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Hypothesis Testing Essays (Examples)

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Working With a Hypothesis
Words: 522 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: White Paper Paper #: 41065239
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In this week what was interesting in the realm of hypothesis testing is the t-test.

All areas of science make use of t-test. One of the major applications of that t-test is to provide means to research questions. In hypothesis building, it is very important to form correct and factual research questions. Along with the formation, researchers also need to have a broad idea of the possible answers to the hypothesis which can help identify the direction of the research. Sometimes referred to as "Student's t-test," it was named after the person who helped in the study of the distribution of the means from within a small sample way back in 1890. The student was a pseudo name of William Gosset found out that the means are normally distributed only is cases when it is possible to know the actual standard deviation in the population in case of all…


Gordon Lan, K., Soo, Y., Siu, C., & Wang, M. (2005). The Use of Weighted Z -Tests in Medical Research. Journal Of Biopharmaceutical Statistics, 15(4), 625-639. 

Witte, R. & Witte, J. (2004). Statistics. [Hoboken, NJ]: J. Wiley.

People Test Hypotheses A Hypothesis
Words: 929 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47833442
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Ultra violet light affects many people, and several experiments may be done to either support or disapprove the hypothesis. Approval of the hypothesis forms a theory that people who are highly exposed to ultra violet light have higher chances of getting skin cancer. Theories on some scientific approach may serve as sources for theories. Observation of people's behavior may lead to development of hypothesis. This includes looking at how people dress during certain times or what they do at certain times of the year. esults obtained over a research or experiment may lead to development of a theory. Experience of the scientists in their work may be a source of hypothesis and theory. Many things happen around that nobody can explain them scientifically. The scientists come with a hypothesis about something and do numerous tests and observations to know how some things happen Eberhardt, 2003()

ole of hypothesis and theory…


Dembo, a., & Peres, Y. (1994). A Topological Criterion for Hypothesis Testing. The Annals of Statistics, 22(1), 106-117.

Eberhardt, L.L. (2003). What Should We Do about Hypothesis Testing? The Journal of Wildlife Management, 67(2), 241-247.

Loosen, F. (1997). A Concrete Strategy for Teaching Hypothesis Testing. The American Statistician, 51(2), 158-163.

Moschopoulos, P.G., & Davidson, M.L. (1985). Hypothesis Testing in Anova under Multinomial Sampling. Sankhy?: The Indian Journal of Statistics, Series B (1960-2002), 47(3), 301-309.

The Use of Probability Values in Statistical Testing
Words: 848 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61379916
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Suitable P-Value for a Clinical Trial

Statistical testing to determine whether results are significant is extremely useful in all types of research. In most cases, where a significant level, or p-value, is being chosen, a p-value of .05 is deemed to be sufficiently accurate. However, while this may be suitable for many types of research, it may be argued that in clinical trials from drugs, a lower p value may be more appropriate, due to the nature of the research. To understand this, it is necessary to understand what the p-value is, what it signifies.

The p value gives a probability, but is easy to misunderstand, as it indicates the level of support for the null hypothesis, with the probability level used to determine whether to accept or reject the null hypothesis. The p-value provides the probability of gaining an effect at the same level if the null hypothesis is…


Berenson, A, (2006, May 31), Merck Admits a Data Error on Vioxx, The New York Times, retrieved 13 November 2015 from 

Cowen, G. (1997). Statistical Data Analysis. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Null and Alternative Hypothesis
Words: 671 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 94750939
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Statistical Terms

The author of this report has been asked to answer three broad questions about certain statistical terms and concepts. The first one of those will be standard deviation. The second of the three will be hypothesis testing. The final question will center on standard error and what it means. While statistics may be daunting and intimidating, the concepts and terms used in statistics parlance are not hard to understand or comprehend so long as they are explained and quantified carefully.

The first overall question is what precisely standard deviation happens to be. To put it simply, standard deviation is how dispersed a set of numbers are. For example, the numbers 1, 2 and 3 are very close together so the standard deviation value would be rather small. However, the numbers 1, 1000 and 1,000,000 would have a very large standard deviation because the overall range of the numbers…


Investopedia. (2007). Null Hypothesis Definition | Investopedia. Investopedia. Retrieved 4 July 2015, from 

Investopedia. (2010). Standard Error Definition | Investopedia. Investopedia. Retrieved 4 July 2015, from 

Math Is Fun. (2015). Standard Deviation and Variance. Retrieved 4 July 2015, from 

Stat Trek. (2015). Alternative Hypothesis: Definition. Retrieved 4 July 2015, from

Testing Hypothesis in Chapter Four
Words: 37819 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69922441
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Management Strategy to Utilize Meta-Analysis Technique for Nuclear Energy and Waste Disposal and Create Social Sustainability

This research proposal explores the link between public perceptions of nuclear power, how those perceptions are formed, and what influence those opinions have on energy policy. These issues are important in light of two realities. First, nuclear energy is declining in its share of global energy. Second, nuclear energy offers what might well be the best solution to climate change. Given the threat posed by climate change, it makes sense that nuclear power would be increasing in share, not decreasing. This esearch proposal seeks to look at some of the issues facing nuclear power, and how it can overcome these issues to increase share going forward.

Table of Contents

Abstract ii

Dedication iii

Acknowledgements iv

Table of Contents v

List of Tables viii

List of Figures vii

Chapter One: Introduction 1

Topic Overview 7…


Abokeng, A.K. (2005). Understanding Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 90, 845-848.

Alic, J. (2012). Six things to do with nuclear waste: None of them ideal. Oil Retrieved June 17, 2015 from 

Alley, W. & Alley, R. (2013). Too hot to touch: The problem of high-level nuclear waste. Review by Konikow, L. (2013). Hydrogeology Journal.

Bangert-Drowns, Robert L. & Rudner, Lawrence M. (1991).Meta-analysis in educational research.Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation, 2(8). Retrieved September 4, 2008 from

Testing for Empathy
Words: 678 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 15193584
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measurable assessment the determines a specific trait or attribute. For this example I have chosen the quality of "empathy" to be evaluated. The psychological test will be based on a Likert 5-point scale, where the testing subject will answer the question with a number 1-5 where 5 being the most likelihood to agree with the statement.

I feel that the world is mostly subjective experience.

I express emotions easily and readily.

I am in interested in philanthropy.

Others' feelings are important to me.

I think of others first.

I offer help when I think others may need it.

My feelings are often hurt at the things I see around me.

I enjoy being uplifted by the stories of others.

I feel a strong connection with others.

When people feel emotion I often feel it too.

Guidelines in Creating Psychological Tests

Psychological testing is the attempt to standardized and quantify certain…


Busch, M. (1993). Using Likert Scales in L2 Research A Researcher Comments…. TESOL Quarterly, 27(4), 733-736.

Davis, M.H. (1994). Empathy: A social psychological approach. Westview Press.

Spreng*, R.N., McKinnon*, M.C., Mar, R.A., & Levine, B. (2009). The Toronto Empathy Questionnaire: scale development and initial validation of a factor-analytic solution to multiple empathy measures. Journal of personality assessment, 91(1), 62-71.

Efficient Market Hypothesis Stats
Words: 976 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Hypothesis Chapter Paper #: 64730527
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Efficient Market Hypothesis

As previously discussed, the weak form efficiency suggests that share prices should follow a random walk, in that each change in share price is unpredictable based on past information. Formally, this is expressed in the following relationship:

where the variables are independent and identically distributed random variables representing equity prices at times 1,2,3…,k. So X is the equity price, the equity price at a point in time n and the change in equity price at any given time is not explained by the past equity price.

The augmented Dickey-Fuller test considers the following model:

where p is the lag order of the process which can be determined by the examination of autocorrelation and autocorrelation plots, and are the factors determined by the regression. The unit root test has the null hypothesis, and the rejection of the null hypothesis implies that the time series is stationary. The variable…


Chen, J. (2008). Variance ratio tests of random walk hypothesis of the euro exchange rate. International Business & Economics Research Journal. Vol. 7 (12) 97-105.

Jamaani, F. & Roca, E. (2015). Are the regional Gulf stock markets weak-form efficient as single stock markets and as a regional stock market? Research in International Business & Finance. Vol. 33 (2015) 221-246.

Wright, J. (2000). Alternative variance-ratio tests using ranks and signs. Journal of Business and Economic Statistics. Vol. 18 (2000) 1-9.

Psychology Testing Psychometric Emotional Intelligence
Words: 12427 Length: 45 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 79715879
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As emotionally intelligent employees are reportedly more content, conscientious and committed in the workplace, businesses and organizations are repeatedly advised to recruit and retain these individuals. Abraham (2006), nevertheless, reports that the strongest findings emerging from her study was.".. The effect of job control on emotional intelligence." She contends that emotionally intelligent employees will not just naturally thrive in their workplace; that the work environment needs to provide independence in decision making for employees to succeed.

Aims and Objectives


To explore concepts encapsulated in and related to EQ testing, through intensive research and appropriate assessment of collected data.

esearch for this project proposes to increase understanding of EQ testing, as well as, complementary components.

Each objective presented in this proposal reflects an area of interest which will be expounded upon. As Objective 5, however, mirrors a primary consideration, plans are to include numerous samplings of related studies.

1.2 Objective…


Abraham, Rebecca. "The Role of Job Control as a Moderator of Emotional Dissonance and Emotional Intelligence -- Outcome Relationships.(Statistical Data Included)," the Journal of Psychology, March 1, 2000.

Bar-on, Reuven Ph.D (2005). "The World's First Scientific Measure of Emotional Intelligence."(2006). PEN Psychodiagnostics [26 September 2006]. .


Before You Start Your Fruit and Fibre Diet You Should Speak to This Man. (2005, February 9). Western Mail (Cardiff, Wales), p. 12.

Patient Perceptions of Maternal HIV Testing Ob-Gyn
Words: 771 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 74299762
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Patient Perceptions of Maternal HIV Testing

Ob-Gyn Maternal HIV Testing Study

Coleman et. al., (2009) Patient Perceptions of Obstetrician-gynecologists' Practices Related to HIV Testing. Maternal Child Health Journal 13: 355-363.

The study objectives were to identify the percentage of women who had been tested for HIV, explore the perceptions of women patients about HIV testing and ascertain their knowledge about their own HIV risk status, to determine the primary reasons patients refuse to be tested for HIV, and to learn what patients recall about how their obstetrician-gynecologists' introduced the topic of HIV testing.

The authors hypothesized that pregnant women, women seeking preconception care, and women with risk factors for HIV infection would recall their obstetrician-gynecologists recommending HIV testing" (Coleman, et al., 2009)

Overall research goal & recommendation. The purpose of the study was to identify if patient-physician communication about HIV risks and testing to pregnant women is consistent with current…

High-Stakes Testing Will This Be
Words: 1383 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 48187298
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Although "one would expect higher quality assessment instruments that produce better information to make education decisions given NCLB-imposed penalties for districts associated with poor performance on the test...many states struggle with budget deficits and funding restrictions. They cannot allocate the funds necessary to improve the testing programs. States are forced to rely on large-scale assessments with too few questions and a narrow focus on skills and knowledge that are easily measured....representatives from the NJDOE [New Jersey Department of Education] have admitted publicly that finances, not technical integrity, drive the state's assessment program... [Their] current philosophy is 'do the best with what we have'" and is based upon the assumption that some testing, of whatever kind, is better than not testing at all (Tienken & ilson, 2007, p.16)

The irony is palpable -- the high-stakes nature of testing requires teachers, operating under finite limitations of time and money, to focus…

Works Cited

Lee, Jaekyung. (2008). Is test-driven external accountability effective? Synthesizing the evidence from cross-state causal-comparative and correlational studies. Review of Educational Research. 78(3). 608-644. Retrieved February 24, 2009, from Research

Library database. (Document ID: 1580752961).

Marchant, Gregory J. (2004, April). What is at stake with high stakes testing? A discussion of issues and research. The Ohio Journal of Science. Retrieved from February 24, 2009. 

Tienken, Christopher H. & Michael J. Wilson. (2007, December 17). Technical characteristics of state assessments of skills and knowledge. Report retrieved February 24, 2009, from Fair

Testable Hypothesis That Residents Spend Less Time
Words: 861 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 26482310
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testable hypothesis.

That residents spend less time teaching ever since promulgation of Duty-Hour estrictions (DH) and that this impacts their well-being and perception of patient-care.

Question 2 What research subjects or data sources did the researchers use in the study? 164 residents in internal medicine in UCSF. A survey was used that was first tested in a pilot study on noninternal medicine house-staff at the medical center and recent graduates of residency programs as well as reviewed by experts in medical education, outcomes research, and psychometrics. esearchers also used 'emotional exhaustion' scale to assess participants' level of exhaustion with their work.

Question 3 What are the specific variables of interest, as well as the possible confounds and covariates the researcher should consider? What are the data types and levels of these variables?

The specific variables of interest were the amount of time residents spent teaching before February 2003 compared to…


Goroll A.H, Sirio C, Duffy FD, et al. (2004). A new model for accreditation of residency programs in internal medicine. Annals of Internal Medicine, 140, 902 -- 9.

Chi-Square With Base Hypothesis That
Words: 731 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: A-Level Coursework Paper #: 58157858
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2 = 11.39

This value does exceed the critical ?2 value for df = 2 at ? = 0.05. Therefore, we can assume that one of the observed values is significantly different from the expected value for that group. Without post-hoc pairwise tests it is impossible to say exactly which group is different. We can make an educated guess, however, that the proportion of 55+ shoppers in store a is statistically different from what would be expected by chance.

3. Collapse the response categories in the following table so that it meets the assumption of the Chi-square test, then perform the test.

Ownership (Collapsed)




Some High School or Below



High School graduate











2 = 6.49. This does not exceed the critical ?2 value for…

Animal Testing the Use of
Words: 309 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 76159435
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This is what makes drug testing on animals so very important in the pharmaceutical industry.


Cami, Jordi. (1991). Perspectives and future on testing for abuse liability in humans. British Journal of Addiction. 86(12), p1529-1531.

De Boer, Bonita. (2009). IV Drugs, Vaccines and Animal Testing. Retrieved March 19, 2010,

from Avert Web site:

Greaves, Peter, Williams, Andrew and Eve, Malcolm. (2004). First dose of potential new medicines to humans: how animals help. Nature Reviews Drug Discovery. 3(3), p226-

oudebine, L.-M. (2005). Use of Transgenic Animals to Improve uman ealth and Animal

Production. Reproduction in Domestic Animals. 40(4), p269-281.

Wanjek, Christopher. (2008). Why Lab Animals are Still Used. Retrieved March 19, 2010, from Live Science Web site:

Houdebine, L.-M. (2005). Use of Transgenic Animals to Improve Human Health and Animal

Production. Reproduction in Domestic Animals. 40(4), p269-281.

Wanjek, Christopher. (2008). Why Lab Animals are Still Used. Retrieved March 19, 2010, from Live Science Web site:

Psychology Animal Behaviour the Hypothesis
Words: 614 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29486635
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The same variables of the cranial and caudal sacs would be observed in order to determine if the sounds being produced where indeed coming from these organs or not. It may be that these two organs are either the source of the sound or are in someway related to the sound that these researchers heard during the tank experiment coming from the swimbladder.

Did the newspaper article describe the research article correctly? Explain.

The newspaper article "Hearing the Repertoire of a Very Fearsome Fish" by Bhanoo (2011) did a good job in describing the research article correctly. It described how the researchers used piranhas to study and how they used a hydrophone to record underwater sounds coming from the piranhas. It described how the sounds made were recorded during fighting, charging and frontal display. The author explained how it was previously believed that piranhas produced only a single barking sound,…

Works Cited

Bhanoo, S.N. 2011. "Hearing the Repertoire of a Very Fearsome Fish." Web. Available at:  oire%20of%20fish&st=cse

Millot, S., Vandewalle, P. & Parmentier, E. 2011. "Sound production in red-bellied piranhas

(Pygocentrus nattereri, Kner): an acoustical, behavioural and morphofunctional study." The Journal of Experimental Biology, 214, 3613-3618.

Common Property and Animal Testing
Words: 726 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89483570
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Q1. List ten real-world common property resources with which you are familiar. Describe an example of one of these common property resources that is not (tragically) overexploited (use the term “institution/s” in your discussion).

The so-called tragedy of the commons is defined as the fact that people tend to exploit common resources to the maximum degree possible for their own benefit, thus indirectly harming other or future people who could benefit from the resource (“Tragedy of the Commons,” 2018). Examples of common property include public parks, fish in the ocean, public monuments, highways, clean water, clean air, public bathrooms, trees, schools, and public playing fields. Although some of these resources are, indeed, exploited, this is not the case with all of them.

For example, public monuments are usually relatively respected by individuals (although there is a risk of them being defaced). But one of the reasons for this may be…

Achievement Testing
Words: 325 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 50136462
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Achievement Testing

Howell and ueda in their article Achievement Testing with Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Students question the veracity of the widely used Standardized Norm-eferenced Achievement Test (SNAT) in measuring systematic differences among group means. As they point out, SNAT characteristics, are: completely nonaligned with instruction; assume a uniform curriculum, schooling, language proficiency and sociocultural experience across student groups; and are designed for an outside purpose of formulating education policy. Given the limitations of SNATs, Howell and ueda explore the alternative Curriculum-Based Measurement (CBM) and the Performance Assessment (PA) approaches to student achievement. Though more aligned to classroom curriculum and instruction, these alternatives too have their limitations. The CBM focus on task-analytic decomposition of complex domains, for example, is of concern for teachers of language minority students who commonly use more holistic or 'whole-language' approaches. Similarly, the reliance of PA on the use of complex and interactive tasks is more…


Howell, K.W. & Rueda, R. Achievement Testing with Culturally and Linguistically Diverse

Students. Handbook of Multicultural Assessment. p. 253-284

Weiler, J. (Apr. 1998). Recent Changes in School Desegregation. ERIC/CUE Digest. No. 133

Technical Analysis in the Implication of Efficient Market Hypothesis on Silver Market

The thesis is for the study of simple commonly used technical trading rules, which are applied on silver market. It covers years 1989 to 2005. A famous study carried out by Lakonishok, Lebaon and in year, 1992 has clearly shown that technical analysis can lead to abnormal prices when compared with buy-and-hold strategy. Other studies have been carried out and found out that technical trading rules cannot over-rule passive investment management strategy. The study uses Brock et al.'s methodology. Several trading rules are discussed (Dawson & Steeley 2003).


In financial theory, efficiency of financial silver market is highly disputed. This has led to many attempts to explain efficiency of silver markets. Eugene.F. Fama formulated the most famous definition in 1970 referred to as the, Efficient Silver market Hypothesis (EHM). The basis of the hypothesis is that…


Alexander, S.S. (1964) 'Price Movements in Speculative Markets: Trends or Random Walks'. Industrial management Review 5 (2), 25-46

Brock, W., Lakonishok, J., & LeBaron, B. (1992) 'Simple Technical Trading Rules and the Stochastic Properties of Stock Returns'. Journal of finance 4, (5), 1731-1764

Chang, P.H., & Osler, C.L. (1999) 'Methodical Madness: Technical Analysis and the Irrationality of Exchange Rate Forecasts'. Economic Journal 109 (458), 636-661

Dawson, E.R., & Steeley, J. (2003) 'On the Existence of Visual Technical Patterns in the Uk Stock Market'. Journal of Business Finance and Accounting 30 (1-2), 263-293

Audiology the Hypothesis of This
Words: 690 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 3560016
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In a separate study, researchers at Brandeis University concluded that aging adults with moderate hearing loss may spend cognitive energy on hearing accurately to the extent that their ability to remember spoken language suffers (Medical, 2005).

Although the studies above may have determined that age has some effect on loss of cognitive function, no definitive determination has been made as to whether hearing loss is the cause or simply a part of the reason for loss of cognitive function.

The research proposed will examine the effects of hearing loss on cognitive function regarding verbal recognition and performance of auditory processing. Whether hearing loss in individuals of any age affects their loss of cognitive function will be determined by testing 60 subjects who have experienced hearing loss due to aging or other reasons, compared to a control group of comparable subjects without hearing loss by administering the same test to them.…


Andersson, U. 2002, Deterioration of the phonological processing skills in adults with an acquired severe hearing loss. European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, Vol 14, Jul 2002, 335-352.

Balota, D.A. (Ed.). 2004, Cognitive Psychology, New York: Psychology Press.

Gates, G.A. Rees, T, S, 1997, Hear ye? Hear ye! Successful auditory aging. West J. Med. Oct. 1997, 167(4): 247-252.

McArthur, G.M. And Bishop, D.V.M. 2004. Which people with specific language impairment have auditory processing deficits? Cognitive Neuropsychology. Vol www.informaworld.com1, Feb 2004.

In other words, if the study is inordinately time-consuming for the purpose of doing something non-academic or otherwise beneficial, is it responsible research to ask young people to participate?


External validity concerns "whether results from experiments in one setting (time and place) will be obtained in other settings" (Maxfield and Babbie 122). One external concern is the use of a middle-class suburban neighborhood. If this study was done in an upper-class neighborhood, a rural neighborhood, an urban neighborhood, or a low-income neighborhood, the results might vary greatly. In terms of internal validity, the causality of aggressive video games for aggressive behavior might be difficult to prove given all the other stimuli that can potentially cause aggression in children (including violence in other media like music, television, and film, violent or aggressive living circumstances which may not be disclosed to the researcher, etc.).


If boys are found to be…

Works Cited

Maxfield, Michael G., and Earl R. Babbie. Basics of Research Methods for Criminal Justice and Criminology. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 2009.

Religious Ritual and Cooperation Testing for a
Words: 598 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 99390854
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Religious Ritual and Cooperation: Testing for a Relationship on Israeli Religious and Secular Kibbutzim," authors Richard Sosis and Bradley J. Ruffle investigate the link between religious ritual and group solidarity among a sample of kibbutzim in Israel. Sosis is a faculty member of the Department of Anthropology at the University of Connecticut at Storrs. Ruffle, on the other hand, is an economist with the Ben-Gurion University in Beer Sheva, Israel. Ruffle's contacts and familiarity with Israeli kibbutzim were invaluable in facilitating this research.

The theoretical basis of this research was Emile Durkheim's pronouncement that religious rituals functioned to promote group solidarity. Durkheim argued that religious rituals help to maintain social cohesion and to promote social stability within their community. Though this idea is widely-accepted in social science circles, few empirical studies have actually been conducted to test this theory. Furthermore, no empirical studies have been conducted to see how religious…

Works Cited

Sosis, Richard and Bradley J. Ruffle. 2003. "Religious ritual and cooperation: Testing for a relationship on Israeli religious and secular kibbutzim." Current Anthropology. December. 44(5): 713-722.

Group Will Behave We Make
Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 69154780
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Given that hypothesis testing holds the potential to provide keen business insights, the question that immediately arises is 'how does one conducts a hypothesis test?' It is a five step process.

1. First we formulate the null hypothesis (Ho), the statement or claim that will be tested. Using our earlier widget example, the null hypothesis (Ho) would be "Productivity is low in the widget making department because morale is low" (Bushman, 2007).

2. Next we formulate the alternative hypothesis (Ha), the exact opposite of the null hypothesis. The alternative hypothesis (Ha) would be "productivity is unrelated to morale."

3. We then identify a test statistic that can be used to measure the truth of the null hypothesis (more on this shortly).

4. We determine the P-value is the probability of obtaining a test statistic at least as extreme as the one that was actually observed, assuming that the null hypothesis…

Gall's Figuring Out the Importance
Words: 1066 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Article Review Paper #: 46438671
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Gall states sampling strategies like these may be incompletely accurate due to the verbal data given and artifacts researched. it's never 100% accurate, the sampling, due to the fact the data is gathered through verbal, at times, unproven means. Levin names certain strategies that could easily be devoid of accuracy due to researcher's lack of funds. "View that data-analysis strategies such as cross-validation, boot-strapping, and jackknifing "indicate the likelihood of replication" (Nix and Barnette) or "may provide an estimate of replicability" (Daniel). For readers not in the know and who might be misled by such semantic twists, allow me to elaborate briefly. A "replication" defined by corroborating analyses based on alternative slices or samples of the same data" (esearch in the Schools 1998)

Statistical power ought to be included in research because it implies the nature of accuracy. "Some of Nix and Barnette's assertions about statistical power and a study's…


Statistical Significance vs. Practical Significance of Research Results. 2012.Statistical Significance vs. Practical Significance of Research Results. [ONLINE] Available at: . [Accessed 12 May 2012]

Research in the Schools (1998). Volume: 5, Issue: 2, Publisher: MIT Press, Pages: 43-53. [ONLINE] Available at: . [Accessed 12 May 2012]

Norway Brand Statistical Summary and
Words: 1712 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Data Analysis Chapter Paper #: 34937089
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Perceptions of sustainability improved slightly in the experimental group, however this change was not significant and the null hypothesis is not rejected (p=.32). The flag exposure did not improve perceptions of sustainability to a noteworthy degree.


Once more, there was statistically significant change -- and once more, it was so significant that the null hypothesis would be almost certainly rejected (p-value is effectively 0) -- but that this change was again in the wrong direction. Flag perception (or possibly the confounding variable of healthy eating desires, though that seems far less likely for this item) is correlated with a significant decrease in perceptions of traditionality, not an increase as predicted in the alternative hypothesis. The null hypothesis remains in place, therefore.


With one confounding variable between the groups, the examination of the given experimental variable (i.e. The inclusion of the flag on the product image) and its…

John and Sons Company Null
Words: 370 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 6605294
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To test whether the research results are statistically significant an appropriate test of statistical significance should be run. A chi-square "goodness-of-fit test is used to determine whether a set of proportions have specified numerical values" (Hypothesis testing, 2009, Quick MBA). However, in this specific instance, since it is likely that multiple batch tests for defects will be run, an ANOVA test would be more appropriate: "The primary purpose of ANOVA is to test for differences between multiple means. Whereas the t-test can be used to compare two means, ANOVA is needed to compare three or more means. If multiple t-tests were applied, the probability of a TYPE I error (rejecting a true null hypothesis) increases as the number of comparisons increases" (Hypothesis testing, 2009, Quick MBA). A one-way ANOVA examines whether multiple means differ. "ANOVA calculates the ratio of the variation between groups to the variation within groups" (Hypothesis testing,…


Hypothesis testing. (2009). Quick MBA. Retrieved December 9, 2009 at 

Lane, David M. (2009). Null hypothesis. Hyperstat: Online contents.

Retrieved December 9, 2009 at

T Tests in Quantitative Research
Words: 1090 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70463152
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T-tests in Quantitative Doctoral Business Research
Quantitative research is one of the methodologies that is commonly used in doctoral business research. The use of this approach is attributable to the availability of more data that requires analysis to help generate competitive advantage in the business field. The use of quantitative research entails conducting statistical analysis, which involves the use of different methods such as t-tests and ANOVA. T-test is used in hypothesis testing in quantitative studies to determine whether variations between the averages of two groups is unlikely to have emerged because of a random chance in selection of a sample. In essence, t-tests help to compare whether two groups have varying average values. In light of the role and significance of the assumptions underlying each parametric test, this paper provides a comparison of one-sample, paired-samples, and independent-sample t-tests within the context of quantitative doctoral business research. The comparison is…

Stat Notes Sampling Error and
Words: 442 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 61852842
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Standard deviation is a measure of how far the data is spread from the mean, and can be used to assess the accuracy of the sample mean.

Type I errors are improper rejections of the null hypothesis.

Type II errors are failures to reject the null hypothesis hen it should be rejected.

Level of Significance measures the likelihood of committing a Type I error.

Power analysis measures the risk of committing a Type II error.

Regression analysis measures the relationship between two groups, and can be used to compare separate groups or the same group after an intervention. There are several ways to perform regression analysis.

Analysis of variance (ANOVA) measures the variance observed in groups of data and works to attribute observed variances to specific observed variables. There are different tests used to perform analysis depending on the type of data available and the desired information output.

Chi squared…

Lateral Thinking in Marketing
Words: 4723 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 39035761
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Marketing Plan can be defined as a written plan or document that refers to the particular organizations adaptation of a particular marketing strategy. It can also be defined as the written plan of a company that underlines the various marketing activities that the company would undertake in the following months or weeks. A marketing plan must include general information like for example, the particular service or product that is being offered by the organization, the pricing of the product or service, the target market, that in other words means the market in which the product or service is being proposed to be sold, and important information about the different competitors who offer similar products and services, and the marketing budget, that is the amount of money or finances that has been earmarked for the purpose of this particular marketing plan.

The success of a well-planned and well-executed marketing plan depends…


Bright Minds Shine. Retrieved at . Accessed on 2 September, 2004

Critical Thinking across the Curriculum. Retrieved at Accessed on 1 September, 2004

Frey, Chuck. New Book Provides Valuable Insights. June 23, 2003. Retrieved at Accessed on 3 September, 2004

Golden Business Ideas. Journal of Accountancy. April, 2000. Retrieved at . Accessed on 1 September, 2004

Psychology it Has Intended to Be a
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psychology, it has intended to be a branch of the sciences. For it to be considered science, psychology must not hypothesize without testing. It is unfortunate that the history of psychology is marked with failed hypothesis. For it to be ethical, it has to draw conclusions after a formal laboratory experiment with stringent protocol instead of retrospective studies that result from past occurrences.

Science share basic procedures and expectations, it tests theories and get results, those results can be tested by others and achieve the same results, this is a challenge with psychology. For instance, normal therapeutic treatments involve research, diagnosis and treatment, but many results are scientifically indistinguishable. There is limited distinction between research and treatment.

There are issues that play a fundamental role in evaluation of psychological theories. First, is whether the theory adequately and formally describes the framework that accounts for observed psychological and other empirical data.…


Kline, P. (1984). Psychology and Freudian Theory. Methuen.

Rozeboom, W.W. (1960). The Fallacy of Null Hypothesis Significance Test. Psychological Bulletin, 416-428.

Skinner, B.F. (1948). Walden Two.

Stangor, C. (2007). Research Methods for the Behavioral Sciences. Boston: Houghton Mifflin

New Knowledge on Which Decisions
Words: 944 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56485707
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My accepting of the test hypothesis will be preceded by my rejecting of the null hypothesis.

Question 6

In the research question given in question 5, two variable types can be identified. These include the dependent and the independent variables. According to Hughes & Hayhoe (2007), the independent variable includes the intervention to be tested while the dependent variable essentially comprises of the result to be measured. In the research question outlined in question 5, the independent variable is caring for a pet. On the other hand, we have the dependent variable being the lifespan of a person over 65 to 75. According to McBurney and White (2009), the effects of the independent variable are reflected or mirrored on the dependent variable. In our case, caring for a pet which is the dependent variable can be said to be a measure of the behavior of the subject.

Question 7…


Hughes, M.A. & Hayhoe, G.F. (2007). A Research Premier for Technical Communication: Methods, Exemplars, and Analyses. Taylor & Francis

Kumar, R. (2011). Research Methodology: A Step-by-Step Guide for Beginners (3rd Ed). SAGE

McBurney, DH, & White, T.L. (2009). Research Methods. Cengage Learning

Managing Diversity in the Workplace
Words: 3480 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Multiple Chapters Paper #: 40904713
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Research will be useful to companies of all sizes and in all sectors of the market. Everyone is affected by diversity, whether they realize it or not. Companies that do not have a diverse workforce internally still come into contact with suppliers, customers, and others outside of the company who are from differing backgrounds. The research will benefit public and private companies of all sizes by allowing them to gain a greater understanding of diversity and the benefits of understanding those with a different outlook.

The study will also benefit other researchers in the fields of diversity, workforce management and other related topics. It will provide a solid foundation for future research into the area by providing a consistent definition that reflects today's changing workforce. This research will benefit many areas of study in the future and will play an important role in shaping diversity research in the future.


Akiyama (2008) synthesizes and supports the need for an organizational level campaign that will put current theories about diversity into practice. This article also touches on the topic of extending the meaning of diversity to include religious differences. Like many studies, the topic of extending the definition of diversity is presented in numerous studies. There is an unstated consensus in the literature that the definition of diversity needs to be extended to include other differences than race or national origin. However, although the topic was mentioned in numerous studies, no coordinated effort was made to form a consensus. This is a key gap in the literature that will be fulfilled by the proposed research study.

Another key gap lies in the ability to apply diversity to the workforce in a way that can take present theory and apply it in a manner that produces measurable results. The literature review highlights the need to apply the research to local settings, rather than relying on national averages and statistics. The purpose of this research is to encourage individual companies to apply the techniques that result from this study to the work environment within their organization. This need was echoed throughout the literature examined.

The key gap found in the literature review was

How Marketers are Impacted by Statistics
Words: 871 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 81840887
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Parameter Estimation, Inferences, and Tests of Difference

The benefits of parameter estimation are that the measurement gives you a sense of which customers are buying which products, what the production costs are, and how the profits will look. Essentially it allows one to use sample data to gauge the parameters of the distribution. By performing a type of test, the statistical analysis will tell you more about the population with a fitted distribution line curve depicting true values. This is a statistical way to evaluate or project one's profit-making potential based on the evidence or data available.

Types of parameters that marketing decision-makers would use would include location parameter, dispersion or scale parameter and shape parameter. Concentration parameter could also be of interest along with statistical parameters such as regression coefficients.

Examples of parameter methods that might be of interest to decision-makers in areas such as marketing would be probability…

Statistical Concepts Have Literally Thousands of Applications
Words: 940 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 21118543
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Statistical concepts have literally thousands of applications, but I will focus on those that apply to several major fields: political science, marketing, economics, social services, and insurance. Statistics are so key to the nature of these fields that most of them could not exist without concepts such as the median and sampling.

Political campaigns are designed to appeal to targeted demographics, which form the basis for blocks of voters. Whereas Abraham Lincoln wrote the Gettysburg address on the train to Pennsylvania on the back of an envelope, modern political speeches are designed to specifically appeal to a median group of voters, and to reflect the reasoning skills and personal tastes and values of these voters. A concept like the 'Axis of Evil,' seems adolescent to university professors and political analysts, but speech writers didn't have these people in mind when they created the concept; by definition, the median IQ is…

Business Ethics Development of International
Words: 9586 Length: 35 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 94839273
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Hypothesis Five

In the fifth hypothesis of measuring the business ethics levels of Taiwanese ITPs the Null and Alternative Hypotheses are defined as follows:

H0: In the ethical climate of independence, the business ethics level of Taiwanese ITP's is high.

H1: In the ethical climate of independence, the business ethics level of Taiwanese ITP's is low.

Results of Testing Hypothesis Five

It has been established in the fourth hypothesis that the greater the ethical climate of independence, the greater the level of ethical self-direction and ownership of ethical outcomes. This also holds true when the ethical climate of instrumental low. The adherence to self-defined ethical standards is high. When the specific variable of in this company, the employees are expected to do their job according to their personal belief of ethics is correlated against the variable of in this company, the employees can make decisions based on their personal judgment,…

Operational Definitions of Each of
Words: 2354 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46983839
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Second, the researcher's intense exposure to study of a case can bias the findings (the case study as a research method); at the least, there are significant opportunities for subjectivity in the implementation, presentation, and evaluation of case study research (Case studies). This high degree of subjectivity opens the door for ethical issues, particularly if the study is being sponsored by a special interest. Third, case studies involve too much investment of time and money to be appropriate for large-scale research projects (Case studies).

eyea and Nicoll (1997) discuss the many factors that researchers need to consider when selecting a sample for a research project. A researcher must first determine the population of interest (every person, event, or object that meets specific characteristics). If the population of interest has too many members to study, the researcher then needs to formulate a sampling strategy to obtain a subset of the population…


Beyea, S.C. And Nicoll, L.H. (1997, October).Selecting samples for research studies requires knowledge of the populations of interest. AORN Journal.;col1 

Case studies. 

Case study in psychology. 

Case study: Strengths and weaknesses.

air traffic
Words: 28110 Length: 102 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 54322150
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air traffic has continued to increase and it now constitutes a considerable proportion of the travelling public. The amount of long-hour flights has increased significantly. Based on the International Civil Aviation authority, air traffic can be anticipated to double amid till 2020. Airline travel, especially over longer distances, makes air travelers vulnerable to numerous facets that will impact their health and well-being. Particularly, the speed with which influenza spreads and mutates, via transportation routes, is the reason why the influenza pandemic is considered to be a huge threat to the human population. Pandemic is a term, which is used for a virus or microbe when it spreads over a large area, in severe cases even the whole world and large number of people start getting affecting by it (CDC, 2009).

In the past 300 years, there have been ten significant influenza pandemics outbreaks that have taken place in this world.…


Airports Council International (2009) Airport preparedness guidelines for outbreaks of communicable disease. Available at: (Accessed: 28 November 2011)

Bouma, G.D. (2002) The research process. 4th edn. Melbourne: Oxford University Press.

Brigantic, R., Delp, W., Gadgil A., Kulesz, J., Lee, R., Malone, J.D. (2009) U.S. airport entry screening in response to pandemic influenza: Modeling and analysis. Available at:  (Accessed: 28 November 2011)

Bush, George W. (2003a). Homeland security presidential directive -- 5: Management of domestic incidents. Available at:  (Accessed: 28 November 2011)

What Has Led to the Change in Custom Jewelry in Last 5 Years
Words: 13278 Length: 35 Pages Document Type: Dissertation Paper #: 23005687
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This study analyzes outsourcing trends in the next decade. The study assesses this by focusing on the past and current trends, problems and issues in outsourcing via semi-structured interviews. Major trends and processes will be revealed and assessed for their relevancy, depth and breadth.

Companies belonging to most industries are very much considered to be the units that are vertically integrated, or so-called usual industrial firms (Stigler, 1951), where activities in all links in value chain have been internally conducted. For example, gasoline of its own is delivered by 7-Eleven and it is also used to make ice and candy, also it had cows for producing milk which it previously used to sell (Gottfredson et al., 2005). At present, it is not delivering gasoline and ice or candy is not being made by it neither does it posses any cows. Contrarily, IBM used to make the computers containing their…


Adams, R.J., 2002. Retail pro-tability and sweatshops: a global dilemma. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services 9, 147-153.

Alexander, C., 1964. Notes on the Synthesis of Form. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.

Alexander, M., Young, D., 1996b. Outsourcing: where is the value? Long-Range Planning 29 (5), 728-730.

Ashkenas, R., Ulrich, D., Jick, T., Kerr, S., 1995. The Boundaryless Organization. Breaking the Chains of Organizational Structure. Jossey-Bass Publishers, San Francisco.

Preferences in Learning Between American
Words: 23082 Length: 65 Pages Document Type: Dissertation Paper #: 88878710
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The trainer will then focus on the steps to be taken to develop new skills. For example, if the trainer wants to talk about motivating, leading, negotiating, selling or speaking, it is best to start with what the learners do well before showing some chart on Maslow's theory, Posner's leadership practices, or selling skills from some standard package that has been develop elsewhere. Many foreign trainers make grave errors because they do not consider the values and beliefs of the trainee's culture. Training must make a fit with the culture of those being trained, including the material being taught, as well as the methods being used (Schermerhorn, 1994).

Abu-Doleh (1996) reports that Al-Faleh (1987), in his study of the culture influences on management development, asserts that "a country's culture has a great influence on the individual and managerial climate, on organizational behaviour, and ultimately on the types of management development…

Zangle or Parent Connect Is
Words: 4814 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 32315808
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Free access for students and teachers will be available at school and home at any time (Charp, 2002, p. 10).

Schools have also been helped by funding from corporations of various types, many of which see the need for a workforce in the future that is fully adept at using the new information technology, or that has some stake in assuring that a well-trained public is developed. Companies focusing on engineering and mathematics offer computer help to students, and some programs are more far-reaching:

lso, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation is donating $40 million to create small high schools across the United States to increase high school graduation and college attendance. Students will be able to earn both a high school diploma, and an associate's degree or two years of college credit. The effort includes the Carnegie Corporation of New York, the Ford Foundation and the W.K. Kellogg Foundation.…

Although widely accepted as a useful statistical tool, multiple regression and correlation analysis are fraught with dangers in estimating effect sizes when one uses a number of predictor variables in the linear equation. For example, it is highly unlikely that a large number of naturally occurring predictors will be statistically independent. When two or more variables are relatively highly correlated, the statistical estimation method of squared error minimization used in multiple regression is incapable of sorting out their independent effects on the dependent variable. This condition is referred to as multicollinearity and results in highly unstable regression coefficients (Pfaffenberger & Patterson, 1997).


Zangle is a system for providing information on student performance, assignments, and other matters to parents over the Internet, making it possible to keep this information flowing all year long and not simply during parent-teacher conferences. The intent is to enhance communication between teacher and parent and so to help change behavior and improve the performance of students, addressing problems as soon as they appear rather then waiting. This is a proposal for research to test whether the system delivers on its promises and does improve student performance in those districts where it is currently in use.

Workers With in Small Firms Chapter I
Words: 5811 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Introduction Chapter Paper #: 77787296
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Workers With in Small Firms

Chapter I outlines the problems this research aims to address, namely an information gap that may, if filled, enhance employment for potential and existing workers with disabilities. This chapter defines the problem background, purpose of research, theoretical framework through which conclusions will be drawn from survey data gathered in the field, the research questions the survey instrument seeks to answer, the definition of terms those questions employ and limits and delimitations of the intended research. Once those parameters are outlined, the claim this argument attempts to support, that closing a gap in information describing satisfaction and productivity for workers with disability in small firms below conventional definitions of 500 workers or less may improve employment for a historically marginalized population, leads to conclusions that thus inform the subsequent methodological and analytical chapters.

Problem Background: The Uncashed 'Triple Paycheck'

Title I of the Americans with Disabilities…

References With Prospectus (toward inclusion in Literature Review chapter)

Day, N.E. And Greene, P.G. (2008). A case for sexual orientation diversity management in small and large organizations. Human Resource Management 47(3): 637 -- 654. Retrieved from DOI: 10.1002/hrm.20235

Deveau, J.L. (2011). Workplace accommodation and audit-based evaluation process for compliance with the employment equity act: Inclusionary practices that exclude -- an institutional ethnography. Canadian Journal of Sociology/Cahiers canadiens de sociologie 36(3), 151-172. Retrieved from

Erickson, W., Lee, C., von Schrader, S. (2011). Disability Statistics from the 2009 American

Community Survey (ACS). Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Rehabilitation Research and Training Center on Disability Demographics and Statistics (StatsRRTC). Retrieved Jun 11, 2012 from

Large Defense Contractor and Am
Words: 2730 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 49735990
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" To meet the criteria of a "champion," the top, middle and lower management has got to be not only at an advanced level, but also should be extremely valued. The top management should proactively encourage and advance the organizational goals, offering knowledge and assistance. Furthermore, it is vital that these "champions" make sure that employee complaint resolution endeavors are successfully executed. In one study, companies with devoted and advanced "champions" had been twice as probable to account that their organizations had been doing better than they anticipated (Yu, 2001). This shows that with top management support as well as advanced and knowledgeable employees can assist in increasing the organizational performance. In light of the aforementioned facts, we have chosen our third variable as top management support and our third hypothesis is:

Hypothesis three: The stronger the top management support, the higher the employee retention rates.

Collection of variables and…


Conduit, J. & Mavondo, F.T. (2001). How critical is internal customer orientation to market orientation? Journal of Business Research, 51(1), 11

Felps, W. et al. (2009). Turnover contagion: how coworkers' job embeddedness and job search behaviors influence quitting. Academy of Management Journal. 52: 3, 545 -- 561.

James, L.R. (1980). Perceived job characteristics and job satisfaction: an examination of reciprocal causation. Naval Health Research Center. Personal Psychology Center.

Johnston, R. (2001). Linking complaint management to profit. International Journal of Service Industry Management, 12(1).

Social Exclusion on the Health
Words: 3377 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 25553482
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Colic's (2005) argument is that there is a very strong correlation between porr housing and an individual's physical ill health. He goes further to point out that six out of every ten homeless individuals do suffer from a certain form of mental distress. About 20% of this lot have severe mental illness. In a nutshell, social exclusion gives rise to a direct form of social and economic consequences that include poor housing and limited financial resources.

Dunn (1999) studied the link between social exclusion and mental health. His concluded that the correlation was rather strong and was in congruence with what other authors have documented. It has been acknowledged that unemployment affects persons who have long-term mental disorders in a way that is far greater as compared to the other persons with disability. A total of only 13% are employed as opposed to the more than a third of individuals…


Burnett, R. (2004) To reoffend or not to reoffend? The ambivalence of convicted property offenders in Maruna and Immarigeon, After Crime and Punishment.

Burnett A and Peel M (2001) Health needs of asylum seekers and refugees British Medical

Journal 322:544-547 (link to

Colic, P., (2005). Refugees and Employment: The effects of visible difference on discrimination. Perth: Murdoch University Press.

New Adhesive Bandage Into a
Words: 948 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 47610142
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H2: Setting the right price for a new adhesive bandage increases chances of achieving high market shares.

Ho: Setting the right price for a new adhesive bondage does not increase chances of achieving high market shares.

In the second hypothesis, price is identified as an independent variable while market is identified as a dependent variable.


The research employs both primary and secondary research to collect data. Sample population is the parent of children aged between 3 and 15 years, and the study employs survey technique to collect data through primary research.

Survey Questions

Survey questions are 10 questions and the Likert Scale is used to rate the response of the participants and Likert Scale used is:

1=Strongly Disagree



4=Agree 5=Strongly Agree.

Survey questions are as follows:

1. Price is the most important attributes that influences you to choose an adhesive bandage in the store

2. Quality is…


The Freedonia Group,(2010). World Wound Management Products. Freedonia Group Inc. Custom Research. USA.

Volckner, F & Sattler, H. (2006). Driver of Brands Extension Success. Journal of Marketing. 70:18-34.

Technology in Learning of Elementary
Words: 10688 Length: 39 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 41639691
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For the purposes of this review, Web-based instruction is considered to be any educational or training program distributed over the Internet or an intranet and conveyed through a browser, such as Internet Explorer or Netscape Navigator. Java applet-based instruction is a special form of Web-based instruction.

Although there is very little research on comparing the effectiveness of Java applet-based instruction to the traditional face-to-face offering. However Web-based instruction has received enough attention that many studies are now available in the research literature.

Comparing the learning effects of Web-based learning with traditional face-to-face teaching and learning is emphasized in the research on the Internet as a medium in higher education. However, these research studies always produce conflicting results. esearchers found significant differences, positive or negative, in using different Internet-based approaches to facilitate teaching and learning.

This literature review explores three dominant themes: impact on student performance, student attitude, and student satisfaction.…


Rajshree Agarwal, a Edward Day. (1998). The impact of the Internet on economic education. Journal of Economic Education, 29(2), 99. Retrieved November 14, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 28501331).

Al-Jarf, a. & Sado, R. (2002). Effect of online learning on struggling ESL college writers. San Antonio, TX: National Educational Computing Conference Proceedings. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 475-920).

Anthony Basile, Jill M. D'Aquila. (2002). An experimental analysis of computer-mediated instruction and student attitudes in a principles of financial accounting course. Journal of Education for Business, 77(3), 137-143. Retrieved November 17, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 115217377).

Carey, J. (2001). Effective student outcomes: A comparison of online and face-to-face delivery modes. Retrieved November 14, 2008, at

Mris Legal and Scientific Review
Words: 5397 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 2692818
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There are three types of stimuli used, which are:

1) Targets;

2) Irrelevant; and 3) Probes.

These are used "in the form of words, pictures, or sounds..." which a computer presents for a second or even a partial second. Incoming stimulus, if it is worth noting, results in a P-300, which is an electrical brain response. The P-300 is part of a MERMER or a memory and encoding related multifaceted electroencephalographic response, which is a larger brain response.

Originally event related potentials (ERP) was the method used for studying brain activity information processing. The limitation of the ERP is that it causes elimination of all patterns that are complex and results in the meaningful signals also being lost. The multifaceted electroencephalographic response analysis or MERA was developed due to the limitation of the ERP. Farwell found that incorporation of this technique resulted in the elicitation of MERMER when the individual…


Taylor, Erich (2007) a New Wave of Police Interrogation? Brain Fingerprinting, the Constitutional Privilege against Self-Incrimination and Hearsay Jurisprudence

Pope, Harrison (nd) the Emperor's Tailoring. FMS Foundation Newsletter. Online available at

Stetler, Russell and Wayland, Kathleen (2004) Capital Cases - Dimension of Mitigation. June 2004. Online available at,+determination+of+guilt+or+innocence&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=50&gl=us.

Cataloging Ebooks and Vendor Records
Words: 1463 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 72236610
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Cataloging Ebooks and Vendor ecords

Cataloging E-books and Vendor ecords

Martin, E.K., & Mundle Kavita. (2010). Notes on operations cataloging E-books and vendor records: A case study at the University of Illinois at Chicago. Library esources & Technical Services, 54 (4):227-237.

Martin & Mundle assert that e-books have increasingly become a vital portion of scores of academic library collections. Catalog records on the other hand are essential as they promote discovery of e-books. However, cataloging individual e-books entails an intricate activity particularly when huge packages are bought (Martin & Mundle, 2010). In this regard, most libraries depend on external sources for e-book catalog records. Such sources come from services of third-party record or from vendors. According to Martin & Mundle (2010), most libraries opt to handle records in batch as a means of offering access to huge sets. Notwithstanding the practicability of using records in batch, there are several challenges…


Martin, E.K., & Mundle Kavita. (2010). Notes on operations cataloging E-books and vendor records: A case study at the University of Illinois at Chicago. Library Resources & Technical Services, 54 (4):227-237.

Christensen, L., & Turner, L. (2010). Research methods, design and analysis. London: Prentice Hall PTR

Help Desk Models Research Defining
Words: 4085 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 79209404
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The Help Desk has grown from being a stand-alone service strategy to one that is leading many organizations to support a multi-channel and in some instances, multi-channel based approach to delivering service.

Examples of TSS options across different service industries include on-demand service and support through guided solution applications on websites, guided help on telephone systems, (ATMs), electronic kiosks for baggage check in or a boarding pass at airports as well as for room check out at hotels, and service computers with internet connection at airports (Dabholkar 1994, 1996; Kotler 2000; Meuter, Ostrom, Roundtree, and itner 2000; Carlin 2002; Harler 2002; Wright 2002).

The transformation of service options from the Help Desk to multi-channel strategies that are technology-based service can be viewed in terms of the relationships between employee, customer and technology components (Figure 1). Note that a single strategy of just using a Help Desk fails to support the…

Bibliography of all resources to be used in qualitative research and literature review

Anitsal, Ismet, Mark a. Moon, and M. Meral Anitsal (2002b), "Technology-Based Self-Service: Toward a New Retail Format," Marketing Advances in Pedagogy, Process, and Philosophy, Beverly T. Enable (Ed.), Vol. Greenville, North Carolina: Society for Marketing Advances, 146-151.

Bates, Albert D. (1989), "The Extended Specialty Store: A Strategic Opportunity for the 1990s," Journal of Retailing, 379-388. Bateson, John (2002),

Bitner, Mary Jo, William T. Faranda, Amy R. Hubbert, and Valarie a. Zeithaml (1997), "Customer Contributions and Roles in Service Delivery," International Journal of Service Industry Management, 8 (3), 193-205.

Carlin, Mary (2002), "Technology Tamed: The New Future of Self-Service." Randolph, New Jersey: Kiosk Business, the Magazine for Customer-Activated Solutions.

Clinical Decisions in This Chapter
Words: 937 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71668409
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The MMPI-2 has been used successfully to detect feigning in neurological and psychiatric control groups (Klein, 2007). As a result, the MMPI-2 is the most frequently used test in forensic psychological testing. There is, however, still substantial "debate which of the four subscales is most useful for identifying malingering" (Klein, 2007). However, one of the MMPI-2's lingering problems is that it is a test where people can incorporate coaching, so that it is somewhat vulnerable to coaching.

The issue of coaching is critical in the forensics environment. This is because the goal of forensic psychology is to use neuropsychological assessment methods to help in some type of legal proceedings. These proceedings can be civil or criminal proceedings. In both civil and criminal environments, the need for accurate diagnosis can be critical to outcomes for the person being tested and for people being impacted by their testing. Moreover, it can be…


Klein, H. (2007). Assessment of malingered neuropsychological deficits. New York: Oxford

Biracial Children Proposal for Study Is Society
Words: 1995 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 4574500
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Biracial Children

Proposal for Study: Is society causing biracial children to struggle with their identity?

hen forming their identity, children seek to look, act, feel, and mimic significant people in their social environment. "In his book Youth and Identity, Erickson relates ego identity and self-esteem to racial identity. He states that ambiguous messages about one's race may place a person at risk for developing what he referred to as a 'negative identity'" (Oka, 1994, p. 3). The possibility of negative identity is a controversial topic regarding biracial children. Opponents of interracial marriage argue that interracial couples are jeopardizing the futures of their children, as there is a possibility that biracial children will not be accepted by either culture and this rejection will lead to personal problems.

Some studies have found that it is more likely for interracial children to experience difficulties related to a poor self-identity, such as gender confusion,…

Works Cited

Beswick, Richard (1990) Racism in America's schools. ERIC Clearinghouse on Educational Management: ED 320-196.

Cole, Michael & Cole, Sheila (1993) The development of children (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Scientific American Books, 339-369.

Hoskins, Nichele (1996). Mixed-race couples, children brave racism. Retrieved from the Internet at 

Oka, Julie Mari (1994). Self-concept and parental values: Influences on the ethnic identity development of biracial children. Thesis, San Jose State University.

Treatment Delay for Patients With
Words: 1603 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Article Critique Paper #: 63670942
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Where the hypotheses were well-followed throughout the text, the conclusion ignores the relevance of these factors to the delay experienced by patients in seeking treatment. Instead of developing a correlation between the identified behavior and the subject matter, importance of creating awareness among the general public was the highly emphasized. Furthermore, the responsibility of nurses and government authorities in this regard, was also discussed.


The study itself had a rather limited scope. Selection of convenience sample along with a particular racial background and non-inclusion of patients who died within hours of reporting AMI acted as major drawbacks. Secondly, a selection of considerably small sample also raised questions on the reliability of the sample.


The evaluation of this research does not lead to a confident and reliable conclusion. The limited scope of the sample, controlled questionnaires, neglect of other factors and the comparative analysis instead of individual examination of…


Lesneski, Lisa. (2010). Factors Influencing Tretment Delay for Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction. Applied Nursing Research. 23, pg- 185-190.

Financial Literacy and Social Change What Is
Words: 797 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56827619
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Financial Literacy and Social Change

What is the relationship between financial literacy and social change?

Comparing change in financial literacy in post-college and non-college students


Hypothesis- There is a significant difference in financial literacy between college and non-college students.

Introduction- Financial literacy implies a number of things: understanding the basics of not only personal finance, but the broader approach to global finance. There is a distinction, however, between the intellectual world of college students and non-college students. College students, for instance, might be exposed to introductory economics, political science, business or other courses that would grant them access to a larger, more global perspective of finance. However, because they are often living in dorms, may be partially supported by loans or grants or funds from parents, their view of finances will be understandably skewed to the more intellectual approach. However, non-college bound students often must enter the workforce, fend…


Bell, E. And Lerman, R. (2005). Can Financial Literacy Enhance Asset Building. The Urban

Institute Opportunity and Ownership Project. 6. Retrieved from: 

Creswell, J.W., Hanson, W.E., Clark, V.L., & Morales, A. (2007). Qualitative research designs: Selection and implementation. The Counseling Psychologist, 35, 236-264. Retrieved from Sage Journals Online database.

Howe, K. (1988). Against the Quantitative-Qualitative Incompatibility Thesis: Dogmas Die Hard. Educational Leadership. Retrieved from:

Increasing Motivation of Patients With Diabetic Foot Problems
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Diabetic Foot

Increasing motivation of patients with diabetic foot problems

The diabetic foot is the major cause of non-traumatic amputations in the globe. The expenses incurred by the individual, family, and healthcare systems are substantial. Therefore, it has slowly become a complex problem, characterized with a multi-factorial origin. A good percentage of the patients diagnosed with diabetic foot will undergo an amputation. Moreover, there is a possibility for the patients to face a second amputation within a short period.

The incidence of diabetic foot is increasing in the world. Diagnosed patients often end up with an amputation; therefore, there is a need to verify whether patient motivation has the capacity to affect the outcome of treatment of diabetic foot patients.


The purpose of this study was to ascertain whether the applying Model of Creative Ability could lead to positive treatment results (Casteleijn and Jansen, 2009).


The hypothesis states…


Jansen, M., & Casteleijn, D. (2009). Applying the model of creative ability to patients with diabetic foot problems. South African journal of occupational therapy, 39(3), 26-33.

Vocational Assessment Critiques
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Vocational Assessments Critiques

Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales, Fifth Edition (SB5)

The Stanford-Binet is an individually administered test of intelligence and cognitive abilities for people between the ages of two to 85 years. The SB5 is normed on a stratified random sample of 4,800 people who categorically match the year 2000 United States Census, and the scores have been found to approximate a normal distribution. The SB5 measures the following five factors of cognitive ability: Fluid easoning, Knowledge, Quantitative easoning, Visual-Spatial Processing, and Working Memory. The SB5 is used for clinical assessment, neuropsychological assessment, educational placement, career assessment, compensation evaluations, forensics, and aptitude research.

Critique. Parallel forms have been developed and the standards have changed to present a balanced verbal and non-verbal IQ content. Moreover, the test has been revised to be more colorful, interesting, and, therefore, more appealing to test-takers. The test permits combinations of screener subtests to be used for…


____. (2012). Beta III. Retreived 

HAIWEB/Cultures/en-us/Productdetail.htm?Pid=015-8685-202&Mode=summary [Type text] [Type text] [Type text]

Offered to Explain Aspects of
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Fundamentally, hygiene factors are required to make sure a worker is not dissatisfied. Motivation factors are desired to motivate a worker to higher performance. Herzberg also further classified peoples actions and how and why they do them, for instance, if one performs a work related action because they have to then that is ranked as movement, but if one performs a work related action because they want to then that is ranked as motivation (Scheid, 2010).

The principles of Herzberg's Motivation-Hygiene theory have been applied to a wide variety of factors influencing worker satisfaction. These factors comprise: working circumstances, quality of supervision, salary, status, security, company, job, company policies and interpersonal associations (Two Factor Theory -- Herzberg, Frederick, 2011). In the application of Motivation-Hygiene theory to this study of employee attendance and satisfaction, the factor that will be looked at is that of onsite childcare programs.

Utilizing this theory in…


Child Care & Parent Productivity: Making the Business Case. (2004). Retrieved from 

Employee Survey Use & Design. (2011). Retrieved from

Evans, Joel R. And Mathur, Anil. (2005). The value of online surveys. Retrieved from

Russell, Matthew. (2007). Strengths and Weaknesses of Research Designs. Retrieved from

Employed by a Researcher Can
Words: 6548 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 9970618
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Thee ae those that believe that qualitative eseach is the best fom of eseach, wheeas othes insist that only quantitative methods ae appopiate in a eseach envionment (CSU, 2004). Still othes ague that both appoaches ae useful and appopiate though one is often moe indicated than the othe depending on the exact phenomena being examined and the natue o intent of the eseach being conducted (Potte, 1996; Lee & Poynton, 2000).

Fed Kelinge once exclaimed that "thee is no such thing as qualitative data, eveything is eithe one o zeo," howeve his claim is counteed by anothe eseache, Campbell, who asseted that "all eseach ultimately has a qualitative gounding" (CSU, 2004).

Given the geat debate that exists, eseaches often find it difficult to detemine which stategy is best and which is most likely to be accepted by pees when pesenting a eseach pogam. Most eseaches would aggess howeve that qualitative…


Douglas, J. (1976). Investigative social research. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publishing.

Firestone, W. (1987). "Meaning in method: The rhetoric of quantitative and qualitative research." Educational Researcher, 16: 16-21

Gall, Meredith, Gall, Joyce P., & Borg, Walter R. (2003). Educational

Research, 7th edition. New York, New York: A and B. Publishing.

Nursing Reflective Practice as Applied
Words: 3953 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 76506011
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In the previous section, Estabrooks raised the question of the ability of the EP framework to provide the "best evidence" in nursing practice and the danger of excluding nurses in decision-making tasks as a result of EP prevalence and dominance.

Rolfe, while he analyzed the empirical foundations of EP, also looked at it from a practical perspective, or how EP is applied in the current practice of nursing. Identifying the problem of EP as the question of its "technical rationality," Rolfe uncovered an important issue that best describes also Estabrooks' contentions in her article: the "theory-practice" gap in nursing practice.

In thoroughly discussing this phenomenon in nursing, Rolfe illustrated how theory-practice gap occurs in the practice scenario (39):

First, that nurses rarely read research reports; second, that when they do read them, they rarely understand them; and third, even when they do read and understand research reports, they are reluctant…


Avis, M. (Oct 2006). "Evidence for practice, epistemology, and critical reflection." Nursing Philosophy, Vol. 7, Issue 4.

Estabrooks, C. (1998). "Will evidence-based nursing practice make practice perfect?" Canadian Journal of Nursing Research, Vol. 30, No. 1.

McCormack, B. (2006). "Evidence-based practice and the potential for transformation." Journal of Research in Nursing, Vol. 11, No. 2.

Rolfe, G. (Jan 2006). "Nursing praxis and the science of the unique." Nursing Science, Vol. 19, No. 1.

Evidence-Based Practice
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Statistics in Social Work

The steps of evidence-based practice include formulating an answerable question. How does knowing about statistics improve our ability to be an evidence-based practitioner at this step?

How understanding statistical principles can enable you to better understand if a question is answerable or not.

Are 'baselines' in descriptive function, or predictive function available for assessment.

In application of statistics to social phenomena, the frequency, duration and intensity of the subject tested will contribute to analysis where more than nominal (i.e. numbered) distributions are involved. Merely 'counting' a population is not a significant activity in statistical renderings as independent variables require dependent variables in order to acquire statistical meaning. Evidence-based practice references studies that 'replicate' existing tests, toward reinterpretation of former statistical outcomes in a new study of parallel significance, with variables of the same classification. Patterns in longitudinal tests over time offer insights into stasis or transformations…

Teleworking Telecommuting's Emergence as a
Words: 8075 Length: 30 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 725168
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The Herzberg two-plane model that includes an upper plane of "motivator" factors, which are those factors that lead to high job satisfaction are compared to the "hygiene" factors that are enablers of stability in any work environment. Motivator factors include achievement, recognition; work itself, responsibility, advancement, and growth, while hygiene factors include company policies, relationships with supervisors, work conditions, salary, relationship with peers, personal life, and relationships with subordinates, status, and security. These factors overall are critical for the development of a motivated and stable workforce. The implications of these factors on the job satisfaction and attitudes of telecommuters form the research foundation of this paper and also look to provide an indication of how teleworkers keep their work/life balance in equilibrium.


The main objectives of this study are:

To provide further understanding of why workers choose to telecommute in the context of their work/life balance objectives.

To define…


Apgar, M., (1999). The alternative workplace: changing where and how people work. Harvard Business Review, 76, 3, 121-139.

Bailyn, L. (2004). Times in careers, careers in time. Human Relations, 57, 12, 1507-1521.

Brief, a.P. & Weiss, H.M. (2002). Organizational behavior: affect in the workplace. Annual Review of Psychology, 53, 279-307.

Crandall, W. & Gao, L. (2005). An update on telecommuting: review and prospects for emerging issues. Society of Advanced Management Journal.