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Humanistic Psychology centers on the ideas of self-realization and actualization. Several proponents of self-actualization have suggested that individuals have an innate tendency to self-fulfill, and consistently aspire to improve aspects of their life and seek out meaning and fulfillment in life.
Carl Rogers, Carl Jung and Abraham Maslow are critical proponents of self-realization through internal exploration. Humanistic Psychology also acknowledges the possibility that an individual's environment may also impact an individuals ability to self-realize, or find meaning in their life. These ideas and more are explored in greater detail below, as well as an examination of their relationship to my own insights and individualization.
Carlo Rogers is a leading proponent of humanistic psychology. His ideas and theories represent a principal component of humanistic psychology. Humanistic psychology developed during the 1950 and 1960s within the United States; its focus is client centered or person centered approaches to therapy (Cummins, 1996: 108).…… [Read More]
24). Leitner & Phillips (2003, p. 160) also stress the need for a holistic diagnosis of the human mind so that a more effective conclusion can be derived. Bugental (1963, p. 565) also decries the tendency to compartmentalize the field of psychology to make it resemble the natural sciences. More so, this is a great cause for confusion among psychology students because they end up having a fragmented view of the field and are ill-equipped to exchange ideas and insights with those specializing in the other sub-fields of psychology instead of developing a holistic view of human nature.
Narrow vision and the tendency to view psychological conditions as diseases by therapists have direct consequences for the clients. Leitner & Phillips (2003) stated that, "the stigmatization of psychiatric labels may in some cases exacerbate interpersonal problems and increase social isolation for individuals who likely have increased needs for social supports" (p.…… [Read More]
A psychologically healthy person takes responsibility for his actions, whether negative or positive. The individual has distinct, inherent and unconditional worth. This means that he remains important and acceptable despite his mistakes and imperfections. And person's life is meant to achieve personal growth, self-understanding and understanding of others and the world. Happiness is possible only through self-knowledge, self-understanding and self-acceptance (Heffner).
The lack of research on humanistic psychology can be explained one way by its nature and philosophical and theoretical mechanisms (Moore, 2001; Katz, 2009).
Practitioners stress acceptance of the patient as a person, instead of a critical examination of his behavior. They focus on the uniqueness of his experience rather than dwell on the workings of his behavior. They operate under the "phenomenal perspective," which holds that people are best understood and helped by examining and appreciating their individual and unique experience and aspirations. This personal perspective has also…… [Read More]
In addition to the above noted areas, there is also green politics, deep ecology, the feminist and gay rights movements, and the psycho-spiritual wing of the peace movement. This takes into account an integrated and balanced view of human nature and maintaining harmony in the grand scheme of existence. As noted by Maureen O'Hara, past president of the Association for Humanistic Psychologists: "As the world's people demand freedom and self-determination, it is urgent that we learn how diverse communities of empowered individuals, with freedom to construct their own stories and identities, might live together in mutual peace. Perhaps it is not a vain hope that is life in such communities might lead to the advance in human consciousness beyond anything we have yet experienced. "
Association for Humanistic Psychology. Website retrieved December 20, 2006. http://www.ahpweb.org/aboutahp/whatis.html
Encyclopedia of eligion. Website retrieved December 20, 2006. http://hirr.hartsem.edu/ency/Psychology.htm
Green, E., & Green, A.…… [Read More]
The humanistic psychology was established in early 1940s and 1950s as an option to conservative behavioral and psychoanalytic techniques. A novel method of dealing with client referred to as humanistic therapy followed the development of the humanistic psychology. This type of therapy is client-based and it focuses on how a person distinguishes the environment and the world. Several variations have since the setting up of humanistic psychology been established. Humanistic psychology puts its attention on the conscious person and appraises an individual's self-actualization concept besides putting into consideration the personal examination and mastery of self. Humanistic therapy offers therapy partly via a client's own innovative process, and it emphasizes on self-determination and free will. One of the client-centered approaches to humanistic psychology is the ogerian Therapy developed by Carl ogers, an American psychotherapists and a counselor. In this regard, this brief overview focuses on the history and establishment…… [Read More]
Knowing this, Strenger points out that therapists need to consider "who can work with whom," because the therapeutic outcome may be greatly affected by the "chemistry" between therapist and client. The egalitarian principle in the therapeutic relationship gets played out further in qualitative studies (such as Gallegos, 2005 and Cohen, 2005) in which client experiences in the mental health system and subjective accounts of symptom relief from psychotherapy are treated as credible data, from which therapists can learn.
Humanistic psychology developed in protest against the reductionism of psychoanalysis and behaviorism which saw the human being as a bunch of unconscious impulses or reactors to stimuli. The new paradigm sought to treat the "whole person" and found phenomenological / qualitative approaches better suited to this richer purpose. Maslow, for example, wanted to gain information based on personal, subjective experiences and not on abstract systems. But as Giorgi (2005) points out, the…… [Read More]
Cultural Values in Humanistic Psychology
Every discipline embraces particular values that reflect on the science or discipline itself, but that also reflect on the cultural context in which the discipline or science is primarily conducted. The full court press of positivism brought an objective, values-free paradigm to the forefront of research (Glazner & Hill, 2013). The field of psychology is engaged in a debate about the possibility of bringing positive psychology and humanistic psychology together, in what would invariably be considered a renewal of humanism. But certain conditions are requisite for this reattachment of the disciplines -- most notably, multiculturalism. "The renewal of humanism is integral to multicultural practice, and multicultural practice is integral to the renewal of humanism" (Schneider & Langle, 2012, p. 481). It is difficult to imagine a therapeutic relationship that is not sensitive to multicultural differences. Indeed, it is reasonable to say that, "humanistic practice principles…… [Read More]
Humanistic psychology has made a tremendous impact on the overall field of psychology and the social sciences in general. Since Rogers first introduced the concepts of unconditional positive regard, the ideals of professional competence in psychotherapy have changed towards client-centered perspectives and practices (McArthur & Cooper, 2017). However, humanistic psychology often eschews quantitative research methods, diverges considerably from the views in cognitive psychology, psychoanalysis and behaviorism, and has been occasionally perceived or portrayed of as too soft to be relevant to the social sciences (Wong, 2017). More recently, humanistic psychologists have gained ground in acquiring greater credibility for the contributions of their paradigm. In particular, humanistic psychology has a greater potential to offer multimodal interventions than other approaches to psychology, For example, psychological wellness is conceived of in a broad-minded manner encompassing multiple domains of life including the interpersonal, community, occupational, psychological, physical, and economic (Duff, Rubenstein &…… [Read More]
The individual’s experience and the personal construction of meaning are central to humanistic psychology. Theorists like Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow initially promoted this humanistic view of psychology, which was contrary to the prevailing tenets of behaviorism and psychoanalysis. Instead of focusing on past experiences and environmental variables, Rogers and Maslow focused on the person’s perceptions and intrinsic motivations (“What is Humanistic Psychology?” n.d.). Moreover, early theorists also negated the importance of experimental studies and other applications of the scientific method to psychological inquiry because these methods have a way of dehumanizing and devaluing personal experience (McLeod, 2015). Theorists like Rogers and Maslow found was more useful to apply qualitative methods that would allow the person to open up and share their thoughts, beliefs, experiences, and perceptions. Thus, the therapist and the client work together to discover ways of finding meaning in life experiences.
Carl Rogers promoted the…… [Read More]
There are six approaches for studying the personality development of a person. Two of the most popular ones are the biological and humanistic approaches. The other four of these approaches include the trait, cognitive, behavioral and psychoanalytic. Each of these approaches are used to describe the system through we acquire our personality and factors that influence this personality development. The use of the approach is determined by the psychotherapist as well as the client, as they can differ from one person to another with respect to their effectiveness. However, it is the responsibility of the therapist to make sure that the approach used by him would be appropriate for the particular client he is dealing with. Even though it is not expected of the therapist to specialize in all the approaches, he should at least have an idea about each one of them. In this paper, we will…… [Read More]
Both Existential and Transpersonal psychologies have this in common, a respect for and utilization of Eastern techniques to reach a state of stress-free maintenance of human psychological health.
But the differences lie in their origins. While Transpersonal psychologies are related to the Eastern or Western indigenous epistemologies, Existential-Humanistic psychologies have a Freudian origin, coming through Freud and his descendents. While Transpersonal psychology is considered to be a "fourth force" in psychology, psychoanalysis, behaviorism and humanistic psychologies are outside of the "transegoic" elements, ignoring insights from the world's contemplative traditions in both Eastern and Western religions. Labeled "Western," Existential and Humanistic psychologies are focused mainly on prepersonal and personal aspects of the psyche.
Existential and humanistic psychologies are based on the writings not only of Freud, but Kierkegaard, Nietzche, Heidigger, Sartre, Camus and other European intellectuals who had experienced European wars and chaos during the twentieth century. Important to them were…… [Read More]
Shame and Doubt, according to Erickson, children develop a sense of self-control as they control their bodily functions. This makes them feel confident and able to handle problems independently. But Tom's mother would not relinquish her control over his bodily functions at this time. Her forcing him to void on her schedule and not his, gave him a sense of shame and the feeling that he was not in control of his world. He therefore felt inadequate and doubtful of his ability to cope with anything. As she continued to control him by denying him food, love and choices of clothing, he became increasingly angry at the world, frustrated at the impression that his body and whole life was under the control of someone other than himself. This created anger and depression.
It is a wonder that Tom was as normal as he was during his teen years. He was…… [Read More]
Whereas the behaviorist and psychodynamic models contradict each other in their fundamental assumptions and focus, humanistic perspective does not necessarily contradict behaviorism or the psychodynamic approach, except that it considers both of those views as explanations of only portions of human behavior rather than all human behavior.
The Cognitive Perspective:
The Cognitive perspective broadens the study of human psychology even further than the humanistic perspective. In addition to considering all of the influential elements within the behaviorist, psychodynamic, and humanistic views, cognitive psychology also studies the combined contributions of knowledge, memory, previous experience, subconscious desires, external factors, and volitional thought on external behavior (Gerrig & Zimbardo 2005).
Cognitive psychology accepts many of the fundamental concepts of other schools of psychological thought, and much like the humanistic point-of-view, merely considers them incomplete explanations of human behavior rather than oppositional theories.
According to cognitive psychologists, even the most inclusive theories like humanistic…… [Read More]
Alan's quote clearly illustrates the concept of 'emotional intelligence.' The theory of emotional intelligence is associated with Daniel Goleman, who suggests that success in life cannot be solely attributed to intellectual ability as measured on conventional IQ tests. (Intelligence testing is a form of cognitive psychology.) Emotional intelligence has become more accepted as a 'real' intelligence in recent years because of the growing popularity of Howard Gardner's concept of multiple intelligences, or the idea that intelligence can defined according to specific ability groupings. Alan's sense of self-reflection about his own life underlines the fact that it is possible to develop emotional intelligence, even if someone is not naturally gifted in this particular area of his or her life.
Alan is an engineer, a profession that has traditionally valued technical capacities rather than feelings. But unlike some highly successful engineers, Alan has come to realize the importance of…… [Read More]
Phenomenological psychology focuses on the subjective experiences of individuals. The “founder” of phenomenology, Edmund Husserl presented a cohesive methodology and philosophical framework that laid the foundation for phenomenological psychology. One of the greatest challenges of phenomenological psychology is differentiating between the unique subjective experiences and perceptions of individuals and the need to discern an objective, shared reality. Phenomenological psychology is almost easier to define by what it is not: it is not about using the scientific method to study human behavior, and it is not about studying personality or psychoses. Rather, phenomenological psychology is about understanding the nature of reality itself, through an evaluation of both individual and collective human psychological experience. Husserl set forth principles for ontology in psychology as well as epistemology, which can be especially useful when studying the divergent experiences of those with psychotic disorders like schizophrenia, whose sense of reality is radically different…… [Read More]
In the year 2005, United States experience one of the biggest, deadliest and costly hurricanes of that period. The hurricane was named Hurricane Katrina; it cost loss of lives, property and flooding across different states. The emergency situation had to be dealt with immediately and strategies to do so had to be all rounded. This is because those affected were either directly involved or witnessed the occurrence. This discussion is aimed and analyzing the victims of the emergency following two approaches that is humanistic and behavioral while comparing and contrasting their effectiveness.
How do therapists using each of these perspectives view the client and client's problem?
Behavioral approach is concerned with theoretical and measurable aspects of human behavior. Human behavior can either be learnt or unlearnt depending on whether they are acceptable on a social and cultural basis. Humanistic approach in the other hand is concerned with individual responses…… [Read More]
Self-Concept is what one believes about themselves. These beliefs stem from the notion of unconditional positive regard and conditional positive regard. Unconditional positive regard takes place when individuals, especially parents, demonstrate unconditional love. Conditioned positive regard is when that love seems to only come when certain conditions are met. ogers's theory states that psychologically healthy people enjoy life to the fullest and thus they are seen as fully functioning people (Humanistic Perspective, n.d.).
Abraham Maslow felt that individuals have certain needs that must be met in a hierarchical fashion. These needs are grouped from the lowest to the highest. These needs are seen as including basic needs, safety needs, love and belonging needs, achievement needs, and ultimately, self-Actualization. According to Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, these needs must be achieved in order. This means that one would be unable to fulfill their safety needs if their physiological needs have not been…… [Read More]
In psychology, personality can be described as the "the patterns of behavior, thought, and emotion unique to an individual, and the ways they interact to help or hinder the adjustment of a person to other people and situations" ("personality," 2013). Psychologists may make use of idiographic or nomothetic techniques in order to study personality of an individual. Many characteristics of human behavior can be examined while studying one's personality. To put in simple words, personality theories are utilized for organizing what is known, stimulating new research, and specifying a view of personality in a formal way (Kasschau, 1985). Psychoanalytic theory, person-centered theory and existential theory are three such theories which have been developed in the precedent century and cover a lot of information regarding the pathology, health/wellness, treatment and the weight or significance of early life.
Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory
The Psychoanalytic Theory was put forwarded by Sigmund Freud…… [Read More]
Humanistic and Existential Personality Theories Worksheet
Abraham Maslow proposed the Hierarchy of needs theory of personality.
According to Maslow, self-fulfillment and realization of one's full potential are examples of self-actualization needs.
Maslow's hierarchy of needs proposes that basic needs must be satisfied before secondary/higher level needs will become motivators for behavior.
The belief that matter evolves from simpler to more complex forms is evolution.
The ideal self according to Rogers, is one's view of self as one wishes to be.
Carl Rogers believed that conditions of worth, incongruence, defensiveness, and disorganization are all considered undifferentiated.
Rogers believed that counselor congruence, unconditional positive regard, and empathy are necessary elements of psychotherapy.
Intentionality is the structure that gives meaning to experience and allows people to make decisions about the future.
May proposed that existential freedom is the freedom of action, whereas essential freedom is the freedom of being.
10. The basic concepts…… [Read More]
Therapeutic communities are important and valuable tools, but certainly not for all patients. Often, the community is made up of a certain ward or unit of the hospital, rather than the entire facility. Clearly, some patients, such as those suffering from serious debilitating diseases such as dementia or severe schizophrenia might not be physically or mentally able to exist in such a facility. However, for others, who have specific issues or health problems, and are in the facility hoping for a cure, the community concept can help them become more sure of themselves, more able to function outside the facility, and give them confidence in their decision-making abilities.
Often this term describes those in a substance abuse facility, but it can relate to other disorders and treatment facilities as well. Some of these communities are all group based, while others combine individual counseling and therapy with group activities. The main…… [Read More]
Humanistic and Existential Personality Theories Worksheet
Abraham Maslow proposed the _humanistic__ theory of personality.
According to Maslow, self-fulfillment and realization of one's full potential are examples of _self-actualization____ needs.
Maslow's hierarchy of needs proposes that _lower____ needs must be satisfied before ____higher____ needs will become motivators for behavior.
The belief that matter evolves from simpler to more complex forms is formative tendency.
The _actualizing tendency, according to Rogers, is one's view of self as one wishes to be.
Carl Rogers believed that conditions of worth, incongruence, defensiveness, and disorganization are all considered _shattered self-concept__.
7. Rogers believed that ____empathy____, ____unconditional positive regard____, and ____congruence____ are necessary elements of psychotherapy.
8. ____Intentionality____ is the structure that gives meaning to experience and allows people to make decisions about the future.
9. May proposed that __self-awareness____ is the freedom of action, whereas _essential freedom____ is the freedom of being.
10. The basic concepts…… [Read More]
Blocher, DH (2000). The Evolution of Counseling Psychology. New York: Springer. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=102034235
Darlington, Y., & Scott, D. (2002). Qualitative esearch in Practice: Stories from the Field / . Crows Nest, N.S.W.: Allen & Unwin. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=10079016
Hoagwood, K., Jensen, P.S., & Fisher, C.B. (Eds.). (1996). Ethical Issues in Mental Health esearch with Children and Adolescents. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=99086817
Lewis, D. (1960). Quantitative Methods in Psychology. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=9395983
Newman, I., & Benz, C.. (1998). Qualitative-Quantitative esearch Methodology: Exploring the Interactive Continuum. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5006987353
Poyrazli, S. (2003). Validity of ogerian Therapy in Turkish Culture: A Cross-Cultural Perspective. Journal of Humanistic Counseling, Education and Development, 42(1), 107+. etrieved February 28, 2005, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com.… [Read More]
Humanism takes the position that the human intellect is sufficient to deduce moral principles and that all human beings have the same natural right to dignity and personal autonomy.
The humanistic perspective does not absolutely reject the underlying principles of psychoanalytical theory, but places more focus on conscious self-reflection than on any assumption that the roots of all human conduct is necessarily a function of repressed trauma, sexual urges, and unresolved psychological conflicts. Humanism also rejects anthropocentrism in that it does not consider human life to be different in kind from other biological life forms, but only different in degree of development and complexity.
Existentialism rejects many of the same concepts as humanism in the realm of religious or supernatural sources of human morality. Whereas humanists start with an assumption that human beings are inherently good and that the prosperity of human societies is necessarily good, existentialism recognizes no…… [Read More]
253). When asking questions the teacher begins the cognitive process of understanding how the parents think and this is an important step for the educator to gather pertinent information to further analyze the learner's needs with the parents or guardians.
Step three in the LAFF process is for the teachers to focus on the issues throughout the communication process with the parents. The cognitive perspective encourages focusing and problem-solving when focusing on the mental process of how individuals think, perceive, remember, and learn (Sternberg & Mio, 2006). McNaughton and Vostal describe this as the time when a teacher begins the process of "checking for understanding" and once the understanding of the issues has been explored the teacher and parent can move forward on problem-solving solutions (2010, p.254).
The final step of the LAFF process is for the teacher to identify the first step. This part of the cognitive process displays…… [Read More]
Diversity and Psychology
There were two major developments that influenced the field of psychology and the professions' views regarding multicultural competence, emphasized in 2003. The American Psychological Associations' 2002 Ethical Principles and Code of Conduct and the Guidelines on Multicultural Education, Training, Research, Practice and Organizational Change for Psychologists published in 2003 both stressed the importance of moving from a mono-cultural school of thought to a multicultural perspective and that these 'new rules' acknowledge an appreciation of differences as well as an "understanding of the inherent ambiguity and complexity in psychological practice (Pack-rown & Williams, 2003; Manesse, Saito, & Rodolfa, 2004). Knapp and VandeCreek (2003) said of these new guidelines that they articulate a need for greater sensitivity regarding linguistic and cultural minorities. The development of the new Code of Ethics and the APA's positioning were purported to be in response to a long awaited recognition of the need for…… [Read More]
The discipline or disciplines of various schools of psychology are continually evolving, and contrary to the idea that psychology looks to find excuses for behavior, psychology seeks to find ways to make life, and behaviors better. New therapies like Dialectical-Behavior Therapy (DBT), which stresses the replacement of negative coping mechanisms with positive coping mechanisms demands not extensive excavation of the past, one of the critiques of therapy, but aims to decrease patient behaviors that destroy the quality of their life such as self-harm. It helps the patient not focus on the past and live in the "present moment," with an almost Zen Buddhist like orientation of mindfulness (Sanderson, 1997). But it is also focused on setting practical life goals, and the therapy often has a fixed duration, in contrast to the assumption that psychotherapy is only available to the wealthy who have a great deal of free time. DBT offers…… [Read More]
In this field attachment is seen, as it is in uddhism, as a continual pattern of never-ending desire for further attainment and objects. "Social psychological research on subjective well-being supports the assertion that people's desires consistently outpace their ability to satisfy their desires."
McIntosh 39) further issue that relates to Western psychology and the uddhist view of attachment is the nature of existence as impermanent.
The nature of existence is that nothing is permanent. Therefore, even when people attain the object of their attachment, it is only a temporary situation, and people's attempts to maintain the object of their attachment are ultimately doomed to fail. As people struggle to maintain possession of things to which they are attached, those things inevitably continue to slip through their fingers, so people with attachments suffer.
There have been many psychological studies on the effects of attachment structures as a form of…… [Read More]
With this approach, consultation psychology focuses on the issues of the group as a whole and therefore typically uses group discussions, interviews and observations as opposed to singling out specific individuals. The result is that, by using consultation psychology in the field of industrial and organizational psychology, the focus is on the group and the roles the individuals who make up the group play. With this focus, industrial and organizational psychology is better able to meet its goals of increasing organizational productivity, well-being and success.
In the case sample cited in the introduction of this paper, the issue was how consultation psychology could be utilized as a method for providing industrial and organizational psychological services to a mental health related organization. From the overview provided in the previous section, it can be seen that utilizing consultation psychology, as opposed to clinical psychology, will be the best method of…… [Read More]
On a personal level, by utilizing the principles of psychology as
they relate to the operation of the human mind, it is obvious that on a
daily basis most people (as well as myself) encounter individuals which
they do not fully understand, especially if these individuals react to a
situation in a very different manner. For example, some people have phobias
or intense fears of various things and objects which most people do not
find frightening nor disturbing. But by understanding the psychology of
such fears, they become less mysterious and may even inspire a person to
explore his/her own mind in order to become a better person, both mentally
and socially.… [Read More]
Psychoanalysis, behaviorism, and humanistic, transpersonal, and existential (HTE) psychology are the three primary movements in the study of the human experience. Each of these movements uses different research methodologies and epistemologies, and each focuses on different aspects of the human experience. Moreover, each of these movements presents unique therapeutic interventions and goals in the field of psychology. With each having contributed tremendously to the social sciences, psychoanalysis, behaviorism, and humanistic psychology can also be integrated for a richer understanding of human consciousness and the human condition. Historical context of the science and practice of psychology helps illuminate the field’s core values.
Historical Context and Rationale
Although inquiries into the human experience can be traced through the disciplines of philosophy and religion, the first scientific, empirical studies of human nature and behavior began more concertedly in the nineteenth century. William Wundt opened the first real laboratory dedicated exclusively to psychology…… [Read More]
Thus, studying psychology is morally and intellectually improving. Psychology is so all encompassing as a field of study that it makes a person's mind more flexible. In psychology classes, a student must learn about analysis from a qualitative, even literary approach, as encompassed in the words of Sigmund Freud and William James. In other psychology classes, a student must understand how to interpret an Excel spreadsheet used in a research study to prove the efficacy of a particular antidepressant drug. Or, he or she must understand a more scientific and neurological approach to the human brain than more humanistic approaches to psychology might suggest in other classes. All of these different approaches are integral to modern psychology. A psychology major must be fluent in the liberal arts, the social sciences, and the natural sciences, and so he or she will be able to apply many approaches to solving problems in…… [Read More]
Implicit in ogers' belief system was that clients must be in control of the therapy, and the therapist merely functioned as the guide.
Major School4: Cognitive-behavioral psychologists
Cognitive behavioral psychology is often a very time-sensitive type of therapy, with a specific goal, such as the elimination of a phobia or behavior. In contrast to humanistic or ogerian therapy, the cognitive-behaviorist directly challenges the client about his or her irrational belief systems.
The biology of psychology
The discipline of psychology has gradually shifted to a disease-based model, from Freud's psychoanalytic framework, reflecting the knowledge gained about how biological aspects of the brain affect learning, language memory, and behavior (Granek 2010). The more simplistic assumptions of the Freudian era, such as the idea that cold mothers produced autistic or schizophrenic children, or that sexual repression was the root of all diseases has fallen out of fashion. However, understanding how to heal individuals…… [Read More]
Psychodynamic and Humanistic Approaches to Personality
Psychodynamic and Humanistic Approaches
Personality can be defined as the unique characteristics that various individuals possess. These characteristics differentiate individuals from others. In other words, personality can also be defined as a unique system of feelings, thoughts and behaviors that prevail over time and that is evident in various situations. Different psychologists have determined different approaches to study personality. Some psychologists try to examine various aspects of personality that an individual possesses, whereas, others try to understand why there are differences in the personalities of various individuals. (Morris et al., 2010)
Listed below are the two different approaches to personality;
Psychodynamic theories establish the thought that our personality is an outcome of inner psychological forces which are not under the control of our conscious mind. Psychodynamic approach basically studies the energy of our unconscious mind and it also explores how this energy…… [Read More]
biological humanistic approaches personality. The paper cover areas. *Use Maslow's hierarchy discuss extent growth influence personality formation. *Describe biological factors influence formation personality.
Biological and humanistic approaches to personality:
An overview of the debate
Biological theories have become increasingly popular in the field of psychology, as scientists seek to understand the roots of human behavior. Several reasons are at the heart of this shift in emphasis from 'nurture' to 'nature': the first is our expanding knowledge of neuropsychology and how different components of the brain affect behavior. A change in the physical matter or the environment of the brain can result in a change in personality. The second is the expansion of psychopharmacology, whereby aspects of the human character once thought beyond conscious control, such as hyperactivity or a tendency towards melancholy, can be shifted when medications change the individual's brain chemistry. Finally, changes in behavior are evident at different…… [Read More]
Biological & Humanistic Approach to Personality
Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs follows two distinct categories: deficiency motive, which include needs that must be fulfilled in order to move a person towards self-actualization (Burger, 2008). An example of deficiency needs would be basic needs like hunger or being safe. The second category is growth needs, which include a person progressing towards their unique potential, as well as giving love in an unselfish manner (Burger, 2008). For the purposes of this essay, growth needs will be discussed at length. The official hierarchy of needs follows a pyramid, with the bottom need being physiological needs like hunger and thirst; and up the pyramid with safety needs like protection or structure; belongingness and love needs like finding a mate or being close to someone; esteem needs like finding respect in ones work; and, lastly, the need for self-actualization, where a person fulfills their true…… [Read More]
Abnormal psychology is a field in psychology that addresses dysfunctions in behavior which are determined abnormally by standards of behavior .These standards have been established by clinical professionals in the field such as medical doctors, psychiatrists and psychologists. Behaviors considered to be abnormal are; schizophrenia, depression, attention deficit disorder, eating disorder, sexual deviance, obsessive compulsive disorder and anti-social disorder (Cherry, 2012). These disordered function outside the normal parameters of the functional behaviors considered to be standard. The paper will look at the origins of abnormal psychology and challenges when it comes to the classification and definition of normal and abnormal behavior. It will also look at how abnormal psychology has evolved into a scientific discipline. It will finally look at the theoretical models that have led to the advancement of understanding psychopathology.
Origins of Abnormal psychology
Abnormal psychology has been undergoing tremendous changes and progress. It is a very controversial…… [Read More]
An early influence on Gestalt psychology was the philosopher Immanuel Kant, who stressed that humans do not perceive the world as it is. Rather, they impose cause and effect relationships on it and therefore our perceptions are influenced by their experiences. Max Wertheimer was the strongest proponent of this approach. Gestalt psychology greatly declined when Nazis came to power in Germany and many scholars were forced to flee. In the United States, behaviorism was too strong to overcome, and many of its ideas were in opposition to Gestalt beliefs.
Humanistic therapy overlaps with CBT and both are very common in today's society. It emphasizes the growth and fulfillment of the self or self-actualization through self-mastery, self-examination and creative expression. Although the influences of the unconscious and society are taken into account, freedom of choice in creating one's experience is essential and is often referred to as self-determination. A humanistic therapist…… [Read More]
They developed several laws and principles to describe human experiences and perceptions. The cognitive movement was pioneered by the works of Chomsky and Piaget and focused on the role of cognition in relation with the outer environment (which provides input for information processing) and behavior.
The most important findings so far regard the components of visual perception, the most important stages of development (according to Piaget), how do most of our complex mental processes work (for instance memory, attention, decision-making etc.), how do processes like the orienting response, habituation, classical conditioning, operant conditioning, and imitation influence behavior, how does the speech develop, the components of an emotional reaction, the relationship between cognition and emotion, how does the infant attachment develop and what impact it has on adult life, how the concepts of self-concept, self-awareness develop, the concept of self-esteem, the different temperamental types and personality etc.
This multitude of problems…… [Read More]
Also known as person-centered or client-centered, Rogerian therapy, it "places much of the responsibility for the treatment process on the client, with the therapist taking a nondirective role" Person-centered therapy, 2009, Mind disorders). However, although effective with some clients: "Person-centered therapy, however, appears to be slightly less effective than other forms of humanistic therapy in which therapists offer more advice to clients and suggest topics to explore," as the client may use the therapy sessions more to complain or go over old grievances, than use the therapy to move forward in his or her life (Person-centered therapy, 2009, Mind disorders).
Another type of therapy that has radically escalated in popularity is that of family or marital therapy, which, like cognitive-behavioral therapy, tends to be focused on specific problems and of a fairly short duration. "Marriage and family therapists regularly practice short-term therapy; 12 sessions on average" FAQs, 2009, AAMFT). The…… [Read More]
The DSM explicitly "strives to be atheoretical, using merely observationally referent terms. The hope with this is to make the manual as acceptable as possible to professionals with different theoretical orientations (Gilles-Thomas 1989, Lecture 2). Specific criteria and systematic descriptions are offered as guidance for making diagnoses. "Essential features, associated features, prevalence rates, sex ratios, family patterns, and differential diagnoses are listed" and it is noted when "alternative or additional diagnoses…should be considered," such as the possibility that a manic episode could mask itself as schizophrenia (Gilles-Thomas 1989, Lecture 2). This might occur if the clinician was unacquainted with the patient and the patient's past history of depression, for example, and/or mood disorders in the patient's family.
Also key to the efficacy of the DSM in approaching the ideologically and theoretically charged world of abnormal psychology is its multiaxial system. The multiaxial system "allows for a more holistic and comprehensive…… [Read More]
Gordon Willard Allport, one of the most influential of American psychologists in the 1900s, was the youngest of four brothers. He was born in Montezuma, Indiana in 1897. One of his elder brothers, Floyd Henry Allport, was also an influential psychologist, and it is said inspired him (Hall & Lindzey). Allport, who graduated from Harvard with a Ph.D. In 1922, was a long time member of the faculty at Harvard University from 1930 until his death in 1967. He produced a number of influential books and professional works over his career such as the influential book The Nature of Prejudice. Allport was initially exposed to Freudian notions of behavior as a graduate student, but he rejected the notions of Freudian psychology and later notions of behaviorism (in fact there is the famous story of his meeting with Freud that often used to explain the development of his own theories). Allport…… [Read More]
personality is a branch of psychology that deals with personality and variations among individuals. Personality is an organized and dynamic set of characteristics possessed uniquely by individual, and influenced by emotion, cognitions, motivation, and environment. In other words, the personality is referred as pattern of feelings, thoughts; social adjustments as well as behaviors exhibited by individual that strongly influence one's self-perceptions, expectations, attitudes and values. (Vink, Nawijn, Boomsma, & Willemsen, 2007).
The paper uses the Humanistic theory to explain the concept personality. The humanistic theory argues that people generally possess freewill that determines the way they behave. The reason for chosen humanistic theory to explain personality concept is that the theory focuses on individual subjective experiences and definitive factors that determine human behaviors. The basic idea of humanistic theory is that it focuses on the present rather than the future. The goal of humanistic theory is to assist…… [Read More]
Personal Theory Paper
Since mid-1970s, a serious matter for integration between Christianity and psychology developed among Christian counsellors. The integration movement developed as a result of reaction to psychology being accepted in the sector dealing with pastoral counseling where it did not face any criticism from the Christians’ point of view. The efforts for integrating psychology with Christianity developed more energy in the last twenty years since the time when Jay Adams refused to have psychology included in the pastoral care sector (Kim, 2004). Attempting to create an integration in psychology with Christian faith is a tedious experience as a result of the different approaches of the two academic disciplines.
According to Alan C. Tjeltveit (2012), the daunting questions that come as a result of taking psychology as well as Christian faith in a serious manner have to be dealt with. The queries that come from the sectors in…… [Read More]
Gordon Allport main emphasis has been on uniqueness of each individual, and he built a theory of personality in criticizing the non-humanistic positions of psychoanalysis and animal-based learning theory. Nevertheless, he became free in his approach and incorporated various ideas from other theorists.
Allport believes that personality should be described as a simple bundle of unrelated traits. It is made up of consistency, unity, and integration of traits. Therefore it is genuine to think that a general principle that unifies, attitudes, traits, motives, experiences, and values exists. On his part, Allport has a view that the problem of identifying and describing the nature of integration needs a fully inclusive construct, for instance the ego, self, or style of life; formerly called soul. Allport later introduced a "proprium" as the new term due to the term losing its taste.
Allport's trait theory is based on the underlying…… [Read More]
Environmental Psychology: Securing its Future" by Harold M. Proshansky
Relatively young field, is it secure?
Epistemology: study or theory of the nature and grounds of knowledge
How did field begin, where is it going?
Environmental Psychology: Yesterday and Today
Empiricism -- theory of relying on observation, experiment, experience
Positivism -- theory that considers religion, metaphysics imperfect means, and relies on natural phenomenon and empirical sciences
Field developed in 1960s during social and political upheavals
But even before, after WWII -- new structures built, rapid growth -- increased research in social psychology, emphasis on attitude change, group processes, intergroup conflicts
Lewin (1948), Festinger, Schacter, and Back (1950) and Deutch (1949) students of Lewin (1948) -- began applying field theory conceptions to various social problems
Confluence of Forces
laboratory-experimental model but failure to apply to real world -- leads to loss of credibility and "malaise" in the social sciences in 1960s…… [Read More]
Evolutionary psychologists therefore explain current human behaviors, especially instinctive ones, in terms of adaptive successes. A baby would feel safer in the secure space of a crib rather than an expansive lawn. A small fluffy mouse initially presents no threat, as our human ancestors likely preyed on smaller animals. Loud noises, however, can mean danger, so a child instinctively cries in alarm.
Cognitive psychologists look at the internal mental processes that enable humans to learn skills such as languages, memory and problem solving. Notive cognitive psychologist Jean Piaget believed that humans go through different stages of cognitive development, and each stage should be marked by the acquisition of certain skills. In the Sensorimotor stage, which last from birth through two years old, babies learn to move and master their different senses. At the preoperational stage, from ages two to seven, a child should master motor skills such as…… [Read More]
Maslow's work, specifically his hierarchy of needs theory that provided insight into basic human needs and a potential hierarchical structure of said needs. This is a great way to introduce Maslow's concept of self-actualization and helps the reader gain insight into the nature of the concept by addressing the background and theoretical framework. "The five needs that were originally enlisted were physiological, safety, love and belonging, esteem and self-actualization. Maslow further expanded self-actualization into four needs, namely cognitive, aesthetic, self-actualization, and self-transcendence" (D'Souza & Gurin, 2016, p. 210). Although the information is a great addition to the introduction, there is no real development of thesis.
Literally for the entire paragraph, it is more of a regurgitation of information on Maslow's humanistic approach to development. Some of the lines even sound very similar from textbook descriptions of his work. The authors only begin to lean more towards their own examination of…… [Read More]
C. Philosophical aspects of existentialism as applied to psychology and therapy.
D. Kierkegaard and German existentialism.
E. Sartre and French existentialism.
F. Religious aspects of existentialism.
G. Humanistic aspects of existentialism.
II. Tenets of Christian therapy
A. Historical origins of Christian therapy.
B. Relationship of Christian therapy to Jungian therapy.
C. Function of Christian therapy.
1. Reconciliation of Christian beliefs and daily stressors
2. Reconciliation of Christian advocacy of selflessness and modern capitalist society
D. Goals of Christian therapy.
III. Intersection of existential psychology and modern Christian thought.
A. Exploration of ways in which Christian thought and humanistic discourses intersect
B. Exploration of the ways in which the practice of Christian therapy and humanistically-based modes of therapy intersect.
C. Expectations of Christian clients.
1. Will Christian clients feel that they are being appropriately served by existential psychology given its roots in humanistic and philosophical traditions rather than in Christian doctrine?…… [Read More]
A behavior resulting from injury or disease behavior resulting from experience behavior resulting from disease or drugs biologically determined behavior
Evidence that learning has occurred is seen in published research studies changes in thinking changes in behavior emotional stability
Change in performance is preceded by bad reviews scientific research the behavior of others change in disposition
If-then statements may also be referred to as principles generalization hypothesis laws
Statements which summarize relationships are restricted to the physical sciences known as hypothesis known as generalization never used in the social sciences
Rules which govern the gathering of information are known as rigid and dogmatic scientific method being flexible
APA rules for research studies
Informed consent is given by the researcher judicial review the American Psychological Association the research subject
Laws are to beliefs as truth is to untruth accuracy is to inaccuracy convictions are to facts are to convictions
Trace conditioning…… [Read More]
Maslow gave them that self-meaning and appreciation and became one of the pioneers of a movement that brought the focus of individual feeling, yearning and wholeness into psychology. He sort of read them out and spoke their thoughts, feelings and aspirations for them. He devoted much energy to humanistic psychology and the human potential and inaugurated the "fourth force" in psychology towards the end of his life. The first force consisted of Freud and other depth psychologists; the second force, the behaviorists; his own humanism and European existentialism, the third. This fourth force was made up of transpersonal psychologies that derived from European philosophies, which examined meditation, higher consciousness levels and para-psychological phenomena and which reacted against the then dominant psychoanalysis and behaviorism schools of the 20th century. Among the most prominent European philosophers were Kierkegaard, Husserl and Heidegger and the most prominent in the humanist/existential group were Carl Rogers,…… [Read More]
Carl ogers and Abraham Maslow Treatment Approach for Outpatient Therapy
Carl ogers and Abraham Maslow treatment approach for out-patient therapy.
The study of human psychology is important in understanding personality of individuals. One can study personality of individuals, but there is no scientific method of studying personality of the whole humanity. Human are different from person to person and vey unique to some degree. This paper prompts a thesis, and it digs into the psychology of humans. It dwells on the person-Centered approach by Carl ogers and on the Humanistic Approach by Abraham Maslow.
Both Carl ogers and Abraham Maslow have an influence on today's outpatient therapy. Both scholars have had an influence on the humanistic psychology and personal centered approach to therapy. Although humanistic psychology gained its popularity in the mid 20th century, both scholars have further entrenched theories and practices that make it important in today's outpatient therapy.…… [Read More]
Psychoanalytic and Humanistic Perspectives on the Person Conflicting, Co-Existing or Complementary
Psychoanalytic And Humanistic Perspectives On A Person
Humanistic and psychoanalytic perspectives have played an active role in influencing how we think of ourselves for a long time. Both humanistic and psychoanalytic psychology are perspectives that are conflicting, commentary and co-existing. According to scholars, the psychoanalytic perspective and revolves around an outsider's viewpoint and an insider's viewpoint of a psychoanalyst. Conversely, the humanistic standpoint privileges the insider viewpoint making an individual believe his or her own accounts to be unproblematic. This report endeavors to explain about the extent at which humanistic and psychoanalytic perspectives on an individual co-exist, complement, or conflict.
Extent at which they are conflicting
Both the humanistic and psychoanalytic psychology tend to have different models of what an individual entails. Both psychologies have different stands on fixity and the possibility of change. They also tend to produce…… [Read More]
Clinical Psychology and Gender Dysphoria
Advancement of Clinical Psychology with Gender Dysphoria
Clinical psychology is recognized as a psychology branch that deals with the assessment and treatment of abnormal behavior, mental illness, and psychiatric problems (Brennan, 2003). Clinical psychology integrates the science of psychology with treatment of complicated human problems, which makes it a challenging and rewarding field. American psychologist Lightner Witmer introduced the term in 1907. Witmer defined clinical psychology as a field that studies individuals by experimentation or observation, with the intent of promoting change. A clinical psychologist will try to reduce any psychological distress suffered by a patient and enhance their psychological well-being. Previously clinical psychology focused on the psychological assessment of the patients, and there was little or no attention been paid to treatment. This scenario changed after World War II in the 1940s because there was increased demand for trained clinicians. A clinical psychologist will…… [Read More]
Carl ogers was probably the most important psychologist and psychotherapist of the 20th Century apart from Sigmund Freud, and his humanistic, person-centered approach has been applied to many fields outside of psychology, such as education, business, nursing, medicine and social work. Many of the basic textbooks in all of these fields reflect his influence, including the concept of learner-centered education and the use of the term 'clients' instead of 'patients'. He wrote over 100 academic books and articles, the most famous one being On Becoming a Person (1961) which clearly describes his main ideas and is summarized below. Originally trained for the ministry and then in Freudian psychoanalysis, ogers gradually broke with this school of psychology as a result of his work with abused children and his study of phenomenology and existentialist psychology. Central to his theory was the development of a healthy self-concept that was open, expressive and spontaneous…… [Read More]
Existential therapy, person-centered therapy, and gestalt therapy all fall under the rubric of humanistic psychology. They share a considerable amount of theory, philosophy, and practice. Yet each of these practices is stemmed in its own theoretical framework; therefore, existential, person-centered, and gestalt therapies differ in key ways. ecent scholarship on existential, person-centered, and gestalt therapies builds on the rich canon of literature in these three core humanistic traditions, but is more than just summative. The following review of literature shows how existential therapy, person-centered therapy, and gestalt therapy are practiced in the 21st century, and in so doing, reveals the similarities and differences between these three humanistic psychological frameworks.
Existential therapy has been called "a way of thinking rather than…a particular style of practicing," (Corey, 2008, p. 216). Corey (2008) claims that existential therapy is "not a separate school or a neatly defined, systematic model with…… [Read More]
Linguistic analyses of conversational patterns indicate that most pauses can be predicted by linguistic structures, such as clause or sentence breaks" (Levitt, 334) by eliminating some of the non-verbal factors that may tend to undermine these silences, I would find that the interviewee was far more comfortable with the nature of the interview and its opportunity for a free and informal discussion relating to treatment experience, personal history and current disposition.
The helping model, according the research which was conducted in preparation for and in light of Mr. Smith's situation, would be further illuminated by the interview. Here, firsthand interaction illustrated that individuals who have undergone such institutional experiences are sometimes eager to share details and feelings directly related thereto. The way that Mr. Smith opted to open up would be especially revealing in verifying the value of allowing one's self to fully accept and understanding the nature…… [Read More]
However, after several internal conflicts with the Wisconsin psychology department, Rogers became disillusioned with academia and left the field.
In 1964, after being selected "Humanist of the Year" by the American Humanist Association, Rogers moved to La Jolla, California where he joined the Western ehavioral Sciences Institute as a researcher. In 1968 Rogers went on to found the Center for Studies of the Person. Rogers devoted the later part of his life to applying his theories in the areas of international and national social conflict, focusing on the Northern Ireland and South African conflicts. Along with his daughter, Rogers also conducted a series of residential programs on the Person-Centered Approach throughout the United States, Europe, and Japan. These workshops focused on such things as cross-cultural communications, personal growth, self-empowerment and social change.
Carl Rogers' primary contribution to society was his development of the person-centered approach to psychotherapy. Rogers and his…… [Read More]
Motivation in Behavior
a) What does Tolman's theory of animal learning tell us about the motivation for human learning?
Unlike John Watson, B.F. Skinner and the other strict behaviorists, or the ussian physiologists like Ivan Pavlov, Edward C. Tolman argued that the behaviorist theory that learning was a matter of stimulus-response (S-) and positive and negative reinforcement was highly simplistic. Although he rejected introspective methods and metaphysics, he increasingly moved away from strict behaviorism into the areas of cognitive psychology. In short, he became a mentalist without actually using that term to describe himself and concluded that all behavior was "purposive" (Hergenhahn, 2009, p. 428). All of his experiments with rats moving through mazes at the University of Berkeley proved to his satisfaction that behavior was actually the dependent variable, with the environment as the independent variable, with mental processes as intervening variables. Tolman summarized this basic theory, which he…… [Read More]
Traveling worldwide, ogers participated in negotiating sessions involving disputes between Protestants and Catholics, religious, racial, and ethnic differences in South Africa, racial disputes in the United States, and consumers and health care professionals in several jurisdictions. He was widely recognized as being successful at resolving serious differences in most of these difference scenarios.
Carl ogers was born and raised in the United States but Carl Jung was born and raised in Switzerland. While ogers was an extroverted, personable individual, Carl Jung was a highly introverted individual who preferred a solitary life. By his own admission, Jung was happiest when he was left alone with his thoughts (Wehr, 2001).
Jung academic background was founded in the field of medicine. While attending medical school, Jung developed an interest in spirituality and it was this interest that eventually led to his becoming interested in psychiatry as a specialty. As part of his graduation…… [Read More]
Since both individuals were seeking to improve
the circumstances, the question that begs to be asked is why did the male
"Male leaders received lower effectiveness ratings when expressing
sadness compared to neutrality, while female leaders received lower ratings
when expressing either sadness or anger" (Lewis, 2000, p. 221). Since
females are perceived in a different light, their emotions are also viewed
as being different as well. A response such as this does not make
cognitive sense, nor is it needs based, but it could be a fixed or a
learned behavior that would coincide with the fixed action theory.
Appealing to the audience from a needs basis might assist the young female
in achieving her goal, or she could benefit by taking a more dispassionate
approach in addressing the crowd. She could benefit from arousing the
students with application of a fixed action response especially from the
males…… [Read More]