Human Reproduction Essays (Examples)

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Human Papilloma Virus Vaccine Human Papilloma Virus

Words: 3343 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61015170

Human Papilloma Virus Vaccine

Human Papilloma Virus

The paper deals with HPV epidemiology and associated diseases, the licensed HPV vaccines, recommendations of ACIP, concerns on mandating the HPV vaccine among young girls and the personal perspective on HPV vaccination issue. The Human Papilloma Virus infection is incredibly high and almost 80% of the population is expected to get infected with the virus at any stage of life. The virus is normally cleared by the immune system quite easily but persistent infection may lead to various types of cancers. Since the development of HPV vaccine, a lot of research, media coverage, and policies have been made to deal with. In U.S., only one-third of the pre-adolescent girls have acquired the three dose HPV vaccine. Thus, the question of its mandate arises. ACIP's provided recommendations are a big step towards the increased awareness and implementation of HPV vaccine program.

All the latest…… [Read More]

References

Arvis, L. (2005). Merck and GSK target HPV. Chemical Market Reporter; 267 (17): 21

Castellsague, X. (2008). Natural History and Epidemiology of HPV Infection and Cervical Cancer. Gynecologic Oncology. 110, 4-7.

Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (2007). Quadrivalent Human Papillomavirus Vaccine.Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 56.

"HPV-Associated Cancers Statistics" (2012).CDC.gov. Retrieved from www.cdc.gov/cancer/hpv/statistics/
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Human Biological Variation Is Human

Words: 2690 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55012786



Another psychological approach studied the physical basis for emotion. LeDoux (1995, p. 209+) noted, "Scientists concerned with human nature have not been able to reach a consensus about what emotion is and what place emotion should have in a theory of mind and behavior." He proposed, however, that "findings about the neural basis of emotion might also suggest new insights into the functional organization of emotion that were not apparent from psychological findings alone. The brain, in other words, can constrain and inform our ideas about the nature of emotion." This would seem to play into any discussion of genetics vs. culture as emotion is viewed, accurately or not, as a construct of societal norms in large part. Because fear is a common part of human life, LeDoux uses it to investigate his theories. "The expression of fear is conserved to a large extent across human cultures and at least…… [Read More]

Moore, J. (2002). Some thoughts on the relation between behavior analysis and behavioral neuroscience. The Psychological Record, 52(3), 261+. Retrieved November 19, 2004, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com.

Suh, Eunkook M. 2002. Cultural influences on personality. Annual Review of Psychology;

Retrieved November 19, 2004 from Highbeam database, http://www.highbeam.com.
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Human Resources and Cultural Context

Words: 837 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83126041

Data was collected and analyzed as these study and focus group discussions took place (Thomas, Fried, Johnson, and Stilwell, 2010). The data was also compiled and sent to many different human resource offices and operations in order to gain unique insight from all corners of the world. These compilations of conversations helped to identify the contributing factors to rural clinic success in the 49 different countries while, at the same time, offering up examples and ideas for how improvements could be made.

The conclusions were relatively different among each country or population that was analyzed, depending on the specificities of the rural areas in question. Overall, the case study concluded that more effective, accurate communication coupled with greater expertise and skills competencies were able to overcome the lack of physical and medical resources in nearly every situation (Thomas, Fried, Johnson, and Stilwell, 2010). This is to say that healthcare professionals…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Salkind, Neil J. (2003). Exploring Research. Prentice Hall: Upper Saddle River, NJ.

Thomas, Annamma; Fried, Grace P.; Johnson, Peter; and Stilwell, Barbara J. (2010). "Sharing

best practices through online communities of practice: a case study." Human Resources for Health. Vol. 8, No. 25. Pp. 19-28.
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Human Population There Are Two Primary Biological

Words: 565 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25464856

Human Population

There are two primary biological mechanisms that determine the growth and suspension of species: natality (birth) on the one hand, and mortality (death), on the other. Amongst humans, other factors may intervene in their natality factor and these include economics, migration, physical upkeep, and social forces of various sorts (Pearl, (1927). This is due to the fact that humans have a rational capacity that other organisms lack, hence humans can, using secondary factors, generally manufacture and design their own rate of growth, as well as engage in reproductive decision-making and in general decisions that lead to sustaining or annihilating their species. To that end, they can decide (which they have done at times) to annihilate one or other subcategories of their species, as well as to destroy themselves. Other animals, on the other hand, act in an instinctive manner, and lacking this rational choice-making ability, follow a more…… [Read More]

Reference

Cunningham, W.P., & Cunningham, M.A.(2009). Principals of Environmental Science: Inquiry & Applications (5th ed.) USA: McGraw Hill.

Pearl, R., (1927). The growth of populations. The Quarterly Review of Biology, 2, 532

Rosen, F. (2003). Classical Utilitarianism from Hume to Mill. USA: Routledge.
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Human Papillomavirus

Words: 1450 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41055836

Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a virus that causes warts. HPV is one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). It belongs to the Papovaviridae family. HPV is a small oncogenic DNA virus, which infects epithelial cells of skin and mucous membranes. The epithelial surfaces include all areas covered by skin and/or mucous membranes of the mouth, genital and anus (the area that poop comes out of). A definitive diagnosis of HPV infection depends on the detection of nucleic acids (DNA or NA) or proteins.

Morphology

HPV is a relatively small, non-enveloped virus, and 55 nm in diameter. It has an icosahedral capsid composed of 72 capsomers, which contain at least two capsid proteins, L1 and L2. Each capsomer is a pentamer of the major capsid protein, L1. Each virion capsid contains several copies (about 12 per virion) of the minor capsid protein, L2. The virus is said to somewhat…… [Read More]

References

Anderson, N. And Pearsall, R. (2004). Microbiology a human Perspective. New York: Mc-Graw Hill

Burd, E. (2003) Human Papillomavirus and Cervical Cancer -- Burd 16 (1): 1 -- Clinical

Microbiology Reviews [Online]. [Accessed 25th April 2005]. Available from World Wide

Web:
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Human Reproductive Health and Sexuality

Words: 629 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94387018

Ideally, the diaphragm is used with contraceptive agents to increase effectiveness. The male condom covers the entire penis to prevent any sperm from entering the female after ejaculation. The female condom works on the same principle, only instead of fitting around the penis, it is designed to line the inside of the vagina where it is intended to perform the same function (Taylor, Lillis, & LeMone, 2005).

Chemical contraception includes oral birth control pills, most of which contain various combinations of estrogen-based hormones designed to inhibit ovulation. Other forms of chemical contraception include skin patches and subcutaneous implants that perform the same essential function as oral contraception except directly through the circulatory system. Similarly, injectable contraceptives such as Depo-Provera eliminate the need for oral pills as well as for estrogen because Depo-Provera uses progestin instead of estrogen, which is safer for many women and associated with fewer side effects. Generally,…… [Read More]

References:

Taylor, C., Lillis, C., LeMone, P. (2005). Fundamentals of Nursing: The Art and Science

of Nursing Care. Philadelphia: Lippincott, Williams, and Wilkins.
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Human Resources Management Trends and Issues Emotional Intelligence Ei in the Workplace

Words: 982 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52583938

Emotional Intelligence

Although the recently used term "Emotional Intelligence" is an offshoot of decades of psychological study, much confusion exists on its meaning and application. In addition, the amount of academic studies in this area has been relatively few. Most of the writings have been done in nonscientific ways. The purpose of this thesis would be to conduct a thorough historical overview of the topic and recommendations for further study to see how this measurement tool could best be used in a business setting.

In 1985, graduate student Wayne Leon Payne wrote a doctoral dissertation including the term "emotional intelligence." Five years later, a paper by professors at American University of New Hampshire, State University of New York and Yale University (Mayer, DiPaolo, and Salovey, 1990) clarified the definition of emotional intelligence (EI) as "the accurate appraisal and expression of emotions in oneself and others and the regulation of emotion…… [Read More]

References Cited

Ashkanasy, N.M. (2003). Emotions in organizations: A muhilevel perspective. In F. Dansereau & F.J. Yammarino (Eds.), Research in multilevel issues, vol. 2: Multi-level issues in organizational behavior and strategy, 9-54. Oxford, UK: Elsevier Science.

Bar-On, R. (1997). The Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i): A test of emotional intelligence. Toronto: Multi-Health Systems.

Cadman C, Brewer J (2001) Emotional intelligence: a vital prerequisite for recruitment in nursing. Journal of Nursing Management. 9(6), 321-324.

Cherniss, C. And Adler, M. (2000). Promoting Emotional Intelligence in organizations. Alexandria, Virginia: ASTD.
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HIV Human Immunodeficiency Virus HIV Is a

Words: 1160 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77149589

HIV

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is a virus that attacks the immune system causing the individual to be at risk for opportunity infections, or infections that come about because the immune system is weak. It is a slow progressive disease that is present throughout the body. Humans can get infected with HIV through contact with tissues, such as vaginal, anal area, mouth, eyes, or a break in the skin, such as a wound. It is diagnosed with blood tests and treated with a combination of drug therapies. There has been no cure found for HIV, so the person ends up dying from the virus in the long run.

The most common way HIV is spread is through sexual contact, needle sharing, and transmission from an infected mother to a baby through pregnancy, labor, or breastfeeding. It is spread by body secretions of an infected person to tissues of another person.…… [Read More]

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Science Marches Forward Reproductive Cloning of Humans

Words: 1138 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74748313

science marches forward, reproductive cloning of humans will likely become a reality. It has already been accomplished with dogs, cats, cows and monkeys. This means that one day a person will be able to have a child with his/her own cells. hat do you think some of the family law issues will be as this form of alternative reproduction becomes a reality?

As soon as Dr. Ian ilmut made a breakthrough announcement that he, and his team, had successfully cloned an adult sheep in 1997, the salience of the controversy about cloning humans and genetic modifications in the human genome virtually erupted (Rose, 1999). It became clear at this point that it was feasibly possible to conduct a range of scientifically assisted reproduction such as human cloning for example. There could also be a mix of genetic information bestowed on a child. For example, family planning could resemble something along…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Aldrich, L. (2010). New York's One Judge-One Family Response to Family Violence. Juvenille Family Court, 77-86.

Berman, D., & Alfini, J. (2012). Lawyer Colonization of Family Mediation: Consequences and Implications. Marquette Law Review, 95-887.

Edwards, L. (2008). Child Protection Mediation: A 25-Year Perspective. Family Court Review, 69-80.

MacDowell, E. (2011). When Courts Collide: Integrated Domestic Violence Courts and Court Pluralism. Texas Journal of Women and the Law, 95.
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Ethics of Human Cloning in 1971 Nobel

Words: 3026 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65746623

Ethics of Human Cloning

In 1971, Nobel Prize winning-scientist James atson wrote an article warning about the growing possibility of a "clonal man." Because of both the moral and social dangers cloning posed to humankind, atson called for a worldwide ban on any research leading to cloning technology (atson 8).

Until then, cloning had been largely relegated to the realm of science fiction. Scientific research concerning cloning and in vitro fertilization was obtuse and technical, and hardly written about in the news. atson, however, was a highly-respected scientist, a Harvard professor famous for his discovery of the double helix structure of the DNA. The article he wrote sparked an intense debate over cloning, a debate that was renewed with the 1996 birth of Dolly the lamb, the first cloned mammal.

The argument no longer centers on whether cloning is possible, but on whether cloning is ethical. This paper examines the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Annas, George. "Scientific Discoveries and Cloning: Challenges for Public Policy." Flesh of My Flesh: The Ethics of Cloning Humans. Gregory E. Pence, ed. Oxford: Rowman and Littlefield, 1998.

Bailey, Ronald. "Cloning is Ethical." Ethics. Brenda Stalcup, ed. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 2000.

Garcia, Jorge L.A. "Cloning Humans is Not Ethical." The Ethics of Genetic Engineering. Lisa Yount, ed. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 2002.

Kass, Leon. "The Wisdom of Repugnance." Flesh of My Flesh: The Ethics of Cloning Humans. Gregory E. Pence, ed. Oxford: Rowman and Littlefield, 1998.
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Ethics Surrounding Human Embryonic Stem

Words: 5907 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 434586

Although these stem cells are only a few years old, they possess unlimited potential in terms of clinical research. Specifically, scientists are focusing their potential uses in transplant medicine in order to significantly reduce the level of both infections and overall organ rejection in organ transplant surgery.

The potential for using stem cells is of vast clinical and medical importance. These cells could potentially allow scientists to learn what occurs at the cellular and molecular levels of human development and use this information to identify certain molecular pathways that contribute to a variety of conditions. Furthermore, using these stem cells could also allow scientists to discover the genes that are triggered in response to certain cellular conditions that cause rapid, unchecked cell growth or irregular cellular patterns. Additionally, using stem cells to discover certain genetic conditions will lend immense amount of information to the scientists and afford researchers the opportunity…… [Read More]

References

Bellomo, M. (2006). The Stem Cell Divide: The Facts, the Fiction, and the Fear Driving the Greatest Scientific, Political, and Religious Debate of Our Time. New York: Amacom.

Bevington, Linda K., Ray G. Bohlin, Gary P. Stewart, John F. Kilner, and C. Christopher Hook. Basic Questions on Genetics, Stem Cell Research and Cloning: Are These Technologies Okay to Use? Grand Rapids: Kregel, 2002.

Carrier, Ewa, and Gracy Ledingham. 100 Questions & Answers about Bone Marrow and Stem Cell Transplantation. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett, 2004.

DeGette, Diana. Sex, Science, and Stem Cells: Inside the Right Wing Assault on Reason. Guilford, CT: Lyons, 2008.
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Governments Should Not Allow Human

Words: 1160 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51889645

If it were his child or grandchild, he might have a different opinion - especially if that child was horrifically malformed or only lived a short time, dying of a painful debilitating disease.

atson is not the only one that seems to look at the debate with a lax attitude. Lori Andrews, a law professor at Chicago-Kent College of Law, believes that more caution should be taken when experimenting with life. She states, "It's like we've become deadened to the ethical dimensions of this... e're viewing biology as playing with Tinker Toys. There seems to be less resistance to the whole idea of tampering with life" (Andrews qtd. In Lyon). Richard Hayes also sees the lack of concern disconcerting. The executive director of the Exploratory Initiative on the New Human Genetic Technologies sees the lack of an outcry to be "chilling" (Hayes qtd. In Lyon). He states:

Many of these…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Andrews, Lori. "Playing God: Has Science Gone Too Far?" Women's Day.

Hayes, Richard. "Playing God: Has Science Gone Too Far?" Women's Day.

Lyon, Jeff. "Playing God: Has Science Gone Too Far?" Women's Day.

Pethokoukis, James. "Our Biotech Bodies, Ourselves."
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Women and Gender International Human Rights

Words: 5450 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39241588

International Human ights, Women and Gender

International Human ights: Women and Gender

Women are the most assaulted segment of the human society. A shocking statistic reveals that a majority of the females are subjected to violence and sexual violence by the time they reach their late teens (Fergus, 2012).

Definitions of Violence against women, constitutes the mental and physical torture they are subjected to by way of restricting their right to freedom in the broader sense of the term. The crimes and exploitation against younger girls implies, by definition, violence based on gender discrimination. It has been observed that this act of violence is fallout of the negligence shown towards equality of the female child and womenfolk in general (Fergus, 2012).

The act of violence exposes the women and specifically the younger female child to isolation, loss of identity, unhealthy overall development, psychological and social stigma (WHO, 2006) and hence…… [Read More]

References

Arbour, L. (2007). Human Rights. Yes! Human Rights Resource Center, University of Minnesota.

Bhattacharya, D. (2013). Global Health Disputes and Disparities: A Critical Appraisal of International Law and Population Health. Routledge.

CEDAW (n.d.). Strengthening Health System Responses to Gender-based Violence in Eastern Europe & Central Asia: A programmatic package. A United Nations Publication.

CEDAW. (2010). General recommendation No. 28 on the core obligations of States parties under article 2 of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women. United Nations Publications.
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Genetics and Human Disease Millions

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63619286

Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) is linked to genetic inheritance, and more than 250 genes have been explored as having potential links with CAD. Although these genes are thought not to directly pass on CAD, research has seen that some mutations within these particular genes actually increase the risk of CAD within an individual who as immediate family members who have already suffered from the affects of CAD. Further research has pinpointed six genes out of that larger batch which may also play a role in heart disease. As seen in people who have experienced heart disease, variations of these six genes prove relatively common in individuals under the age of sixty-six years old. Researchers are using these new and continuous findings regarding heart disease's genetic base in order to compile genetic testing which can prepare individuals to have to potentially take measures to avoid heart disease. Utilizing genetic testing can…… [Read More]

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Adult Education Within Human Resources Development the

Words: 4195 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46117124

Adult Education

Within Human esources Development

The literature which describes and analyzes the important aspects of adult education - within the Human esources Development genre - is vitally important in relating to today's employees who seek - and deserve - learning opportunities within their workplace environment. It provides a point of reference, it offers stimulating ideas for digestion and analysis, and it zeros in on the issue at hand, which is that learning should be encouraged and facilitated by employers, and it should be done in such a way that gains in individual learning and knowledge will transfer to competency on the job, and ultimately, profitability for the employer.

An exceptionally useful article by Theodore J. Marchese, entitled, "Insights from Neuroscience and Anthropology, Cognitive Science and Work-Place Studies": e.g., the brain is "remarkably plastic across the lifespan..."

Early experiences and genetic inheritance are very important," Marchese writes in his piece,…… [Read More]

References

Glastra, Folke J; & Hake, Barry J.; & Schedler, Petra E. "Lifelong Learning as Transitional Learning." Adult Education Quarterly 54 (2004): 291-306.

Hodkinson, Phil; & Hodkinson, Heather; & Evans, Karen; & Kersh, Natasha; & Fuller,

Alison; & Unwini, Loma; & Senker, Peter. "The significance of individual biography

In workplacelearning." Studies in the Education of Adults 36, (2004): 6-26.
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Regulation of Human Population in

Words: 2125 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68075094

The developed countries hence experience higher survivorship for most age groups resulting in a balanced and healthy reproductive structure. The age distribution needs to complement or mirror the high survivorship ratio as the extinction of even one age group is very much possible with a single unforeseen natural event (egon et al. 2006).

To illustrate the importance of a balanced age structure, consider this example. A huge carnival targeted for the age group 20-35 has been designed and thousands of tickets and invites have already been distributed and accepted. The carnival is showcasing some of the biggest icons in the world of music and education and hence attracts not only students, but educators as well, not just from the public and private sector, but due to the musical influence, it even attracts those in the age group who are not part of the education sector. Now imagine, a natural disaster…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Begon, M.; Townsend, C.R.; Harper, J.L. (2006). Ecology: From Individuals to Ecosystems (4th ed.). Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4051-1117-1. http://books.google.com/?id=Lsf1lkYKoHEC&printsec=frontcover&dq=ecology&cd=1#v=onepage&q

Campbell, N.A., Reece, J.B. (2002). Chapter 52: Population Ecology. AP Biology Chapter 52 Population Ecology Outine.

Hanski, I.; Gaggiotti, O.E., eds (2004). Ecology, genetics and evolution of metapopulations. Burlington, MA: Elsevier Academic Press. Accessed on October 18, 2010 from: http://books.google.com/?id=EP8TAQAAIAAJ&q=ecology,+genetics,+and+evolution+of+metapopulations&dq=ecology,+genetics,+and+evolution+of+metapopulations&cd=1

Johnson, J.B.; Omland, K.S. (2004). "Model selection in ecology and evolution.." Trends in Ecology and Evolution 19 (2): 101 -- 108. Accessed on October 18, 2010 from: http://www.usm.maine.edu/bio/courses/bio621/model_selection.pdf
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Main Systems of Human Body

Words: 3828 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37436002

The circulatory or cardiovascular system is responsible for moving nutrients, wastes and gases between body cells, transporting blood across the whole body and battling disease (Circulatory System). Its principal elements are the heart, numerous blood vessels, and blood.

The heart forms the circulatory system's core. This 2-sided, 4-chambered pump which distributes blood to various arteries comprises of the right and left ventricles, and right and left atria. The ventricles, situated within the heart's lower half, are responsible for pumping blood to the whole body (away from our heart), whilst the atria, situated within the heart's upper half are in charge of receiving blood from different parts of the human body. The right and left ventricles pump de-oxygenated and oxygenated blood, respectively; de-oxygenated blood is pumped to lungs while oxygenated blood is pumped to the remainder of the human body (smith, 2013). These 4 chambers are connected to one another by…… [Read More]

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Genome Human Cloning Human Cloning

Words: 3339 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19327581

(iii) in the United States, Brazil, Germany and France, humans have been receiving their own stem cells to re-grow heart muscle in the unforeseen incident of heart attack or injury. This was found to be successful in majority of the cases. (iv) in one more incident, the vision of 23 patients was restored after limbal adult stem cell transplants. This line of therapeutic care has assisted a lot of people who have been suffering from blindness for years together that includes the sufferers of mustard gas attacks in Iraqi. (Life Issues Institute, 2006) v) Crohn's disease patients have in fact been treated with stem cells evolved from their own blood. (vi) Among the 90% of the 19 patients having several autoimmune disorders like systemic lupus has been on the path to recovery following treatment with their own blood stem cells. (vii) a research of Parkinson's disease displayed an average improvement…… [Read More]

References

AAAS Center for Science, Technology and Congress. (2007) "AAAS Policy Brief: Human

Cloning" Retrieved 28 March, 2008 at http://www.aaas.org/spp/cstc/briefs/cloning/

Barnes, Deborah. (n. d.) "Research in the News: Creating a cloned sheep named Dolly"

Retrieved 28 March, 2008 at http://science-education.nih.gov/home2.nsf/Educational+ResourcesTopicsGenetics/BC5086E34E4DBA0085256CCD006F01CB
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Captitalecon Human Capital Has a

Words: 4231 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4786285

It also appeals to conservatives who are interested in charity-based social supports, and wish to see individuals and communities, rather than the state, providing solutions to persistent problems such as poverty or social exclusion. It also holds appeal for neo-liberal states that seek to bolster social engagement without addressing structural issues such as changes in employment forms and decreases in social service expenditure (Bezanson,2006)."

On the other hand, the versatility of the theory has been criticized. Some have asserted that the theory may become "all things to all people" and as such it will become a theory that is not viable in any format (Bezanson,2006). With all these factors taken into consideration it is also apparent that, the theory of social capital does single out the importance of informal caring relationships to the quality of life afforded to individuals and groups (Bezanson,2006).

Each of the three aforementioned types of social…… [Read More]

References

Bezanson, K. (2006). Gender and the Limits of Social Capital. The Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology, 43(4), 427+.

Dakhli, M. De Clercq, D. (2004). Human capital, social capital, and innovation: a multicountry Study. ENTREPRENEURSHIP & REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT, 16, MARCH (2004), 107-128

Edwards M.

More Social Capital, Less Global Poverty? The World Bank.  http://www1.worldbank.org/devoutreach/summer00/article.asp?id=67
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Chimerism in Humans Chimerism Comes

Words: 2116 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51529394

The medical term assigned to this phenomenon is called 'microchimerism'. In the case of more children being born, this can lead to some of the older child's DNA to be transferred from the mother to the younger child's fetus.

In an attempt to study microchimerism, J. Lee Nelson, an immunologist from the Fred Hutchinson Cancer esearch Center in Seattle conducted an experiment with assistance from his colleague Natalie. Blood samples from 32 healthy women revealed over 20% of them to bear white blood cells which belonged to their mother. It is hard to understand how these cells reside there instead of being rejected immediately by the host body. One assumption stated by Nelson indicates this to be a way to enhance the mother's immunity to prepare for the development of the fetus which can be deemed as a foreign organ on its own. They might even actively participate in the…… [Read More]

References

Halder Ashutosh " Placental chimerism in early human pregnancy." Original Communication 11.2(2005): 84-88 Web. Web 8 Apr.2010

Nicholas, J.W.,Jenkins W.J. And Marsh W.L "Human Blood Chimeras -- A study of surviving twins" The British Medical Journal 1.5033(1957): 1458-1460 Web 8 Apr.2010

"What is Chimerism ?" Wisegeek. Web. 8 Apr.2010.

"The Stranger Within." Katewerk. Web. 8 Apr.2010
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Art Exhibition the Human Condition

Words: 901 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88541583



On the other hand there is another side to the vision of human life. There is the experience of human joy and happiness that also has to be taken into account. We find this side in works that resonate with color, joy conviviality and friendship. In this exhibition works by Renoir and Picasso have been selected to show this side of the human condition. In this context the famous painting by Renoir entitled, the Luncheon of the Boating Party portrays a very different sense of the human condition compared to that of Bacon. We also this sense of the gentleness and beauty of human life in Picasso's the Bathers.

Another artist who has much to say about the human condition is Giacometti. This famous sculptor portrays human being in terms existential searching and mystery. His sculptures refuse to comment directly on the human condition but leave us with a sense…… [Read More]

(Source:  http://www.artsofinnovation.com/renoir.html )

6. Picasso; "The bathers" ( 1918). Oil on canvas.

7. Giacometti: Standing Woman, bronze, 1959.
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What the Human Mind Can Do That the Computer

Words: 763 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49667741

Minds and Macines

What the Human Mind Can Do That the Computer Can't

Argument Summary

Morton Hunt argues that although there are many things that a computer can do, however the abilities of a computer will never be able to replicate many of the defining characteristics of consciousness. Much of that which remains not yet replicable by artificial intelligence are the same kinds of stuff that the artificial intelligence will never feasibly be able to achieve. An example would be that of self-awareness. Cognitive science offers a developing model of consciousness which includes being able to internalize the real world in our minds in symbolic form. That is, we perceive not only the real world, but also our interpretation of this perception, which are both reconciled into something we consider to be consciousness or human ability to be self-aware of their own place within this process.

Another aspect of humanity…… [Read More]

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Endocrine System in the Human

Words: 327 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57127349

Hormone (or endocrine) disruptors interfere with the normal functioning of the endocrine system. They can: mimic a natural hormone and thus fool the body into responding a certain way, interfere with the reception of hormones by hormone receptors, directly alter a hormone and impede its function, cause the body to overproduce or under produce natural hormones, or decrease or increase the number of hormone receptors. These effects are especially potent during prenatal development, when even minute exposure to hormones can severely disrupt the normal development process. Potential hormone disruption effects include abnormalities of the reproductive system, birth defects, behavioral changes, depressed immune systems, and lowered intelligence. (Pettit, 2000, p. 413)

eferences

Patrick, G.T. (1929). What Is the Mind?. New York: The Macmillan Company.

Pettit, H.E. (2000). Shifting the Experiment to the Lab: Does EPA Have a Mandatory Duty to equire Chemical Testing for Endocrine Disruption Effects under the Toxic…… [Read More]

References

Patrick, G.T. (1929). What Is the Mind?. New York: The Macmillan Company.

Pettit, H.E. (2000). Shifting the Experiment to the Lab: Does EPA Have a Mandatory Duty to Require Chemical Testing for Endocrine Disruption Effects under the Toxic Substances Control Act? Environmental Law, 30(2), 413.
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Psychology - Reproductive Choice Human

Words: 1267 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2601880



Environmental Influences, Domain Specificity, and Heterozygous Potential:

Environmental influences have also contributed profoundly to human sexual behavior, which becomes particularly evident when one examines certain statistical tendencies pertaining to both conscious and unconscious choices in female mate selection (Gerrig & Zimbardo 2005). As is the case with many sexually reproducing organisms, human females have evolved a marked preference for both physical and behavioral male traits consistent with the ability to provide physical protection and to garner both natural and social resources. Females of many species prefer male suitors who display characteristics such as large relative body size, robustness, good health, and those suggesting physical strength, aggressiveness, and leadership (Margulis & Sagan 1999).

Whereas some of those traits are observable externally (such as relative size), others are imperceptible on any conscious level. This is particularly true as regards heterozygous potential conducive to healthy offspring, such as the marked unconscious preference demonstrated…… [Read More]

References

Ackerman, D. (1995) a Natural History of Love.

New York: Vintage

Barash, D.P., Lipton, J.E. (2001) the Myth of Monogamy.

New York: Henry Holt.
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Genetics Affects Child Development Genetic

Words: 1598 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30958971

The following images show certain disorders that result due to mutation. Children born from the same family members' shows higher similarity index regarding the genetic disorder number inclusive of the Indian community (Cummings, 2010, pg 333).

Curbing gene disorders

Stoppage of varying types of disorders is possible through learning in consideration of human development the number of genes contained in a single genome, their respective location and the establishment of functions or roles in the various genetic processes. This is achievable through strategized genetic mapping, where the establishment of specified genes having same linkage involved. The mapping establishes the respective linkages between genes and as a result of their location in the same gene, the crossing over frequency with the existing distance amid them is notable (Cummings, 2010, pg 333). esearch on the various risks factors involved can also be considerable as beneficial. This enables the development of certain preventive…… [Read More]

References

Benson, B. (2012). Advances in Child Development. London: Academic Press.

Bowden, V.G. (2009). Children and Their Families. Atlanta: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins.

Cummings, M. (2010). Human Heridity; Principles and Issues. New York: Cengage Learning.
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Sex and Culture

Words: 599 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 633045

Sex and Culture

What are the advantages and disadvantages of sexual reproduction (animal/human world)?

Sexual reproduction is an evolutionary phenomenon, which entails the cooperation of two species: the male and the female. In any aspect of sexual reproduction, the energy of male spermatozoa and the female oocyte must both be expended in order to reproduce, as opposed to the efficient method of asexual reproduction, which only involves the singular (female) organism. Furthermore, sexual reproduction has a failing in that humans and animals tend to reproduce much less than organisms that reproduce asexually. However, this evolutionary method of reproduction allows for genetic variation and adaptable feasibility. The offspring of the sexually reproductive parents will have gained half of the mother's genetic characteristics and half of the father's genetic characteristics. Genetic variation increases the immunity against otherwise deadly genetic diseases.

Is the capacity that female primates have for orgasm detrimental to their…… [Read More]

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Personhood Debate vs IVF in

Words: 2253 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71572460

Additionally, the utilitarian position presents the advantage of objectively quantifying the interests of everyone affected by the decision, for the sole purpose of promoting common welfare. Thus, harvesting, fertilizing, genetically screening, implanting and researching human embryos at the risk of damaging or destroying them - is entirely justified from this perspective, and any progressive endeavor is encouraged.

Nevertheless, this approach might involuntarily discourage many IVF clients as it appears to be too rigid and provides them with little autonomy in making decisions regarding their own embryos. Interestingly, a utilitarian might not even support IVF treatment, due to the risks involved in the whole process - namely a large financial loss if the process should fail -, an therefore it is uncertain whether or not this infertility treatment would meet the Utilitarian requirements of avoiding pain and creating the most amount of happiness; there might be a lot of future un-happiness…… [Read More]

References

Balasubramanian, J. And Narayanan, N. "Assisted Reproductive Technology: life cycle of reproduction." Discovery Life Journal, Vol. 3 No. 9, March 2013:13-16.

Beauchamp T.L. And Childress, J.F. Principles of Biomedical Ethics (5th ed.). New York: Oxford University Press, 2001.

Botkin, J.R. "Ethical Issues and Practical Problems in Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis." In Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics, 16 (1998): 17-28.

Kolata, G. "Robert G. Edwards Dies at 87; Changed Rules of Conception With First 'Test Tube Baby'." The New York Times. The New York Times Company, 10 Apr. 2013. Web. 4 June 2013. Available: http://www.nytimes.com/2013/04/11/us/robert-g-edwards-nobel-winner-for-in-vitro-fertilization-dies-at-87.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0.
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Huxley & G Orwell Two

Words: 2815 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63572806

Whatever happened you vanished, and neither you nor your actions were ever heard of again" (Orwell, 1949, p.168).

Capitalism

Principles of mass production are very clear in the novels. Huxley for instance, applied the idea of mass production in human reproduction, since the people has abandoned the natural method of reproduction. Mass production as the conventional feature of capitalism and Huxley's novel reinforces such. He talked about the requirement of the World State about constant consumption, which is considered as foundation of its stability. Huxley apparently criticizes the commercial dependence of the world towards goods. Conditioning centers teaches people to consume. Orwell similarly provides criticism to capitalism as well: "The centuries of capitalism were held to have produced nothing of any value." The Proles are the symbols of the capitalist system as they constitute the working class who work in assembly lines.

Destruction of the concept of family

oth novels…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bessa, Maria de Fatima (2007). Individuation in Aldous Huxley's Brave New World and Island: Jungian and Post-Jungian Perspectives. Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais.

Beniger, James K. (1986) the Control Revolution. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 61.

Greenberg, Martin H., Joseph D. Olander and Eric S. Robbon. No Place Else: Expectations in Utopian and Dystopian Fiction. Southern Illinois: University Press, 1983. 29-97.

Grieder, Peter. "In Defense of Totalitarianism Theory as a Tool of Historical Scholarship" Totalitarian Movements and Political Religions 8.314 (September 2007) Academic Search Premier. EBSCO. Grace Van Dyke Bird Library, Bakersfield, CA. 15 November 2008 (http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct-true&db=aph&an=27009808&site=ehost-live.
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Foundationally Promising Research Discoveries of

Words: 5874 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95138553



For some the issue then arises when the pluripotent cells are removed from the blastocyst, as this very act negates the ability for the cell group to develop into a human being. "Note that the process of changing from totipotent to pluripotent to multipotent cells is not reversible -- that is, pluripotent stem cells do not produce totipotent stem cells, and multipotent stem cells do not produce pluripotent stem cells."

Borror, O'Rourke and Skirboll 54) Additionally, the proponents of stem cell work cite the pluripotent as incapable of producing a human being therefore not a destruction of life, hence leading to the Bush decision to ban the creation of new lines of stem cells, as it would require the destruction of further human totipotent cells.

Multipotent. The pluripotent stem cells undergo further specialization into multipotent stem cells, which are committed to giving rise to cells that have a particular function.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002068015

Bagley, Margo A. "Patent First, Ask Questions Later: Morality and Biotechnology in Patent Law." William and Mary Law Review 45.2 (2003): 469+. Questia. 17 Jan. 2005 http://www.questia.com/. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000634813

Balestra, Dominic J. "Toward Epistemic Justice." Fordham Urban Law Journal 30.1 (2002): 47+. Questia. 17 Jan. 2005 http://www.questia.com/. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000831235

Bedford-Strohm, Heinrich. "Sacred Body? Stem Cell Research and Human Cloning." The Ecumenical Review 54.3 (2002): 240+. Questia. 17 Jan. 2005 http://www.questia.com/. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000848513
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Dangers Outweigh Benefits of Genetic

Words: 1111 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95587717

Researchers at Cornell University discovered that Monarch butterfly caterpillars died when they ate plants dusted with the pollen of Bt corn that was growing in nearby fields, and many scientists worry that with so much insecticide in the corn plants, insects might develop a resistance to it (Dyer 2002). These fears and concerns are echoed by Francis Fukuyama who believes that genetic enhancement will undermine the system of human rights by disrupting the boundary that encloses all humans in a single group, thus believes society should limit genetic science to allow therapy but prohibit enhancement, such as genetically altered food crops, and non-therapeutic procedures (Tobey 2003). In other words, enhancement will allow society to increase genotypic and phenotypic diversity, yet such diversity will press society to the point of losing its shared humanity (Tobey 2003).

orks Cited

Adams, endy a. (2002, January 01). Reconciling private benefit and public risk in…… [Read More]

Welsh, Whitney. (2005, March 01). Brave new worlds: philosophy, politics, and science in human biotechnology. Population and Development Review. Retrieved July 09, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?DOCID=1G1:132710930&num

9&ctrlInfo=Round14%3AProd%3ASR%3AResult&ao=&FreePremium=BOTH

This article discusses the ethics and political landscape concerning genetic engineering, particularly the current White House administration. It includes some twenty references.
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Embryos and Fetuses in Research

Words: 457 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3491935



3. Embryonic stem cells can be used to help human beings who suffer from debilitating diseases for which no other solution offers hope. For this reason alone, the research should be legal, considering that the embryos from which the stem cells are derived cannot be shown to possess any type of noticeable consciousness. There is no moral reason to favor the use of animals in medical research over the use of embryonic stem cells, considering that the former are fully developed creatures who clearly have the potential to feel pain, whereas the latter demonstrate little more than potentiality. Furthermore, most embryonic stem cells are culled from discarded tissues used for in vitro fertilization. If in vitro fertilization is legal then so too should be the proper use of the leftover cell mass.

orks Cited

Human Reproduction and Development. (2004). Retrieved 22 Sept 2005, from the Ipui Department of Biology eb…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Human Reproduction and Development. (2004). Retrieved 22 Sept 2005, from the Ipui Department of Biology Web Site:  http://www.biology.iupui.edu/biocourses/N100/2k4ch39repronotes.html 

Irving, Dianne N. (2005). Framing the Debates on Human Cloning and Human Embryonic Stem Cells: Pluripotent vs. TOTIPOTENT. Retrieved 22 Sept 2005 at  http://www.lifeissues.net/writers/irv/irv_100debatecloning1.html 

Kischer, C. Ward. (2004). Human Development and Reconsideration of Ensoulment. Retrieved 22 Sept 2005 at  http://www.lifeissues.net/writers/kisc/kisc_10humandevelopment.html
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Genetics and Child Development Child

Words: 1393 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45681919

Hence, genetic factors underlie the stability or continuity of psychological traits.

Gene Development

Mutations play a vital role in genetics, although they cause different disorders living things. Sometimes heredity causes disorders that affect the normal genetic development. Genetic processes control how humans develop from a single cell to adult human beings. Genes control the nervous system cells, and re-growth of skin and hair cells. Genes make humans dynamic organisms capable of development, growth and change.

Parents pass most genes to the children, at birth through genetic inheritance processes. At conception egg and sperm combines and each has unique characteristics from the parent. Each has 23 chromosomes, with threadlike structures in the nucleus with genetic material. The chromosomes combine producing 23 chromosomes (autosomes). The 23rd chromosome is the X or Y chromosome, either determines the sex of the child. The chromosomes have deoxyribonucleic acids (DNA), which have chemical compounds that cause…… [Read More]

References

Benson, B. (2012). Advances in Child Development. London: Academic Press.

Bowden, V.G. (2009). Children and Their Families. Atlanta: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins.

Cummings, M. (2010). Human Heridity; Principles and Issues. New York: Cengage Learning.
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Commercial Surrogacy the Issue of

Words: 5044 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1967115



For example, the 1984 British government committee report suggested that "it is inconsistent with human dignity that a woman should use her uterus for financial profit and treat it as an incubator for someone else's child," in part because this threatens to undermine the traditional belief in an inviolable mother-child bond.

Opponents who criticize commercial surrogacy from this perspective frequently attempt to differentiate between commercial surrogacy and "altruistic" surrogacy, in which a surrogate carries a child without a fee, but this distinction is merely nominal, because the lack of an explicit payment structure does not make the decision to become a surrogate any less transactional, and furthermore, the potential for exploitation exists in either case.

Before considering how the law actually treats surrogacy, then, it is becoming clear that a general prohibition on commercial surrogacy represents a kind of undue restriction on the personal and financial autonomy of women, because…… [Read More]

References

BERKHOUT, S.G., 2008. Buns in the Oven: Objectification, Surrogacy, and Women's

Autonomy. Social Theory and Practice,34(1), pp. 95-117.

BRINSDEN, P.R., APPLETON, T.C., MURRAY, E., HUSSEIN, M. And AL, E., 2000.

Treatment by in vitro fertilisation with surrogacy: Experience of one British centre.
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How the Media Portrays Science to the Society

Words: 1909 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16900521

Media

A scientist is a person who engages in systematic activities in order to gain knowledge. A person who makes use of scientific methods is also a scientist. The person must be an expert in one scientific field. A scientist will study the world, perform experiments, develop theories and write all this in papers (Weingart, 2012). Any person who is interested in the sciences is a scientist. From amateurs to professionals, provided the individual is curious to find out what would happen when he performs an experiment, the person is a scientist. Some of the famous scientists are Charles Darwin, Aristotle, Albert Einstein, Isaac Newton, and Leonardo Da Vinci. These scientists have been widely covered and spoken of in the media. These individuals have excelled in their respective fields. They have experimented and made theory discoveries that are still in use to date. Most of their works have not been…… [Read More]

References

Brossard, D., & Scheufele, D.A. (2013). Science, new media, and the public. Science, 339(6115), 40-41.

Jarman, R., & McClune, B. (2010). Developing students' ability to engage critically with science in the news: identifying elements of the 'media awareness' dimension. The Curriculum Journal, 21(1), 47-64.

Weingart, P. (2012). The lure of the mass media and its repercussions on science The Sciences' Media Connection -- Public Communication and its Repercussions (pp. 17-32): Springer.
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Albert Schweitzer Once Stated A Man Is

Words: 1856 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68251539

Albert Schweitzer once stated, "A man is truly ethical only when he obeys the compulsion to help all life which he is able to assist, and shrinks from injuring anything that lives" (n.d.). A pronouncement that in 1952 - when he won the Nobel Peace Prize for his philosophy of "Reverence for Life" -- may have had a different meaning than it does today. Nowadays, one lives in a world where artificial insemination is a normal practice, where in vitro fertilization is a common practice, where life has the potential to begin outside the womb in a test tube, where the very definition of "life" has become increasingly complex. Consequently, the issue of what is considered "ethical" and what is considered "unethical" with regards to human reproduction methods has also become more complicated. To understand the ethical minefield that is modern human reproduction, one should consider the situation of Nadya…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Dobuzinskis, A. (1 June 2011). Octomom Doctor Loses California Medical License.

Reuters. Retrieved from http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/06/01/us-octomom-

idUSTRE7507TL20110601?feedType=RSS

Komaroff, A. (1999). Harvard Medical School Family Health Guide. Boston,
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Assisted Reproductive Technologies Science Has

Words: 1348 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87811639

But if you want a baby badly enough, you will do it" (The Women's Health Council). Women are subjected to a wide range of drugs which have harmful side effects. Some drugs induced to facilitate ovulation have also caused infertility in the male child. When women are put through the consumption of such drugs, the chances of multiple births increases, thus the woman gives birth to twins, triplets or even more.

In 2000, 53% of infants born through AT were multiple births, compared to 3% of births in the general population. The twin rate was 22 times higher than the general population; the triplet and higher multiples rate was 50 times higher. Their higher risk for birth defects and low birth weight add to already over-burdened health care costs." (Marie Anderson and John Bruchalski)

Many couples cannot afford to bring up more than one child at a time and hence…… [Read More]

References

1) Tomorrow's Child - Plot Synopsis [online website] Available at http://www.vh1.com/movies/movie/35838/plot.jhtml[Accessed on: 07/09/2005]

2) Magisterium of the Catholic Church. Instruction on respect for human life in its origin and on the dignity of procreation: replies to certain questions of the day (22 February 1987), Vatican City.

3) Steinbock B. Life before birth: the moral and legal status of embryos and fetuses. New York, Oxford University Press, 1992. Pages: 59-71.

4) Claudia Kalb with Karen Springen - "Brave New Babies" [online website] Available at http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/3990134/site/newsweek/[Accessed on 07/09/2005]
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Ethics Behind Stem Cell Research

Words: 1818 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74121630

Do patients understand what it means to donate tissue to science? Not only that, but use of EG cells confuses stem cell research with the debate over abortion, bring up the risk of biasing emotions (McDonald 7).

So, while stem cell research is an exciting new field that holds much promise, ethical problems arise to delay research, discovery of benefits or dangers, and involve many who have no knowledge of the complexities of the field. Though controversies usually accompany new discoveries in science, this biotechnological process involves manipulating the basis of life itself in embryonic stem cells. But the field is rapidly changing. hat is true today may be outmoded tomorrow. A neutral substitute for stem cells may be discovered that will prove to be the answer to these ethical questions.

orks Cited

Ethics Committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine. "Financial incentives in recruitment of oocyte donors." Fertil…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Ethics Committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine. "Financial incentives in recruitment of oocyte donors." Fertil Steril 2004; 82:Suppl 1:S240-S244.

Hwang, W.S., Roh, S.I., Lee, B.C., et al. -- Patient-specific embryonic stem cells derived from human SNCT blastocysts." Science 2005;308.

Magnus, David and Cho, Mildred K. "Issues in oocyte donation for stem cell research." Science Express Magazine, Stanford Center for Biomedical Ethics and Department of Pediatrics, Vol. 308. no. 5729, June 2005. http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/summary/308/5729/1747.

McDonald, Chris. "Stem cells: a pluripotent challenge." BioScan Vol. 13, Iss. 4, (Toronto Biotechnology Initiative.) Fall 2001.
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Woman on the Edge of Time

Words: 1458 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15780475

Women Science Fiction Writers as Probing Pathfinders

Author Marge Piercy's Woman on the Edge of Time was written in 1976, and it has received critical acclaim for the science fiction future it depicts, but it was likely given literary wings by a bizarre science fiction tale written in 1818, according to a scholarly essay in Critique: Studies in contemporary Fiction (Seabury, 2001). The science fiction tale Seabury alludes to is in fact "often called the first work of science fiction," and that is the classic story of Frankenstein.

Additionally, Seabury uses a quote to tip the cap to Frankenstein's author, Mary Shelley, who, in penning Frankenstein, has written "perhaps the single most influential work of science fiction by a woman." And so, in the genre of feminist science fiction, even though Frankenstein is quite the opposite of feminine, to say the least, the author was clearly a pathfinder of tremendous…… [Read More]

References

Davidson, Phebe. "Lost in Space: Probing Feminist Science fiction and Beyond." Belle

Lettres: A Review of Books by Women 9, 27-29.

Piercy, Marge. Woman on the Edge of Time. New York: Fawcett Crest, 1976.

Rudy, Cathy. "Ethics, reproduction, Utopia: Gender and Childbearing in 'Woman on the Edge of Time' and 'The Left Hand of Darkness'." NWSA Journal 9 (1997): 22-39.
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Carer and Donation Mean in

Words: 2965 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56093196

His most famous work is his Utopia, a book in which he created his version of a perfect society and gave his name to such conceptions ever after as "utopias." The word is of Greek origin, a play on the Greek word eutopos, meaning "good place." In the book, More describes a pagan and communist city-state in which the institutions and policies are governed entirely by reason. The order and dignity of the state in this book contrasted sharply with the reality of statecraft in Christian Europe at the time, a region divided by self-interest and greed for power and riches. The book was also an expression of More's form of Humanism (Maynard 41). The term can also have broader application as a reference to any plans of government or schemes for social improvement which present the possibilities of a good society.

The society depicted in Never Let Me Go…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Ishiguro, Kazuo. Never Let Me Go. New York: Vintage Books, 2005.

Maynard, Theodore. Humanist as Hero: The Life of Sir Thomas More. New York: Macmillan, 1947.
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High Renaissance Movement and Its Most Celebrated Artists

Words: 2264 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47664445

High enaissance Movement and Its Most Celebrated Artists

The enaissance is referred to as a period of time where there was a great cultural movement that began in Italy during the early 1300's. It spread into other countries such as England, France, Germany, the Netherlands, and Spain. This era continued into the late 1400's and ended during the 1600's. The enaissance times were a period of rebirth and during this time many artists studied the art of ancient Greece and ome. Their desire was to recapture the spirit of the Greek and oman cultures in their own artistic, literary, and philosophic works. The cultures of ancient Greece and ome are often called classical antiquity. The enaissance thus represented a rebirth of these cultures and is therefore also known as the revival of antiquity or the revival of learning.

The artists' works include many aspects of the medieval times and incorporated…… [Read More]

References

Leonardo da Vinci." Authors and Artists for Young Adults, Volume 40. Gale Group, 2001. Reproduced in Biography Resource Center. Farmington Hills, Mich.: The Gale Group. 2004. http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/BioRC

Michelangelo Buonarroti." Authors and Artists for Young Adults, Volume 43. Gale Group, 2002. Reproduced in Biography Resource Center. Farmington Hills, Mich.: The Gale Group. 2004. http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/BioRC

Molho, A. "Renaissance." World Book Online Reference Center. 2004. World Book, Inc. Retrieved April 24, 2004 at http://www.worldbookonline.com/wb/Article?id=ar464720.

Summers, D. "Michelangelo." World Book Online Reference Center. 2004. World Book, Inc. Retrieved April 24, 2004, at http://www.worldbookonline.com/wb/Article?id=ar359360.
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Effects of Teratogenic Agents on Fetal Development

Words: 2018 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33963352

Teratogens and Fetal Development

Teratogens can be described as agents that contribute to fetal injury and birth defects or an abnormality because of fetal exposure during pregnancy. Some of these agents that lead to fetal injury or birth defects include chemicals, environmental contaminants, infections, and drugs. These agents tend to result in such abnormality in fetal development when a woman is exposed to them during the term of the pregnancy. The agents are always discovered following an increased prevalence of a specific birth defect or abnormality. Pregnant women are increasingly susceptible to teratogens since these agents can be found in various settings at home in the working environment. Notably, the effect of the agents on fetal development is dependent on the kind of agent, duration, and extent of the exposure. Generally, teratogens and fetal development can be about legal and/or illegal drugs and the effects on the fetus while in…… [Read More]

References

Aboubakr et. al. (2014). Embryotoxic and Teratogenic Effects of Norfloxacin in Pregnant

Female Albino Rats. Advances in Pharmacological Sciences, 2014, 1-6.

Bercovici, E. (2010). Prenatal and Perinatal Effects of Psychotropic Drugs on Neuro-cognitive

Development in the Fetus. Journal on Developmental Disabilities, 11(2), 1-20.
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Should Parents Be Allowed to Select the Sex of Their Baby

Words: 1674 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66052007

Parents be Allowed to Choose their aby's Gender?

THE TWO SIDES

Should Parents be Allowed to Choose their aby's Gender?

A revolutionary lab technique, called sperm sorting, can now establish the gender of an offspring (Mail Online, 2013). The sperm carries the sex chromosome of a future child and sorting involves choosing the desired sex chromosome and then inseminating a woman with it. Gender can also be selected by abortion and before the embryonic stage through IVF or in vitro fertilization. Gender selection has been the subject of much debate because of its many consequences (Mail Online).

Artificial insemination consists of inserting concentrated sperm into the uterus to achieve a greater chance of fertilization (Stephens, 2011). Other methods are used to choose the gender of the baby. One is by using a dye on the desired gender from the sperm and then returning the dyed cell into womb. The Ericsson…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Dahl, E. (2003). Ethical issues in new uses of pre-implantation genetic diagnosis:

should parents be allowed to use pre-implantation genetic diagnosis to choose the sexual orientation of their children? Vol. 18 # 7, Human Reproduction. Retrieved on November 11, 2013 from  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12832358 

Knoppers, B.M. et al. (2006). Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis: an overview of socio-

ethical and legal considerations. Vol. 7, Annual Review of Genomic and Human
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Difference of Sexuality

Words: 1617 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85388525

Sexuality

Sex can be described as a biological distinction between males and females, particularly regarding reproductive functions. On the other hand gender tends to concentrate on socially constructed differences between men and women that reveal masculinity and feminity. More importantly while gender can be applied to individual difference, it can also be applied to institutional, cultural as well as structural difference.

There are theories that explain gender: Among them are biological theory and sociological theory. In terms of sociological theory, there are three concepts involved in explaining social science of gender. They include socialization, gender role, and opportunity structure. Gender role is described as a collection of acceptable behavior which is dissimilar in terms of sex within a given behavioral domain, such as parenting, in support of gendered norms. The sex determines the boundary of acceptable behavior, and where these boundaries have been violated there are consequences that follow as…… [Read More]

References

Barbara L. Frankowski, Sexual Orientation and Adolescents, 2004.American Academy of Pediatrics.

J. Richard Udry, "The Nature of Gender" Vol.31, No4. Population Association of America .  http://www.jstor.org/stable/2061790 .

Susan E. Short, PhD, Yang Claire Yang, PhD, and Tania M. Jenkins, MA,. (2013) FRAMING HEALTH MATTERS Sex, Gender, Genetics, and Health, Vol 103, No. S1 | American Journal of Public Health
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Behavioral and Evolutionary Perspectives in Behavioral Development

Words: 634 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75408819

Psychology

PSYCHOLOGICAL PESPECTIVES OF BEHAVIO AND MENTAL POCESSES

The behavioral theory by Watson, Pavlov, and Skinner provides a psychological perspective that facilitates the understanding of human behavior and mental processes. Ivan Pavlov investigated the classical conditioning while Watson used experimental laboratory techniques to reject introspective theories of behavior. However, Skinner focused on behaviorism related to common sense. Despite the variability of the researches conducted, they converge on an observable conclusion that behavior forms the basis of understanding one's mental activities. Environment plays a role in determining behavior. From their findings, observing one's behavior provides clues about their mental and psychological processes. Primarily, one's behavior is determined by the association between environmental stimuli and the magnitude of pleasure and pain that result from their actions. The stimuli have a profound effect on one's psychological and mental processes. The subconscious mind stores these pleasures and pain, which affects the mental process and…… [Read More]

Reference

Coon, D., Mitterer, J.O., Talbot, S., & Vanchella, C.M. (2010). Introduction to psychology: Gateways to mind and behavior. Belmont, Calif: Wadsworth Cengage Learning
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Famine in the 21st Century

Words: 2061 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42229894

innovations in agricultural technologies, the dire predictions of global famine made by Stanford University Professor Paul . Ehrlich in his book, The Population Bomb (1968) have not materialized to date. Nevertheless, hunger continues to persist in many regions of the world, especially its major cities, due in large part to urbanization and 7.5 million people die of hunger each month (Holmes, 2008). The hunger that does exist in the world today is largely the result of increased urbanization and national political leadership that either uses food as a weapon or lacks the resources or will to ensure that adequate food distribution is achieved in their countries (Wurwag, 2014). To determine the facts, this paper provides a review of the relevant literature concerning urbanization and the urban structure to identify those factors that are most responsible for preventing adequate distribution of food to urban residents. A summary of the research and…… [Read More]

References

Ehrlich, P.R. (1968). The population bomb. New York: Ballantine Books.

Gonzalez-Pelaez, A. (2005). Human rights and world trade: Hunger in international society. London: Routledge.

Holmes, J. (2008, June-September). Losing 25,000 to hunger every day. UN Chronicle, 2-3, 14-

17.
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Use of Bisphenol a BPA

Words: 786 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97821535

Bisphenol-A

The organic compound Bisphenol-A, often abbreviated as BPA, is used to make polycarbonate plastic and epoxy resins. In the past, it was used primarily as a clear, strong plastic which was most often utilized in products such as baby bottles. This was because the BPA plastic is strong and easily-sterilized. Products like baby bottles require lots of use and quite a bit of abuse, such as being thrown around by a small child. Consequently, it proved useful to consumers because they would not have to replace the product regularly. BPA is also used in eyeglass lenses, medical materials, water bottles, CDs and DVDs, cellular telephones, computers, electronics, household appliances, safety shields, sporting equipment, and cars (Bisphenol A). This material is used in many products and consequently is an important factor in the manufacturing of other consumer products. However, there has been a debate in recent years about whether or…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Baker, Nana (2008). The Body Toxic: How the Hazardous Chemistry of Everyday Things

Threatens our Health and Well-Being. New York: North Point Press.

"Bisphenol A (BPA)" (2010). FDA. Retrieved from  http://www.fda.gov/newsevents/publichealthfocus/ucm064437.htm 

"Bisphenol A: Information Sheet" (2002). Bisphenol A Global Industry Group.
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About Buddhism View

Words: 1450 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21306132

Buddhist Psychology in the Poetry of Philip Larkin

Philip Larkin is not ordinarily thought of as a Buddhist. Larkin was -- in the opinion of many literary critics -- the quintessential English poet of the latter half of the twentieth century, and the world (and worldview) captured in his poems is largely one that reflects Britain in its new post-war and post-imperial identity. To some extent this made Larkin's poetry a clear-eyed examination of a society in the process of making do with less -- this is, I think, the meaning behind Larkin's often-quoted caustic comment, regarding the sources of his poetic inspiration, that "deprivation is for me what daffodils are for Wordsworth." But the simple fact is that Larkin is basically a pessimist, and it seems that in many cases -- most famously Schopenhauer, in addition to the long list of European writers who were directly influenced by Schopenhauerian…… [Read More]

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Humanities Ancient Culture

Words: 2115 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58705771

Ancient Egyptian Gynecology

In ancient Egypt, sex was open and untainted by guilt. It was considered an important part of life and both single and married couples had sex. Ancient Egyptian religious shows signs of adultery, incest, homosexuality, masturbation and necrophilia. Masculinity and femininity were strongly linked with the ability to conceive and bear children.

Ancient Egyptians saw fertile women as the most attractive ones. A woman who had children was believed to be more fortunate than a woman without children. Similarly, men who bore children were seen as more masculine than those who did not.

The Egyptians enjoyed close family relationships in Egyptian mythology. The fact that they had no taboo against incest leads to the conclusion that incest may have been normal in ancient Egypt.

Egyptian men had false penises attached to their mummies while Egyptian women had artificial nipples attached. oth would become fully functional in the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Antelme, Ruth...(et al.). Sacred Sexuality in Ancient Egypt: The Erotic Secrets of the Forbidden Papyrus. Inner Traditions 1997.

Women In History. Encyclopedia Britannica 2001. http://www.britannica.com/women/articles/contraception.html

Tour Egypt Website 1996. http://www.touregypt.net/magazine/mag05012001/magf4.htm

Lesko, Barbara. The Remarkable Women of Ancient Egypt. Scribe 1987.
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Negative or Positive Impact of

Words: 1176 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9648367

Five years would be the period selected, given that the only other long-term study of such couples, that of Johansoon's et al. (2009), was selected. These questionnaires would solicit information regarding fertility treatments the couple sought, what kinds of treatment, if the treatment was successful, and the relative health of the participants' marriage.

The longitudinal nature of this study would examine the relative long-term impact of infertility upon marriage, and use a cross-comparison of different subgroups. The main groupings would be individuals in what would be called 'happy' or 'healthy' marriages. For the purposes of this study, happiness would be defined as marriages in which the participants answered similarly for their single responses for the questionnaire, had not sought counseling for their marriage, had not contemplated divorce or separation, and expressed realistic attitudes about the prospect of having a child and its role in making their marriage more or less…… [Read More]

References

Benasutti, R.D. (2003). Infertility: Experiences and Meanings. Journal of Couple & Relationship Therapy: Innovations in Clinical and Educational Interventions, 2 (4), 51-72. Retrieved July 15, 2009, from

Chou, K.L, & I. Chi. (2004, May). Childlessness and psychological well-being in Chinese older adults. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 19 (5), 449-457.

H. Holter, L. Anderheim, C. Bergh, et al. (2006). First IVF treatment-short-term impact on psychological well- being and the marital relationship, Human Reproduction, 21 (12),

3295-3302.
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Western Civilization Christianity's Continued Vitality

Words: 308 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76418936



The papacy of Pope John Paul II is indicative of this inevitable clash occurring. During his reign the pope refused to change the Catholic Church's conservative stance towards various social issues despite facing increasing dissent from within. When he allied himself with conservative Muslim leaders in an attempt to influence the outcome of the 1994 United Nations International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo he was regarded by the secular world as having caused a major controversy ("John Paul II," 2005). This example reveals how due to lack of compromise church and state will continue to experience conflict so long as issues such as the practice of homosexuality, abortion, "artificial" methods of human reproduction and birth control, and euthanasia remain up for debate within secular societies.

eferences

John Paul II" (N.D.) in the Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia Standard…… [Read More]

References

John Paul II" (N.D.) in the Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia Standard 2005 CD.
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Teen Pregnancy in the United

Words: 3574 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35851463

Abortion trends varied widely by state as well. "Teenage abortion rates were highest in New York (41 per 1,000), New Jersey, Nevada, Delaware and Connecticut. By contrast, teenagers in South Dakota (6 per 1,000), Utah, Kentucky, Nebraska and North

Dakota all had abortion rates of eight or fewer per 1,000 women aged 15 -- 19. More than half of teenage pregnancies ended in abortion in New Jersey, New York and Connecticut" (Guttmacher, 2010). It is important to keep in mind that teenage abortion rates may reflect multiple issues. First, they may reflect that teenager's own personal beliefs and desire to raise a baby. However, they may also reflect prevailing societal norms in that geographic area, which can make it difficult, and even practically impossible, for pregnant teenagers to obtain abortions.

Portrayal in popular culture

Perhaps one of the most alarming things about teen pregnancy is that it is receiving more…… [Read More]

References

Cape Fear Teen Health Council. (2006). Why is teen pregnancy a problem? Retrieved April 2,

2012 from http://www.capefearteen.org/cfthc.php?section=statistics&record_id=1

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2012). Prepregnancy contraceptive use among teens with unintended pregnancies resulting in live births- Pregnancy risk assessment monitoring system (PRAMS), 2004-2008. Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 61(2), 25-29.

Drayton, V., Montgomery, S., Modeste, N., Frye-Anderson, B. (2002-2003). The health belief model as a predictor of repeat pregnancies among Jamaican teenage mothers. International Quarterly of Community Health Education, 21(1), 67-81.
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Murdock 4 Functions Family Paragraph 2 -

Words: 1010 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17917276

Murdock (4 functions family) Paragraph 2 - Describe evaluate Parsons (2 functions

When attempting to identify the various different functions that the family provides to both individuals and to collective groups in society, it becomes necessary to illustrate the principles of a number of different vantage points on this subject. This document will consider those of functionalists, Marxists, radical feminists and interpetivists in attempts to reach a consensus opinion.

George Murdock was one of the principle functionalists, and advanced the viewpoint that the family provides four vital functions for individuals and units within society. He believed that the family was a basic social unit that lived in a single residence that consisted of at least a pair of adults of both sexes and at least one child. One of the four main functions that Murdock believed the family provided for individuals was a means of having a sexual relationship that…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Cohen, D, & Crabtree, B 2006 'The Interpretivist Paradigm', Robert Wood Johnson Foundation,  http://www.qualres.org/HomeInte-3516.html 

Delphy, C, & Leonard, D 1988 'Patriarchy, Domestic Mode of Production, Gender, and Class', Marxism and the Interpretation of Culture, University of Illinois Press, Urbana.

Haralambos, M 2008, Sociology: Themes and Perspectives, 7th revised edn. Collins, New York.

McLellan, DT, & Chambre, H 2012, 'Marxism', Encyclopedia Britannica. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/367344/Marxism
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Sexual Factors That May Affect

Words: 3469 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96411249

For instance, according to Begley, "Men who were promiscuous back then were more evolutionarily fit since men who spread their seed widely left more descendants. By similar logic, evolutionary psychologists argued, women who were monogamous were fitter; by being choosy about their mates and picking only those with good genes, they could have healthier children" (2009, p. 52). Although modern men and women may not look like Cro-Magnums, they all want to act like them deep down inside because of these primordial drives. In sum, Begley concludes that, "We all carry genes that led to reproductive success in the Stone Age, and that as a result men are genetically driven to be promiscuous and women to be coy, that men have a biological disposition to rape and to kill mates who cheat on them, and that every human behavior is 'adaptive' -- that is, helpful to reproduction" (emphasis added) (p.…… [Read More]

References

Begley, S. (2009, June 29). Why do we rape, kill and sleep around? Newsweek, 153(26), 52.

Black's law dictionary. (1991). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.

Druzin, B.H. & Li, J.C. (2011, Spring). The criminalization of lying: Under what circumstances, if any, should lies be made criminal? Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 101(2), 529-540.

Duke, S. (2009, April 27). Kinsey: Deviancy is the new normal. The New American, 25(9), 33-35.
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Frame the Population Crisis as

Words: 2698 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63822092

It deals with inbuilt societal problems that cannot simply be dealt with due to the fact that they are so internalized. They therefore require a restructuring of societal systems -- that is, a transition and this can be done -- according to Rotman and Loorbach (2008) - by looking into the social structure of the problem

Transition management has already come a long way. As Rotman and Loorbach D (2008) observe:

The progress made in practice as well as the theoretical developments shows that modern times require experimental, innovative, multidisciplinary and participative forms of governance like transition management. In line with the underlying philosophy we cannot be certain about this, but transition management seems to be in tune with present societal demands, research and policy.

At the same time: "We are, however, also a long way from realizing a sustainable society, which means that there are ample challenges for the…… [Read More]

Sources

Australian Govt (2007)Tackling Wicked Problems. pdf.

BBC How many people can live on planet earth?

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wa3ZDEZj3P8

Castro (2004) Sustainable Development: Mainstream and Critical Perspectives Organization Environment; 17; 195
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Art in the Age of

Words: 2001 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32014755



imilarly, the phases of the image evolves from art reflecting basic reality, through three progressive stages that culminate in art that has no relation to reality at all. The same happens with utopian and science fiction writing. The first stage requires no such writing, as the world is viewed as utopian in its current state. The second stage recognizes the world as imperfect, and compensates for this by means of romantic dreams (Mann). The third stage revolves around technological dreams such as robots and machines, while the final stage once again culminates in an end to science fiction: the hyperreal absorbs science fiction into a new genre related to the Internet and other types of mass media.

There are many examples of the hyperreal in the modern media. Perhaps the most striking of these is entertainment centers such as Disney World. These worlds are presented as reality to visitors, who…… [Read More]

Sources

Benjamin, Walter. "The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction." 1936.

http://www.ejumpcut.org/archive/***/JC15folder/WalterBenjamin.html

Kazis, Richard. "Benjamin's age of mechanical reproduction." Jump Cut, no. 15, 1977. http://web.bentley.edu/empl/c/rcrooks/toolbox/common_knowledge/general_communication/benjamin.html

Mann, Doug. "Jean Baudrillard: A Very Short Introduction." 2009.  http://publish.uwo.ca/~dmann/baudrillard1.htm
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Red Wolf and Different Aspects Related to

Words: 1943 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50828426

red wolf and different aspects related to this species. I have included information about its taxonomy, morphology & anatomy, distribution, habitat, feeding, predators, behavior, reproduction, development and economic value. Over all, I have given thorough information regarding the life and habits of the red wolf that is now an endangered animal.

Taxonomy

The red wolf is a species of wolf that is smaller in size and its color varies from reddish gray to almost black. It is commonly known as red wolf. The red wolf is considered as the most beautiful of all the wolves on the planet (Sutton, 1998). However, it has been given the scientific name of Canis rufus. It belongs to the Family Canidae and Order Carnivora (Kelly & Phillips, 2000, p. 247). As far as the status of red wolf is concerned, it has been categorized as an endangered living creature as this species of wolf…… [Read More]

References

Dahl, M. (1997). The Wolf. Minnesota: Capstone Press. Retrieved March 22, 2013, from http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=HomHpmeIyWkC&printsec=frontcover&dq=the+ wolf&hl=en&sa=X&ei=f_FNUZ2tHeqR7AbG5YHwBA&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAA

Kelly, B.T., & Phillips, M.K. (2000). Red Wolf. Endangered Animals: A Reference Guide to Conflicting Issues (p. 247+). Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. Print.

Mech, L.D., & Boitani, L. (2003). Wolves: Behavior, Ecology, and Conservation. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. Print.

Paradiso, J.L., & Nowak, R.M. (1972, November 29). Canis rufus. Mammalian Species, 22, 1-4. Retrieved March 22, 2013, from  http://www.science.smith.edu/msi/pdf/i0076-3519-022-01-0001.pdf
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Multi Ethnic Literature

Words: 3326 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33967127

Multi-Ethnic Literature

The focus of this work is to examine multi-ethnic literature and focus on treating humans like farm animals that can be manipulated for various purposes. Multi-Ethnic literature offers a glimpse into the lives of the various writers of this literature and into the lives of various ethnic groups and the way that they view life and society and their experiences. Examined in this study are various writers including Tupac Shakar, Dorothy West, Petry, and others.

A Rose Grows From Concrete

One might be surprised to learn that Tupac Shakar was the writer of many sensitive poems. Upon his death in 1996, Tupac's mother released a collection of poems entitled 'A Rose Grows From Concrete', which includes various love poems among the 72 poems in the collection. Tupac writes:

Things that make hearts break.

Pretty smiles

Deceiving laughs

And people who dream with their eyes open

Lonely children

Unanswered…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Jones, SL (2012) Rereading the Harlem Renaissance: Race, Class and Gender in the Fiction of Jessie Fauset, Zora Neale Hurston and Dorothy West. Greenwood Publishing Group. 2002. Retrieved from: http://books.google.com/books?id=NeRtokbeXDEC&dq=social,+political+and+economic+oppression,+created+a+climate+in+which+Dorothy+West+felt+compelled+to+refrain+from+completing+or+actively+pursuing+a+publisher+for+The+Wedding.+West%E2%80%99s+nearly+half-a-century+space+between+publication+of+The+Living+Is+Easy+(1948)+and+The+Wedding+(1995)+signifies+the+complexities+of+African+American+literature+and+the+debate+over+which+aesthetics%E2%80%94folk,+bourgeois,+and+proletarian%E2%80%94should+take+preeminence+at+a+given+time&source=gbs_navlinks_s

Edwards, Walter. "From poetry to rap: the lyrics of Tupac Shakur. " The Western Journal of Black Studies. 26.2 (Summer 2002): 61(10). Expanded Academic ASAP. Gale. College of Alameda. 17 Sept. 2008

Hale, JC (1985) The Jailing of Cecelia Hale. University of New Mexico Press. Retrieved from: http://books.google.com/books?id=eW6RGpubQ9UC&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=false

Pat Mora (2012) Artist Page. Retrieved from: http://voices.cla.umn.edu/artistpages/mora_pat.php
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Microbiome Can Be Defined as the Sum

Words: 1528 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64994122

Microbiome can be defined as the sum of microbes, their genetic genomes and their environmental interactions in a particular environment. The word Microbiome was inverted by Joshua Lederberg, one of the giants of molecular biology to designate all microbes. He emphasized that microorganisms inhabiting the human body should be included as part of the human genome, reason on the influence on human body physiology (Predator, 2012).

However, microbes are seen to be the dominant life form of Earth. Its bacteria organisms which live on the plant are outnumbering all other bacteria combined. According to Joshua Lederberg, Microbiome bacteria dominate not only the planet, but also new people. However, the body of each one of us is ten (10) times more microbial cells than other cells which are contained in the human body (Predators, 2012). Therefore, the number of microbial genes in the human body is one hundred and fifty (150)…… [Read More]

References

NAS. Interplay of the Microbiome, Environmental Stressors, and Human Health [workshop], 27 -- 28 April 2011, Washington, DC. Washington, DC:National Academies of Sciences (2011). Available: http://tinyurl.com/4xotab3 [accessed 19 Jul 2011]

Rappaport SM, Smith MT. Environment and disease risks. Science 330(6003):460 -- 461. 2010. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1192603

The Human Microbiome Project is an NIH program intended to characterize microbial communities at several different sites on the human body (nose, mouth, gastrointestinal tract, skin, and urogenital tract) and to investigate their role in health and disease.

The European Commission's Metagenomics of the Human Intestinal Tract consortium investigates associations between human intestinal microbiota, human health, and disease.