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Human Trafficking in Ukraine
Even with the fact that law enforcement agencies from around the world have experienced significant progress during recent years, the problem of human trafficking continues to represent a threat. Ukraine is one of the locations concealing men, women, and children traffic with the purpose of commercial gain resulting from their exploitation through sex and through forced labor. hile the Ukrainian authorities go through great efforts in order to reduce and even stop human trafficking within the country's borders, criminals are experienced in this field of work and they have little to no problems escaping the law.
The former Eastern bloc in general represents a location where human traffickers find it easier to recruit individuals. Young women are one of the principal group targeted by these individuals and they are taken advantage of as a result of their poor financial condition, taking into account that most hope…
Bakker, Isabella, and Silvey, Rachel, "Beyond States and Markets: The Challenges of Social Reproduction," (Routledge, 21.08.2012)
Gunderson, Constance, "Human Trafficking: The Trafficking of Women in Northern Germany for the Purpose of Sexual Exploitation - Systemic Overview of Community-Based Responses and Challenges," (LIT Verlag Munster, 16.12.2012)
Mahon, Rianne, and Robinson, Fiona, "Feminist Ethics and Social Policy: Towards a New Global Political Economy of Care," (UBC Press, 25.08.2011)
Malarek, Victor, "The Natashas: inside the new global sex trade," (Arcade Publishing, 2003)
Human trafficking is a form of present-day slavery characterized by the use of coercion, fraud and force to exploit people for commercial benefits. Each year, a huge number of women, men and children worldwide, incorporating in the United States, fall victim of human trafficking. Victimized people are frequently attracted with false guarantees of well-paying occupations or controlled by individuals they trust. Instead, they are compelled or coerced into domestic servitude, prostitution, factory labor, or different forms of forced labor (Warner, 2010).
The Department of Homeland Security in the U.S. is answerable for investigating human trafficking, protecting victims and arresting traffickers. DHS conducts a series of investigations and makes various arrests each year, utilizing a victim-focused methodology. DHS additionally processes migration alleviation through Continued Presence (CP), U visas and T. visas, to human trafficking victims and other designated criminal acts (Forest, 2010).
After the passing of the 1949 UN Convention, human-trafficking…
Forest, J. (2010). Homeland security: Protecting America's targets. Westport, Conn: Praeger Security International.
Morehouse, C. (2009). Combating human trafficking: Policy gaps and hidden political agendas in the U.S.A. And Germany. Wiesbaden: VS, Verlag fu-r Sozialwissenschaften.
Warner, J. (2010). U.S. border security: A reference handbook. Santa Barbara, Calif: ABC-CLIO.
Human trafficking has become a common thing in the world today; I will start by defining what human trafficking is. Human trafficking is basically the trade of human beings.it involves trading of human beings for purposes such as sexual slavery, extracting of tissues and organs such as ova or for forced labor. Currently, human trafficking is quite an attractive and lucrative business estimated to close to 32 billion dollars in a year in terms of international trade. Despite the fact that human trafficking occurs at a local level it leads to international implications. There has always been confusion when it comes to human trafficking and smuggling.
Human trafficking is different from the smuggling of people. With the smuggling of people an individual known as a smuggler is requested or voluntarily hired for the purpose of covertly transporting people from on area to another. This involves the transportation of people from…
UNODC.( 2013 ). Human Trafficking. Retrieved November 4, 2013 from
The primary thing I liked about Jesper Lund's discussion about Interpol and the way it works was the speaker's candidness. He was extremely forthright, personable, and knowledgeable about this organization and its influence throughout the world. I was able to gain a lot of new insight into the way this organization operates, as well as the way international crime works.
However, I was extremely surprised at the lack of authority that Interpol has, especially in terms of its abilities to actually enforce laws. According to Lund, Interpol can only assist the governments and police forces of other countries in actually capturing criminals -- the agency cannot do so itself. In a way this makes sense, since if the way the organization operated were otherwise it would essentially be a global police force, the likes of which have yet to actually exist in our world. Still, this revelation underscored…
Human trafficking is a noun and it is defined as the unlawful movement of people, usually for the purposes of involuntary manual labor or marketable sexual utilization. People who are trafficked are usually kidnapped and sent to other countries where they are then forced into working or selling their bodies.
What is Human rafficking?
Human trafficking is the enlistment, conveyance, allocation, hiding or receiving of persons, by means of the danger or use of power or other forms of intimidation, of kidnapping, of deceit, of deception, of the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability or of the giving or receiving of disbursements or benefits to attain the agreement of an individual having control over another individual, for the purpose of manipulation. Manipulation shall include, at least, the misuse of the prostitution of others or other practices of sexual exploitation, forced labor or services, servitude or practices comparable…
The Texas Attorney General has solved and stopped various instances of human trafficking. One example in particular involves a woman arrested for prostitution. "The Attorney General's Special Investigations Unit and Grapevine police officers arrested a female and charged her with prostitution. After she was released from custody, the woman told the Attorney General's Special Investigations Unit that she was a sex trafficking victim and identified her trafficker" (" Attorney General Abbott Addresses South Texas Coalition Against Human Trafficking's 2011 Conference"). Not only were they able to find and arrest the man responsible for trafficking the woman, he was identified as a 39-year-old by the name of Joshua Andrews, but the victim was also able to receive help.
Europol Trafficking in Human Beings in the European Union
U.S. Department of State
Human Trafficking: Exploiting Vulnerable People for Profit in the 21st Century
In the 21st century, many Americans likely believe that in the Land of the Free, slavery is no longer an issue. The harsh reality of the situation, though, is that even in the United States, humans, especially young women and girls, are still bought and sold like so much chattel for work as sex slaves or domestic servants. Indeed, human trafficking is as ancient as humankind and despite efforts at the national and international level, the problem still exists in many parts of the world today. To gain some fresh insights into the problem, this paper provides a review of the relevant literature to develop a background profile on human trafficking and an analysis of the problem from the classical school of criminological theory. A summary of the research and important findings are presented in the conclusion.
Akers, R.L. & Sellers, C.S. (2004). Criminological theories: Introduction, evaluation and applications. Los Angeles: Roxbury Publishing Company.
Black's law dictionary. (1991). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.
Destefano, A.M. (2007). The war on human trafficking: U.S. policy assessed. New Brunswick,
NJ: Rutgers University Press.
Human Trafficking National Security Implications
The objective of this study is to conduct an analysis of how policy on human trafficking emerged relating to U.S. national security policy-making processes and politics. Included in this study will be information on America's cultural and political predispositions, organizational culture, bureaucratic politics and decision-making, civil-military relations, the dynamics between Congress, the public and the executive branch, as well as the interaction or influence of international organizations and actors.
It is reported in the Widener Law Review in the work of Rizer and Glaser (nd) that President ush signed National Security Directive 22 "which specifically linked human trafficking to terrorism and public health. In addition, Congress weighed in on the issue with the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004, which established the Human Smuggling and Trafficking Center to study the related issues of human trafficking, alien smuggling, and criminal support of underground terrorist…
Recommendations for Fighting Human Trafficking in the United States and Abroad: Transition Report for the Next Presidential Administration (2008) Action Group to End Human Trafficking and Modern Day Slavery. Nov. 2008. Retrieved from: http://www.freetheslaves.net/Document.Doc?id=96
Ribando, C. (2007) Trafficking in Persons: U.S. Policy and Issues for Congress. Congressional Research Service 20 June 2007. Retrieved from: http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/crs/rl30545.pdf
Rizer, A. And Glaser, SR (nd) Breach: The National Security Implications of Human Trafficking. Widener Law Review. V. 17 No. 69.
Siskin, A and Wyler, LS (2010) Trafficking in Persons: U.S. Policy and Issues for Congress. 23 Dec 2010. Congressional Research Service. Retrieved from: http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/RL34317.pdf
[NAFI, 2007, pg 8] on the other hand there are many adult women who unfortunately end up as forced laborers. These people happen to be victims of false promises who were lured with the idea of well paid jobs and a higher standard of living. The traffickers often employ psychological tactics in forcing their victims to submission. Routinely the travel and identification documents of the victims are seized and they are threatened with dire consequences for their family members back home if they attempted escape or to inform the local police. Many of these victims end up in brothels, massage parlors, domestic services or forced into factory labor. [ICE, 2010] the victims are often physically abused, injected with drugs and suffer from a high risk for HIV and other sexual infections.
The Problem of Arizona
Arizona, being a border city happens to be the hub of not only illegal immigration…
1) Polaris Project, (2007), 'Human Trafficking Statistics', retrieved Apr 30th 2010,, 'http://www.cicatelli.org/titleX/downloadable/Human%20Trafficking%20Statistics.pdf
2) Alert, (2009), 'Arizona League to end regional Trafficking', retrieved Apr 30th 2010, from, http://traffickingaz.org/
3) ELDR, (2006), 'Fighting against Human Trafficking is a Liberal Democrat Priority', retrieved Apr 30th 2010, from, http://www.eldr.org/media/cms/elwn_meeting_bucharest.pdf
4) RFERL, (July 2008), 'Experts say Human Trafficking a major problem in U.S.', retrieved Apr 30th 2010, from, http://www.rferl.org/content/Experts_Say_Human_Trafficking_A_Major_Problem_In_US/1183179.html
The State Department of the U.S. Government has for the past ten years issued an annual report on the state of laws governing human trafficking. The latest report shows that most of the world's industrialized countries have enacted laws to protect against human trafficking. This includes recognizing that human trafficking is a problem and having taken steps to address the issue (u & Zifcak, 2010). Most countries in the world have only progressed to what is known as Tier 2, in which the issue is recognized but has yet to be addressed in the nation's body of law (U.S. Department of State, 2010). Yet, despite most of the industrialized world having laws against human trafficking and protections for its victims, human trafficking has increased dramatically in recent years, and much of that increase focuses on bringing people into the developed world.
This places significant emphasis on building a…
BBC. (2011). Tunisia migrants: Italy alerts the EU amid Lampedusa influx. British Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved February 21, 2011 from http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-12446555
Cicero-Dominguez, S. (2005). Assessing the U.S.-Mexico fight against human trafficking and smuggling: Unintended results of U.S. immigration policy. Northwestern University Journal of International Human Rights. Vol. 4 (2). Retrieved February 21, 2011 from http://www.law.northwestern.edu/journals/jihr/v4/n2/2/
CNN. (2010). Human trafficking in Mexico targets women and children. CNN. Retrieved February 21, 2011 from http://articles.cnn.com/2010-01-13/world/mexico.human.traffic.drug_1_maria-ciudad-juarez-trafficking?_s=PM:WORLD
Conant, E.; Campo-Flores, A.; Skipp, C.; Barry, J. & Ephron, D. (2009). The enemy within. Newsweek. Vol. 153 (12) 36-39.
Human Trafficking: Literature eview
Perhaps the most significant act of legislation passed to deal with the growing global problem of human trafficking was the Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000. This law established specific federal penalties for trafficking in persons, as well as offered added protections for victims. However, according to Anthony M. Destefano's 2007 The war on human trafficking: U.S. policy assessed, the years subsequent to the passage of this Act have revealed the provisions of this law to be inadequate. First and foremost, Destefano accuses the Bush Administration of having a kind of prurient fascination with prostitution, and says that it ignores other areas of the capitalist system in which there is profiting off of trafficking, such as sweatshops. In the hands of the Bush Administration, the law was used just as often to punish and silence victims as it was to litigate against their abusers.
Destefano, Anthony M. (2007). The war on human trafficking: U.S. policy assessed.
New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press.
Dovydaitis, Tiffany. (2011). Human trafficking: The role of the health care provider. Journal of Midwifery & Women's Health, 55 (5): 462-467. DOI: 10.1016/j.jmwh.2009.12.017
Loring Jones, David W. Engstrom, Tricia Hilliard, Mariel Diaz. (2007). Globalization and human trafficking. Journal of Sociology and Social Welfare. Retrieved from FindArticles.com http://findarticles.com/ p/articles/mi_m0CYZ/is_2_34/ai_n27265537/
Human trafficking is often thought of as a problem indigenous only to developing nations. However, the phenomenon is pervasive internationally, including in the United States. Examples of human enslavement in the U.S. that have recently been exposed by the media and law enforcement have been found in the fields of domestic service, prostitution, farm labor, factories, and mining (Bales & Soodalter 2007). "Trafficking supplies human beings for prostitution, sweatshop labor, street begging, domestic work, marriage, adoption, agricultural work, construction, armed conflicts (child soldiers), and other forms of exploitive labor or services" around the world (Loring, Engstrom, Hilliard, & Diaz 2007:1).
These cases represent only a proverbial 'tip of the iceberg' of the phenomenon as it exists today. The phenomenon of globalization has increased the flow of human traffic worldwide, not only in legitimate spheres of labor, but also in the arenas of human trafficking. "Human trafficking represents perhaps the worst…
Bales, Kevin & Ron Soodalter. (2007). The slave next door: Human trafficking and slavery in America today. Berkley: University of California Press.
Fact sheet: Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000. (2011). U.S. Department of Health
and Human Services (HHS).
Moon stated that since the Crawfords entered her life, "I have realized that I have value and worth. And now that I know God, I can always pray for his help whenever I have a problem." The Crawfords are among a growing number of Christians worldwide working to live out the love of Jesus by reaching out to sexually exploited people. The Crawfords decided to move to Thailand after a short-term mission trip to Asia. Christa, a graduate of Harvard Law School, was dissatisfied with corporate law and had been providing legal aid at the Union Gospel Mission in Los Angeles. Mark had been leading an expanding multiethnic church and pursuing a master's degree at Fuller Theological Seminary to prepare to minister to prostituting women. (Jewell, 2007, p. 28).
When Kerry Hilton moved from New Zealand to India with his family in 2000, he was amazed when seeing 6,000 women…
Alford, D. (2007) How Christians worldwide are sabotaging the modern slave trade.
Christianity Today. 51(3)
Busch, David. ABC Radio National a Light at the Door. Interview Retrieved April18, 2008 http://www.abc.net.au/rn/encounter/stories/2008/2125162.htm
Glatz, C. Nuns Social Aspects Catholic News Service Retrieved April 18, 2008 http://www.catholicnews.com/data/stories/cns/0706022.htm
Human trafficking, rampant in almost all countries in the world, still unexpectedly continues in the United States with the forced exploitation of humans into forced labor or sexual exploitation. The United States' Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000 defines human trafficking as:
Sex trafficking in which a commercial sex act is induced by force, fraud, or coercion, or in which the person induced to perform such act has not attained 18 years of age, O
The recruitment, harboring, transportation, provision, or obtaining of a person for labor or services, through the use of force, fraud, or coercion for the purpose of subjection to involuntary servitude, peonage, debt bondage, or slavery (Victims of Violence and Protection Act, 2000)
Almost non-existent here as compared to other countries where it is second only to drugs, according to the Washington Post (2008) only 1,362 cases of foreign victims of human trafficking have been identified…
Brunovskis, A., & Tyldum, G. (2004) .Crossing borders: an empirical study of transnational prostitution and trafficking in human beings, Fafo report 426, Oslo.
Heather J. Clawson; Nicole Dutch; & Megan Cummings. (2006). Law Enforcement Response to Human Trafficking and the Implications for Victims: Current Practices and Lessons Learned National Institute of Justice/NCJRS, USA
Logan, TK, Walker, R., & Hunt, G (2009). Understanding Human Trafficking in the United States. Trauma Violence Abuse, 10, 1 3-30
Markon, J. (May 24, 2008). "Human Trafficking Evokes Outrage, Little Evidence." The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/09/22/AR2007092201401_pf.html .
Presently, many jurisdictions incarcerate the victims and then export them as illegal aliens to the same conditions that made them candidates for trafficking in the first purpose. In the process these poor individuals are victimized again at the hands of the law enforcement officials. It is an unbroken circle. Efforts are on the way such as in the European Union to adopt a more enlightened approach but there is far more work to do in this regard. The United States has also initiated legislation aimed at the same goal but its full enforcement has been limited by the public sensitivity toward immigrants (U.S. Department of State, 2000). Perhaps the most important provision of the 2000 Victims Protection Act was the creation of T-visas which allowed victims to remain in the U.S. If they qualified under the requirements of the Act. This was a major step forward in recognizing the rights…
Bales, K. (2004). Disposable People: New Slavery in the Global Economy. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Hepburn, S. (2010). Hidden in Plain Sight: Human Trafficking in the United States. Gender Issues, 1-26.
Polaris Project. (2007). Human Trafficking Statistics. Retrieved June 10, 2011, from Polaris Project: http://www.dreamcenter.org/new/images/outreach/RescueProject/stats.pdf
The Associated Press. (2011, April 21). Farms Charged with Human Trafficking. New York Times, p. 15.
143). In this regard, Yen cites the case of one-4-year-old child who was sold to a child sex-trafficking ring operating in the United States. According to Yen, "She was enslaved for twelve years, servicing mostly American men. To keep the children obedient, her traffickers frequently abused them psychologically and physically" (p. 653). Although truly alarming, this case is certainly not unique and Yen stresses that children ranging in age of "toddlers to teens" are being offered for sale by international human traffickers (Yen, 2008, p. 653).
In response to this growing problem, the United States together with 117 other countries adopted the anti-trafficking protocol from the United Nations in 2000 that defined "trafficking in persons" as being the "recruitment, transportation and harboring of another person for the purpose of exploitation" (United Nations Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, G.A. Res. 55/25, U.N. GAOR,…
" (Getu, 2006, p. 145)
IV. SOLUTIONS for COPING WITH HUMAN TRAFFICKING CRIMES
The work of Roger Plant entitled: "Economic and Social Dimension of Human Trafficking: roadening the Perspective" states that the "narrowest perspective, actually quite widely held is that trafficking concerns essentially the sexual exploitation of women and children. Media attitudes tend to promote these perceptions." (2003, p.2) However, according to Plant "a slightly broader focus extends the scope while still - following the Trafficking Protocol of the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime - giving primary attention to women and children. They can be exploited for domestic labor, begging and stealing on the streets, and other activities in the largely informal economy." (2003, p.2) Plant states that the broadest perspective view the "large numbers of migrant workers as potential victims of trafficking, particularly the migrants moved by recruiting and transporting agents across national borders. Here, there may…
Plant, Roger (2003) Economic and Social Dimensions of Human Trafficking: Broadening the Perspective. Second Preparatory Seminar for the Eleventh OSCE Economic Forum, 17-18 Feb 2003. International Labour Office.
Clawson, H.J., Dutch, N. And Cumming, M (2006) Law Enforcement Response to Human Trafficking and the Implications for Victims: Current Practices and Lessons Learned. December 2006. U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, National Institute of Justice, Washington, DC
International Conference on Measuring Human Trafficking Complexities and Pitfalls (2005) International Scientific and Professional Advisory Council of the United Nations and the Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Program in cooperation with United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime/UNODC Vienna. Courmayeur Mont Blanc, Italy 2-4 December 2005. Online available at http://www.cnpds.it/documenti/a79f66cabdf118948255e200099c605b.doc
The Human and National Security Implications of Climate Change (2007) Center for Unconventional Security Affairs at the University of California Irvine. Environmental Security. Online available at http://www.cusa.uci.edu/climate_change_and_human_security.htm
Human Trafficking: An Ethnographic Study
Human trafficking is not a problem that only affects developing nations. Every nation and region of the globe is plighted by the problem of human trafficking, including the world's wealthiest countries. In fact, it is often the wealthy nations that provide the lucrative market that drives human trafficking to begin with. "Human trafficking represents perhaps the worst form of labor exploitation and can be regarded as one of the dark sides of globalization," (Loring, Engstrom, Hilliard, & Diaz 2007:1). This may be true, but human trafficking is a practice much older than the modern incarnation of a globalized economy.
The focus of this study is on adult human trafficking, a much-overlooked dimension of the problem. Human trafficking also affects both men and women, and this study takes into account gender roles and norms, and the different market needs for trafficked human beings. Treating…
Human Trafficking Premise: elationships Between the Trafficker and the Trafficked
Human trafficking continues today, despite years of attempts to stop it. The practice continues to evolve as the nature of the globalized world changes, and the demands for workers and slaves adapt with it. The research shows that "Traffickers range from large-scale organized crime networks to "small-scale informal networks" (Srikantiah, 2007). Ultimately, human trafficking is a serious crime worldwide. This has lead to a recent surge of research exploring human trafficking: how it is done, who is involved, and why it occurs so frequently.
However, much of the current discourse is spent primarily on evaluating the crime in regards to statistics and demand. Much of the modern research fails to examine the problem from the victim's perspective. To be a victim of human trafficking is to be victimized in a very unique and challenging way. For some, victims resent and…
Srikantiah, J. (2007). Perfect victims and real survivors: The iconic victim in domestic human trafficking law. BUL Rev., 87, 157.
Tyldum, G., & Brunovskis, A. (2005). Describing the unobserved: Methodological challenges in empirical studies on human trafficking. International Migration, 43(1-2), 17-34.
People are taken every day from their homes and off of the streets and sold either into prostitution or slavery. It would seem that something so egregious could not happen in a law abiding, civilized country such as the United States, but more people are taken every year, and the exact numbers of people who are taken through human trafficking is not known. In this small paper, an analysis of the available research will be done using four representative articles.
The first article chosen has to do with how well the act of trafficking in humans is being reported. Mattar (2008) says that current methods of tracking how much human trafficking is occurring are lacking. The United States and United Kingdom currently use all available tracking software and other methods, but neither country understands what the exact breadth of the problem is. The author of the investigation is…
Choi-Fitzpatrick, A. (2006). In plain sight? Human trafficking and research challenges.Human Rights & Human Welfare, 6, 63-70.
Gozdziak, E.M., & MacDonnell, M. (2007). Closing the gaps: The need to improve identification and services to child victims of trafficking. Human Organization, 66(2), 171-181.
Mattar, M.Y. (2008). Comparative models of reporting mechanisms on the status of trafficking in human beings. Journal of Transitional Law, 41(5), 1355-1392.
Potocky, M. (2010). The travesty of human trafficking: A decade of failed U.S. policy. Social Work, 55(4), 373-377.
Human trafficking is one of the wildest forms of slavery in modern-day society. Simply stated, it is a form of slavery where people make economic gain from exploiting and controlling others. In its worst manifestation, human trafficking occurs when unsuspecting victims pay to be illegally shipped into another country, which they perhaps perceive as having more opportunities, only to find themselves in the hands of unscrupulous traffickers, who force them into involuntary labor, prostitution, and other life-threatening forms of servitude. egardless of what they are forced to do to repay their debt(s) to the traffickers, victims of human trafficking share one thing in common -- the loss of freedom.
According to the International Labor Organization (ILO), 20.9 million victims are trafficked annually across the globe, a majority of whom are women and young girls (Polaris, 2015). Almost a quarter of these victims (5.5 million) are children below the age…
Chisolm-Straker, M. (n.d.). Human Trafficking. Mount Sinai Emergency Medical Department. Retrieved 15 February 2015 from http://www.humantraffickinged.com/
Interpol. (2015). Types of Human Trafficking. Interpol. Retrieved 16 February 2015 from http://www.interpol.int/Crime-areas/Trafficking-in-human-beings/Types-of-human-trafficking
Polaris. (2015). Human Trafficking. Polaris Project. Retrieved 16 February 2015 from http://www.polarisproject.org/human-trafficking/overview
Criminal Justice: Human Trafficking
Human Trafficking is a global and a national problem which eradicates the humanity and dignity of the individual and contributes to a destruction of all the values of freedom, independence and a universal moral code which unites all individuals (nyc.gov, 2013). In the simplest and plainest terms, human trafficking is modern day slavery which reduces real people to the form of property: women and young girls most often, though sometimes boys and men as well, are often bought and sold against their will through force, fraud or through coercive means and made to work (very often in the sex industry), often for no pay and with constant abuse (tx.us, 2013). Sometimes this abuse can be fatal. These are all the factors which make up human trafficking, though according to the law, anyone can be found guilty in the charges of human trafficking if they engage in…
EHT, (2013). PPP: Prevention, Prosecution, Protection. Endhumantrafficking.com. Retrieved from: http://www.endhumantraffickingnow.com/ppp-prevention-prosecution-protection/
Gallagher, A., & Holmes, P. (2008). Developing an Effective Criminal Justice Response to Human Trafficking. International Criminal Justice Review, 318-343.
NYC.gov. (2013). What is Human Trafficking? Retrieved from nyc.gov: http://www.nyc.gov/html/endht/html/home/home.shtml
Tx.us. (2013, September). Introduction to Human Trafficking. Retrieved from tx.us: https://www.oag.state.tx.us/AG_Publications/pdfs/HT_CrimJust_GUIDE_2013.pdf
One of the major problems of human trafficking is that so many of those trafficked are children or young adults who end in first world countries, enslaved as prostitutes. As Rahman points out, “an estimated 1.2 million children are trafficked each year,” most of them between the ages of 18-24, and almost all of them victims of “physical or sexual violence while being trafficked” (57). Indeed, 50% of all persons who are trafficked fall into the hands of sex traffickers and are forced into prostitution
“in advanced countries” (Rahman 57). If advanced countries are supposed to be leaders in the world, the problem is very clearly a moral and ethical one and shows a severe failing in the resolve of the industrialized world to address this decline in cultural standards. This paper will address this issue of human trafficking and offer a way to solve the problem.
As Rahman shows,…
Bales, Kevin, and Ron Soodalter. The slave next door: Human trafficking and slavery in America today. Univ of California Press, 2010.
Rahman, Majeed A. \\\\"Human Trafficking in the era of Globalization: The case of Trafficking in the Global Market Economy.\\\\" Transcience Journal 2.1 (2011): 54-71.
Human trafficking is defined as “the acquisition of people by improper means such as force, fraud or deception, with the aim of exploiting them” (UNODC, 2015). However, as with any definition or label, there is a subjective interpretation that exists alongside the objective viewpoint. While in most cases of trafficking, the human being involved can easily be depicted as a victim, in some cases the of trafficking the “victim” wants to be trafficked as it provides an opportunity for the individual to have a better life even if it is outside the normal or accepted means of society (Beatson & Hanley, 2017; Brock& Teixeira, 2014). Included in these cases can be situations of labor trafficking and sex trafficking. The point is that not every person feels the same about human trafficking or that it is necessarily immoral in every case. As there are numerous ethical perspectives from which one…
Many people today, including mainstream Americans, might be shocked to realize the human trafficking is commonplace in their countries and people are still bought and sold as so much chattel. Although women and children are most vulnerable, human trafficking can involve virtually anyone who is forced into a lifestyle against their will. Complicating the problem is the fact that human traffickers wield significant influence through corruption and bribery of high-placed government officials in some countries, making meaningful progress in combating the practice especially difficult. To determine the facts, this paper provides a review of the relevant literature concerning human trafficking to define the issue, describe its current status and to identify potential solutions to this social problem. Finally, a summary of the research and important findings concerning human trafficking and potential solutions are presented in the conclusion.
Review and Analysis
According to the definition provided by the organization, Anti-Slavery, human…
Barril, S. A. (2016, August 12). Country brief - Trouble in Trinidad and Tobago: Combating human trafficking. Washington Report on the Hemisphere, 36(14), 9-12.
Das, J. & DiReinzo, C. E. (2013, May 1). Anti-human trafficking policies and freedom of the press: A cross-country study. International Journal of Management and Marketing Research, 6(2), 1-4.
Duong, K. A. (2012, January 1). Human trafficking in a globalized world: Gender aspects of the issue and anti-trafficking politics. Journal of Research in Gender Studies, 2(1), 48-51.
Fifteen ways to fight human trafficking. (2018). U.S. Department of State. Retrieved from https://www.state.gov/j/tip/id/help/.
Human trafficking. (2018). Anti-Slavery. Retrieved from https://www.antislavery.org/slavery-today/human-trafficking/.
Simmons, F. & O’Brien, B. (2013, November). Human trafficking and slavery offenders in Australia. Trends & Issues in Crime and Criminal Justice, 464, 1-5.
Trafficking protocol. (2003). United Nations Human Rights. Retrieved from http://www.ohchr.org/EN/ProfessionalInterest/Pages/ProtocolTraffickingInPersons.aspx.
What questions should you ask the woman to assist you with your investigations?
1. Do you have a good relationship with your husband? Are you in talking terms as of this moment?
2. Is the laptop in your possession right now? If not, where is it?
3. What is the location of your husband as of this moment? Does he know where you are right now?
4. Before you saw what you saw last night, do you, as his partner, have any reason to suspect that he has been viewing the same kind of content for a while?
What do you need legally to seize that laptop?
For one to be successfully prosecuted of the crime of child pornography, he or she must have knowingly received, distributed or possessed child pornography. So there must be intent on his or her part. In case a person, such as the complainant’s husband,…
Bector, S. (2009). Your laptop, please: The search and seizure of electronic devices at the United States border. Berkeley Tech. LJ, 24, 695.
Moore, R. (2014). Cybercrime: Investigating high-technology computer crime. Routledge.
U.S. Department of Justice Office of Justice Programs, (n.d). Forensic Examination of Digital Evidence: A Guide for Law Enforcement. National Institute of Justice.
U.S. Department of Homeland Security, (n.d). Best Practices for seizing electronic evidence. United States Secrete service.
Computer Crime and Intellectual Property Section Criminal Division, (2009). Searching and Seizing Computers and Obtaining Electronic Evidence in Criminal Investigations. Office of Legal Education Executive Office for United States Attorneys.
Milivojevic, S., Pickering, S., & Segrave, M. (2017). Sex Trafficking and Modern Slavery: The Absence of Evidence. Routledge.
Social Policy Analysis Report
Definition of Social Problem
In recent decades, sex trafficking has become a substantial social problem affecting the whole world and continues to necessitate worldwide collaboration to combat it (Brooks and Heaslip, 2019) entirely. Human trafficking is a violation of the fundamental human rights of men, women, and children all over the world. Based on research conducted by the United Nations, statistics indicated that persons across 106 different nations across the globe had experienced trafficking either for labor or sex, or both. Twenty-eight percent of this statistic comprised of children, with the number of girls surpassing that of boys by 40 percent (Greenbaum, 2017). The United Nations defines sexual traffic to encompass the act of recruiting, transferring, harboring, or receiving of individuals, by way of either threat or through use of force as well as other kinds of intimidation, fraud, trickery, abuse of power or authority, capitalizing…
Comparative Analysis of Human Trafficking in the United States with the orld
Specialized Field Project
Human Trafficking is a very serious issue that affects every country around the world. Human Trafficking is also known as "Sex Trafficking," or "Modern Day Slavery," which reflects the primary reasons people are bought and sold today -- sex trade and involuntary labor. The Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000 (TVPA) defines sex trafficking as
"the recruitment, harboring, transportation, provision, or obtaining of a person for a commercial sex act, is induced by force, fraud, or coercion, or in which the person induced to perform such act has not attained 18 years of age."
Moreover, labor trafficking is defined as
"the recruitment, harboring, transportation, provision, or obtaining of a person for labor or services, using force, fraud, or coercion for subjection to involuntary servitude, peonage, debt bondage or slavery." (CNHTR, n.d.)…
Wayne, O. & Genelle, B. (2011). Major Principles of Media Law, 2012 Edition, Chapter 10, Cengage Learning.
Wheaton, E. M., Schauer, E. J., & Galli, T. V. (2010). Economics of Human Trafficking. International Migration, 48(4), 114-141. doi:10.1111/j.1468-2435.2009.00592.x
Wyler, L.S. (2013). Trafficking in Persons: International Dimensions and Foreign Policy Issues for Congress. Congress Research Service
Human trafficking has become a major global epidemic that affects all nations. Human sex trafficking is the fastest growing business and the third largest criminal enterprise worldwide (alker-Rodriquez, 2011). Victims include children, both male and female, and women. The victims are often given false identities and some get entangled into national organized crime networks. They are often isolated, drugged, terrorized, repeatedly raped, and often sold to other traffickers. The abuse over extended periods of time causes victims to be attached to the trafficker in a paradoxical psychological phenomenon. The average ages of children living on the streets in the U.S. that become engaged in prostitution is 12 to 14 for girls and 11 to 13 for boys (alker-Rodriquez, 2011).
Barriers to victim identification include the nature of the crime, lack of awareness, victim perception, lack of resources, and providers' view of training provided (Clawson, 2007). Victims usually come from povertized,…
Clawson, H. & . (2007). Identifiying Victims of Human Trafficking: Inherent Challenges and Promising Strategies From the Field. Retrieved from U.S. Department of Health and Human Services: http://aspe.hhs.gov/hsp/07/humantrafficking/identvic/ib.pdf
Groenewald, T. (2004). A Phenomenological Research Design Illustrated. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 3(1), Retrieved from http://www.ualberta.ca/~iigm/backissues/3_1/pdf/groenewald.pdf .
Walker-Rodriquez, A. & . (2011, Mar). Human Sex Trafficking. Retrieved from FBI:
Over the last several years, the issue of human trafficking has been increasingly brought to the forefront. This is because the industry is considered to be a major source of income for organized criminal gangs and other groups with it accounting for $31.6 billion in profits worldwide. Depending the region, these returns will vary with some having greater rewards from: socially acceptable practices, a lack of regulation and the ability of criminal groups to move with impunity in certain regions. The below table is showing, those areas with the highest returns and levels of human trafficking. ("An Introduction to Human Trafficking," 2008) ("Human Trafficking," 2013)
The Profit Margins and Amounts of Human Trafficking
Number of People
49% ($15.1 billion)
% ($9.7 billion)
Latin America and the Caribbean
4.1% ($1.3 billion)
Middle East and North Africa
4.7% ($1.5 billion)
Poverty has a particularly strong influence on world affairs today and it is especially difficult for particular individuals to survive as long as they do not get involved in activities that very much resemble the form of slavery that was abolished more than 140 years ago. While some might interpret certain jobs to be no different from others, given that they entail individuals doing things they are not particularly fond of, the reality is that these respective jobs involve people being unable to leave and forced to work.
Many people leave their homes because they are poor and hope that they are going to make it in other locations. However, once they actually get there they realize that they are abused and forced to work for little to no compensation. These people are, by definition, slaves, in spite of the fact that the social order has a tendency to regard…
Human Trafficking: Causes and Motivating Forces
There's no doubt that human trafficking is one of the saddest evils of our day: "On the worldwide black market, the third most profitable commodity after illegal weapons and drugs is human flesh: women and girls from all over Eastern Europe, sold for sex by the networks of organized crime that became entrenched in the aftermath after the fall of communism" (Malarek, 2011). Other scholars call it "modern day slavery" or "a slippery and confounding evil" (Skinner, 2008). egardless of what human trafficking is most accurately referred to, the more one entrenches oneself with a bold study of the literature and research that surrounds human trafficking, the better one will understand what motivates and perpetuates this crime against humanity and the better armed one becomes at abolishing it.
For example, in the article, "Human Trafficking in the United States: Expanding Victim Protection Beyond Prosecution…
Aradau, C. (2004). The perverse politics of four-letter words: Risk and pity in the securitisation of human trafficking. Journal of International Studies, 33(2), 251-277.
Chuang, J. (2006). Beyond a snapshot: Preventing human trafficking in the global economy. Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies, 13(1), 137-163.
Finckenauer, J.O. (2001). Russian transnational organized crime and human trafficking. In D. Kyle (Ed.), Global Human Smuggling (pp. 166-186). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Malarek, V. (2011). The Natashas: The horrific inside story of slavery, rape, and murder.
Munity Nursing and Human Trafficking
Community nursing and Human trafficking
From the PowerPoint we get the definition of human trafficking which is stated as the exploitation of a person or persons for sex, labor or for body organs. This means that human trafficking is done for different reasons which are stated above (Chernush, 2010). Statistics show that men, women and children are all victims of the different forms of human trafficking. Therefore it means that men, women and children are all vulnerable to these three forms of human trafficking.in the U.S. The average age at which a child can become a victim of sex trafficking is between 12 and 14 years. This means that children at this age are more vulnerable to sex trafficking in the United States. Human trafficking can happen to anyone and even the people we love most. The victims of human trafficking are from all walks…
Levy, R., Simon, K., Smyth, E. And Stulberg, A. (2012). Great debate: Human trafficking. The Morningside Post. Retrieved from http://www.themorningsidepost.com/2012/12/04/great-debate-human-trafficking .
Chernush, K. (2010). Human trafficking: The global issue in your backyard. Retrieved from http://www.coca-colacompany.com/stories/human-trafficking-the-global-issue-in-your-backyard
Theory -- Approach Linkage
Human trafficking in Vietnam: Article critique
Although no region of the world is immune to the problem of human trafficking, in certain areas the crime is particularly acute. In Asia, the ratio of trafficked persons relative to the rest of the population is even higher than it is worldwide, with 3 victims per every 1,000 inhabitants, and that is only of the persons who are known to be trafficked (uong 2012: 48). There are also a likely very high percentage of trafficked persons who are not detected by any legal agencies at all. "The exact number of victims of human trafficking, therefore, is likely to be much higher" (uong 2012: 49). The majority are likely thought to be women, specifically women in the sex trade. With this in mind, uong (2012) offers a gender-based analysis of trafficking, with a focus upon Vietnam. Vietnam is often called…
Despite these weaknesses, the evidence presented by Duong (2012) is unique and valuable simply because it takes a case study approach. Few articles which deal with trafficking do so; most discuss the phenomenon in a generalized fashion that does not take into consideration regional differentiation. As pervasive as the problem of trafficking may be, it is important not to present the issue without regards to national and regional cultural differences and to take into consideration how different populations are affected in its various manifestations.
Duong, K.A. (2012). Human trafficking in a globalized world: Gender aspects of the issue and anti-trafficking politics. Journal of Research in Gender Studies, 2(1), 48-65.
The Inextricable Correlation between Human Trafficking and Prostitution
Despite ongoing efforts by the international community, human trafficking remains a global problem today. Tens of thousands of men, women and children are routinely exploited by human traffickers each year, and the practice generates billions of dollars in criminal proceeds at home and abroad. In fact, after drugs and gun-running, sex trafficking is the largest source of money for criminal organizations in the United States. Given the enormity of the problem and the vast sums of money that are involved, it is not surprising that the international community has not been successful in eliminating this practice. To determine the facts, this paper provides an analysis of the relevant literature concerning the correlation between prostitution and human trafficking to demonstrate that the two have an inextricable but difficult to quantify effect on each other. A summary of the research and important findings…
A previous casualty of trafficking names Given Kachepa, said that human trafficking is so concealed you will not be aware of who you're fighting because the victims are so frightened, they're not going to say anything that is happening to them (the Associated Press, 2005).
Nevertheless, the fatality of human trafficking acquired some main characteristics that makes this person appealing to the trafficker in accordance to the aimed trade that they are being employed -- for female victims, this may varies from simply being female, or being beautiful or having exotic characteristics, to possessing skills to operate a sewing machine quickly; or for men, having massive physical strength or simply age are often main characteristics; in both instancesm the victim is to be expected to have some defenselessness that will make him/her be effortless to ensnare with ideas of exciting city life and job prospects (Iselin & Adams, 2003).
Hooker, R. (1996). Retrieved March 22, 2009 from Mesopotamia: The Code of Hamurabi: http://www.wsu.edu/~dee/MESO/CODE.htm
Human trafficking is a global problem. (2008). Retrieved on March 22, 2009 from Marketplace: http://marketplace.publicradio.org/display/web/2008/01/11/human_trafficking/
Human Trafficking Defined. (2008). Retrieved on March 22, 2009 from U.S. Department State: www.state.gov/g/tip/rls/tiprpt/2008/105487.htm
Iselin, B. & Adams, M. (2003 April) Distinguishing between Human Trafficking and People Smuggling. UN Office on Drugs and Crime, Regional Centre for East Asia and the Pacific, Bangkok.
human trafficking was to 'give voice to the voiceless.'
Human trafficking is a serious issue but because its primary victims are poor and often young and female, they receive little attention from the mass media.
This is a difficult and unpleasant issue that people would rather forget about than acknowledge exists in our present-day society.
The topic presented an interesting challenge to me as a qualitative researcher because it was essential that I provide information about this sensitive subject to the reader from the women's perspectives without impinging upon the women's privacy.
I felt it necessary to allow the women to speak for themselves yet there were logistical issues about translation and also about making cross-cultural generalizations.
Another challenge was that I wished my research to have a real, material effect upon how trafficking was viewed. Although I took a scholarly approach, it was essential that I was rigorous in…
Human trafficking is defined as "the recruitment and movement of people by force, coercion or deception, for the purposes of exploitation" (Abas et al. 2013: 1). However, according to a 2013 study by Abas (et al.), current literature on the subject of human trafficking is somewhat problematic, given that research studies have focused on victims at different stages of trafficking and combined the perspectives of a wide range of persons of different ethnicities. This compromises the internal validity of the studies, given that so many other factors could impact results. Still, there is evidence that women who have been trafficked suffer from higher rates of depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (Abas et al. 2013: 1). To offer a more controlled study, Abbas (et al. 2013) conducted a study on Moldavian women specifically. All women in the study were eligible to receive government post-intervention crisis care as a result…
Abas, M., Ostrovschi, N.V., Prince, M., Gorceag, V.I., Trigub, C., & Oram, S. (2013). Risk
factors for mental disorders in women survivors of human trafficking: A historical cohort study. BMC Psychiatry, 13, 204. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-244X-13-204
Duong, K.A. (2012). Human trafficking in a globalized world: Gender aspects of the issue and anti-trafficking politics. Journal of Research in Gender Studies, 2(1), 48-65.
Hepburn, S., & Simon, R.J. (2010). Hidden in plain sight: Human trafficking in the United
Governments are not doing enough to eradicate human trafficking. There are several contributing factors to the lack of action on this issue. The first is that it is not a singular issue -- there are a number of sub-issues including prostitution, organized crime, child labor and illegal immigration. Each of these is a significant issue on its own that demands action, but it also creates a diversity of individual challenges under the rubric of human trafficking, presenting a challenge for tackling the issue in any sort of coordinated way.
A further problem is that human trafficking often involves moving people across borders. Thus, tackling the problem requires multinational cooperation, and this is usually between countries that are wealthy and those that are not. There are a host of jurisdictional problems that arise, and beyond that many of the poorer countries will choose to dedicate whatever funds they have…
Human Trafficking-Quali tool
Qualitative Study on Human Trafficking (with Gender Analysis)
For the data collection mini-project, the researcher is proposing two qualitative tools (in-depth interview guides) for two kinds of informants: first, victims of human trafficking, with equal number of interviews between males and females; and second, experts on the issue of human trafficking to provide insights on the reliability, validity, and usefulness of data on the topic, published and shared in the public fora.
Proposed guide questions for human trafficking victims:
Introduction to the interviewee/key informant.
Establishing rapport with key informant: Can you share with us a little background about yourself? About your family?
Understanding of the concept of human trafficking, framing the mind of the key informant towards his/her experience: Can you share with me, what do you think about when you hear the word, "human trafficking"?
ecall of abduction/recruitment into human trafficking: Can you tell me what…
Creswell, J. (2009). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Hepburn, S., & Simon, R.J. (2010). Hidden in plain sight: Human trafficking in the United
States. Gender Issues, 27(1-2), 1-26. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12147-010-9087-7
Forced labor is one of the most important and at the same time intriguing "diseases" of the 21st century particularly because it should no longer be a subject for discussion considering that the 21st century should be one of technological advancements, of improvements in the living standards, as well as it the overall consideration of human life as being essential for the well-being of our future. Yet, there are constant cases of forced labor in regions such as Africa or Asia that have questioned the ability of the state and of the human being to protect another human being from abuses.
The current research focuses on the way in which forced labor is viewed from the point-of-view of the international law, as well as through the lens of a known case study of forced labor that determined not only reactions from the state, but also an increased in the awareness…
They may be sold to another owner after they arrive, and since most agreements are verbal, they are easily broken. Another startling fact in human trafficking is how many victims enter the trade willingly, because of the need to provide income for their families. esearchers Cwikel and Hoban note this is especially true in ussia, where many former Soviet Union countries have privatized education and health care facilities. ussian women often enter the sex trade via trafficking as a way to earn wages for education and health care expenses for the rest of their family. Often, victims come from poor, third-world countries. esearcher Miller states, "Desperate and gullible populations, especially in developing and transitioning countries, are susceptible to the promises made by recruiters (including family members) of a better life in another place, especially promises of paid work, marriage, or domestic service" (Miller). Thus, the practice preys on the most…
Cwikel, Julie, and Elizabeth Hoban. "Contentious Issues in Research on Trafficked Women Working in the Sex Industry: Study Design, Ethics, and Methodology." The Journal of Sex Research 42.4 (2005): 306+.
Matthews, Stacey. "International Trafficking in Children: Will New U.S. Legislation Provide an Ending to the Story?." Houston Journal of International Law 27.3 (2005): 649+.
Miller, John R. "Slave Trade: Combating Human Trafficking." Harvard International Review 27.4 (2006): 70+.
The new law has prosecuted 426 traffickers in 203 cases. These traffickers had 844 victims in that year alone. This law imposes penalties from 10 years imprisonment to life imprisonment (Kyodo).
Myanmar: Effective or Not?
The capacity of the national government in fighting the problem of human trafficking has been limited (UNODC 2007). It is particularly limited in implementing policy changes in remote areas where traffickers operate. Anti-trafficking groups are looking into the situation. The UNODC addresses the issue by implementing projects and participating in partnership initiatives in the country. These projects and initiatives include increasing public awareness of the problem, provision of technical assistance for the law enforcement sector and the judiciary, greater and easier access to service providers and enhancing their capabilities (UNODC).
Reports say that Cambodia is a source, transit and destination country for human trafficking (HumanTrafficking.org 2009). Human traffickers consist of organized crime syndicates, parents,…
CIA. Russia. The World Fact Book: Central Intelligence Agency, 2009. Retrieved on April 23, 2009 from http://www.cia.gov/library/publications/2732.htm
Gekht, Anna. Shared but Differentiated Responsibility Integration of International
Obligations in Fight against Trafficking in Human Beings. Denver Journal
International Law and Policy: University of Denver, 2008. Retrieved on April
Additionally, it has been observed that the Obama Administration's approach differs from the Bush Administration in that the latter was more short-sighted in its anti-trafficking goals (Ditmore, 2009). The Bush Administration was focused primarily on combating sex trafficking, while the Obama Administration aims to address a wider array of abusive labor practices (Ditmore, 2009). The aims of the Obama Administration reach for wider public support and attempting to deal with the problem more effectively by addressing important, related abusive practices.
States are also playing a critical role in anti-trafficking measures. State and local law enforcement officials are working on combating human trafficking (National Underground Railroad Freedom Center, 2010). Many states have their own human trafficking legislation (National Underground Railroad Freedom Center, 2010). Maryland is also committed to anti-trafficking measures. In particular, the Attorney General of Maryland, the Baltimore City State's Attorney, and the U.S. Attorney's Office created a Human Trafficking…
Ditmore, Melissa. (June 2009). The sweep of modern-day slavery. Guardian. Retrieved from http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/10/ .
Maryland Human Trafficking Task Force. (April 2010). Human Trafficking. Retrieved from http://www.justice.gov/usao/md/Human-Trafficking/index.html.
National Underground Railroad Freedom Center. (February 2010). Anti-Human Trafficking
Efforts on the Home Front Remain a Work in Progress. Retrieved from http://freedomcenter.org/freedom-forum/index.php/2010/02/progress-slow-fighting-domestic-human-trafficking/ .
matrices for human trafficking. They observe that although in recent years great progress has been made towards understanding and of the problem and combating it, little development has been made in effectuating measures that can specifically delineate it and in developing effective ways to collect the data. This results in contradictory information on the subject and on few studies being based on extensive research.
It was only fairly recently that a joint decision was made on how to define "human trafficking." Nonetheless, there are so many variables and divergences within the phenomenon that difficulty still exists in international agreement in defining the term.
The authors state that efforts against trafficking will only improve when all countries have a unanimous standardized system of measures with which they can track the problem and when all countries begin to enact and implement the necessary anti-trafficking legislation. The latter depends on help from the…
Jazvac-Martek, M. (2009) Oscillating role identities: the academic experiences of education doctoral students Innovations in Education and Teaching International Vol. 46, No. 3, 253 -- 264
Laczko, F. & Gramegna, MA (2005) Developing Better Indicators of Human Trafficking The Brown Journal of World Affairs, 10, 179-193.
Neumann, A. (2006). Professing Passion: Emotion in the Scholarship of Professors at Research Universities. American Educational Research Journal, 43(3), 381-416,420-424. Retrieved December 6, 2011
The children surrounding the woman are holding hands and moving in her direction. She is a figurehead, a positive role model for change. In its entirety, the memorial represents the empowerment of individual women and of women collectively. The memorial suggests that as we have more powerful female role models, we can achieve the goal of a global egalitarian society that does not tolerate or tacitly condone any type of human trafficking.
Several of the children in the memorial sculpture are depicted holding books. Their books represent education, and the power of information to transform lives. e project that sponsors of and donors to the memorial can inscribe their names and the names of their institutions on the books. This will alert visitors as to which organizations are committed to change. Because the memorial is located in public spaces, visitors can arrive any time of day or night to meditate…
Kristof, Nicholas D. And WuDunn, Sheryl. Half the Sky. Random House, 2009.
Peril of Human Trafficking
All over the world, human beings are bought and sold like slaves: this is known as the scourge of human trafficking. Human trafficking can take many forms. There is trafficking of persons involved in forced labor, forced prostitution, child labor, migrant smuggling and manipulation. No matter the form, the outcome is always the same -- trafficking is a violation of human rights. The United Nations has issued a very clear and stark warning to the world regarding the severity and seriousness of human trafficking: "Virtually every country in the world is affected by these crimes" (UNODC, 2015). To put a stop to it, the UN has partnered with six organizations "committed to combating human trafficking" (UNGIFT, 20015). This paper will discuss the nature of human trafficking, how and why it violates human rights and international law, and how it can be stopped.
At Its oot Human…
ACT. (2015). The Children Market. ACT. Retrieved from http://www.againstchildtrafficking.org/
Become a Partner. (2015). LOVE146. Retrieved from https://love146.org/
Coalition. (2015). Against Trafficking in Women. CAT. Retrieved from http://www.catwinternational.org/
End Trafficking. (2015). UNICEF. Retrieved from
Anchored on the research objective of determining differences, if there are any, in human trafficking rates between male and female adults, the researcher will develop a tool (in-depth interview guide) that will cull out important insights into the issue of human trafficking, from the perspective of both the victims and representatives from organizations/agencies on preventing it.
An in-depth interview is the appropriate qualitative data collection method, as the issue of human trafficking is a very sensitive issue for its victims, and one that requires deeper discovery, thus the inclusion of interviews of experts on the issue. Two in-depth interview guides will therefore be developed for the study: a guide for interviewing human trafficking victims (both male and female) and another for the issue experts.
From these tools, the researcher is expecting that themes relevant to the focus of the two informant groups will emerge. From the victims, a deeper understanding…
Creswell, J. (2009). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Hepburn, S., & Simon, R.J. (2010). Hidden in plain sight: Human trafficking in the United
States. Gender Issues, 27(1-2), 1-26. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12147-010-9087-7
data collection instrument to assess the degree to which people were aware of the problem of human trafficking and understood the concept. I began with the hypothesis that people would lack extensive awareness about the issue. I selected an interview-based methodology so I could ask specific, targeted questions regarding the nature of human trafficking.
The interview questions I submitted to my interview subjects asked them to define human trafficking, identify when and where it takes place, and to suggest possible solutions. One person I interviewed did not even know what human trafficking was: they thought it was similar to crowding or the condition of too many people being in the same place at once. The other two respondents did know that trafficking was the forcible movement of persons for illegal purposes. They said that they believed that both genders could be and were trafficked. One respondent likened it to kidnapping,…
Hepburn, S., & Simon, R.J. (2010). Hidden in plain sight: Human trafficking in the United
States. Gender Issues, 27(1-2), 1-26. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12147-010-9087-7
infused my original assumptions with greater specificity over the course of the gathering of my information. At first, I conducted a literature review of my topic (human trafficking) to establish that there is a recorded tendency that women are more likely to be trafficked than men. But after exploring the data collection process further of these research studies, I began to understand that certain factors can affect even statistical evidence, such as the fact that certain forms of trafficking may be more likely to be detected than other forms. For example, women seem to be more apt to be trafficked into the sex industry. Since all forms of prostitution are illegal in most states, this makes it easier to detect than coerced labor in the agricultural and garment industries and in domestic service (Hepburn & Simon 2010). This highlighted that there will likely always be gaps in whatever data that…
According to the Oxford ibliographies research, there is not one specific definition of "nonstate actors" that fits all situations. Nonstate actors are defined in relation to international law, because they are "…often able to impact legal values and must accordingly be regulated" (Santarelli, 2005). Throughout history, nonstate actors have "impacted international law" and they have also participated in "international legal processes," which is why Santarelli believes there should be more study of nonstate actors. One scholar claims that nonstate actors include "all entities" that are different from states; or are entities that are operating outside the legal jurisdiction of the government. That definition would include think tanks in the U.S. On the one hand and violent, bloodthirsty extremists such as ISIS, the Taliban and al Qaeda on the other hand (Fisher, 2014).
A typical nonstate actor can also be viewed as a nongovernmental organization (NGO); examples of NGOs…
Arquilla, John. "Of Networks and Nations." The Brown Journal of World Affairs. (2009).
XIV (1). Accessed December 27, 2014, from EBSCO.
Axworthy, Thomas, and Dean, Ryan. "A Scan of Existing Arms Control Treaties with Lessons Learned. Interaction Council. (2011). Accessed December 27, 2014, from http://www.interactioncouncil.org .
Federal Bureau of Investigation. "Definitions of Terrorism in the U.S. Code." (2006):
The Trafficking Victims Protection eauthorization Act
Final Project / Dissertation
Degree: Juris Doctorate Specialized
Specialization: Constitutional Law
The Trafficking Victims Protection eauthorization Act
This paper reviews the rights and protection that a state and federal government official provides to citizens that have been the subject of human trafficking crimes. Citizens need the protection of the police and other law enforcement officials to report human trafficking crimes and to protect and assist those that need their assistance. This paper will seek to explain the definition of human trafficking, how it works, victim support, issues with upholding and implementing legislature and the solutions which can be used to satisfy the public.
Table of Contents
Elements of Human Trafficking
Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act of 2000
Alien Smuggling, Harboring and Transportation
New York State's Human Trafficking Law…
1. The Crime of Human Trafficking: A Law Enforcement Guide to Identification and Investigation. (n.d.). http://www.vaw.umn.edu/documents/completehtguide/completehtguide.pdf
2. Trafficking in Persons Report. (2006). Washington, DC.: U.S. Department of State.
3. United States Constitution Bill of Rights. (n, d.). http://topics.law.cornell.edu/constitution/billofrights
4. 13th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution: Abolition of Slavery (1865). (n.d.)
Trafficking and Prostitution in the Developing orld
The world can be a harsh place, especially if you live in a developing nation, and especially if you are a woman. Lack of food and adequate housing, lack of access to good educational and medical facilities, an oppressive, often male-dominated social system - these are just some of the problems faced by millions of women each and every day of their lives. For most there is no hope of escape. Each new dawn brings with it the same sense of despair; the same feeling that one is a prisoner of one's fate. Change is slow in the developing world. Progress, if it comes at all, comes only very gradually, painfully, and often at a high price. Many of the nations of the Third orld were only recently communist, or colonies of the estern powers. Many still have one foot in…
1. Binder, David. "Country Report: Albania - Country Sends Its Own to Europe and Beyond." MSNBC News. MSNBC.com, 2002. URL: http://www.msnbc.com/news/736680.asp
2. Binder, David. "Country report: Bosnia - In a Post-War Zone the Sex trade Flourishes." MSNBC News. MSNBC.com, 2002. URL: http://www.msnbc.com/news/736679.asp
3. Binder, David. "Country Report: Yugoslavia - After Milosevic, Country Still Mired in Crime." MSNBC News. MSNBC.com, 2002. URL: http://www.msnbc.com/news/736678.asp .
4. Binder, David and Mendenhall, Preston. "Sex, Drugs, and Guns in the Balkans." MSNBC News. MSNBC.com, 2002. URL:
One of the most alarming trends across the globe in the past few years has been the increased participation of children in armed conflicts as soldiers. According to a report by the United Nations, the exploitation of children and involvement in armed conflict is an issue that must come to an end. The report states that the increased involvement of children in armed conflict as soldiers is created by adults, which implies that it can only be eradicated by adults ("Children at Both Ends of the Gun" par, 2). As children have been increasingly exploited to participate in war as soldiers, there is an ever-growing need for an international campaign to demobilize child soldiers and stop their use in such conflicts. One of the major ways to stop this trend is for governments to denounce the practice of forced recruitment, which constantly put children in armed conflicts against…
"Biography." Emmanuel Jal. Emmanuel Jal, 2008. Web. 27 Nov. 2013. .
"Children at Both Ends of the Gun." Impact of Armed Conflict on Children. UNICEF, n.d. Web. 30 Nov. 2013. .
Jal, Emmanuel. "Sharing My Story." The Huffington Post. TheHuffingtonPost.com, 21 Dec. 2012. Web. 30 Nov. 2013. .
Challenging Issue in Counseling
Human sex trafficking is a problem that is growing in scope. This is because there are tremendous amounts of money that can be made on the part of recruiters and smugglers. In many cases, large organized crime syndicates have developed with them actively targeting teenagers who are from disadvantaged social and economic backgrounds. In the article that was written by Turner (2009), it is clear that globalization is fueling the demand for these services. To fully understand what is happening requires examining the article's focus, summary of the research, the main ideas, finding, recommendations and how the information will be utilized. Together, these different areas will highlight how they applicable to the affected population. (Turner, 2009)
The Article's Focus
The article is focusing on boys and girls who are between the ages of 12 to 18. In general, these individuals come from third world countries and…
Turner, J. (2009). Trade Secrets. Journal of Criminology, 49 (2), pp. 184-201.
Wired. June 15, 2012. etrieved online: http://www.wired.com/dangerroom/2012/06/grey-eagle/
The Boeing Company (n.d.). Human factors. etrieved online: http://www.boeing.com/commercial/aeromagazine/aero_08/human_textonly.html
Hayhurst, K.J., Maddalon, J.M. Miner, P.S., DeWalt, M.P. & McCormick, G.F. (2006). Unmanned aircraft hazards and their implications for regulation. etrieved online: http://shemesh.larc.nasa.gov/people/jmm/5B1_201hayhu.pdf
Helmreich, .L., Merritt, a.C., & Wilhelm, J.A. (1999). The evolution of crew resource management training in commercial aviation. etrieved online: http://homepage.psy.utexas.edu/homepage/group/helmreichlab/publications/pubfiles/Pub235.pdf
Mulenberg, J. (n.d.). Crew resource management improves decision making. NASA. etrieved online: http://www.nasa.gov/offices/oce/appel/ask/issues/42/42i_crew_resource_management_prt.htm
NASA (2013). Unmanned Aircraft Systems Airspace Operations Challenge (UAS OC). etrieved online: http://www.nasa.gov/directorates/spacetech/centennial_challenges/uas/index.html
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA, 2013). NOAA Unmanned aircraft systems program. etrieved online: http://uas.noaa.gov/
Tvaryanas, a.P., Thompson, W.T. & Constable, S.H. (2006). Human Factors in emotely Piloted Aircraft Operations: HFACS Analysis of 221 Mishaps Over 10 Years. Aerospace Medical Association. etrieved online: http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/asma/asem/2006/00000077/00000007/art00008
United States Coast Guard (2013). Unmanned aircraft system. etrieved online: http://www.uscg.mil/acquisition/uas/
Beckhusen, R. (2012). 'Gray Eagle' Drone Fails All the Time, but Army Still Wants More. Wired. June 15, 2012. Retrieved online: http://www.wired.com/dangerroom/2012/06/grey-eagle/
The Boeing Company (n.d.). Human factors. Retrieved online: http://www.boeing.com/commercial/aeromagazine/aero_08/human_textonly.html
Hayhurst, K.J., Maddalon, J.M. Miner, P.S., DeWalt, M.P. & McCormick, G.F. (2006). Unmanned aircraft hazards and their implications for regulation. Retrieved online: http://shemesh.larc.nasa.gov/people/jmm/5B1_201hayhu.pdf
Helmreich, R.L., Merritt, a.C., & Wilhelm, J.A. (1999). The evolution of crew resource management training in commercial aviation. Retrieved online: http://homepage.psy.utexas.edu/homepage/group/helmreichlab/publications/pubfiles/Pub235.pdf
They just assume that the autopilot will take care of flying the plane, and their skills get rusty with lack of use. Then, if something goes wrong with the autopilot system the pilot and his or her crew members may not know what to do and they may not react as quickly as they need to in order to protect the passengers and the rest of the crew members from serious harm (Human, 2009).
The majority of people need to sleep approximately eight hours each night. If they do not get that level of sleep, they can be overly tired and that can cause them to make more mistakes than they otherwise would (Human, 2009). However, someone who has gotten eight hours of sleep is not necessarily caught up on his or her sleep. The quality of sleep the person has gotten and how tired he or she was before…
Berliner, D. (1996). Aviation: Reaching for the sky. New York, NY: The Oliver Press, Inc.
Dirty dozen - errors - human factors. (2011). Aviation Glossary. Retrieved from http://aviationglossary.com/aviation-safety-terms/dirty-dozen-errors-human-factors/
Harris, D. & Muir, H.C. (2005). Contemporary issues in human factors and aviation safety. New York, NY: Ashgate.
Human factors in aviation maintenance. (2011). Southern California Safety Institute. Retrieved from http://www.scsi-inc.com/HFAM.php
The first stage of assessment involves the assessment of the risks through measurement of physical and chemical parameters in the workplace, such as solvents, metals, dust, noise, lighting, heat stress, ergonomic and safety hazards. Once this is completed the following actions can take place: Promoting awareness of risks and following better practices such as substitution of solvents with less dangerous ones, improvement in ergonomic conditions and decreasing noise levels.
First, it is necessary to assess volatile organic solvents, metals, dangerous dust, noise, lighting, climate, ergonomic hazards and work-related musculoskeletal disorders.
This is done by studying the printing press site during printing; the printing press site during cleaning; at the binding site; at the packaging site; and in storage areas.
To determine heavy metals, a literature review needs to be conducted to obtain information on the type of inks and their use. The noise decibels must be measured, so they are…
These restoration efforts affect natural wetlands that have been destroyed by mankind and then proposed to become urbanized.
Although the impact on the climate by humans has had several negative impacts, such impacts have the potential to be stopped and even reversed. Research clearly indicates that recent technological advances can be used in these cases as a valuable tool in determining whether natural processes can be restored, or whether other options, such as urbanization, are ideal. Finally, future studies and advancements in technology will pave the way for a brighter future in restoring and repairing our injured climate.
AGU. (2003). Human Impacts on Climate. Retrieved November 5, 2007, at http://www.agu.org/sci_soc/policy/climate_change_position.html.
Carter & urgess Quarterly. (2001). Getting the Lay of the Land. Carter & urgess Quarterly, vol
University of Georgia. (2006). SREL Research: Remediation & Restoration. Retrieved November 2, 2007 at http://www.uga.edu/srel/research-restoration.htm.
U.S. Department of Commerce. (2007). National Geodetic…
AGU. (2003). Human Impacts on Climate. Retrieved November 5, 2007, at http://www.agu.org/sci_soc/policy/climate_change_position.html .
Carter & Burgess Quarterly. (2001). Getting the Lay of the Land. Carter & Burgess Quarterly, vol
University of Georgia. (2006). SREL Research: Remediation & Restoration. Retrieved November 2, 2007 at http://www.uga.edu/srel/research-restoration.htm .
U.S. Department of Commerce. (2007). National Geodetic Survey. Retrieved November 1, 2007, at http://www.ngs.noaa.gov/ .
Human esource Management - Personal Case Studies
Human esource Management
The universe of information on effective management is enormous. A manager who desires to improve his or her skills will have no difficulty finding ideas and even guidance in the literature. Some of the most evidence-based management data has been established by the Gallup Organization. Over a 25-year period of conducting research, the Gallup Organization has compiled data from observations in excess of 80,000 interviews that they conducted. The results have been published in a series of books including: Now, First Break All the ules, Now, Discover Your Strengths, 12 Elements of Great Management, Strengths Finder 2.0, Strengths-Based Leadership, How Full Is Your Bucket, Wellbeing -- The Five Essential Elements, and The Jobs War. I list the books here to demonstrate that there is a plethora of literature on good management, creating good workplaces, employee skill building, leadership, and job…
Bolman, LG and Deal, TE (1997) Reframing Organizations. Artistry, choice and leadership (2nd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Buckingham, M and Coffman, C (1999) First, Break All the Rules. New York, NY: Simon and Schuster.
Buckingham, M and Clifton, DO (2001) Now, Discover Your Strengths. New York, NY: Simon and Schuster.
Example Items from Peer Evaluations and 360-Degree Performance
Moreover, the study compares the effect on human factors on different types of aircraft. The study also reveals the correlation between the anomalies and type of aircrafts.
Human factors cause of Aircraft Accidents
The results of the descriptive statistics reveal that situational awareness is the most contributing human factor to aircraft accidents with the Mean =112. Moreover, the Mean value of the communication breakdown is 80 which rank second as the human factors problem to aircraft incidents. Typically, communication breakdown occurs when the pilot or other aircraft crew is unable to communicate with terminals. Communication is very critical for effective operations of aircraft, a pilot will require to constantly making radio communication when on air to ensure the aircraft safety and the aircraft is on the right direction. Confusion as human factor ranks third with the Mean =70. The descriptive statistics table shows other important human factors that cause the…
Balk, A.D. & Bossenbroek, J.W. (2010). Aircraft Ground and Human Factors, A comparative study of the perceptions by ramp staff and management. NLR Air Transport Safety Institute.
Boeing (2013). Commercial Jet Statistical Summary of the Airplane Accidents Worldwide Operations 1959 -- 2012. Boeing 707.
Eldredge, D. Mangold, S.J. & Dodd, R.S. (1992). A Review and Discussion of Flight Management System Incidents Reported to the Aviation Safety Reporting System. U.S. Department of Special Programs & Transportation Research Administration
Deitz, S.R. & Thomas, W.E (1991). Pilots, Personality and Performance: Human Behavior & Stress in the Skies.