Use our essay title generator to get ideas and recommendations instantly
Hurricane Katrina that ripped through the Gulf Coast of the United States on August 29, 2005, was one of the most destructive tropical cyclones ever to hit the United States. The exact scale of damage is still being assessed but there is little doubt that the human suffering and the economic damage caused by the storm is colossal.
hile people around the world have come to expect wide-scale destruction by natural disasters in third world countries due to their limited resources, the effect of the storm in the most resourceful country of the world left most people stunned. A majority of observers were taken aback at the lack of preparation and the lethargic response of the federal and state government agencies to the crisis. However others, who have followed the systematic erosion of the government's role, cuts in social welfare programs and the intense lobbying for privatization of public services…
"Hurricane Katrina." From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. September 12, 2005. September 12, 2005.
Karl, Terry Lynn. "Bush's second Gulf disaster." Open Democracy. August 09, 2005. September 11, 2005.
Klein, Joe. "Listen to What Katrina Is Saying." September 04, 2005. September 11, 2005. Time.com.
"The Lost City": Special Report: After Katrina. Newsweek: Print Edition, September 12, 2005
A large portion of this cost ultimately is borne by the state (Handmer, 2006). Therefore, through rational choice theory, policy was enacted to provide benefit at the lowest cost. For instance, sales taxes were raised, drainage systems were implemented to prevent flooding, building codes were upgraded to prevent excessive property damage, and job training programs were implemented to help spur growth. All of this legislation was enacted through the use of cost benefit analysis to determine, over the long-term, how much money the state can save (Hartman, 2006).
In conclusion, both elitism and ration choice theory can have a dramatic impact on society, policy making, and emergency response. As mentioned above, elitism, when used in an extreme many, can have severely adverse consequences on society. Aspects such as rapid inequality, lack of opportunity, economic inefficiencies, and a stagnating middle class wages, all harm society. In regards to policy making, only…
1) Domhoff, G. William (1990). The power elite and the state: how policy is made in America. Transaction Publishers. ISBN 978-0-202-30373-4
2) Hartmann, Michael (2007). The sociology of elites. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-0-415-41197-4
3) Hartman, C. And Squires, G. (ed.) (2006) There is No Such Thing as a Natural Disaster: Race, Class, and Hurricane Katrina. Routledge.
4) Hindmoor, a. (2006) Rational Choice. Palgrave Macmillan.
Hurricane Katrina and Economic Implications
Hurricane Katrina and the Economic Implications
The events of the incident and the economic backlash
The 2005 Hurricane Katrina that ended up encompassing the cities of Texas, Mississippi and Louisiana can be termed as one of the most deadly hurricanes to hit the United States of America and left millions of people in absolutely despair along with serious economic implications for the entire country to cope up with. The government and administration of President ush ended up allocating almost $105 billion to stabilize the country and the hurricane-hit regions. The hurricane disrupted not just the lives of people but also left them helpless and worried about the fulfillment of their basic needs as there was a disruption in the supply of many commodities like Oil, cotton and other food supplies.
The Hurricane left almost 600,000 people in New Orleans absolutely jobless. The estimated loss that…
Herman, Charles. Katrina's Economic Impact: One Year Later. August 2006.
Labonte, Mac. "The Macroeconomic Effects of Hurricane Katrina." CRS Report for the Congress. 2005.
Silverman, Fran. "After Katrina, Taking Precautions in Connecticut." The NY Times August 2008.
Time for Accountability
There is definitely a time for accountability; but what isn't fair is to dump on the federal officials and avoid those most responsible -- local and state officials who failed to do their job as the first responders. The plain fact is lives were needlessly lost in New Orleans due to the failure of Louisiana's governor, Kathleen lanco, and the city's mayor, Ray Nagin (Williams, 2005).
The primary responsibility for dealing with emergencies does not belong to the federal government. It belongs to local and state officials who are charged by law with the management of the crucial first response to disasters. First response should be carried out by local and state emergency personnel under the supervision of the state governor and her emergency operations center.
The actions and inactions are a national disgrace due to their failure to implement the previously established evacuation plans of the…
Dao, J. (2005, Nov 22). Louisiana sees faded urgency in relief effort. Retrieved March 24, 2009, from the New York Times: http://www.nytimes.com/2005/11/22/national/nationalspecial/22louisiana.html?ex=1290315600&en=96a67d624f89c525&ei=5090&partner=rssuserland&emc=rss#
Hurricane Katrina. (n.d.). Retrieved March 24, 2009, from U.S. Department of Health & Human Services HHS.Gov: http://www.hhs.gov/disasters/emergency/naturaldisasters/hurricanes/katrina/index.html
(2005, Oct 05). A month after Katrina: lessons from leadership failures. Retrieved March 24, 2009, from: http://knowledge.wharton.upenn.edu/article.cfm?articleid=1289
Schneider, S. (2005). Administrative breakdowns in the governmental response to Hurricane Katrina. Public Administration Review, Pages 515-516, Volume 65 Issue 5.
Hurricane Katrina Disaster Evaluation
Review the Final Paper instructions in Week 5. Develop a thesis statement and outline, and identify at least five sources you intend to use for the Final Paper.
Develop a thesis statement. he thesis statement will be the point or claim you argue or prove in your paper.
9/11 and Hurricane Katrina Disaster Evaluation
9/11 and Hurricane Katrina Disaster Evaluation
Hurricane Katrina and the Sept. 11, 2001 attacks should never be forgotten, nor should the victims that were involved in these tragedies. Katrina, the storm that smashed into the city of New Orleans in August 2005, became to be known as one of the deadliest hurricanes in United States history. here were around 1,836 mortalities from the killer storm. he Sept. 11 campaign was the most dangerous terrorist incident in the history of the United States beside Pearl Harbor in 1941. Up until this day, 24…
The News Media had a dominant position in pulling off the 9/11. The process concerned exposing on TV a supernumerary, computer- produced version of reality. The media had a sense of temporarily succeeding to sell to the world the terrible stories behind the 19 young terrorists who hijacked the plane. On September 11, 2001, did a good job in getting tens of millions of Americans clustered around various television sets, observing the sad terrorist assaults on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon. In the anxious weeks and months that shadowed, the media was shrewd in making sure that the audiences and person who read remembered the attacks and their aftershock again and again on TV and in newsprints and magazines. Throughout hurricane Katrina, numerous agents of the news media reporting on the outcome of Hurricane Katrina turn out to be directly implicated in the developing events, as an option of simply reporting. Due to the conquest of most ways of contact, such as regular and cell phone systems, field reporters in so many different cases became channels for items between sufferers and specialists. On the other hand, numerous journalists also contributed to the level of false rumors of confusion among the victims, which may have been understood as an sample of yellow journalism.
Disaster and Its impact on Children
The September 11, 2001, (9/11) extremist bouts on the U.S. had and still continues to have an tremendous impact on countless people. Nevertheless, more often than not, we only know about the outcome of 9/11 on adults who saw the occurrences. A group of children were also displayed to the dreadful events of 9/11, and it is conceivable that some established signs of PTSD. In actual fact, children may be at predominantly high risk for emerging PTSD signs after a disturbing event, since they may not have formed adequate managing abilities. With that said, it is not alarming that reports really haven't discovered any changes in the degrees of PTSD among children and adults succeeding the 9/11 bomber attacks. Children may be largely susceptible to suffer posttraumatic stress succeeding admission to a natural disaster, such as Hurricane Katrina. They discovered that many children had skilled a countless deal of stress as an outcome of the hurricane. Most had been exiled by the hurricane, had seen their area demolished or impaired, and had lost certain possessions. Given the constraint that these children were displayed to, it makes perfect sense that several of them experienced severe indications of depression and posttraumatic stress. In truth, one particular study found that more than half of the children went through high levels of depression and posttraumatic stress signs.
When former New Orleans Mayor Marc Morial remarked "The New Orleans we all through we knew is dead," he was speaking about not only 2005 natural mega-storm Hurricane Katrina, but the events and effect the disaster would have on the ity of New Orleans that even today still reverberate. The events surrounding the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina offer a winsome and remarkable case study regarding the continuing social divide between individuals and society, and the inability for big government to manage a crisis effectively. Yet, the disaster brought forward the juxtaposition between two sides -- the macroeconomic consequences of Mother Nature and the heart rendering and emotional plight of individuals.
One event factor, only partially controlled by society, was the almost $100 billion and counting effect of Hurricane Katrina on the U.S. Economy
. This figure is quite low, when one takes into account not just the repairs…
Cited in: http://www.ssrc.msstate.edu/katrina/publications/katrinastudentsummary.pdf .
Partially is used because many believe the economic damage would have been far less had some of the earlier dikes and engineering plans been better constructed. In addition, many believe adequate measures were not taken to minimize the after effects of this tragedy. See: "Katrina Response a 'Systemic Failure'." (August 30, 2006). Space Daily, in: http://www.spacedaily.com/reports/Katrina_Response_A_ Systemic_Failure_Former_US_Emergency_Response_Chief_999.html.
If this happened, the city would be flooded, leaving all its citizens without the necessary transportation to leave.
When Katrina approached, however, the government, including the Federal Emergency Management Agency, took no action to help citizens evacuate the city before the hurricane struck. Instead, the clear warnings issues in this regard were simply ignored. Indeed, even after the hurricane struck and the danger became more than potential, government response was delayed for a further two days. In addition, Kay notes that the local government in the city also had no evacuation plan in place when the hurricane struck.
Kay and other critics blame presidential and government incompetence for the consequences of the disaster. Kay also names the 9/11 attacks and the invasion of Iraq as evidence of this incompetence as well as lack of accountability for the disaster. The main reason for the government's lack of response, according to Kay,…
Esworthy, Robert, Shierow, Linda-Jo, Copeland, Claudia, Luther Linda & Ramseur, Jonathan L. (2006, May 3). Cleanup After Hurricane Katrina: Environmental Considerations. CRS Report for Congress. http://ncseonline.org/nle/crsreports/06may/RL33115.pdf
Forman, Tyrone a. & Lewis, Amanda E. (2006). Racial Apathy and Hurricane Katrina: The Social Anatomy of Prejudice in the Post-Civil Rights Era. Du Bois Review, 3:1, pp. 175-202. http://journals.cambridge.org/production/action/cjoGetFulltext?fulltextid=462994
Isidore, Chris. (2005, Sept. 6). Katrina's growing economic impact. New York: CNN/Money. http://money.cnn.com/2005/09/02/news/economy/katrina_widerimpact/index.htm?cnn=yes
Kay, Joe. (2006, Feb. 14). Congressional report condemns government response to Hurricane Katrina. World Socialist Web Site. http://www.wsws.org/articles/2006/feb2006/katr-f14.shtml
These groups, Flaherty asserts, provided the first organizers in shelters, and continue to support the homeless and luckless victims of Katrina.
Meanwhile, an article in the journal Reason laid out the race and class dynamic with forceful simplicity: "Obviously, race and poverty are intertwined in America, and to that extent race was related to who survived in New Orleans" (Young, 2005). And when there are problems connected to the Republican Party that cry out for resolution and understanding - such as the ongoing American occupation and bloody civil strive in Iraq - there are GOP spin-doctors busy at work deflecting the criticism. riter Young notes that "as the city began to retrieve its dead and the final tally was still expected to be in the thousands, some Republicans launched a spin cycle, suggesting that 10,000 dead in a nation of 300 million was that bad..."
riting in Nieman Reports, Boston…
Andrew, Edward. (1975). Marx's theory of Classes: Science and Ideology. Canadian Journal of Political Science, 8(3), 454-466.
Cullen, Kevin. (2005). Rumors, Race ad Class Collide. Nieman Reports. Winter 2005.
Flaherty, Jordan. (2005-2006). New Orleans' Culture of Resistance. Social Policy. Retrieved 30 Dec. 2006 at http://www.leftturn.org/articles/specialcollections/jordanonkatina.aspx.
Niman, Michael I. (2005). Katrina's America: Failure, Racism, and Profiteering. Humanist,
Thousands of personnel from Coast Guard units nationwide rushed to the scene to provide 1,380 Aids to Navigation discrepancies, to assist in 1,129 pollution cases (seven major pollution incidents) and provide help to 1,000 salvage cases including more than 200 grounded vessels. More than 3,900 Coast Guard personnel responded to the disaster.
hile the FEMA effort stumbled and fell far short of its intended goal, the United States Coast Guard Reserve and Auxiliary joined with regular USCG service members to rescue more than 24,273 people from perilous wind, pounding rain, and killer floodwaters..
The Coast Guard assisted with the evacuation of 9,462 patients from hospitals and nursing care facilities on land. Using eighteen HH-60J and 25 HH-65 helicopters "rescued 12,661 people from peril," according to the Coast Guard data ().
President George . Bush promised New Orleans and Louisiana $60 billion for rebuilding, but according to CBS.com, "Only $6.78 billion…
CBS News. (2007). Rebuilding New Orleans is Slow Going. Retrieved Nov. 25, 2007, at http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2007/08/28/eveningnews/main3212929.shtml
Discovery Channel. (2005). Facts About Katrina. Retrieved Nov. 24, 2007, at http://dsc.discovery.com/convergence/katrina/facts/facts.html .
Knowledge @ Wharton. (2005). A Month after Katrina: Lessons from Leadership
Failures. Retrieved Nov. 25, 2007, at http://www.knowledge.wharton.upenn.edu.
The research stated that
Because disasters tend to accelerate existing economic, social, and political trends, the large losses in housing, population, and employment after Katrina are likely to persist and, at best, only partly recover. However, the possibility of breaking free of this gloomy trajectory is feasible and has some historical precedent
Post-Katrina, there is much that can be done to help not only the city's renewal and revitalization from a physical and structure perspective, but there is also a lot that can be done to help alleviate the hurt and anger as a result of a very sluggish response to fellow Americans in the time of need. Politicians have stated that the government should not only help with support, but the government is obligated by statute to do so.
Historical authorities on the free market, Adam Smith and Alexander Hamilton, said that a nation's military defense and its infrastructure…
Cooper, Helene. New York Times. "Shadow of Hurricane Katrina Hangs Over Obama
After Spill. April 30, 2010.
Daniels, Ronald J., Kettl, Donald F., Kunreuther, Howard., Gutmann, Amy. On Risk and Disaster: Lessons from Katrina. University of Pennsylvania. 2006.
Discuss reasons behind NIBCO's decision to implement an ERP system.
The primary motivation behind NIBCO's decision to implement the new ERP system hinged on economic considerations. From a competitive standpoint, NIBCO needed to innovate. As the case illustrated, the company's information systems were unable to properly communicate with each other. As such, there was a lack of integration between critical business functions. The accounting department, for instances, was unable to properly communicate with the distribution department. This lack of communication and integration made the company's operations inefficient relative to its peers in the industry. This lack of integration, combined with competitive pressures stifled NIBCO's overall earnings growth. The company was losing market share to more efficient and nimble operations. Therefore, the decision to implement the new ERP system was a direct response to the market economy that NIBCO operates in. Without innovation, the company would continue to lose…
Churches were able to provide food and shelter in a timely and efficient manner. Faith-based organizations also had the assistance of church members who were eager to volunteer.
As a result of the findings presented in this discussion, it is recommended that the American Red Cross and other disaster relief agencies carefully examined their preparedness for future disasters. The research indicates that the Red Cross was ill prepared to handle the amount of people that were affected by Hurricane Katrina.
The lack of preparedness extended into the way that the organization served certain communities in the aftermath of the Hurricane. For instance, many Latino's and other English Language learners were not given the appropriate assistance because people assumed that they were workers and not survivors of the storm. In the future the Red Cross can avoid treating people in this manner by diversifying its staff and ensuring that there…
Dyson, E. Come Hell or High Water. Hurricane Katrina and the Color of Disaster.
Fast Facts: American Red Cross Response to Hurricane Katrina. Retrieved September 29, 2009 from; http://www.nwnc-redcross.org/Press%20Releases/FASTFACTSKatrina.pdf
Hartman, C.W., Squires, G.D. (2006) There is no such thing as a natural disaster: race, class, and Hurricane Katrina. Routledge.
Mills, M.A., Edmondson D., and Park, C.L. (2007).Trauma and Stress Response Among Hurricane Katrina Evacuees. American Journal of Public Health Vol 97 (1)
This is the point that it becomes nearly impossible to prevent the disaster from spiraling out of control.
When you step back and analyze the situation, it is clear that the lack of coordination and communication from Mayor Nagin made the situation worse. As, he did not heed the warnings about: the total amounts of destruction and the possibility that the city could be paralyzed from this storm. This caused a ripple effect in the city government, with no one being prepared for the overall scope of the damages and the possibility that the disaster could become worse in the days after the storm. What is most troubling about these events is that Nagin; did not accept responsibility for what was happening. Instead, he began to blame others for his shortcomings and waited for the state or federal government to do something about the issues that they were facing. Once…
Hurricane Katrina. (2007). Washington D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office.
Brinkley, D. (2006). The Great Deluge. New York, NY: Harper Collins.
Griffin, R. (2008). Fundamentals of Management. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.
Johnson, (2005). The Four Pillars of High Performance. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Hurricane Katrina hit the United States in 2005, there were many individuals whose lives were destroyed. The resulting flooding in New Orleans also left many without homes, food, water, and employment. Even those in positions of authority were left without means of communication, and in some cases, these individuals committed acts completely against their codes of ethics. This paper will discuss one set of individuals in power exclusively, those of the police officers of New Orleans, and will focus on the ethical dilemmas that stemmed from the acts of looting which occurred at the hands of some of those officers.
To fully understand the situation in New Orleans, one must first understand the issues underlying ethical dilemmas. These dilemmas can stem from a variety of sources, including a conflict between personal and professional values, between two principles, between two actions, each with strong positive aspects as well as strong negative…
CNN. "New Orleans Cops Investigated for Allegedly Stealing Cars." Hurricane Katrina Updates. Updated October 7, 2005. Retrieved October 7, 2005 .
CNN. "Witnesses: New Orleans Cops Took Rolex Watches, Jewelry." Hurricane Katrina Updates. Updated September 30, 2005. Retrieved October 7, 2005 .
Macintyre, Alasdair. A Short History of Ethics: A History of Moral Philosophy from the Homeric Age to the Twentieth Century. London: Routledge, 1998. Questia. 8 Oct. 2005 .
Walters, James W. What Is a Person? An Ethical Exploration. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 1997. Questia. 8 Oct. 2005 .
It seems as if more studies should be undertaken to really understand the magnitude of this problem, and try to figure out if there is a solution. It seems as if it would be difficult if not impossible to regenerate ground water for years and years, so what are residents on wells doing, and what is agriculture doing? Are they using contaminated water? Do they even know if it contaminated? These are questions that this arsenic study raises, and they are concerns that would face anyone in the same situation after such a massive natural disaster, so they need to be answered and addressed.
Probably the most frightening aspect of the environmental situation in the Gulf Coast is how little people seem to care about it anymore. There was an initial outpouring of public concern and money right after the event, but now, more "important" things like gas prices and…
Editors. "Eighteen-Month Anniversary." EPA.gov. 2006. 23 April 2008. http://www.epa.gov/katrina/18months.html
Editors. "Katrina: The Aftermath." PBS.org. 2006. 23 April 2008. http://www.pbs.org/now/science/katrinaenviro.html
Editors. "Katrina's Wake: Arsenic-Laced Schools and Playgrounds Put New Orleans Children at Risk." NRDC.org. 2007. 23 April 2006. http://www.nrdc.org/health/effects/wake/contents.asp
Spotts, Peter M. "Environment: A First Battle Against Rising Oceans." Christian Science Monitor. 2006. 23 April 2008. http://www.csmonitor.com/2006/0831/p01s04-usgn.html
S. is imported through or fished out of the Gulf. Katrina struck right at the peak of harvesting season. At the same time, Louisiana is the nation's top oyster producer, and wholesalers are waiting in fear to see if the beds have been damaged" ("Katrina's Impact"). Therefore, food and agriculture may also show signs of economic fallout for years to come. Much of this remains to be seen, as all the damage has still not been assessed in all areas.
The hurricane also destroyed billions of board feet of hardwood in the states, which will also have an affect on the forestry industry. About 10% of Mississippi jobs are in this area, and this will create higher prices for many building materials and other wood products like paper, too (Editors). Thus, the economic affects are quite widespread and could last for decades in some Southern states and in some industries.…
Author not Available. "Katrina's Impact on the U.S. Economy." EconomyWatch.com. 2005. 8 Nov. 2005. http://www.economywatch.com/world_economy/usa/katrina-impact-us-economy.html
Author not Available. "Oil and Troubled Waters." Economist.com. 6 Sept. 2005. 8 Nov. 2005. http://www.economist.com/agenda/displayStory.cfm?story_id=4362200
Editors. "Economic Effects of Hurricane Katrina." Wikipedia.org. 6 Nov. 2005. 8 Nov. 2005. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Economic_effects_of_Hurricane_Katrina
Samuelson, Robert J. "Hitting the Economy." Newsweek.com. 12 Sept. 2005. 8 Nov. 2005. http://msnbc.msn.com/id/9190518/site/newsweek/
Hurricane Katrina revealed to the American public that race and class are still issues which are alive and well in the United States of America. he images on television and other media modes revealed that a select segment of society was overwhelmingly affected by this natural disaster. In fact, many died simply because they were poor and African-American. he adverse consequences they faced were a direct result of either actions or inactions directly related to their class and race; and the two are inextricably intertwined and continue to effect the rebuilding of New Orleans to this day.
How Hurricane Katrina Exposed Race and Class Issues in America
Nothing illustrates the issue of race and class issues in America greater than the moniker "he Chocolate City." Mayor Nagin, of New Orleans, used this term to describe his own city in the wake of Hurricane Katrina. Understandably, his words created quite a…
Though the immediate responses to the emergency created by Hurricane Katrina compelled Americans to reconsider their previously held conceptions of race and class in America, the slow reconstruction of New Orleans is also evidence of deeply entrenched race and class distinctions. Though the hurricane made landfall in New Orleans in 2005, as of this writing (2112), New Orleans has yet to be fully restored, particularly in those areas which were once inhabited by those initially left behind in the initial evacuation. Although the French Quarter was relatively unscathed, and quickly restored with an influx of money, not all areas had the same fortune, primarily because they were first unlucky, and second, because they are not income generating districts. There are still parts of the city that seem like ghost towns. Houses are boarded up, lots sit vacant and overgrown, and the population is significantly reduced. Many wonder if the people once left behind will ever be able to return. Unfortunately, racism and class distinctions do not only exist in New Orleans. They also exist in the cities to which these poor African-Americans fled. Finding themselves in the same position, no or low paying jobs, many find it impossible to save enough money to return to the place they once called home. Home may have been a small apartment or wood frame house, but it was where they knew their neighbors, had family, and felt a part of the community. As in other times, these basic comforts are denied them because they cannot afford to return and rebuild.
With the election of President Obama in 2008, many New Orleans natives had a renewed hope of returning to a rebuilt city and a new day in America where it concerned racism and class exclusion. That was four years ago and as stated above, many are still waiting. When Obama visited New Orleans on the 5th anniversary of Katrina, he gave an address where he stated that he 'would stand by you until it is done', referring to the rebuilding of New Orleans. However, there have still been no great strides in restoring the low income, predominantly African-American neighborhoods that were basically ignored prior to, during, and now after Hurricane Katrina tore apart New Orleans and forced Americans to admit that there are still significant issues in this country regarding race and class distinctions. These distinctions are the result of long standing, systemic racism which has permeated this country from its beginning and continues to do so today.
Absolutely anyone who tuned their television to the news coverage during and after Katrina had to be stunned by the images which made these issues irrefutable. Unfortunately, it took a hurricane to reveal to many that the Old South is still the Old South.
Hurricane Katrina - Emergency Management
All discussions regarding the Hurricane Katrina need to acknowledge the fact that the primary reason for Katrina having a great impact was task scope and size, rather than human failure. While effective management is capable of modifying disasters, one cannot expect it to eliminate them. Still, it is evident that an increased sense of urgency, enhanced coordination among responder groups, and more efficient management of communication tools and information (intelligence) could have minimized losses brought about by the disaster (Moynihan, 2009).
Nature and extent of the disaster
Hurricane Katrina represented a significant natural calamity that caused human life and material loss. It marked the most devastating of natural catastrophes in the history of the U.S., wrecking no less than ninety thousand square miles of the nation -- an area equal to UK's size. A powerful storm surge destroyed the coastal regions of Mississippi, leaving thousands…
[House Report, 2006] U.S. House of Representatives Select Bipartisan Committee to Investigate the Preparation for and Response to Katrina (House Report). (2006). A Failure of Initiative. Washington D.C: Government Printing Office.
[Senate Report, 2006] U.S. Senate Committee of Homeland Security and Government Affairs (Senate Report). (2006). Hurricane Katrina: A Nation Still Unprepared. Washington D.C: Government Printing Office.
Litman, T. (2006). Lessons From Katrina and Rita: What Major Disasters Can Teach Transportation Planners. Journal of Transport Engineering, 132, 11-18.
Moynihan, D. P. (2009). The Response to Hurricane Katrina . Geneva: International Risk Governance Council.
Brown did not contact Michael Chertoff, Homeland Security Secretary, to activate emergency response workers until five hours after Hurricane Katrina made landfall (Mayer et al. 2008). Furthermore, Brown did not use any urgent language about how devastating Hurricane Katrina's effects might be along the Gulf Coast, a response which many have found to be sadly inadequate.
Since the Katrina disaster, FEMA has been essentially stripped of its emergency powers, and much of that power now falls on local and state emergency management officials. It is upsetting that there has been an increased tendency since 9/11 for politicians and officials to look to Washington for every answer regarding disaster response (Mayer et al. 2008). Many experts agree that allowing FEMA to serve an ever-expanding part in addressing day-to-day emer-gency responses around the country was crippling in the Katrina situation and other recent national disasters. If state and local governments continue to…
Brinkley, Douglas, the Great Deluge, Harper Collins, 2006
Forsloff, Carola. "Poorly Armored New Orleans Takes the Bullet for Katrina (Part 3)." March 19, 2009, http://www.digitaljournal.com/article/269441 . Accessed October 15, 2009.
Grunwald, Michael, "Hurricane Katrina Two Years Later, the Threatening Storm, Time Magazine, http://www.time.com/time/specials/2007/article/0,28804,1646611_1646683_ 1648904,00.html
Heerden, Ivor Van, the Storm, Viking Penguin, 2006
management to Hurricane Katrina
Hurricane Katrina 11th named tropical storm by scientists, fourth hurricane, third major hurricane and first category 5 hurricane of the 2005 Atlantic hurricane season. On the day of August 5, 2005 hurricane Katrina made a land fall as a category 1 hurricane north of Miami, Florida, as a category 3 storm on August 29 along the central gulf coast near Buras-triumph then Louisiana. The storm surge of Katrina later destroyed the levee system that protected New Orleans from Lake Pontchartrain and the Mississippi river. (Stewart & Stacy, 2005)
As a consequence the city was subsequently flooded mainly by water from the lake. The coast of Mississippi and Alabama were heavily damaged resulting to Katrina being the most destructive and costly disaster in the history of the U.S.A., the damage estimated at $100 billion.
In the Gulf of Mexico approaching the morning of the 26 0f August…
Amanda Ripley (2005-10-23). Hurricane Katrina: How the Coast Guard Got it Right. Time Magazine. September 5, 2011 from http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1122007-2,00.html
Naval Sea Systems Command, (2007). U.S. Navy Salvage Report: Hurricanes Katrina and Rita.
Retrieved September 5, 2011 from http://www.uscg.mil/history/katrina/USNKatrinaSalvageRpt.pdf
Stephen Barr, (2005). Coast Guard's Response to Katrina a Silver Lining in the Storm.
Folkman, MI. California Engineer Sees Fears About New Orleans Levee system Come True, 2005
The author writes about the thoughts and experiences of Robert ea, civil engineer at the University of California in erkeley on the recent killer hurricane in New Orleans. ea studied the city's levee system since 1954 when began working for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, He discovered that it was not high enough and that parts of the city were far below sea level. Fixing the levee system permanently could be a multi-year and multi-dollar effort. The Corps of Engineer reported that major breaches of the levees at the 17th Street and London Canals had been sealed and that water was being pumped out of the city. It, however, said that the entire system was designed to contain only up to Category 3 of a fast-moving hurricane. When Katrina reached land, it was a strong…
Behar, M. (2005). Hurricanes. Popular Science: Timed Media Company. http://www.posci.com/popsci/science/22040b4511b84010vgnvcm1000004eeccdrcrd.html
Blenford, A. (2005). New Orleans: Nature's Revenge? BBC News, UK edition. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/americas/4201060.stm
Bourne, J Jr. (2005). Louisiana's Wetlands. National Geographic Magazine
Bunch, W. (2005). Why the Levee Broke. Philadelphia Daily News.
Consider recent disasters such as Superstorm Sandy or Hurricane Katrina. Why do you believe that people decide to stay instead of evacuating when told to do so? Is it because of their culture?
Is it fear of the unknown? Are there other reasons? Is it because disaster management officials and the media have “hyped up” storms in the past that amounted to nothing, decreasing the public’s fear?
As noted by Resnick (2018), no matter how dire the warnings, it is unlikely that 100% of people will ever evacuate a potential disaster area. Although the failure of people to obey demands by authorities that they leave the area are often demonized as a selfish acts, quite often the reasons for their inaction are far more complicated than might appear on the surface. As seen during the events of Hurricane Katrina, sometimes people simply do not have the logistical or financial means…
Resnick, B. (2019).Why some people never evacuate during a hurricane, according to a Psychologist. Vox. Retrieved from: https://www.vox.com/science-and- health/2017/8/25/16202296/hurricane-florence-2018-evacuation-psychology
Implementing Emergency Services
Hurricane Katrina: Disaster Response and Recovery
Disaster response Framework
Disasters always put the emergency response team to the test, and the public members are keen to rate their level of preparedness. In the 2005 hurricane season, the disaster response team was caught unprepared, and the response was rated as low. The United states disaster response team had laid some strategies to respond to the different disaster levels, including issuing emergency call numbers. However, the system was not ready for an active hurricane. The state was blamed for failing to coordinate all entities that are involved in disaster management. With the disasters of Hurricane Katrina's stature, it was important for state and local government to collaborate with the U.S military to ensure minimal damage. The emergency response system should have a way to escalate cases that need the attention of the most powerful entities in the land (Gheytanchi…
Cambridge Centre for Risk Studies & XL Catlin. (2018). Disaster Recovery Case Studies, U.S. 2005 Storms: Katrina, Rita, and Wilma. Retrieved December 14, 2020, from https://www.jbs.cam.ac.uk/wp-content/uploads/2020/08/crs-case-study-hurricane-katrina.pdf
Edwards, C. (2015, August 27). Hurricane Katrina: Remembering the Federal Failures. Retrieved December 14, 2020, from https://www.cato.org/blog/hurricane-katrina-remembering-federal-failures
Gheytanchi, A., Joseph, L., Gierlach, E., Kimpara, S., Housley, J., Franco, Z. E., & Beutler, L. E. (2007). The dirty dozen: Twelve failures of the Hurricane Katrina response and how psychology can help. American Psychologist, 62(2), 118.
Herring, C., & Rosenman, E. (2016). Engels in the Crescent City: Revisiting the Housing Question in post-Katrina New Orleans. ACME: An International Journal for Critical Geographies, 15(3), 616-638.
Howitt, A. M., & Leonard, H. B. (2006). Katrina and the core challenges of disaster response. Fletcher F. World Aff., 30, 215.
The problem with the response to Hurricane Katrina was not that a National Response Plan (NPR) was not in place or that a National Incident Management System (NIMS) did not exist. It was that the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) had been in decline for years, was suffering from significant turnover among top leaders, and the individuals who were in charge lacked the appropriate leadership experience and knowledge to oversee an effective response to a natural disaster like Hurricane Katrina (Lewis, 2009; Select Bipartisan Committee to Investigate the Preparation for and Response to Hurricane Katrina,2006). This paper will 1) describe 3 major examples regarding the leadership demonstrated in regard to preparing for and responding to Hurricane Katrina, give an assessment of each and explain why each was pivotal in the response’s outcome. It will also give an assessment of how each could have been improved. 2) It will describe…
Some never will be, due to the damage and loss sustained after the hurricane and floods. The society is New Orleans is still suffering because they have lost the order that was there, and are struggling to rebuild it, often without the support of any outside sources. It has taken too long to try to get New Orleans back to normal, and there are questions that wonder if it will ever be remotely close to the place it was before the hurricane.
In the functionalist approach, parts of society are interrelated. That certainly illustrates New Orleans after the hurricane, because the society has struggled so hard to come back together. Restaurants have reopened, Mardi Gras has continued, the French Quarter tries to lure visitors, and the businesses are coming back, some more slowly than others. Many people are determined to rebuild the city and make it better than it was…
GEOINT Role in Responding to Hurricane Katrina
The American federal government's response operation in the aftermath of the 2005 disaster, Hurricane Katrina, establishes a crucial military necessity of improving the nation's evaluation, decision-making, and response processes. Operational art, design and other similar concepts apparently offer a means for framing the operational issue. However, both the aforementioned elements are unable to effectively improve commanders' capacity of grasping the condition. Processes like those mentioned above prove inadequate when it comes to solving key questions and conveniently translating into missions for troops to execute. The process of situation evaluation commences with the examination of a map by military staff members and commands. This is where GEOINT (Geospatial Intelligence) comes in. GEOINT refers to an emergent subfield in the intelligence domain responsible for offering comprehensive information analyses, an operational environment evaluation, and a way to examine potential issues which might surface. GEOINT represents the…
David J. Macguire, Michael Batty, and Michael F. Goodchild. GIS, Spatial Analysis and Modelling. Redlands, CA: ESRI Press, 2005.
Department of Defense. Joint Publication 2-03 Geospatial Intelligence Support to Joint Operations. Washington, D.C.: United States Government Printing Office, March 2007
Department of the Army. Field Manual 6-0: Mission Command. Washington, D.C.: Department of the Army, 2003.
ESRI. "Homeland Security: GIS for Preparing and Protecting a Nation." www.esri.com/industries/federal/homelandsecurity. March 20, 2007. http://www.esri.com/industries/public_safety/homeland_security/homeland_security.html (accessed April 10, 2017).
This also seemed to follow a pattern set by the 911 disaster (prior warning signs were ignored by governing officials then as well).
The article brings to the reader's attention the problem at hand, which is that there are three main proposals being debated to prevent any further severe coastal damage in this region. All of them are very expensive and this seems to lie with the way the work will be contracted. The author (Michael Fischetti) even includes that the Army Core of Engineers is usually the group who would handle the design and the building of any safety structures (71).
Most of the information in this article has been common knowledge but can easily be referenced if one wished to verify the information contained within. It is rather disappointing that the article does not include any journal citations to make the reader's job of checking for accuracy less…
Fischetti, Michael. 2006. Protecting New Orleans. Scientific American. 2 September 2006 http://www.sciam.com
NOVA. Sept. 2005. Warnings from the ice. Transcripts. 2 September 2006 http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/transcripts/2508warnings.html
Wikipedia. 3 Sept. 2006. Hurricane Katrina. Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. 3
September 2006 http://www.wikipedia.com
HLS-355: CRITICAL THINKING FOR HOMELAND SECURITY Final Project
The fight against Hurricane Katrina in a political environment set on fighting terrorism
Improving security can be a particularly challenging mission and this makes a critical thinking technique particularly useful for a person or a community to effectively strengthen their position and legislations. One of the first things that someone dealing with the concept needs to consider is the fact that security can never be one hundred percent foolproof. Even the most advanced security systems can be defeated and caring for such a system thus entails having to be in constant alert and to attempt to improve it every minute. The better a security system is, the harder it is for a criminal to defeat it and the more successful the individuals benefiting from it are.
Many individuals have a limited understanding of the idea of security, as they only tend to…
Bullock, J., Haddow, G, & Coppola, D.P., "Introduction to Homeland Security: Principles of All-Hazards Risk Management," (Elsevier, 2012)
Kiltz, Linda, "Journal of Homeland Security and Emergency Management," Retrieved October 22, 2014, from http://www.innovative-analytics.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/DevelopingCriticalThinking.pdf
Matthews, J. "Mass Shootings: Six Steps to Survival," (eBooks2go, 10 Jan 2014)
Purpura, P. "Terrorism and Homeland Security: An Introduction with Applications," (Butterworth-Heinemann, 29 Aug 2011)
Garrett, Brandon L., and Tania Tetlow. "Criminal Justice Collapse: The Constitution after Hurricane Katrina." Duke Law Journal 56.1 (2006): 127+. Questia. 1 Mar. 2009 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5019431816.
Images of Hurricane Katrina, found online at http://images.google.com/images?hl=en&q=looting%20hurricane%20katrina&um=1&ie=UTF-8&sa=N&tab=wi,2005,retrieved 1 March 2009.
Images of Brittany Spears, found online at http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://judicial-inc.biz/81b.ri1.jpg&imgrefurl=http://thisiszionism.blogspot.com/2008/01/brittany-spears-rushed-to-hospital.html&usg=__uoZgO_FKCKQSYT3FQzen5-UUDYU=&h=317&w=405&sz=27&hl=en&start=1&um=1&tbnid=HnAV16M6q9DM:&tbnh=97&tbnw=124&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dbrittany%2Bspears%2Bhome%2Bchildren%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DG,retrieved1 March 2009.
Bloggerhead.com, found online at, retrieved 1 March 2009.
Garrett, Brandon L., and Tania Tetlow. "Criminal Justice Collapse: The Constitution after Hurricane Katrina." Duke Law Journal 56.1 (2006): 127+. Questia. 1 Mar. 2009
For instance we can take the examples of African-Americans, the events and issues show that some ethnic groups had to struggle hard to stay ahead in the social fabric of American society.
The living conditions of poor and middle segment of the society are main indicators of the health of economy and income distribution. While in developing nations the plight of the poor and even middle segments of society is well-known. Developed nation like United States have not been associated with poverty and the poor treatment of certain segments of society. Recent event have made people argue that over the years issues of poverty and unequal income distribution have hit America in a big way. These issues now can not be brushed under the carpet as the issues are being debated at all forums. People have accepted the grim fact that Income gap exists in American Society and these…
Dovring, F. Inequality: The Political Economy of Income Distribution. Praeger Publishers. New York. 1991.
Kristof. N. The Larger Shame. New York Times. Sep 6,2005 http://cygnus.lcc.edu:2051/pqdweb?did=892078491&sid=2&Fmt=3&clientId=9230&RQT=309&VName=PQD
Ryscavage, P. Sharpe. Income Inequality in America: An Analysis of Trends M.E. Sharpe. New York, 1999.
Scott, J. & Leonhardt, D. Class in America: Shadowy Lines That Still Divide; CLASS MATTERS. New York Times. May 15, 2005. http://cygnus.lcc.edu:2051/pqdweb?did=839712251&sid=8&Fmt=3&clientId=9230&RQT=309&VName=PQD
the nineteenth century saw the Mardi Gras celebration banned, but when it were restored in New Orleans in the 1820s it was a great equalizing force, allowing African-Americans -- man of them still slaves -- the freedom to drum and celebrate in ways they were unable to almost anywhere else or at any other time (Carnaval 2000). The celebrations are still a great equalizer, brining together people of all classes and backgrounds in a racous celebration of life.
Davis, J. (1997). "Mardi Gras history." Accessed 8 September 2009. http://www.eastjeffersonparish.com/culture/MADIGA/HISTOY/history.htm
Carnaval. (2000). "Mardi Gras: Myth and history." Accessed 8 September 2009. http://www.carnaval.com/cityguides/neworleans/history.htm
Hall of Festivities. "Mardi Gras." Accessed 8 September 2009. http://www.novareinna.com/festive/mardi.html
Mardi Gras New Orleans. (2009). "Mardi Gras history." Accessed 8 September 2009. http://www.mardigrasneworleans.com/history.html
Davis, J. (1997). "Mardi Gras history." Accessed 8 September 2009. http://www.eastjeffersonparish.com/culture/MARDIGRA/HISTORY/history.htm
Carnaval. (2000). "Mardi Gras: Myth and history." Accessed 8 September 2009. http://www.carnaval.com/cityguides/neworleans/history.htm
Hall of Festivities. "Mardi Gras." Accessed 8 September 2009. http://www.novareinna.com/festive/mardi.html
Mardi Gras New Orleans. (2009). "Mardi Gras history." Accessed 8 September 2009. http://www.mardigrasneworleans.com/history.html
Developing a critical eye for the media also demands culling information from multiple sources and not believing everything stated by the media. The media is not an authority; the media consults authority figures to gather sellable data.
For "They Shoot Helicopters, Don't They?"
1. Matt Welch cites general "communication breakdown" and an "information vacuum" as main culprits in the misinformation leaked about Katrina (p. 13). However, Welch places the blame squarely on reporters for not having enough skepticism of the oral sources they acquire information during a natural disaster. Rumors spread readily during a disaster also because of a breakdown in telecommunications infrastructure. What Welch refers to as a:rumor mill" seems to be the source of much of the media's coverage (p. 13).
2. The kinds of rumors and stories spread by reporters and enhanced by sensationalist media coverage suggest that various lenses are used to view reality. One of…
For children, going to school, even a new school, provided a sense of order. It also gave parents time to plan for the future. Wealthier parents were able to enroll their children in private schools. Poorer families faced a greater struggle.
In Texas, officials reported enrolling19,000 children displaced by the storm (Katrowitz and reslau, 2005). They were able to waive normal rules, such as proving residency or providing immunization records. The opportunity to start over was critical for thousands of families, including Kathy Jemison and her daughter, Sarah McClelland, 17. The night before the storm hit, they gathered their clothes, keepsakes and important documents (such as birth certificates and Social Security cards). As the storm was destroying their home, they drove 15 hours to a friend's house in San Antonio. Sarah began her senior year at San Antonio's MacArthur High School, and Kathy, who worked for a bank in New…
Abramson, David, and Richard Garfield. (April, 2006). On the Edge: Children and Families Displaced by Hurricanes Katrina and Rita Face a Looming Medical and Mental Health Crisis. New York: Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health, National Center for Disaster Preparedness.
Brown, Donal. (November 16, 2005). 1,000 Katrina Children Still Missing. Mother Jones.
Callimachi, Rukmini. (April 23, 2006). Katrina's Children Struggle With Fears. The Associated Press.
Cass, Julia. (June 13, 2006). For Many of Katrina's Young Victims, the Scars Are More Than Skin Deep. The Washington Post; A01.
It has also been noted that the communication plans and protocols that were in place had not been properly communicated to all necessary parties, such that even the preparations and infrastructure that existed for the express purpose of dealing with emergency events were not properly utilized (White House 2007). Not only were better public safety communications systems as well as interagency communications systems necessary, then, but these systems needed to be more clearly outlined and presented to the right individuals.
esponse to Noted Problems
The issues that arose during the response to Hurricane Katrina did not go unnoticed by the media, the public, or the officials involved in responding to disasters and coordinating relief efforts. Through the reactions of these officials and the legislation that was proposed and/or enacted in the wake of the hurricane, other specific communications problems that occurred during Katrina as well as more general public safety…
Moore, L. (2005). Public Safety Communications Policy: Before and After Hurricane Katrina. Accessed 7 October 2011. http://www.hsdl.org/?view&did=457862
Mountjoy, J. (2005). Broken Connections. Accessed 7 October 2011. http://www.csg.org/knowledgecenter/docs/sn0510BrokenConections.pdf
Perini, M. (2007). Public Communications: Vital Link to Maintaining the Public's Trust During Crisis. Accessed 7 October 2011. http://www.carlisle.army.mil/DIME/documents/Public%20Communications.pdf
US Congress. (2006). Protecting Infrastructure; Public Communication; Role of the Media. Accessed 7 October 2011. http://www.gpoaccess.gov/serialset/creports/pdf/sr109-322/ch20.pdf
Despite there being a "Federal Response Plan" in place, the bureaucratic machinery took a long time to activate. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), which was supposed to implement the Federal Response Plan, was hardly in a state to respond adequately to the situation. The Agency was still geared to respond primarily to a massive nuclear attack and saw its main responsibility as distributing federal loans and grants to help rebuild an area after a disaster. It would not issue direct aid to a state until it was given a specific request by the governor, and the state was unable to issue specific requests for aid because it had no one was available to assess the damage (Franklin). Federal help was so slow in arriving that a frustrated director of Dade County's Emergency Office made the famous remark, "... here the hell is the cavalry on this one?" (Quoted by…
Franklin, Daniel. "The FEMA phoenix - reform of the Federal Emergency Management Agency." Washington Monthly, July-August, 1995. September 21, 2008. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1316/is_/ai_17263136
Lerbinger, Otto. The Crisis Manager: Facing Risk and Responsibility. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1997.
Preliminary Report -- Hurricane Andrew." National Hurricane Center. Updated December 10, 1993. September 21, 2008. http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/1992andrew.html#FOOT1
Schneider, Saundra K. Flirting with Disaster: Public Management in Crisis Situations. Armonk, NY M.E. Sharpe, 1995
psychological impact of Katrina & Lusitania
Hurricane Katrina which took place in the year 2005 is said to be one of the worst storm disaster that took place in the history of the United States. It led to loss of many lives, and it was unavoidable. The winds both from Louisiana to Alabama caused the level of water to arise at about 80% of the New Orleans and neighborhoods. The tragedy left many people with worries asking how the tragedy like that could happen to threaten the lives of many Americans (Brinkley, 2006).
The sinking of Lusitania on the other hand, contributed to various impacts on America as well as, the World War One. However, the Americans were never interested in joining the war unless they had finished another two years. The Lusitania sinking also enraged many Americans as well as, hastening the people from United States' entrance into the…
Brinkley, D. (2006). The great deluge: Hurricane Katrina, New Orleans, and the Mississippi Gulf Coast. New York: Morrow.
Guterman, P. (2005). Psychological preparedness for disaster. Retrieved October 10, 2012 from http://www.academia.edu/233646/Psychological_preparedness_for_disaster
Gant, P.G., & Gantt, R. (2011). Disaster Psychology. October 10, 2012 from http://www.asse.org/professionalsafety/pastissues/057/08/042_049_F1Gan_0812.pdf .
Ballard, R.D., & Dunmore, S. (2003). Exploring the Lusitania: probing the mysteries of the sinking that changed history. New York: Warner Books.
" The lawsuit states that the "defendants knowing paid out far less than policy holders deserved to repair flooded homes and property [Officials throughout NFIP] deliberately and fraudulently used low-balling, high pressure tactics to get people to accept pennies on the dollar of what they are entitled to. (Seid, 2005)
In an article entitled "Multiple Failures Caused elief Crisis - The Breakdown of the elief Operation in New Orleans was the esult of Multiple Failures by City, State and Federal Authorities" (eynolds, 2005 BBC News) which states: There was no one cause. The failures began long before the hurricane with a gamble that a Category Four or Five would not strike New Orleans." (eynolds, 2005 BBC News) This mistake followed with an evacuation plan that was lacking and resulted in "a relief effort hampered by lack of planning, supplies and manpower, and a breakdown in communications of the most basic…
Seid, Jessica (2005) Disaster strikes, lawsuits follow -National Flood Insurance Program may pay out billions, but some may choose to head to court.
CNN Money September 15, 2005: http://money.cnn.com/2005/09/14/news/economy/katrina_lawsuit/index.htm
La Monica, Paul R. (2005) Rebuilding the Gulf, but at what cost? - Economists say Bush's reconstruction plan is necessary; some wonder if the government can afford it.
CNN Money September 16, 2005: http://money.cnn.com/2005/09/16/news/economy/katrinarebuild/index.htm?cnn=yes
While the city does have a good levee system, it failed during Katrina and many parts of the city - including much of the Lower Ninth Ward - was flooded. People lost their lives and everything they had, and the argument made by many individuals in the aftermath of Katrina was that not enough was done by the government in order to protect the people of New Orleans and to help them out after the storm had passed. Criminal activity was on the rise when the city was attempting to recover from Katrina. Looting and pillaging were common, and they were not the only issues post-Katrina survivors had to face (Springgate, et al., 2009). There were rooftop rescues and other serious concerns, along with many health and safety issues. Of course, not everything that was said about New Orleans after Katrina was true. Many of the reports of criminal activity…
GAO (2006). Status of the health care system in New Orleans. United States Government Accountability Office. Washington, DC 205-48.
Harmon, K. (2010). How does a heat wave affect the human body? Scientific American.
Springgate, BF, Allen, C, Jones, C, Lovera, S, Meyers, D, Campbell, L, Palinkas, LA, & Wells, KB. (2009). Rapid community participatory assessment of health care in post-storm New Orleans. American Journal of Preventative Medicine, 37: 6S1.
Guidance for the safe entry, safe clean up procedures, appropriate PPE for all recovery workers, and a hazard assessment for the most critical items or operations that can cause acute or chronic health effects or disease.
Recovery work in disaster areas such as those hit by Hurricane Katrina can pose a lot of problems. The workers here have to be aware of various possible dangers that range from live wires o tripping over the debris to stray animals biting them. Carefully evaluating the possible dangers can help us control and prevent them
Guidance for the safe entry
My first step would be to evaluate the work site in order to identify whether any of the following hazards are present: electrocution, material that we may fall over or planks or fallen glass, for instance, that are dislodged; I would check the noise rate; whether there are cut / laceration hazards (such…
U.S. Department of Labor Occupational Safety & Health Administration (OSHA) General Recommendations for Working in All Impacted Areas
Hurricane Andrew and Katrina, hurricanes are never a good thing and are always a logistical nightmare. However, those two hurricanes stand out among many others as the death and destruction they rendered was off the charts. Looters and the "strangers" mentioned in the assignment parameters tend to be common as the degenerates of society always take advantage of such calamities. However, some strangers are simply just looking for loved ones. However, people coming into the area other than trained and well-equipped emergency personnel are the last thing a hurricane zone needs. This and other questions will be addressed in this report. While any hurricane response strategy is going to be controlled chaos, there are some best practices that need to be employed.
One plan that needs to be implemented right off the top is a cordoning off of the worst areas, especially those that are impassable, so as to…
Dao, J. (2005, September 1). New Orleans Is Awaiting Deliverance. The New York
Times. Retrieved July 28, 2014, from http://www.nytimes.com/2005/09/02/
Fussell, E. (2010, January 1). Race, socioeconomic status, and return migration to New
The Merriam-ebster dictionary defines meditation, in basic terms, as "a discourse intended to express its author's reflections or to guide others in contemplation." In an interview with Jonathan Fink, Trethewey reveals that her text is aimed at recollecting people's historical and collective memory (Hall 85). This is the only sure way to deal with the issue of history-erasure, and have a more complete version. The author's aim, therefore, is to "reclaim and to get as many of those erased stories back into the larger narrative" (Hall 85).
This section's main focus is showing the degree of importance attached to commercialized activities, at the expense of the environment, and people's safety. However, other points of concern are: the state's tendency to forget about the victims of such catastrophes, the change in the social aspect of people's lives after Hurricane Katrina, and the large extent of erasure facing such historical…
Hall, Joan W., ed. Conversations with Natasha Trethewey. New York: Harper Collins, 2014. Print.
Trethewey, Natasha. Beyond Katrina: A Meditation on the Mississippi Gulf Coast. Athens: University of Georgia, 2010. Print.
US Disaster Preparation and Lack of with Regards to the Hurricanes and US Administration
The health policy relating to U.S. disaster preparation or lack thereof with respect to hurricanes is one that must include a better system of communication between the U.S. disaster response teams and the hospitals in the affected regions. As Hurricane Katrina showed, the U.S. was not prepared to handle the level of response needed in the wake of the catastrophe the hurricane produced. The problems with the response to Hurricane Katrina were numerous: there was no National Response Plan (NPR) in place and there was no National Incident Management System (NIMS) in existence. Additionally, the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) was virtually ineffective: it had been in decline for years, was suffering from significant turnover among top leaders, and the individuals who were in charge lacked the appropriate leadership experience and knowledge to oversee an…
catastrophic events can impact hospital risk financing, the purchasing of new physical property and insurance. Catastrophes can range from terrorist acts like 9/11 to natural disasters like Hurricane Katrina to biological endemics/outbreaks that shut down entire cities for days as medical teams race to erect quarantines in order to stop the spread. Each catastrophe has its own unique fall-out and impact. Terrorist attacks call for higher alert by law enforcement authorities and demand more scrutiny and optimum records keeping by hospitals, for safety's sake. Natural disasters call for optimum coordination among the various impacted medical facilities so that the best and highest quality care can be delivered in a collaborative fashion to those in need who are detrimentally affected. And biological outbreaks can be threatening to hospitals especially as they are in the business of treating patients who might have come into contact with a deadly illness and thus have…
Epstein, A. (2014). Financing Risk. JPUB. Retrieved from http://samples.jbpub.com/9781449645656/45656_CH05_Kavaler.pdf
Gould, N. (2015). Understanding the vulnerability of hospitals to natural disasters.
IRMI. Retrieved from https://www.irmi.com/articles/expert-commentary/understanding-the-vulnerability-of-hospitals-to-natural-disasters
RMS. (2015). Catastrophe, injury and insurance. Retrieved from http://static.rms.com/email/documents/liferisks/reports/catastrophe-injury-and-insurance.pdf
Hurricane esponse Issues
The purpose of this essay is to highlight and describe the various details that are inherent within a disaster. This essay will focus on a recent hurricane event that demands the attention of the Emergency Operations Center (EOC) and includes the necessary actions by the Incident Commander (IC). The current status of the problem is post hurricane and extra medical supplies are needed. Along with this problem lies the issue of drinking water, food and temporary shelter. There is also continuous rain falling as floods are threatening the well being of both the residents of this area and the rescue effort itself.
Prioritizing during emergency responses is a very necessary thing to do in order to survive these troubling situations. Leadership is necessary in these cases to provide guidance and a sense of faith and hope in times of peril and danger. In hurricane response situations,…
Bucci, I., Inserra, D., Lesser, J., Mayer, M.A., Slattery, B., Spencer, J., & Tubb, K. (2013). After Hurricane Sandy: Time To Learn And Implement The Lessons In Preparedness, Response, And Resilience. The Heritage Foundation Emergency Preparedness Working Group, (144).
Wolshon, B., Urbina, E., Wilmot, C., & Levitan, M. (2005). Review of policies and practices for hurricane evacuation. I: Transportation planning, preparedness, and response. Natural hazards review, 6(3), 129-142.
Hurricanes are frequent in certain parts of the United States like Florida. The most prevalent toxin that can wreak havoc after a hurricane is asbestos. "Asbestos is a naturally-occurring mineral that was used extensively up until its dangers became truly evident in the last quarter century. It was used in nearly all aspects of home and building construction because of its fire-retardant and insulation qualities" ("Asbestos emoval after a Hurricane -- Safe handling of asbestos," 2016). While Asbestos does not present an immediate danger when left undisturbed, after a hurricane, potential flooding could release the particles into the air through structural damage of buildings, floors, and pipes lined with asbestos. When released into the air, the particles become 'friable' and can affect humans in a deadly way through diseases of the lung like mesothelioma.
The exposure limit is 0.1 fiber/cm3TWA 1.0 fiber/cm3 Excursion Limit (30 minutes). The target organs are…
Asbestos Removal after a Hurricane -- Safe handling of asbestos. (2016). Mesothelioma.com. Retrieved 22 April 2016, from http://www.mesothelioma.com/asbestos-exposure/handling/hurricanes.htm
CDC, (2016). CDC - NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards -Asbestos.Cdc.gov. Retrieved 22 April 2016, from http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/npg/npgd0041.html
Hurricane Katrina and the Plan Efforts to educe elated Disaster Impacts in Future
The hurricane Katrina is one of the deadliest hurricanes to occur in the United States. The hurricane hit Louisiana, Florida, and New Orleans amongst other places. It led to losses, evacuation of people, loss of lives and many businesses came to stand still. New Orleans had flood preparedness systems, which did not help, and floods persisted for weeks. The tragedy was contributed to by the lack of risk preparedness systems. Scientists have estimated lower storm surges and small coverage of wetlands in the 20th century. The winds, surges, and wetlands help to weaken the powerful winds. The areas are still vulnerable to hurricanes and storms in the future due to the geographic location. New Orleans city is also sinking geologically rapidly. Lessons learned from the hurricane Katrina should be used for disaster preparedness.
Department Of Homeland Security Appropriations. (2008). New York: DIANE Publishing.
Daniels, R.D. (2006). On Risk And Disaster Lessons From Hurricane Katrina. New York: University of Pennslyvania.
Huddow, G.J. (2010). Introduction To Emergency Management. Atlanta: Butterworth-Heinemann.
Jenkins, O. (2009). National Preparedness. New York: DIANE Publishing.
Emergency Management: Hurricane Katrina and Lessons Learned
In late August, 2005, Hurricane Katrina became the 11th named storm of the Atlantic hurricane season and was its most deadly and destructive. The federal and state governments' responses to this natural disaster have been heavily criticized in the mainstream media as well as by the hundreds of thousands of victims of this disaster in the years that followed. Although it is far too late for the victims of Hurricane Katrina, there were some valuable lessons learned from the disaster that have been used to help formulate improved responses in the future. This paper provides a review of the relevant peer-reviewed and scholarly literature concerning the emergency management of Hurricane Katrina, followed by an assessment of the various lessons that were learned. A summary of the research and important findings concerning these lesson learned are provided in the conclusion.
eview and Discussion
Birkland, T.A. (2006). Lessons of disaster: Policy change after catastrophic events. Washington,
DC: Georgetown University Press.
Bitto, A. (2007, January-February). Say what? Who? Me? Right here in the trenches?
Collaborate on what? Seeking common ground in regional all-hazards preparedness training. Journal of Environmental Health, 69(6), 28-31.
As per IC Sec. 1033(h), the tax rules for the replacement of those properties destroyed or converted in such cases are eased and the overall replacement period extended as well. "Some rules were also revised like the 'ev. ule 95-22' which considers the funds received for the primary residence as well as scheduled property such as jewelry, pieces of art, coins, etc. which had been insured, as funds for a single item of property." (IS, Tax Law Changes elated to Hurricanes Katrina, ita and Wilma) These funds were to be considered as a "common pool" of proceeds from which the gains realized by the taxpayer could be to the extent of the amount exceeding the expenses after meeting a suitable replacement property. This revised rule also clarifies that the replacement property could refer to the residence being replaced or any scheduled private property "in any proportion." (Kess, Hurricane Katrina tax…
Agnew, Christine, L. Come Hell and high water: Can the tax code solve the post-
Katrina insurance crisis?
Brown, D.M. Hurricane Katrina: The First Seven Days of America's Worst Natural
Disaster. Kessinger Publishing. 2005.
Planning Efforts to educe Future Disaster Impacts
This paper looks at options for programs to be put in place before to a disaster to avoid major and often poorly-managed expenditures after a catastrophe and to offer suitable protection against the risk of those large losses which do occur. It is important for the government to provide programs that enlightens the citizens on how to deal with the hazards that come with hurricanes. Natural hazards have taken place in America and they have not been well attended to. The response in the Haiti earthquake showed some weakness in response. Hurricane Katrina should have given Americans a lesson on how to prevent major destructions in case of a similar scenario.
Katrina was a hurricane that hit the Atlantic in 2005 and was known to be the most dangerous hurricane in history of America. Over 1,836 people died as a result of…
Mancuso, Louis C.; Alijani, Ghasem S.; Kwun, Obyung. (2011). The effects of the BP oil spill and hurricane Katrina in South Louisiana. Entrepreneurial Executive,
Mckenzie, Russell; Levendis, John; (2010). Flood Hazards and Urban Housing Markets: The effects of Katrina on New Orleans. Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, pp. 62-76.
LaJoie, Andrew Scott; Sprang, Ginny; McKinney, William Paul.(2010). Long-term effects of Hurricane Katrina on psychological well being of evacuees. Disasters, p1031-1044, 14p,
Shaughnessy, Timothy M.; White, Mary L.; Brendler, Michael D.; (2010). The Income Distribution effect of Natural Disasters: An Analysis of Hurricane Katrina. Journal of Regional Analysis and Policy, pp. 84-95
There were incidences of the army having supplies but no requests came in for the supplies from FEMA which was supposed to be initiating that.
The lack of the CIA activation also meant there was no unified command on the ground hence the delay of the arrival of the active duty-federal troops in New Orleans. Even though there were in excess of 50,000 troops sent with resources from over 49 states, the operations did not proceed efficiently due to lack of the command from federal Northern Command, which was overseeing the large-scale deployments and operations of the active-duty military (Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs, 2006:Pp11).
3. Politics and decision making process
In the event of any disaster, be it natural or an act of terrorism, there is always an attempt to politicize the process of making decisions particularly relating to the search and rescue and general response…
Department of Homeland Security, (2004). Catastrophic Incidence Annex. National Response
Plan. Pp1. Retrieved October 2, 2012 from http://www.uscg.mil/hq/cg5/cg534/nsarc/Catastrophic_Incident_Annex.pdf
Homeland Security, (2005). Catastrophic Incident Supplement to the National Response
Plan. Retrieved October 2, 2012 from http://publicintelligence.net/catastrophic-incident-supplement-to-the-national-response-plan/
Personal freedoms and choice to say is all well and good, but forced evacuations should have been done and the parking lots full of empty buses prove that this can and should have been done had anyone had the temerity to do it. The state of Louisiana and the city of New Orleans should fully implement the NF/NP frameworks so as to prepare for the next storm, which will come.
One issue that predates 9/11 and has gotten both better and worse since then is airport security. Some of the screening tactics and procedures engaged in by the TSA are reassuring but some of them are head-scratching. When grandmothers and infant children are being poked and prodded for bombs or weapons, that is lunacy. Israel is widely condemned for their unapologetic racial profiling, but they simply point to two facts. The first is that most airplane-oriented terrorists are…
Barbera, J.A., DeAtley, C., & Macintyre, a.G. (1995). Medical aspects of urban search and rescue. Fire Engineering, 14888-92.
Currah, P., & Mulqueen, T. (2011). Securitizing Gender: Identity, Biometrics, and Transgender Bodies at the Airport. Social Research, 78(2), 557-582.
Edmonson, J.W., Keeton, M., & Vernon, M. (1995). Rescue command. Fire Engineering, 14848.
Fagnoni, C.M. (2006). Hurricanes Katrina and Rita: Coordination between FEMA and the Red Cross Should Be Improved for the 2006 Hurricane Season: GAO-06-
In the year 2005, United States experience one of the biggest, deadliest and costly hurricanes of that period. The hurricane was named Hurricane Katrina; it cost loss of lives, property and flooding across different states. The emergency situation had to be dealt with immediately and strategies to do so had to be all rounded. This is because those affected were either directly involved or witnessed the occurrence. This discussion is aimed and analyzing the victims of the emergency following two approaches that is humanistic and behavioral while comparing and contrasting their effectiveness.
How do therapists using each of these perspectives view the client and client's problem?
Behavioral approach is concerned with theoretical and measurable aspects of human behavior. Human behavior can either be learnt or unlearnt depending on whether they are acceptable on a social and cultural basis. Humanistic approach in the other hand is concerned with individual responses…
Cervone, D., & Pervin, L.A. (2010). Personality: Theory and research. Hoboken;NJ: . Wiley.
Plante, T.G. (2011). Contemporary clinical psychology. Hoboken, NJ:: Wiley.
Sue, D., & Sue, D.M. (2008). Foundations of counseling and psychotherapy: Evidence-based practices for a diverse society. Hoboken, N.J:: John Wiley & Sons.
" (Chennameni, 2006) it is reported that this "incessant interaction and conversion in turn results in joint creation of knowledge by individuals and organizations." (Chennameni, 2006) Organizations are reported to play a key role in activating the "explicit and tacit dimensions of knowledge and in providing a forum for the knowledge spiral through four modes of knowledge creation" (Chennameni, 2006) Those four modes are stated to include: (1) socialization; (2) externalization; (3) combination; and (4) internalization. (Chennameni, 2006)
Socialization speaks of the exchanging of "tacit knowledge among members through the social interactions and shared experiences." (Chennameni, 2006) Externalization refers to the translation of tacit knowledge into from explicit knowledge." (Chennameni, 2006) it is reported that each of the modes of conversion are both "interdependent and tangled." (Chennameni, 2006)
B. Diffusion of Innovation
ogers Diffusion of Innovations explains change via Social Networks. The Diffusion of innovations theory explains the process of…
Chennamaneni, a. (2006) Determinants of Knowledge Sharing Behaviors: Developing and Testing an Integrated Theoretical Model. The University of Texas at Arlington. Dec 2006. Retrieved from: http://dspace.uta.edu/bitstream/handle/10106/305/uta-etd-1428.pdf?sequence=1
Darnton, a. (2008) Reference Report: An overview of behavior change models and their uses. GSR Behavior Change Knowledge Review. Jul 2008. Retrieved from: http://www.civilservice.gov.uk/wp-content/uploads/2011/09/Behaviour_change_reference_report_tcm6-9697.pdf
O'Malley, P. (2006) Strategic Communications Planning. A Presentation to IABC Ottawa. Retrieved from: http://www.omalco.com/iabc.htm
Planned Behaviour: A Meta-Analysis," (22:3),2003.
Here, criminal law is of course preemptive in all jurisdictions, yet enforcement is restricted to agencies dedicated to law enforcement investigation and apprehension of individuals.
In spite of billions of dollars spent on homeland security, in the aftermath of Katrina pediatric-specific preparations continue to lag behind. Lack of disaster readiness for hospitalized children and for those undergoing reunification process sheds light on the disjuncture of public administration duty to rescue of minors; regardless of state intervention as 'duty' in all other areas of their lives (i.e. foster care). Children's advocates argue that,
"federal and state policy makers should dedicate research funding for the development of redundant strategies for implementation in states to assure timely reunification of infants, toddlers, and children and with their correct parents and caregivers" (Dolan and Krug, 64).
Articulation of those terms and the implications of not doing so are inflected in a broader discussion that is…
Dolan, M.A. And Krug, S.E. Pediatric Disaster Preparedness in the Wake of Katrina: Lessons to be Learned. Clinical Pediatric Emergency Medicine. Elsvier, 2006, 59-66.
Handfield, R. In the Wake of Hurricane Katrina: Lessons Learned through the Lens of Supply Chain Disruptions - Part 1. Supply Chain Management 08 Sept 2005.
Implementation of the Post-Katrina Emergency Management Reform Act And Other Organizational Changes. Department of Homeland Security (DHS), 2006. Web.
Laws and Regulations. Department of Homeland Security (DHS), 2010. Web.
In February of 2006 changes to the structure of FEMA were proposed. According to an article found in the Washington Post, the proposed changes would create a fulltime response force of 1,500 and expanding 10 regional offices (Hsu). The changes to the Agency bring into question whether or not the agency should remain a response agency with a small workforce that has the primary responsibility of processing disaster claims and providing assistance in times of emergency or should FEMA be expanded to an agency that has the capacity to take charge whenever it is required.
According to the article the proposed changes which also include improving vendor databases, adding reconnaissance teams, and strengthening claims management are only the beginning of what needs to be changed to ensure that the agency operates more efficiently (Hsu). The article also asserts that a cultural change must occur as it relates to the way…
Brown, Sharon P., Sandra L. Mason, and Richard B. Tiller. "The Effect of Hurricane Katrina on Employment and Unemployment: After BLS and Its State Partners Made Critical Modifications to Estimation Procedures, Local Area Data Show That Hurricane Katrina Depressed Employment Levels Sharply in Louisiana and Mississippi;" the Initial Effect on Unemployment, Though Also Strong, Was Temporary." Monthly Labor Review 129.8 (2006): 52+.
Clayton, Richard L., and James R. Spletzer. "Worker Mobility before and after Hurricane Katrina: A Substantial Number of Workers Were Displaced from the New Orleans Metropolitan Statistical Area after Hurricane Katrina; Those Who Quickly Found Jobs in Texas Experienced a Substantial Decline in Their Short-Term Earnings." Monthly Labor Review 129.8 (2006): 11+.
Hsu Spencer S. Experts Question Proposed FEMA Changes
Washington Post. Wednesday, February 15, 2006; Page A04
S. history such as Hurricane Andrew and the Northridge earthquake. Post-9/11 infrastructure protection investments have focused on increasing the security of infrastructure, not in increasing its resilience." (p. 258)
Certainly, these breakdowns are an indication that many of the interagency strategies brought to bear in the discussion on public administration had not been executed effectively, especially those intended to coalesce under the roof of the Department of Homeland Security. A quick review of the disaster management failures of Katrina are appropriate here. Accordingly, for five days after the landfall and passage of Hurricane Katrina, hordes of people stranded in New Orleans continued to wait for some indication that the federal government would soon be provided relief. Stranded and contained in horrific conditions in the city's football arena, the Superdome, which had been converted to a makeshift evacuation shelter with woefully insufficient supplies and accommodations for the tens of thousands who…
Agnos, a. (1998). Single Family Loan Production and Servicing. U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. (USDHUD).
Associated Press (AP). (2005). FEMA knew Katrina response was 'broken,' MSNBC.
Brown, a.D. (2004). Authoritative Sensemaking in a Public Inquiry Report, Organization Studies, 25(1), 95-112.
Brown N., Vega S., Dupree a., Hartong R. (2010). DHS' Progress in Federal Incident Management Planning, Department of Homeland Security Office of Inspector General
This problem was compounded by the fact that many of the people that stayed behind were low-income, had many children, or were elderly. Some also stayed because they could not take their pets and would not leave them behind. Many of these disadvantaged people needed the help much more rapidly than they got it, especially if they were elderly and infirm, or if they had young children that needed to be taken care of. They needed food, water, diapers, etc., and this was part of what caused the looting in some areas. While some people looted simply because they could, others broke into businesses and stole water, diapers, and non-perishable food - things that they should have been able to get for free, much sooner than the state actually provided it. The state government had an obligation to take care of its own people, and it appeared that this was…
ole of Media in Disasters
The ole of Media in Affecting Public Perception of Hurricane Katrina 'Victims'
esearch conducted in the 1950s and 1960s has effectively demonstrated that the general public tends to respond to both local and national disasters in an orderly and compassionate way marked specifically by the desire of individuals to help those in need. This viewpoint contrasts sharply with the ways in which disasters, and those affected by disaster, are portrayed by the media. Tierney and colleagues' (2006) article "Metaphors Matter: Disaster Myths, Media Frames, and their Consequences in Hurricane Katrina" illustrates that the public draws much of its information about ongoing disasters from media outlets which both create and perpetuate a series of negative myths which do nothing to alleviate the suffering of those directly impacted by disaster. Hurricane Katrina serves as a strong example of the manner in which a media framework can directly…
Tierney, K., Bevc, C, & Kuligowski, E. (2006, Jan.). Metaphors matter: Disaster myths, media frames, and their consequences in Hurricane Katrina. The ANNALS of the American
Academy of Political and Social Science, 604(1): 57-81. doi:10.1177/0002716205285589
hat could not be predicted was that the city's infrastructure would so miserably fail the people of New Orleans.
As images of looting and stranded citizens filled the airways, taken from news helicopters, the city's police force had virtually abandoned their posts, and some were accused of participating in the looting that followed the disaster there was something noticeably missing in the images; there were no police rescues, no Red Cross, no fire department rescue teams and no National Guard. Journalist John McQuaid described it this way:
But Katrina was much more than a natural event; human hands played a role in the damage and in the storm's equally disastrous aftermath. Katrina exposed deep institutional flaws in the nation's emergency response, supposedly upgraded following the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. It easily overwhelmed the federal levee system, built by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, that protected New Orleans…
Andrews, Joseph L. "In Katrina's Wake: Healthcare Crises in New Orleans Dr. Joseph L. "Joel" Andrews Spent Two Weeks in the New Orleans Area in December 2005 as a Physician Volunteer for the American Red Cross Hurricane Katrina Disaster Relief Programs. Three Months after the Hurricane Had Hit, He Witnessed Firsthand the Storm's Devastating Effects on Residents in the City's Various Communities." The Humanist Nov.-Dec. 2006: 32+. Questia. 14 Dec. 2007
Since September 11, 2001, the United States has made a significant progress guiding against terrorist attacks using terrorism preparedness to forestall further terrorism attacks in the United States. Terrorism preparedness exercise is a broad range of response and preparedness program to support communities that might be affected by the terrorist attack. (National Commission on Terrorist Attacks, 2004).
Typically, the U.S. government has implemented a range of program for terrorism preparedness and one of the policies employed is the use of wide range of intelligence to investigate the imminent terrorism that might have occurred in the United States. Typically, the U.S. intelligence has collaborated with other intelligences globally to prevent act of terrorism in the United States. For example, the CIA (Central Intelligence Agency) has collaborated with Pakistan intelligence to locate the hideout of Ben Laden and killed him.
Moreover, the United States has implemented various military exercises for…
National Commission on Terrorist Attacks. (2004). 9-11 Commission Report. USA.
Stenner, R.D. Kirk, J.L. Stanton, J.R. (2006).National Incident Management System (NIMS) Standards Review Panel Workshop Summary Report. U.S. Department of Energy.
Department of Homeland Security. (2012).National Response Plan. USA.