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From an individualistic perspective, hybrid cars may not make a great difference for consumers wishing to buy them to save money on gas. However, collectively hybrid cars can help reduce environmental problems. Government must take steps to incentivize the buying of hybrid cars to make them 'worth it' to consumers.
hat are hybrid cars?
Hybrid cars are called 'hybrids' because they contain two engines. A hybrid car "features a small fuel-efficient gas engine combined with an electric motor that assists the engine when accelerating. The electric motor is powered by batteries that recharge automatically while you drive" ("Hybrid cars," Earth Easy, 2012). The reason that hybrids use two engine models is that they are designed to balance both the strengths and the weaknesses of gas and electric motors. Electric motors turn off completely and do not waste energy during idle time. They also burn less gas at lower…
"2012 hybrid cars: Has interest really declined?" Hybrid Cars. 18 Jan 2012. [19 May 2012]
Dunn, P. "Hybrid cars: Pros and cons." Phys.org. 2006. [19 May 2012]
Hybrid Cars -- Persuasive Speech
What do you think of living in a planet that has little pollution? How about the idea of passing on a green planet to your kids and grand kids? Sounds impossible? Well, its not if each of us start making a small contribution towards reducing the emission of green house gases to make our planet a safer and greener place to live.
One of the ways to make our planet more liveable is to use a hybrid car over a regular one and today, we will focus on the benefits of using such a car that runs on alternate forms of energy like electric and ethanol. Its efficiency has encouraged many organizations to adopt it and also has given way to more research in this field.
Hybrid cars are great for the environment and the people
Hybrid cars can lower Carbon Dioxide and the resultant…
4. Light-weight high pressure accumulators are expected to increase mileage and reduce emissions (No Author, 2010).
Hybrid cars are the environment's best friend because they reduce carbon dioxide emissions - one of the main contributors for environmental pollution and the resulting climate change. When the emissions are reduced, the personal use will increase thereby leading to a higher quality of life (Graham-Rowe, Gardner, Abraham, Skippon, Dittmar, Hutchins & Stannard, Jan 2012). Another advantage with the use of hybrid cars is the increased mileage that comes with it. According to Lamb (2010), the U.S. cars are expected to reach 60 mpg by 2035. This is quantum leap from where we are today and is likely to reduce the use of electric and other fuels as well. The benefits of these hybrid cars are spreading to other countries other than the U.S. And these countries are looking to understand how much their carbon dioxide emissions
16) Broader estimates, including all companies are more conservative, yet it is clear that the target market potential is exponential, and marketing will likely broaden its scope to other target markets in the near future.
Possible risks to the industry are limited by quality and potential market saturation, when demand levels off with supply, as it will likely in the near future. As has been stated previously, it seems the shakier the economy seems the more likely people are to invest in hybrid technology to offset other costs. Though it is clear that like all other durable goods, when people are satisfied, except for the exclusion of those who out of hand buy a new car every 3 years, they will likely retain their vehicle longer and therefore not seek another purchase once their immediate needs have been met. The overall industry has answered this call by marketing quality and…
Bartell, M.A. (2007) "Hybrid vs. Gas: Comparison of Costs and Benefits" Carseek.com Retrieved September 13, 2007 at http://www.carseek.com/articles/hybrid-vs.-gas.html
Carr-Ruffino, N., & Acheson, J. (2007, July/August). The Hybrid Phenomenon: High Gas Prices and Shifting Consumer Sentiment Point to Bright Prospects for Hybrid Cars. The Futurist, 41, 16.
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Dooley, E.E. (2005). The 2005 North American International Auto Show in Detroit Saw the Introduction of a Number of Highly Efficient Cars, Including Several New Gas-Electric Hybrid Models. Environmental Health Perspectives, 113(4), 233.
Europe's hybrid and electric passenger vehicles. (2009, July 27). The Auto Channel.
Retrieved August 5, 2009 at http://www.theautochannel.com/news/2009/07/28/472014.html
Honda's cumulative world-wide hybrid sales pass 300,000 in January 2009. (2009, February 19).
Green Car Congress. Retrieved August 5, 2009 at http://www.greencarcongress.com/2009/02/hondas-cumulati.html
Kanter, James. (2009, March 26) Coke Tests a Hybrid Truck in Europe. Retrieved August 5,
2009 at http://greeninc.blogs.nytimes.com/2009/03/26/coke-tests-a-hybrid-truck-in-europe/
McCurry, Justin. (2009, July 19). Toyota picks UK to make new Auris hybrid car.
The Guardian. Retrieved August 5, 2009 at http://www.guardian.co.uk/business/2009/jul/17/toyota-hybrid-car-lord-mandelson
Plug-in hybrid vehicles. (2009). Toyota. Retrieved August 5, 2009 at http://www.toyota.eu/green_technologies/Pages/Plugin_hybrid_vehicles.aspx
Smart, Richard. (2009, August 5). Battle for green car market begins. Xinhyanet.com. Retrieved August 4, 2009 at http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2009-08/05/content_11831298.htm
New study: Hybrid cars on the rise, especially in Europe. (2008, November 17). Hybrid cars.
Retrieved August 5, 2009 at http://www.hybridcars.com/news/new-study-hybrid-cars-rise-especially-europe-25267.html
Toyota leases 150 plug-in vehicles in Europe and Obama plugs his Ford hybrid. (2009, June 19).
Europe's hybrid and electric passenger vehicles. (2009, July 27). The Auto Channel.
Retrieved August 5, 2009 at http://www.theautochannel.com/news/2009/07/28/472014.html
Honda's cumulative world-wide hybrid sales pass 300,000 in January 2009. (2009, February 19).
Green Car Congress. Retrieved August 5, 2009 at http://www.greencarcongress.com/2009/02/hondas-cumulati.html
Literature that is associated with actual vehicles is often provided by designers and manufacturers of such vehicles as they attempt to sell their significant economic outlay to consumers. The footage in the film, ho Killed the Electric Car? showing individuals using such technology and even president George . Bush attempting, though rather stiltedly, to fill the tank of an alternative fuel vehicle are examples of marketing. It is difficult to actually find documented research on alternative fuel cars, that is conducted by non-vested research parties.
Current technology briefs with regard to the most efficient combustion engines stress their new and improving efficiency over previous models. Yet, these are still combustion engines and they still directly burn fuel.
A lean-burn engines will undoubtedly allow major improvements in efficiency. Leanburn engines are those that operate at high air-to-fuel ratios. The gasoline direct-injection engine (GDI), is an example.... ith its higher ratio of…
Cudahy, Brian J. Cash, Tokens, and Transfers: A History of Urban Mass Transit in North America. New York: Fordham University Press, 1990.
Eaves, Hannah "All About EV: A conversation with the makers of Who Killed the Electric Car?" June 27, 2006 at http://www.grist.org/advice/books/2006/06/27/eaves/
Motavalli, Jim. "The Ties That Blind: Big Oil Goes Hunting for Electric Cars in California." E. Mar.-Apr. 1997: 36.
Paige, Sean. "Alternative-Fuel Effort Left Running on Fumes at DOE." Insight on the News 10 June 2002: 8.
Thackery, John. "ybrid autos REV up: but will SUV-addicted buyers opt for an environmentally friendly car that saves on gas but commands a premium price?" Electronic Business: Automotive Electronics. Oct 2002 v28 i10 pp. 64(5)
Even before reading the article, "ybrid autos REV up" an informed consumer of the media should know that quite often automobile and electronics magazines are highly favorable of the industries they chronicle. The industry is essentially their 'bread and butter' of such magazines -- i.e. without cars, fancy car gadgets, and car aficiandos, there would be no audiences for such segmented magazines. The credentials of John Thackery, the article's author, are not immediately obvious, but the article's title "ybrid autos REV up: but will SUV-addicted buyers opt for an environmentally friendly car that saves on gas but commands a premium price?" suggests a highly positive slant is being given to the vehicles, for…
However, the article does provide credible statistical evidence to suggest the car's popularity, noting "Toyota has sold a total of 100,000 of all types of HEVs worldwide in the last five years and boasts that it will crank out 300,000 HEVs annually by 2005, as more car buyers show a preference for lower emissions and better mileage." As further testimony to the likely future popularity of the cars it also notes as well that in addition to Toyota, Honda and Nissan have also begun to offer hybrid cars. Other automotive manufacturers plan to introduce electric cars in the next few years, including Ford, General Motors and Daimler Chrysler. All of these manufactures, incidentally, have linked advertisements to this article on the World Wide Web.
The intended audience of this article, however, is clearly more interested in the car's purported power than environmental impact. Although the article does quote a director of alternative power technologies at J.D. Power & Associates, Westlake Village, who notes "the total HEV industry could be as large as one-half-million units by 2007," instead the author is more keen to emphasizes that forward-thinking car makers are "building a new breed of HEVs with smaller sticker premiums and more modest emission-reduction and mileage-enhancement targets." Thackery gently mocks the Toyota Prius, for example, stating that the car "sells on its appeal as a statement of the driver's environmental piety," but the more revved up HEVs, of the future, which are incidentally are more likely to be made by American car manufacturers, "are more attuned to market realities in a country where gas guzzling is an accepted addiction. 'If you do the math, you can see that we can actually save significantly more fuel converting a 20-mpg vehicle into a hybrid than a 30-mpg vehicle, especially if it's a vehicle that sells in high volumes, not a niche vehicle,'" one GM executive is quoted as saying, in defense of GM's future, more modest emissions standards for its electronic vehicles, in contrast to the Toyota Prius.
Thus, the article overall presents solid and credible information about how hybrid cars work, and their burgeoning popularity. But this American car and electronic niche magazine, aimed at car and gadget aficionados rather than the average cost-conscious middle class American car consumer may be too quick to sneer at the petite and cost-conscious hybrids such as the Prius, and too quick to endorse the more mildly conservationist and conserving 'mild-HEVs' that American manufactures plan to make in the future. Although its information its solid, its tone must be regarded with a pinch of proverbial (electrically charged) salt.
That means the car does not have to be recharged after going only short distances. The electric motor can also help recharge the batteries if necessary. The gasoline engine recharges the bank of batteries, and the car just keeps going. Most hybrids can get between 55 and 60 mpg on the highway, although some owners do report less.
Most of the cars also use a generator that actually produces the electric power that drives the electric motor, and most use conventional transmissions, although the Toyota Prius uses a new, radically different transmission. The cars also combine a gasoline gas tank with a bank of batteries to power both engines. This is called a "parallel hybrid." Another type of hybrid engine, the "series hybrid" uses the gasoline engine to power a generator that creates the power for the electric engine or can recharge the batteries (Nice).
There's another advantage to hybrid…
Bamber, Taylor. "All about the Hybrid Car." Searchwarp.com. 2005. 30 Sept. 2005. http://searchwarp.com/swa14037.htm
Brotman, Steve. "Hybrid Cars." University of Florida. 2005. 30 Sept. 2005. http://plaza.ufl.edu/triplest/
Nice, Karim. "How Hybrid Cars Work." HowStuffWorks.com. 2005. 30 Sept. 2005. http://www.howstuffworks.com/hybrid-car.htm
Fuel consumption advantage is an important consideration in an age where fuel prices are skyrocketing, as well as in the current political climate. The hybrid car therefore provides the driver not only with the advantage of power when needed, but also with the vitally important fuel consumption advantage that is so prominent in electric cars.
Another advantage of hybrid cars is maintenance. The fact that two different power sources are used on an as-needed basis reduces the wear and tear on both the motors. This results in lower maintenance time and costs. Another element of lower maintenance is the brakes. Regenerative braking is the result of both the electric motor and the regular brakes combining to slow down the car. The ultimate result is less wear on the brakes. The brakes are also connected to the batteries, which mean that they charge while slowing down the car. The tires are…
Dunn, Philip. Hybrid Cars - Pros and Cons. PhysOrg.com, 2006. http://www.physorg.com/news10031.html
Eggert, Mike. Hybrid Cars: An Introduction. 2007. http://www.nicedeals.co.uk/blog/hybrid-cars/hybrid-cars-an-introduction/
Koster, James. What are the advantages of hybrid cars? Solar Energy News, 2006. http://www.solarenergynews.info/hybridcars/hybrid-advantages.htm
Hybrid vs. Gas Powered Cars
Currently, global warming and a shrinking natural resource base are two of the greatest headaches for governments and regulators alike the world over. The price of gas in the U.S., for instance, almost doubled over the last decade, from $1.86 in 2004 to $3.62 on average in the first half of 2014; and given that more than half of the country's oil consumption is taken up by motor vehicles, one question looms -- what will the situation on our roads be like when our oil reserves can no longer sustain our consumption needs? Then there is the even greater problem of greenhouse emissions and global warming. The transport sector accounts for approximately 17%-18% of total CO2 emission globally, and automakers have been under intense pressure to roll out emission-free automobiles, and thereby reduce the damage resulting from the Greenhouse effect. More and more regulators are…
IIHS. (2014). Hybrid Models have Lower Injury Odds than their Conventional Counterparts. Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS). Retrieved 5 November 2014 from http://www.iihs.org/iihs/news/desktopnews/hybrid-models-have-lower-injury-odds-than-their-conventional-counterparts
Markel, T. & Simpson, A. (2006). Cost-Benefit Analysis of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Technology. WEVA Journal, 1(1), 1-8.
Pavan, R.S. (2013). A Review on Hybrid Vehicles. International Journal of Research and Engineering and Technology, 2(5), 59-64.
Reddy, S.S. & Tharun, K.S. (2013). Eco-Friendly Vehicle: Hybrid Electric Vehicle. International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology, 4(4), 957-960.
promoting fuel efficient cars, establishing green spaces or forestry, random emission testing, and encouraging alternative transportation, walking, and bicycle use. The total cost is $15.5 M.
Fuel efficient cars
Fuel efficient cars not only reduces pollution but I chose it due to the fact that it is also a good option given today's rising gas prices.
Fuel efficient cars come in 2 categories -- electric and water. What this means is that these cars substitute gas -- which pollutes the atmosphere -- with either electricity or water or hydroxyl.
Hybrid cars are healthier for the environment since they combine gas and water (or electricity) producing lower emissions. They also reduce dependence on fossil fuel which is the main source of fuel today.(Future-Method.com)
The trade-offs of fuel efficient cars are first and foremost price. That, however, can be overcome by compelling distributors to lower the price by making it a more…
Future-Method. Fuel Efficient Hybrid Cars -- Initiatives to Reduce Pollution. http://www.futuremethod.org/418/fuel-efficient-hybrid-cars-initiatives-to-reduce-pollution
The benefits of alternative transportation http://www.scdhec.gov/administration/library/CR-007047.pdf
Supnithadnaporn, (2007), Do Vehicles Passing Emission Test Pollute Less-Georgia Institute of Technology http://www.spp.gatech.edu/faculty/WOPRpapers/AnupitWOPRFinal.pdf
Electronic Hybrid and Patrol Engines
ELECTONIC, HYBID AND PETOL ENGINES
The first auto engine was invented in 1886 by Karl Benz and Gottlieb Daimler. Tracing the history of the origin and development of engines, we see that the crucial role in the creation of the car engine played a gasoline internal combustion engine, which remains to this day, a source of power to the vast majority of engines. Analysis of the ways of development of automobile engines is not only interesting from a historical point-of-view but it is a striking illustration of a very productive and relatively rapid improvement of internal combustion engines with respect to those requirements of road transport. Very often, it takes years, even decades, before a more perfect principle or the most rational design application in production. The design of automobile engines, their creation, improvement and mass production for a wide variety of operating conditions, carried…
Choi, H & O. Inha, (2010)."Analysis of product efficiency of hybrid vehicles and promotion policies, "Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(5), pp 2262-2271.
Michi, N, (2009)."Hybrid or Electric Vehicles? A Real Options Perspective," Discussion Papers in Economics and Business, pp 09-31,Osaka University, Graduate School of Economics and Osaka School of International Public Policy (OSIPP)
Moyer, M (2009), 'Internal-Combustion Engine. (Cover Story), Scientific American, 301, 3, p. 97.
Wolf-Peter, S. (2010)."Electric Vehicles: Charging into the Future," Weekly Report, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research, vol. 6(27), pp 207-214.
Lotus ental Car's CFO feasibility adding alternative fuel vehicles fleet
The problem of switching to a more fuel efficient car, especially ones that are considered non-polluting will arise for all tourist and individual car owners. The reason is the rising cost of fossil fuels and the actions of environmentalists and other powers that try and curb the use of fossil fuels and cars in many places. While the operators have some more breathing time, it can be predicted that in the near future there will be a forced shift to hybrid cars, electric vehicles and non-fuel-based vehicles in all sectors of the world. The automotive industry is itself gearing up for the change. One factor that has made the automobile producers take to producing hybrid vehicles and electric and other fuel vehicles is primarily the costs of fuel as is obtained now. The rising cost in fuel has made automobile…
Baker, Linda. (2006) "The Service Economy: Car Sharing Is the New Consumer Model." E
Magazine, vol. 17, no. 2, pp: 16-18.
Becker, Helmut. (2006) "High noon in the automotive industry"
Use of electricity a d heat production is to systemize this process (.Nurettin Demirdoven, 13 Aug. 2004)
In contract Hybrid and fuel vehicles are efficient plus its engine is conventional with internal combustion. Fuel vehicles which consume hydrogen from fossil fuels dose not offer efficient energy with an advantage to operate an urban drive cycle used by hybrid vehicles. However, priority is mostly given to hybrid vehicles by government and various industries. In Addition, One of a famous company, Honda has released its Honda hybrid car in 2007 namely Honda Civic Compact Sedan. This car is made on the basis of new technology for saving gas. This car generally operates with three features including battery pack, gas powered engine and an electric motor to save its energy. There is also a full hybrid car which consists of the same major features mentioned above. Honda's hybrid car can easily be powered…
emotional positioning stategies. Maketing Intelligence & Planning, 23(1), 9-29.
Philip Kotle, & David Getne. (2002). County as band, poduct, and beyond: A place maketing and band management pespective. Jounal of Band Management, 9(4/5), 249-261.
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Jason D. Olive, & Seung-Hee Lee. (2010). Hybid ca puchase intentions: a coss-cultual analysis. The Jounal of Consume Maketing, 27(2), 96-103.
Potheo, A., McDonagh, P., & Dobscha, S.. (2010). Is Geen the New Black? Reflections on a Geen Commodity Discouse. Jounal of Macomaketing, 30(2), 147.
Sangkapichai, M., & Saphoes, J.. (2009). Why ae Califonians inteested in hybid cas? Jounal of Envionmental Planning…
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New Car Rental Property Proposal
Despite the proliferation of ride-sharing services such as Lyft and Uber, the rental car industry continues to thrive, with average fleet sizes and revenues experiencing significant increases since 2015 (2016 U.S. car rental market, 2017). One market location that is well positioned for a new non-franchise car rental enterprise is Oklahoma City, Oklahoma (OKC) which hosts a world-class international airport, the Will Rogers World Airport, located just 6 miles from the city's downtown. This paper provides an overview of the U.S. car rental market and a description of the basic business model that will be used by the new car rental enterprise which will be known as Stardust Car Rentals. In addition, a description of four performance measures, data collection methods and how the data will be used is followed by an outline and analysis of two cost-benefit decisions that will have to be considered.…
Alternative Fuel cars
The best way that we can approach this complex subject is by differentiating the different types of fuels that the cars use since each fuel requires a different type of car and each fuel, accordingly, has its particular advantages and disadvantage.
Biodiesal vehicles combine petroleum gasoline with vegetable oils. Their benefits lie in the fact that these fuels produce fewer carbon emissions and reduced harmful particulates than does regular fuel. Biodiesel is more cost-effective for drivers than is standard fuel and is also more energy-efficient in its production.
On the other hand, biodiesel fuel is more expensive than standard gasoline aside from the fact that its production would take up vast tracts of land, and farmers may be encouraged to replace food crop planting with biodiesel plants.
Ethanol-fueled cars are driven by a combination f gasoline and a grain-based propellant. There are various…
Car repair is the process of diagnosing the car problem to identify the fault within the car. While the cars manufactured before 2000 requires special tools to be repaired, however, the computer technology has been increasingly used to diagnose and repair many newly manufactured cars. Before mechanics start the repairing of cars, they often quote the prices for customers before starting the repairing work. To repair the car, mechanic uses both electronic methods to gather data in order to replace the faulty materials in the vehicle. A mechanic diagnoses the car and identifies the problem within the car before starting the repairing work. There are two approaches used to diagnose a faulty car:
Use of a repair manual
elying on one's analysis
Use of computer technology
A repair manual is a book that assists an auto mechanic to identify the problems within a car. The repair manual consists…
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Gas-electric hybrids have taken their knocks for being costly and relatively inefficient at highway speeds, but they remain very much on the agenda, not just at hybrid pioneer..." (2007) McCormick further relates that the hybrid choice for many is Toyota's 'Prius' particularly for those who drive mostly in the city. atter technology has been improved "to the point where the concept of a plug-in hybrid -- one that can be charged from the grid and/or use an onboard electrical power source (a gasoline or diesel engine or even a fuel cell) -- becomes a practical reality. GM's Chevrolet Volt concept, which debuted at the Detroit auto show, is the leading example of this effort. Much further down the road but still the focus of extensive engineering effort by most of the world's top automakers is the hydrogen fuel cell powered vehicle. To speed up the move to hydrogen, some automakers,…
Hybrid Cars: All about Hybrid Vehicles, Hybrid Theory of Operation, Pros & Cons, Tax Credits, Oil Pricing, Nitrogen Tire Inflation (2007) CarBuyingTips.com Online available at http://www.carbuyingtips.com/hybrid-cars.htm
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McCormick, John (2007) Vehicles Tap into New Technology. Auto Insider. 18 April 2007. Online available at http://detnews.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20070418/AUTO02/704180313/1320/AUTO04
Amos, Christopher D. (2006) Are Hybrid-Electric Vehicles a Good Buy for Fleet Government Fleet September/October 2006.
2007 Economic Crisis on American Car market
Effect of the 2008 global economic crisis on automotive industries
Crisis in the United States
Crisis in Canada
Crisis in ussia
Crisis in European markets
Crisis in Asian markets
Effects by other related crisis events
In this paper, we will review the effects of 2008 global automotive crisis. Our main focus will be on the American car manufacturers and the negative impact they suffered due to the crisis. We will also have a look at how this crisis had affected car manufacturers in other major markets around the world notably Europe, Canada and the prominent Asian markets such as China and India. Finally, we will look at some of the other factors which were important to this event namely the energy crisis since the cost of fuel is directly related to the car industry.
The automobile industry is a very important part…
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Liou, K.T. (2002). Managing Economic Development in Asia. Westport, CT: Praeger.
People seeking to make a fundamental change in the way they transport themselves will likely need a great deal of information, some of which may provide greater clarity while others may provide confusion and resort in them seeking out another alternative product. The consumer may then look for information that will support their inquiry into a commitment to a Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicle as opposed to one of many alternatives.
a. Choosing a lower cost option, or in this case an option that best fits into their personal budget;
b. Choosing an alternative with greater support and/or greater available review data, i.e. something that has already been tried and embraced by consumers;
c. Choosing a product that offers the least resistance in the way of lifestyle change, where to fuel, how to fuel, easier to drive, and/or service.
2. Consulting an expert, such as the lease agent, dealer manufacturer or…
Al-Muslim, a. (2011, March 29). Hempstead adds three hydrogen-powered cars. Newsday, (Melville, NY). Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
Katzanek, J. (2005). Hybrid car buyers willing to wait in line -- and pay more. Press-Enterprise, the (Riverside, CA), Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
Lenderman, a. (2007). Hybrids, concept cars generate buzz. Santa Fe New Mexican, the (NM), Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
Strahan, D. (Nov 29-Dec 5, 2008) Hydrogen's long road to nowhere. New Scientist (200) 2684, 40-44.
The price of a 2005 Toyota Prius ranges from $19,995 to $20,875. (Aukofer 2001)
This price is considerably higher than the price of most compact vehicles. (Aukofer 2001)
However, because of the fuel efficiency of the car, and the benefit that the car provides for the environment, people are willing to pay this price.
Some dealerships do offer lower interest rates or cash back when purchasing the Prius hybrid. However, for the most part the price of the car is no haggle. In other words, the price of the vehicle is firm and there is very little or no negotiation concerning the price of the vehicle.
Another advantage of owning a Prius has been the tax deduction that owners of hybrid vehicles receive. According to the Internal evenue Service (IS) hybrid owners receive a $2,000 tax deduction. (2005 Toyota Prius Certified for Clean-Fuel Deduction) According to the IS the…
Aukofer, F. July 20, 2001. Toyota Prius Achieves Near-Instant Sought-After Status.. The Washington Times. Page Number: 23.
Rockhold John. 2004.
Prius Paves the Way for a Hybrid Future. Mother Earth News. Issue: 203. Publication Date: April-May 2004. Page Number: 23.
Overview 2005 Toyota Prius. 2005. Automotive http://www.automotive.com/2005/09/toyota/prius/#
Electronic and Hybrid Engines Be Used Instead of the Petrol Engines
Hybrid engines and electric and other forms of fuel are being tried the world over on account of multiple problems. It is not only for vehicles but also for the industries that use fossil fuels and chemicals for manufacture. The primary problem is the pollution of the air, water and the entire planet on account of fossil fuel use. Not all fossil fuel forms are harmful. For example CNG, compressed natural gas is less harmful. The use of fossil fuel has deadly repercussions on human, animal and plant health. In other words all life on the planet can be at jeopardy. The shocking truth is revealed as follows: John Vidal of the Guardian reported that millions die in Asia on account of vehicle pollution. According to the report he quoted, issued by a consortium of universities working in conjunction…
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technology for hybrid vehicles is proven to work, we as a nation should only build and sell hybrid vehicles to help reduce the damage done to the nation's air quality. Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) have reached the point that they are affordable for most drivers, they use less energy, and they are cleaner than gasoline and diesel powered vehicles. These vehicles make sense for today and for the future, and Americans need to recognize the importance of saving the environment over their attachment to large, fuel inefficient vehicles. As a nation, the people should support and demand that automakers only build and sell HEVs. It is time to take the nation's air quality into our own hands, and demand carmakers take responsibility for the decrease in air quality standards in America today.
Hybrid electric vehicles have been talked about for many years. It is only in the last decade that…
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< http://www.ott.doe.gov/hev / >
Hybrid Consumer Vehicles: Where on the S-Curve?
For this case study, I have selected the hybrid car as the technology of interest. Hybrid cars have been a steady presence in the consumer auto market since the early 2000s. Toyota's Prius is the best-known example and has the largest market share, which is set to expand into other market niches with the development of subcompact and hatch/crossover versions of the Prius. Although Toyota has made sweeping claims about the amount of research money they spend (specifically, safety research) they do not report specifically how much of their &D budget is devoted to innovation and how much to safety and design refinements. A thorough analysis by Booz Allen & Hamilton on the relationship between &D spending and market performance shows that gross measures of research spending have no predictive power over market share or sales (Jaruzelski, Dehoff, & Bordia, 2004). Especially in…
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Jaruzelski, B., Dehoff, M., & Bordia, R. (2004) The Booz Allen Hamilton Innovation 1000. New York: Booz Allen Hamilton.
Shane, S. (2009). Technology strategy for managers and entrepreneurs (1 st ed.).
General Motors was founded in 1908 and has been the largest manufacturer, designer, building and marketer of cars and trucks throughout the world since 1921. It sells vehicles in more than 200 countries worldwide and maintains assembly, manufacturing, distribution or warehousing operations in 53 of these countries. In 2000, it sold 8.6 million cars and trucks - constituting 15.1% of the entire world vehicle market (the world's biggest share) at $4.5 billion net sales and $184.6 billion in revenues. (General Motors). It envisions itself as the enduring world leader in transportation products and related services, whose goal is "to maintain this position through enlightened customer enthusiasm and continuous improvement, driven by the integrity, team work and innovation" of its employees. (General Motors)
The organization operates in four regions. The first, which has the largest market at 27%, is the GM North America. This region designs, manufactures and markets vehicles for…
Business Wire. Raytheon Chosen by General Motors to Provide Dealership
Technical Training, 1999
2. Insider. XV8 Power: Another Intriguing Concept Engine from the General.
McMullen Argus Publishing, Inc., 2002
With the increased level of awareness of the environment, automotive car manufacturers vie on the viability of selling environmentally hybrid cars. Leading this group are Honda and Toyota. The following is a market analysis of the position of Toyota's Prius. It analyzes the following factors:
Situation of the firm in the market
The industry of hybrid cars
The strategy adopted by Prius and how it is faring in the market
The barriers of the market
Some alternative strategies to rectify the weakness of Prius and The implementation of one of its alternatives.
Toyota Motor Corporation with its subsidiaries all around the world reports $5,447 billion for the fiscal year 2001. With more than 5.5 million cars, trucks, and buses worldwide sold annually, the company boast of high profits and symbolizes the ideal in automotive industry. Spread to 24 nations and regions worldwide, Toyota with its…
Shenandoah Weiss, Environmentally friendly car may become wave of the future., University Wire, 04-26-2000.
REITMAN, VALERIE Toyota Touts Dual Benefits Of Hybrid Power System. Wall Street Journal March 26, 1997-Page A-12
JOE GAROFOLI, SUN NEWS SERVICES, NEW CIVIC TAKES HYBRIDS PRIME TIME., The Edmonton Sun, 02-01-2002, pp DR28.
Ashford Writing Center. Must include a title page: Title paper Student's Course number Instructor's Date submitted Must begin introductory paragraph a succinct thesis statement.
Efficiency of Cars
The following pages focus on debating whether cars should be more efficient or not. The Introduction presents certain points-of-view that will be used in the sections of the paper. The Efficiency section intends to provide a definition and explanation of efficiency. The Efficiency of Cars section presents a discussion that compares different types of cars and their efficiency. The Conclusions section presents some of the most important issues discussed in the paper.
The business environment in which companies develop their activity determines them to focus on strategies that help them improve their efficiency. It seems that efficiency is considered an important factor that influences companies' success. The need for efficiency is determined by the resources of customers. In other words, customers want to…
3. Whitman, J. (2011). High Hopes, and Hurdles, for Hydrogen Cars. Retrieved March 18, 2012 from http://www.usatoday.com/money/autos/2011-06-19-cnbc-hydrogen-cars_n.htm .
4. Electric Vehicles (2012). U.S. Department of Energy. Retrieved March 18, 2012 from http://www.fueleconomy.gov /feg/evtech.shtml.
5. What Is an Electric Car (2012). HybridCars. Retrieved march 18, 2012 from http://www.hybridcars.com/electric-car .
The Japanese Government to usiness Model
The Japanese government has more direct control of private business. The difference is that it is doing so, as a partner to ensure that the business is able to maintain successful long-term economic growth. The government does not offer subsidies or any kind of bail outs. Instead, they help companies through loans, tax breaks and other forms of assistance. This helped to contribute to the success of the Japanese auto industry by allowing executives to focus on how their organization can grow in the future. (Johnson, 1985)
usiness, government and the Liberal Democratic Party in Japan
The Liberal Democratic Party helped to liberalize the relationship that the government would have with the auto industry. As it would be successful in helping Japan to eliminate protectionism; this is something that would allow Japanese cars to become more competitive in markets around the world.…
Automobile Industry Introduction. (2010). Retrieved May 6, 2010, from Plunkett Research website: http://www.plunkettresearch.com/Industries/AutomobilesTrucks/AutomobileTrends/tabid/89/Default.aspx
CAFE Overview. (2010). Retrieved May 6, 2010, from NHTSA website: http://www.nhtsa.gov/cars/rules/cafe/overview.htm
Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Guidelines. (n.d.). Retrieved May 6, 2010 from NHTSA website: http://www.nhtsa.gov/cars/rules/import/fmvss/index.html
G8's Gradual Move. (2008, January 25). Retrieved May 6, 2010, Council of Foreign Relations website: http://www.cfr.org/publication/13640/
The former might be, 'What specific...' [while] Less structure might be exemplified by: "Please respond to the following in your own words: I....'" (Dereshiwsky, 1999) in addition:
adding some open-ended items such as these to a more traditionally scaled quantifiable survey, such as one with Likert-scaled attitudinal items, and/or "check/off" questions on demographic background variables, is a good way to make the survey "multimethod" in nature. This is because you'd be using that "single" data collection vehicle (survey instrument) to collect your data (responses) in more than one form: quantitative and qualitative! You could ask the same general questions in both forms and then compare the two alternative forms of responses to see if they 'converged,' or agreed, regarding the phenomenon that you are trying to measure via the survey (e.g., attitudes towards school climate). If they do, you can have greater assurance that "there's something real being captured/measured" regarding…
Area Sales of Luxury SUVs in High Gear; Gas Prices Don't Slow Down Affluent Buyers. (2007, April 28). The Washington Times, p. C10. Retrieved April 24, 2008, from Questia database:
Hybrid cars generally run quieter that the traditional IC engine cars. (Keelan, 2004) the very design of operation of the hybrid cars ensures that the engine turn off when stationary and start up on electric power and then switch to gas. This design could be risky to people who do not pay attention to the road and blind pedestrians. It is presumptuous to state that this is a negative for the hybrid cars. Any change in technology is always viewed with skepticism.
For instance, when cars with glass on all four sides were introduced, people were afraid to ride in them. This was due to the concern that they had regarding the safety of the vehicle if it met with an accident and the glass broke. (PBS, 2007) it took some time and observation of the benefits such as protection from the elements that convinced people that it was safe…
Valdes-Dapena, Peter. (2006). Hybrids: Seven worries, seven answers. CNN. Retrieved June 16, 2007, from the World Wide Web: http://money.cnn.com/2006/03/14/Autos/tipsandadvice/hybrid_worries/index.htm
Verhoeven, Peter. (2007). Silence of hybrid vehicles concerns blind pedestrians. Retrieved June 17, 2007, from the World Wide Web: http://www.magnifiers.org/news.php?action=fullnews&id=232
Wood, Douglas S. (2001). The relationship between the automobile and the suburbs. CNN. Retrieved June 17, 2007, from the World Wide Web: http://www.cnn.com/SPECIALS/2000/democracy/sprawl/stories/auto.history/index.html
GM's Chevy Volt and its all-electric design, as well as diesel-electric and conventional gas-electric hybrids could and must replace the image of the 'old' GM in the public's imagination. The company has shed the Hummer stigma, now it must create a new image for itself in the future, not just domestically, but internationally.
Gas-free cars future priority. (2009, April 20). China Daily. Retrieved August 6, 2009
General Motors. (2009). Company history. Updated August 4, 2009. The New York Times.
Retrieved August 6, 2009.
Hu, Lei. (2008). GM's joint venture is China's top-selling brand in 2007. Edmunds.
Retrieved August 6, 2009.
Jason. (2004). The global hybrid race: Is Europe catching the fever. GreenHybrid. Retrieved August 6, 2009 at http://www.greenhybrid.com/wiki/index.php/The_Global_Hybrid_Race:_Is_Europe_Catching_The_Fever%3F
ald, Matthew. (200, August 5) $2 million in grants to speed up electric car manufacturing.
The New York Times. Retrieved August 6, 2009.
Ying, Tina &…
Gas-free cars future priority. (2009, April 20). China Daily. Retrieved August 6, 2009
General Motors. (2009). Company history. Updated August 4, 2009. The New York Times.
Retrieved August 6, 2009.
This is an innovative system developed by Ford, and with this system, the vehicle operates either on the electric, on the gasoline, or on both engines together. The outcomes of this technology is that it helps emit 81% less smog forming emissions and that it delivers between 400 and 500 miles of travel on a tank of gas. The company has also invested $2 billion in cutting-edge manufacturing and environmental features for its Michigan manufacturing complex.
Another company that U.S. Auto has a lot to learn from is Toyota. Toyota is very much different from Ford and from any other car manufacturer in the world. The company stands out due to certain practices that the company has successfully implemented over the past years. These practices include: kaizen, just in time method, and Toyota Production System. These methods were required for counteracting any aspects that might have negatively affected the company,…
Putting Hybrids on the Road (2007). Ford Motor Company. Retrieved July 3, 2007 at http://www.ford.com /en/innovation/technology/puttingHybridsOnTheRoad.htm.
Toyota Production System (2007). Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved July 3, 2007 at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Toyota_Production_System .
Overview of Toyota's North American Engineering and Manufacturing (2007). Toyota Motor Sales. Retrieved July 3, 2007 at http://www.toyota.com /about/operations/manufacturing/index.html.
Alternate Energy in Daily Life
Imagine that you could travel in time, much like Doc Brown and Marty McFly in the movie Back to the Future. uppose you traveled back to 1955 with the Doc and Marty and asked a resident of 1955 what the year 2011 would be like. Would he predict hybrid cars, or flying cars? Would he believe that the United tates has a moon base -- or that is has no moon program at all? Would he believe that kids carry cell phones but that the only commercial viable robot is the Roomba vacuum? omeone living in 1955 would probably predict a future much different from the one we are actually living today. When you consider how life in the future was depicted in movies, TV programs, and books in the middle of the 20th century, it easy to see that our predictions about the future…
Sources." (February 21, 2009.) Retrieved April 27, 2011 from the Alternative Energy website at http://www.alternative-energy-news.info/hydrogen-fuel-from-non-food-sources/
IBM. (2000.) "Flying Cars Commercial." Retrieved April 26, 2011 from YouTube.com at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vzm6pvHPSGo
Johnson, Keith. (August 10, 2009.) "Blown Away: Wind Power Makes Electricity Cheaper in Texas." Retrieved April 28, 2011 from the Wall Street Journal at http://blogs.wsj.com/environmentalcapital/2009/08/10/blown-away-wind-power-makes-electricity-cheaper-in-texas/
Kobayashi, Teruo. (December, 2005.) "Progress of Electric Railways in Japan." Japan Railway and Transport Review issue 42. Pp 62-69. Retrieved from http://jrtr.net/jrtr42/pdf/s62_kob.pdf
Loftin, Josh. (April 18, 2011.) "Home renewable energy for focus of Utah conference." Retrieved April 27, 2011 from Business Week at http://www.businessweek.com/ap/financialnews/D9MM3JV80.htm
It has made effective use of American's desire to save money on gas and avoid depending on foreign fuel, although it has given little attention to the additional time savings provided by the ability to drive in commuter lanes and tax and insurance savings provided to hybrid owners. It has perhaps shown perhaps insufficient consideration for American's obsession with power, speed, and acceleration, which drivers rated (surprisingly) even more highly than fuel economy in a recent survey when asked what motivates them to buy a particular brand of car (Reddell, Tran, & Zittle, 2006). Currently, Toyota is marketing the Prius with a stress on its lowered price tag: "Prius: Easy on Gas. And now Easy on the allet" ("Toyota Prius," 2007, Toyota ebsite). It continues to strike a balance between capitalizing upon consumer self-interest and interest in the environment, but Toyota could try to make the car itself seem sexier,…
Hagenbaugh, Barbara. (16 May 2006). "Gas costs families $1,000 more a year than in '01."
USA Today. Retrieved 20 May 2007 at http://www.usatoday.com/money/industries/energy/2007-05-16-gas-prices-hearing_N.htm
Laumer, John. (2005). "Tree Hugger Interviews Mary Nicholson, Technical Marketing
Manager for the Toyota Prius." Tree Hugger. Retrieved 20 May 2007 at http://www.treehugger.com/files/2005/10/treehugger_inte.php
Nuclear energy possesses perhaps the largest potential for growth over the next few decades. The reason for this is the simple fact that it creates a relatively small amount of environmental pollution and can be adapted for use in nearly any part of the world. It certainly poses some security risks if it this technology is misused or mishandled, but the benefits certainly outweigh the costs. This type of energy production does not create smog, or direct environmental wastes, and many scientists, entrepreneurs, and engineers are looking at low cost, micro-nuclear solutions for small cities and towns (Kruger, 2006). Instead of building huge, multi-billion dollar power plants, the focus has shifted to creating small, sustainable, community nuclear power plants. The sustainability level of nuclear power is quite high given that a very small amount of nuclear waste is created for a huge amount of power output, unlike coal-fired power plants…
Hekkert, Marko P.; Hendriks, Franka H.J.F.; Faaij Andre P.C. And Maarten L. Neelis.. (2005).
"Natural Gas as an Alternative to Crude Oil in Automotive Fuel Chains Well-to-Wheel Analysis and Transition Strategy Development," Energy Policy: Vol. 33: Iss. 5, pp. 579-594.
Hoffmann, Peter. (2002). Tomorrow's Energy: Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and the Prospects for a Cleaner Planet. MIT Press: Cambridge.
Kruger, Paul. (2006). Alternative Energy Resources: The Quest for Sustainable Energy.
integrated marketing plan to be used by Toyota in the marketing and sale of its products worldwide. The marketing plan begins with a description of the company, its strategic plan and focus, a situational analysis then follows which comprises of a SWOT analysis, industry analysis, company analysis, customer analysis, product-market focus. These are then followed by the development of a strategic focus, marketing goals and objectives, target market analysis, company's position in the global car market, marketing strategy using the 4 Ps (Product, Price, Place, Promotion),marketing implication analysis, implementation plan, evaluation and control as well as a conclusion
The global car manufactures and retail industry experienced a general slump in the aftermath of the 2009 economic downturn. However, the years following the economic downturn have been recovery years as seen in the general rise in car sales and consumer demands for affordable cars. The consequence of this rise in demand…
Clow, KE.; Baack, D (2007). Integrated Advertising, Promotion, and Marketing Communications 3rd edition. Pearson Education. pp. 9 -- 10. ISBN 978-0-13-186622-5.
Dobni, B. (2002). A model for implementing service excellence in the financial services. Journal of financial services marketing
Kotler, P., & Armstrong, G. (2012). Principles of marketing (14th ed.). Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall. ISBN: 9780132167123
Kotler, Philip (1997), Marketing Management, Analysis, Planning, Implementation and Control, 9th ed. Prentice Hall, New Jersey.
According to Leuilette the only way of accomplishing this is if the, "auto industry flexes its lobbying muscle and pushes Congress to enact a gas tax to pay for research and development. Otherwise, according to Leuliette, the United States will become even more dependent on shrinking foreign oil supplies. Toyota is the second-largest carmaker worldwide and reported that it intends to increase its' lead over Ford. Toyota is expected to remain the worlds most profitable carmaker after making a net profit last year of double its' nearest competitor. Further stated is that, "Japanese manufacturers have been able to steal market share from the American producers in their home market, recently starting to compete against U.S. pick-up trucks and large offroaders, the most profitable vehicles.
Toyota is also rapidly gaining share in Europe and is building new factories there as well as in China and the U.S. On Tuesday the scale…
CEO to Metaldyne Corporation Calls for Fuel Cells in Cars during Automotive News World Congress (2005) May 3 NewsTarget.com Commentary http://www.newstarget.com/003938.html .
Toyota takes load in global car sales, putting Ford in second place Tuesday, May 03, 2005 Commentary | http://www.newstarget.com/001433.html .
Toyotas West Virginia Plant Expands Again, Bringing 150 New Jobs
Automaker to Manufacture Additional Automatic Transmissions
Whether it is solar power, used vegetable oil, turds, wood, or hydrogen research and experimentation is the way forward. These cheap resources have already been proven effective in various ways and manners. The need of the day is to develop new energy technologies and apply them in the most useful and practical way possible. If we want global economic stability then eco energy sector requires due attention. We have witnessed crises situations in the past. The rising demand for oil, its increasing prices and possible depletion of oil resources demand a way out. Alternative energy sources in this scenario give us a flicker of hope. U.S. government is also pushing the agenda and so should other individuals and organizations also look in this direction for the economic betterment of their counties and the world with the use eco-fuels. The change cannot be brought about by government alone, will and…
Kay, Tonya Making Biodiesel. Hawai'i Indymedia, Retrieved December 11, 2006 at http://hawaii.indymedia.org/news/2006/06/5943.php.
Youngquist, W. (1998, December). Alternative Energy Sources - Myths and Realities. Electronic Green Journal. Retrieved December 11, 2006, at http://egj.lib.uidaho.edu/egj09/youngqu1.html
Bond, M. (2000, November). SOLAR ENERGY Seeing the Light.. Geographical, 72(11), 28.
Eco-Lifestyle Ideas for Surfers'. Retrieved December 11, 2006 at http://22.214.171.124/search?q=cache:wzhmycSWxXQJ:www.ecosurfproject.org/downloads/download.php%3Ffilename%3Decosurfer.pdf%26backto%3D../resources/articles/index.php+Articles+on+ECO-FUELS&hl=en&gl=pk&ct=clnk&cd=14
BMW Strategic Management
The Car Manufacturing Industry
esearch has proven with time that the most creative and efficient labor force in this globe of conventional production has come from both Japan and Germany who lead the world in creative initiatives. Moreover, studies have also shown that the reason for these two countries being highly productive is because they follow their cultural heritage. There are only few luxurious brands in the car industry that even an infant recognizes and hence there are a few factors that need to be taken it into account when recognizing the strong and continue existence of BMW group in this heavily competed industry (othacher, 2004). Hence, the following trends visible were very visible in the growth of luxurious car brands in Germany and Japan. Understanding these trends could help others brands and products to establish their footing as well:
At the time of company's establishment it…
Alan, J.R. (2005). Six men who built the modern auto industry. Motor Books/MBI Publishing Company
Kiley, D. (2004). Driven: Inside BMW, the Most Admired Car Company in the World. John Wiley and Sons, p 5-211.
Pavelec, S.M. (2007), The Jet Race and the Second World War, Greenwood Publishing Group. Retrieved from http://books.google.com/?id=dSLBdP22fq0C&pg=PA31 on March 7th, 2011.
Radinger W. And Schick, W. (1996), Me262 (in German), Berlin: Avantic Verlag GmbH, p. 23.
I do that every day. ut I've never done that with a car. I buy what I need to look successful. esides, how would I ever calculate a payback when I have no idea what gasoline will cost in the future?" A few said with apparent certainty, "one year" or "two years." However, when we inquired where the number came from, they simply asserted that they spent lots of money on gasoline and would quickly earn their money back through savings. A smaller group proposed longer terms -- eight to ten years -- noting that they keep their cars for a long time. Several households explained that their lack of attention to gas costs was due to the fact that they felt they couldn't do anything about it; they had to drive as much as they did to lead the lives they had constructed for themselves." (Kurani, Turrentine, and Heffner,…
Turrentine, Tom; Kurani, Kenneth; and Heffner, Rusty (2007) Fuel Economy: What Drives Consumer Choice? Access. No. 31, Fall 2007. Online available at: http://pubs.its.ucdavis.edu/publication_detail.php?id=1159
E85 Everywhere: Minnesota Consumer Perception Survey for E85 & Flex-Fuel Vehicles (Phase 2: Post-Advertising Campaign) (2007) Phoenix Marketing International Report of Findings. Online available at: http://www.cleanairchoice.org/news/E85FinalReport-PhaseIITRG.pdf
Connelly, Mary (2007) Study: Car Ads Aren't Green Enough. Automotive News. 13 Aug 2007. Online available at: http://www.mindclickgroup.com/mgwmonitor/press/automotivenews.pdf
Struben, Jeroen and Sterman, John D. (2007) Transition Challenges for Alternative Fuel Vehicle and Transportation Systems. MIT Sloan School of Management, Cambridge, MA. Online available at: http://web.mit.edu/~jsterman/www/StrubenSterman%20EPB%2007.pdf
People have been unmotivated to offset the cabon dioxide emissions of automobiles due to a pesonal attachment to thei cas. Howeve, they have also been moe willing to implement pocedues and poducts in thei home that ae moe enegy efficient. One notable example of this concens electicity and light fixtues. In ecent yeas, lighting that is moe enegy efficient has become incedibly popula, and it has been shown that people ae even willing to pay geate sums of money to puchase lighting systems that ae moe enegy efficient (Stall-Meadows, Hebet, 2001). Such behavio stands in stak contast with consume habits with egad to automobiles, and this is pehaps attibutable to the fact that electicity is viewed as being moe utilitaian and less of a status symbol. It may also be a esult of the fact that cas ae moe public while electicity is featued in the pivacy of one's own…
references: The role of affect, imagery, and values. Climatic Change, 77, 45-72.
Longo, a., Hoyos, D., & Markandya, a. (2012). Willingness to pay for ancillary benefits of climate change mitigation. Environmental and Resource Economics, 51(1), 119-140.
Nolan, J.M. (2010). "An Inconvenient Truth" increases knowledge, concern, and willingness to reduce greenhouse gases. Environment and Behavior, 42(5), 643-658.
Peters, G.P., et al. China's growing CO2 emissions -- a race between increasing consumption and efficiency gains. Environmental Science and Technology, 41(17), 5939-5944.
Reiner, D.M., et al. (2006). American exceptionalism? Similarities and differences in national attitudes toward energy policy and global warming. Environmental Science Technology, 40(7), 2093-2098.
Fo instance, appoximately 33 pe cent of Thailand's wate souces ae categoized as having poo quality and the phenomenon is consideed a seious envionment poblem. Moeove, Thailand is anked among the last Asian counties based on amounts of fesh wate available pe capita (WWF, 2010).
In this context, the Thai govenment and the Thai people have commenced to pay moe attention to the effect of the envionmental poblems, as well as to the adjacent economics of the poblem. People make an effot to buy poducts which ae envionmentally hamless and, though them, to minimize the negative envionmental implications of consumption. A fist effot in this diection was the intoduction of the Thai Geen Label Scheme in 1993 and its fomal launch one yea late (Geen Label Thailand, 2010). In shot, the scheme suppots the development of the geen poducts secto by intoducing infomation fo consumes and standads fo businesses. Moe…
references and Marketing strategies for green shares: Specifics of Austrian market.' Journal of Bank Marketing 22, (4)
Grankvist, G., Lekedal, H., and Marmendal, M. (2007) 'Values and eco- and fair-trade labeled products.' Journal of British food 109, (2)
Green Label Thailand (2010) 'Thai Green Labal Scheme'. [online] available from [13 July 2010]
Gulf Daily News (2010) 'Toyota set to produce hybrid cars in Thailand.' [Online] available from [19 August 2010]
Gurau, C., and Ranchhod, A. (2005) 'International Green Marketing: A comparative study of British and Romanian firm.' Journal of International Marketing Review 22, (5) 547-561
The product being studied is the Prius, the hybrid car from Toyota. The automobile industry is one the largest industries in the world. The major players are Ford, General Motors, Chrysler, Honda, Mitsubishi, Hyundai, several European companies and regional players as well (Investopedia, 2011). These firms all contribute to intense competition among rivals, especially given the size of the industry. The result is an industry characterized by competition both along the lines of differentiation and cost leadership. Firms must sell high volumes of cars at low margins in order to earn revenues, but must also load those cars with features and demonstrate technological leadership in order to attract business.
The large number of firms has an impact on the supply conditions within the industry. Supply is determined by expected sales and by the capacity of manufacturing facilities. In general, the global automobile industry suffers overcapacity. There are high costs…
AAAT. (2011). Auto transport business in auto industry slow down. All America Auto Transport. Retrieved December 3, 2011 from http://www.aaat.com/auto-transport-business-industry-slow-down.cfm
AP. (2008). Hybrid sales, led by Prius, up 38% in '07. MSNBC. Retrieved December 3, 2011 from http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/24230209/ns/business-going_green/t/hybrid-sales-led-prius-percent/#.Ttq9o1b5sa8
Hirsch, J. (2011). Toyota Prius dealers see demand rise and inventories fall. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved December 3, 2011 from http://articles.latimes.com/2011/mar/31/business/la-fi-autos-disruption-20110331
Investopedia (2011). The industry handbook: Automobiles. Investopedia. Retrieved December 3, 2011 from http://www.investopedia.com/features/industryhandbook/automobile.asp#axzz1fQWPK54R
Hence, these are "invisible" to the end user, but no less vital to the success of the company for it. Components of this type of competition include production lead time, development speed in research and development, production quality, and the capacity of group companies and parts suppliers (The Manufacturer, 2010). Production quality is one of Toyota's great success benchmarks, as the company's inherent philosophy is that quality is a built-in component of all its products.
A further benchmark is the Toyota Global Vision 2010. Created in 2002, the Vision identified four areas of innovations. The first of these is the drive towards greener practices, known as "true to the earth" (The Manufacturer, 2010). The drive is to develop the most advanced environmental technologies, as seen above. The second component is "Comfort of life." This means that Toyota would create products that provide ease, safety and comfort for users. "Excitement for…
Lean Directions (2001). Toyota Site Visits Reveal Best Practices. Retrieved from: http://www.sme.org/cgi-bin/get-newsletter.pl-LEAN&20010209&5&
The Manufacturer. (2010). The Toyota Vision. Retrieved from: http://www.themanufacturer.com/us/detail.html?contents_id=4010
One World Trust. (2006). Toyota Motor Corporation. Retrieved from: http://oneworldtrust.org/publications/doc_view/101-2006-gar-accountability-profile-toyota?tmpl=component&format=raw
Spear, S.J. (2002, Sep. 5). Just-in-Time in practice at Toyota: Rules in Use for building self-diagnostic, adaptive work-systems. Retrieved from: www.hbs.edu/research/facpubs/workingpapers/papers2/0102/02-043.doc
Aligning current practices
Instead, to distinguish GM from both foreign and domestic competitors, "we are certainly in the process of creating a family of diesels which could be used in a light-duty application - i.e., 1500 Tahoes, Yukons and Escalades. And we very much believe in the diesel as one of the solutions to fuel economy issues. And we know that with a diesel we could get these vehicles to maybe 25, yes 25, miles per gallon, and with plenty of horsepower and torque." ("The Solstice's Proud Daddy: Interview ith Bob Lutz of G.M." 2005) But diesel should be only one prong of a solution to create newly innovative cars to meet environmental challenges and changing consumer desires, and these vehicles and sports cars like the Solstice do not address the desires of the core, middle-class consumer of fuel, which further research must explore, via GM's marketing and…
Brunell, Don. (10 Jun 2005) "As GM Goes, so Goes the Nation." Association of Washington Business. Retrieved 18 Oct 2005 at http://www.awb.org/cgi-bin/absolutenm/templates/?a=990&z=10
Fahey, John. (24 Aug 2005) "The Gas Guzzler Relief Act." Forbes. Retrieved 18 Oct 2005. http://www.forbes.com/home/manufacturing/2005/08/24/autos-fuel-cafe-cz_jf_0824fuel.html
Maynard, Michelle. (11 Oct 2005) "As Delphi Goes, so does GM?" Business. The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2005/10/11/business/11delphi.html
The Solstice's Proud Daddy: Interview With Bob Lutz of G.M." (16 Oct 2005) Automobiles. The New York Times. Retrieved 18 Oct2005 httpp:/ / www.nytimes.com/2005/10/16/automobiles/16interview.slutz.html
Economic Value Added
Economic Value Added is an analytical tool which was developed in 1982 by Joel Stern and G. Bennett Stewart and has been widely accepted as a means of measuring a company's real profitability. This tool is unique because it involves calculating "the firm's residual profitability, net of both the direct cost of debt capital and the indirect cost of equity capital." (Grant, p. 2) Debt capital can be defined as the amount of money a company must spend on its current debt, including interest and other fees. However, because most interest expenses can be deducted from taxes, the calculation is often measured after taxes. Equity capital is a much more complicated factor in the equation because it deals with the value of all the assets of the company, which would normally be owned by the shareholders, but are necessary for the running of the company. This…
Bremer, Catherine. (2010, Feb. 7). "Mexico sets 250,000 tonne 2010 sugar import quota." Reuters. Retrieved from http://www.reuters.com/article/2010/02/07/mexico-sugar-idUSN0716673520100207
"China to increase coal exports quota to 38 million tonnes for 2011." (2011, Mar. 21) China Mining Association. Retrieved from http://www.chinamining.org/News/2011-03-21/1300668416d43907.html
"Economic Value Added" Whole Foods Website Retrieved from http://www.wholefoodsmarket.com/company/eva.php
Ehmke, Cole, Joan Fulton and Jayson Lusk. "Marketing's Four P's: First Steps for New Entrepreneurs." Purdue University Agriculture and Commercialization Center. Retrieved from http://www.ces.purdue.edu/extmedia/ec/ec-730.pdf
Transportation and Sustainability in Los Angeles
Increase utilization of green technology for vehicles
The horrific traffic situation in Los Angeles is not only detrimental to society in the sense that its immense levels of congestion cost commuters millions of dollars in lost time daily, but also because it can cause physical harm. One study has identified several risk factors that are significantly increased by freeway pollution levels such as cardiovascular problems, respiratory disease, cancer, heart attacks and flat-out premature death (Cronan). It further finds that some brain cells in mice showed inflammation consistent with Alzheimer's disease when exposed to these pollutants.
It would be one thing if the levels of pollutants in the city were consistent with the levels found in other cities; however the levels of air pollution found in Los Angeles are among the highest in the country. In fact, Forbes…
For example, both the Toyota Prius and the Ford Escape hybrid can pay for themselves in just 3 years when gas is $3.00 and you drive at least 15,000 miles per year. Additionally, the Saturn Vue, Camry hybrid and Civic hybrid will pay for themselves in 6 years." (HCB, 1)
This is demonstrative of a faster approach to the breakeven point for the Prius vs. many of its closest counterparts. Fixed costs in this case will generally be those associated with production and distribution of the vehicle itself. The greatest variable cost is that of fuel, which has fluctuated widely but which at its higher rates produces a stronger outlook for the Prius to achieve its breakeven point for consumers. This helps Toyota to make decisions about how to price the vehicle and how best to market it to the correct targets.
Hybrid Car Blog (HCB)(2006). Prius, Escape…
Hybrid Car Blog (HCB)(2006). Prius, Escape hybrid break even in 3 years. Hybridcarblog.com.
Much oil is also used for heating, especially during winter. Therefore, new commitments toward researching, developing, and making available, on a large scale, alternative sources of heating must be made, and this time kept, as well.
To try seriously, however, to identify and describe one core "solution" to oil dependency; that is both untested and would nevertheless work, in this author's opinion, is (and especially given even the current extent of research and understanding into the gnarly depth of the problem and its myriad continuing causes) not only a fruitless exercise, but extremely naive. Instead, the answer lies in not one solution but combinations of many: starting with will; and continuing (perhaps indefinitely) with persistence, patience, personal and public sacrifice; and a loss of national hedonism; self-centeredness; arrogance, and a sense of personal and national entitlement. All of this, in combination, albeit gradually, could still, if the will were…
Bush, George W. State of the Union Speech, January 31, 2006. Retrieved December 7, 2006, from: http://126.96.36.199/search?q=cache:
eBXy3XnVdAMJ: www.whitehouse.gov/stateoftheunion/+bush%27s+oil+ dependency+speech&hl=en&gl=us&ct=clnk&cd=1.html>
Gulf War." Wikipedia. December 3, 2006. Retrieved December 7, 2006, from: .
Hybrid Vehicle." November 28, 2006. Retrieved December 7, 2006, at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hybrid_vehicle.html
Discretionary Economic Policy, who is right, Keynes or Hayek?
Is environmental sustainability compatible with economic growth?
The battle between environmental sustainability and economic growth is often portrayed as a zero-sum game: i.e., it is often suggested that environmentally-friendly policies are wholly incompatible with business-friendly policies. However, this supposed truism has been placed under scrutiny in recent years. A number of companies have demonstrated that 'going green' is not only financially sustainable but can also translate into gains in profitability.
On a very basic level, environmentalism is a popular cause. Worries about the long-term damage done to the environment have become increasingly part of the public's consciousness. According to the business publication Forbes in a recent poll:" "72% of consumers would recommend a brand that supports a good cause over one that doesn't, a 39% increase since 2008. 71% of consumers would help a brand promote their products or services if…
Aston, A. (2009). Can China go green? Businessweek. Retrieved from:
Becker, D. & Gerstenzang, J. (2013). Why are the Big Three resisting new mileage and emissions standards? L.A. Times. Retrieved from: http://articles.latimes.com/2013/dec/19/opinion/la-oe-becker-auto-emissions-20131219
Cardy, M. (2013). Demand for organic foods boosts industry's sway. CBS. Retrieved from:
In terms of the continuum of communications openness, all of the elements such as transmission, trust, agendas and goals all register to the right side which indicates complete and open communication (Helregel, & Slocum, 2007, 334). Between Mulally and those he leads, the transmission of communication is clear, there is complete trust and the agendas and goals are completely transparent. hen such a situation exists, great problems can be overcome by a determined, capable group of individuals. ithout a doubt, everyone is marching lockstep in the goal of resurrecting Ford's profitability. hen perfectly united, the team concept provides the best model of business success and organization that Allan Mulally is using to such good effect currently at Ford Motor Company. Behind a good leader, ordinary people can accomplish seemingly superhuman tasks in ways they never thought possible before.
To recap, in this essay, the author has discussed the role of…
Abuelsamid, Sam. (2009). Geneva 2008: 2009 ford fiesta, a new car with verve but an old name. Retrieved 27 July 2010 from http://green.autoblog.com/2008/02/14/geneva-2008-2009-ford-fiesta-a-new-car-with-verve-but-an-old-n/
Alan mulally. (2010). Retrieved 26 July 2010 from http://media.ford.com/article_display.cfm?article_id=24203
DeMatio, Joe. (2009, November). 2010 man of the year: alan mulally, ceo ford motor company. Retrieved 26 July 2010 from http://www.automobilemag.com/features/awards/1001_2010_man_of_the_year_alan_mulally_ceo_ford_motor_company/index.html
Helregel, Don, & Slocum, John W. (2007). Organizational behavior. Mason, OH:
If they fail to anticipate a high sales year, they will not be able to provide good customer service by having the product that the consumer needs, when they need it. They may lose even further sales using this tactic. If they forecast sales too high, they will run into higher production costs, and may risk losing money. Production requires capital and if companies do not realize a return on their investment then they may run the risk of losing production money spent. Decisions regarding production levels are one of the most important decisions that a company can make if they wish to remain solvent into the future.
The tax rebates and the economic stimulus plan, mentioned in the market report may be a factor for some consumers in the buying decision. However, in order to make an accurate forecast, one must look at the other variables that surround the…
Labia, P. (2008) CNBC - Driving into the New York Auto Show. Behind the Wheel. CNBC. Retrieved March 26, 2008 at http://video.msn.com/?mkt=en-us&fg=rss&vid=269d9ac2-2433-4c6e-ac13-de63fd17db65&from=34
Vlasic, B. (2008) Dismal Year Is Forecast for Car Sales. March 20, 2008. New York Times. Business. Retrieved March 26, 2008 at http://www.nytimes.com/2008/03/20/business/20auto.html?_r=1&oref=slogin
wonderful job helping session Even I paying a fee services I Thank I forever grateful assistance provided a difficult time life. I ! Sincerely, Jane Since I work a Lexus Dealership, I choose "Lexus Corporation" assignment
Impact of Lexus Corporation mission, vision, and stakeholders on its overall success
A company's mission and vision statements provide answers to questions regarding where the company is going, what the company values, and what it does Whitbred, Skalski, Bracken, & Lieberman, 2010.
They both relate to the company's main purpose and they communicate this purpose to the employees, customers, investors, and dealers who are its key stakeholders. A company that has a mission and vision that is clearly communicated, collectively shared, and widely understood perform better and are highly successful. Having a mission and vision statement that the company can refer to, has allowed the company employees who are its primary stakeholders…
Choi, S. (2011). Towards an operational model of corporate governance. [Article]. International Journal of Technology Management & Sustainable Development, 10(2), 165-179. doi: 10.1386/tmsd.10.2.165_1
Hill, C.W.L., & Jones, G.R. (2012). Strategic Management: An Integrated Approach. Cheriton House, North Way, Andover, Hampshire, SP10 5BE: Cengage South-Western.
Hoover, C. (2010). The Strategic Communication Plan. [Article]. FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, 79(8), 16-21.
Lynch, R.L. (2006). Corporate strategy. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Financial Times Prentice Hall.
Toyota Beginning and Emergence
The Market for the Company
The Major Partners and Suppliers
Toyota Supply Chain
Dedicated Transport Service
The Green Supply Chain
Freight Flow of Toyota
The Transport Improvement Plan
Dedicated Transport Service
Integration of services
Division of Duties at the Plant Level for Better Accountability
Mapping logistics flows
The Future of the Transport Improvement Plan
Production by region
Sales by region
Toyota is the biggest single producer and the second biggest producer of cars in the world, after General Motors.
The Toyota Motor Corporation was founded in 1937 by Kiichiro Toyoda. It is headquartered in Toyota city in Japan with regional offices and factories all around the globe. The company primarily manufactures automobiles but also has business interests in robotics, financial services and biotechnology. It employs a huge number of people and is among the top…
Antony, J., Caine, P., & Escamilla, J. (2003). Lean Sigma [production and supply chain management]. Manufacturing Engineer, 82(2), 40-42. doi:10.1049/me:20030203
Automotivelogisticsmagazine.com,. (2015). Automotive Logistics - Toyota's total supply chain vision. Retrieved 25 February 2015, from http://www.automotivelogisticsmagazine.com/interview/total-supply-chain-vision
Chambers, K. (2008). Toyota. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press.
DALLERY, Y., & LIBEROPOULOS, G. (2000). Extended kanban control system: combining kanban and base stock. IIE Transactions, 32(4), 369-386. doi:10.1080/07408170008963914
hy the huge disparity in viewpoints when the science has been empirically established for twenty years or more? Journalist Bryan alsh references sociologists from Michigan State and Oklahoma State Universities (Riley Dunlap and Aaron McCright, respectively), who say there has been a "well-financed effort on the part of conservative groups and corporations to distort global-warming science" (alsh, 2011). In the book written by Dunlap and McCright (the Oxford Handbook of Climate Change and Society) they assert that global climate change science has been "assaulted" by fossil-fuel corporations, conservative think tanks" for over twenty years.
Hence, in conclusion, one way to spread the word to consumers and citizens is to battle back against the propaganda that seeks to deny the truth about climate change. In addition, very simple changes in lifestyles (using CFLs, taking the bus, hanging clothes out to dry, keeping the car tuned up, and sealing up leaks and…
Chevrolet. (2012). Somebody Has to Be First. Chevrolet VOLT. Retrieved March 8, 2012, from http://www.chevrolet.com/volt-electric-car/ .
Environmental Protection Agency. (2011). Frequently Asked Questions About Global Warming
And Climate Change: Back to Basics. Retrieved March 8, 2012, from http://www.epa.gov/climatechange .
Greenercars.org. (2010). Green Driving Tips. Retrieved March 9, 2012, from http://www.greenercars.org/drivingtips.htm .
Toyota Marketing Strategy
What marketing exactly is?
Marketing is a very unique set of activities which show a great and valuable impact on the entire organization. A company cannot sell its all products to a single customer or at a same market. There are numerous markets and they all are diverse according to their demand and buying requirements. That's why each company needs to identify its market segmentation, market segmentation procedure, pattern of segmentation, basis of segmenting consumers and business market. Many companies use to be target oriented and they develop a target-marketing. They first identify their segments, and then set targets for each segment. After this, they manufacture their products according to their targeted market (Armstrong & Kotler, 2003).
Three Important Steps of Target Marketing
Identify and profile distinct groups of buyers who might require separate products or market mixes is known as "market segmentation" (Sun, 2009).
Armstrong, G. & Kotler, P., 2002. Marketing: an introduction. International edition ed. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Dobni, B., 2002. A model for implementing service excellence in the financial services. Journal of financial services marketing, pp.40-42.
Drummond, G. & Ensor, 2005. Introduction to marketing concepts. UK: Oxford.
Peter, M., 1996. What is strategy? In Harvard business review. pp.61-69.
General Motors, along with the other major American automotive manufactures, fought attempts to instate more stringent emissions requirements upon vehicles. Toyota worked on its hybrid fleet, using research and development to answer the challenge posed by environmental regulators. Ideally, this is the response of companies to regulation, and the prosperity of Toyota and the failure of GM was once viewed as a cautionary tale. As consumers do not always buy what is 'good for them,' and good for the environment, regulatory pressures are required to eliminate or tax products and foods that harm the environment, such as gas-guzzling cars, corn-fed beef and pesticides. This makes using these products either illegal or more expensive and costly for consumers, thus creating an artificially higher demand for more environmentally-friendly products and increasing the incentive for companies to provide other products.
The problem with viewing regulation as a solution to environmental and economic problems,…
experienced a series of extreme and devastating weather events including Hurricane Katrina's destruction of New Orleans, Louisiana and other parts of the south in 2005, flooding in Europe in 2005, heavy snowfall in Europe in 2010 and 2011, and flooding throughout Asia from 2005 to the present. Many of these weather patterns are related to El Nino or La Nina storms, which are two-to-eight-year weather patterns where changing wind streams pick up warm surface water from the oceans and increases humidity, according to Tim Flannery in his 2005 book The Weather Makers. When the clouds reach a saturation point, they release horrific storms and subsequent floods in some parts of the world and parching droughts in others.
Extreme weather caused by warming oceans is one of the many environmental disasters scientist link to global warming, which is the increasing warming of the planet. In the midst of a cold winter,…
S. pp). For more than ten years, Chinese officials have stated that production from Chinese firms investing overseas is more secure than imports purchased on the international market (U.S. pp). In order to secure more reliable access, Chinese firms are being directed to invest in projects in the Caspian region, Russia, the Middle East and South America (U.S. pp).
The National Intelligence Council's report also states that Europe's energy needs will probably not grow to the same extent as those of the developing world, partly because of Europe's expected lower economic growth and more efficient use of energy (U.S. pp). Europe's increasing preference for natural gas, combined with depleting reserves in the North Sea, will provide an added boost to political efforts that are already under way to strengthen ties with Russia and North Africa, since gas requires a higher level of political commitment by both sides in designing and…
"Globalization and Energy Supply: Strategic Risk in the 21st Century."
A Deloitte Research Viewpoint. May 2004.
Harris, Martha Caldwell. "The Globalization of Energy Markets."
This article serves as an important reminder of the frequent conflict between science and politics. Science suggests two different hypothesis -- one, that the Kyoto Protocols are feasible, another that they are not. Democrats, in defiance of an unpopular president who is largely viewed as sympathetic to big business interests and hostile to the environment; wish to pass more stringent mandatory requirements, as they are proud their new legislative majority. Industry analysts say these standards are impossible to meet. Environmental lobbying groups with a different political agenda challenge industry scientists. Much of the technology used to cut emissions is in an experimental stage, and it is uncertain if it is economically feasible or even effective. The report also suggests consumers purchase more hybrid cars, but consumer concern for fuel efficiency seems to be waning rather than increasing, unlike the presence of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Congress can limit consumer…
Field, Barry C. & Martha K. Field. (2006). Environmental Economics: An Introduction.
4th Edition. Boston: Irwin/McGraw Hill.
Wald, Matthew. (15 Feb 2007). "Study Questions Prospects for Much Lower Emissions."
The New York Times. Retrieved 16 Feb 2007 at http://www.nytimes.com/2007/02/15/business/15carbon.html?ref=science&pagewanted=print