity and to the work's authority, but with the technological revolution the issues of authenticity and originality has become irrelevant. Mass reproduction creates copies that possess an independence from the original; they can transcend the spatial and visual limitations of the original's physical tangibility and susceptibility to temporal and material's transformation with age and deterioration. As the art work's substantive duration ceases to matter, the art object loses its authority or its aura, the "unique phenomenon of a distance, however close it may be" (Benjamin Walter).
The impact on humanity has been massive, the previous art piece that was accessible and approachable to few, is now available for all. The application of reproduction means has not only increased the number of admirers associated with particular art piece, but it has also provided admirers with research and investigation opportunities. Although the…
Walter Benjamin- The Art of Work in Age of Mechanical Reproduction.
Esther Leslie- Walter Benjamin: Overpowering Conformism.
What is Cnidaria? What is it made up of? Who are the members that belong to his group? Cnidaria is an exclusively aquatic phylum. It is a group that is represented by the members, who are also called 'polyps', and these are sea anemones and corals, and also by 'medusae', which are creatures like the jellyfish. In general, both a polypoid as well as a medusoid cnidarian will be either radially or biradially symmetrical and it is an uncephalized animal with one single body opening, which is the mouth. Stinging capsules, which are embedded in the tentacles that are placed around the mouth, generally surrounds the mouth. These stinging capsules are also known as 'nematocysts', and these are capable of acting both as agents of defense as well as of offense. The most important distinguishing feature of a phylum is the presence of the intrinsic nematocysts, and in turn,…
"About Corals, anemones, and their kin" Retrieved From
http://www.augsburg.edu/biology/aquaria/SpecialTopicsFiles/AboutCoralsAnemonesAndKin.html Accessed on 21 June, 2005
"Features unique to Cnidarians and to Ctenophores" Retrieved From
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