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The practices significantly support the development of the immigrant children. The research indicates of the children experiencing interactions that are complex. This is with the respective peers when engaging in creative activities inclusive of gross motor and language arts (Donald et al., 2007). The creative activities reflect on open-ended aspects with the resultant stratification in shaping the initial academic progress of the immigrant children possibility. The application of the developmentally suitable practices in the primary setting of the immigrant children society positively influences the outcomes of the children (Donald et al., 2007).
The challenge faced in defining the developmentally fit strategies emphasizes on the child-centered approaches. The approaches relate to the developmental theory with the society directed instructions originating from the behaviorist perspective of the immigrant children. As a result of the theoretical course from which the child-centered practices derives, they reflects on the synonymous view with the appropriate practices.…
Bornstein, Marc H. And Cote, Linda R. (2004). Mothers' Parenting Cognitions in Cultures of Origin, Acculturating Cultures, and Cultures of Destination. Child Development,
January/February 2004, Volume 75, Number 1, Pages 221 -- 235. Retrieved from http://www.tandf.co.uk/journals/pp/01650254.html
Capps, R., Kenny, G., & Fix, M. (2003). Health insurance coverage of children in mixedstatus immigrant families (Snapshots of America's Children, No. 12).
Washington, DC: The Urban Institute.
62), a society with "shallow-rooted" norms (p. 177), a "meager and difficult place" as opposed to the expansive way Ruth wishes to grow as a woman. (p. 178) Helen's storm inside, this mother's crisis of identity, has parallels not with Baldwin's women, but with characters such as the Reverend Henry, whose anger at hite society can only be expressed in a eulogy over his beloved son's casket. Extremity in both the apparently placid Henry and Helen brings forth rage and despair, but while at least Henry's male rage is life-affirming, urging his community to go on in the face of the death of a young person, Helen's actions are regressive, infantile, returning to her father, and do not occur as an act of social protest.
The gendered constructions of mourning and identity formulation for Helen's daughters Ruth and Lucille also indicate the limited repertoire the Housekeeping society provides for women…
Baldwin, James. "Blues for Mister Charlie." New York: Vintage, 2001.
Robinson, Marilynn. Housekeeping. New York: Farrar, Strauss, and Giroux, 1981.
Social Implications of Sexual Identity Formation and Coming Out Process
Chad Mosher's article, "The social implications of identity formation and the coming-out-process: a review of the theoretical and empirical literature" provides a fairly comprehensive look at the theories and realities of individuals asserting their homosexual tendencies to the world. The article is widely written as a source of material and instruction for psychologists who are employed in a therapeutic or counseling capacity with such individuals, as there are implications for them to incorporate into their practice in the article's conclusion. In addition to discussing the two principle theories regarding coming out, essentialism and social constructionism, the author discusses aspects of the theories that are integrated as well as the effect of coming out on both the audience and the homosexual perception. Audiences are stratified into three distinct categories: family members, heterosexuals, as well as homosexuals and those somewhere in between…
Mosher, C. (2001). The social implications of identity formation and the coming-out-process: a review of the theoretical and empirical literature. The Family Journal. 9 (2): 164-173.
It is for this reason that one could reasonably argue that Precious' entire life, and particularly the trials and tribulations she must endure, including her violent family life, her poverty, and her illiteracy, all ultimately stem from her racial and ethnic background, because the pervasive, institutional racial inequalities that still exist in America served to structure her entire life. Even before she began she was already disadvantaged by being born a black woman in the United States, because the United States maintains a system of social, economic, and political inequality that disproportionately impoverishes the black population. Thus, in broad strokes, one can say that all of the major events in Precious' life are a result of her ethnic background and the meaning American society places on that category of difference.
Perhaps more than any of the novels discussed here, Push manages to make the idea of difference as a form…
Chattalas, Michael, and Holly Harper. "Navigating a Hybrid Cultural Identity: Hispanic
Teenagers' Fashion Consumption Influences." The Journal of Consumer Marketing 24.6
Chodorow, Nancy. Feminism and psychoanalytic theory. New Haven [Conn.]: Yale University
This construction gave credence to the concept of class consciousness. Class consciousness is really class identity; it is the way entire groups of people conceive themselves as belonging to a whole. This understanding permeates the corpus and unites the initiated into a common group think. This group or class view is reinforced through the economic determinants that are at the foundation of the group's position. These determinants reinforce inequalities and class identities.
The challenge to class as a locus of identity formation; results from the assertion that contemporary society is too layered and complex for class identity to be relevant. The discussion centers not on the existence of inequalities but the explanation of those inequalities. In the postmodern context the inequalities that exist are not anchored in an a priori formulation of class structure. This formulation considers the development of a classless society. This is not to be interpreted as…
Becker H.S. (2003).The Politics of Presentation: Goffman and Total Institutions Symbolic
Interaction, 26 (4):659-669.
Bottero, W. (2004). Class Identities and the Identity of Class. Sociology 38 (5): 985-1003.
Burnhill, P., Garner, C., McPherson, a. (1990). Parental Education, Social Class and Entry to Higher Education 1976-86. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. Series a (Statistics
When Brian Graetz began to write about class and inequality, he opened his work by quoting: "Australia is the most egalitarian of countries..." (153) As it turns out, this claim does not say much in the absolute sense, for Graetz (like others before and after him) continues on to prove vast and terrible inequalities in Australia's capitalist system. It appears that, popular opinion non-withstanding, there exists in Australia a strong and self-reproducing class system, by which the accident of birth may dictate the entire future of a man or woman. Unfortunately, academics do not appear to be entirely certain as to how this system is comprised, or by what function it reproduces. It appears that the class system somewhat resembles the ancient conception of wind -- that which is all about us, and moves us, and yet cannot be pinned down, captured, or dissected. Social scientists from Marx to…
Aspects of identity that might have been denied or denigrated because of colonial mentalities can resurface and be admired. Discourse on gender and social class has also deepened and enabled identity constructions to flourish outside the confines of proscribed gender roles. Culture changes, and so too does identity. The values placed on identity aspects like religion have shifted too, making religion a less salient part of people's identity. On the other hand, sexual orientation and gender identity have both become more important. Gender roles have changed to such a great degree as to transform the definition and meaning of family, love, or sex.
Therefore, a number of issues affect the way we understand and create identities. Academia reflects broader changes in social values and norms. In some cases, academia inspires those social and political transformations. Regardless of the directions of the relationship between academia and social values, the two interact…
al. 11). In the same way that European colonialism itself depended on a limited view of the world that placed colonial subjects under the rule of their masters, European theory was based on a view of literature and identity that had no place for the identities and literature of colonized people. Postcolonial theory is the ideal basis for this study, because in many ways the process of developing a new, hybrid identity born out of the conflicting experiences of first and second-generation immigrants is analogous to the process of developing postcolonial theory in the first place.
In particular, this paper draws most heavily on the notion of hybrid identity, a complicated subject that has arisen within postcolonial studies. The term is difficult to define precisely due to the fact that hybridity itself suggests something complicated and heterogeneous, and at the same time, "if hybrid identity is seen as formed at…
Ashcroft, Bill, Gareth Griffiths, and Helen Tiffin. The Empire Writes Back: Theory and Practice
in Post-Colonial Literatures. New York: Routledge, 2002.
Ball, John. Satire and the Postcolonial Novel. New York: Routledge, 2003.
Bhabha, Homi. Nation and Narration. London: Routledge, 1990.
Identity and Identity Construction
Identity is socially constructed, a process that begins at an early age. Child rearing practices at home and school and community socialization begin the process of identity construction (Rogoff, 2003). As the individual constructs his or her own identity, exogenous forces also shape that individual's identity such as reactions to the way a person's appearance. For visible minorities, belonging to closely-knit communities in small groups can greatly enhance the process of identity construction, particularly for minority youth (Bratt, 2015). This remains true throughout the young person's life, including the person's transition from adolescence into young adulthood. Adolescence remains the critical point of identity construction, holding "a special role in virtually all cultures as a time of transition between childhood and adulthood," (Cauce, Cruz, Corona, & Conger n.d., p. 14). Therefore, it makes sense to focus on adolescence and young adulthood when investigating biculturality among Muslim American…
A number of studies have been done in recent years to explore the unique effects of a bicultural identity, how a bicultural identity is formed, and what forms a bicultural identity will take. Research integrates assimilation theories as well as social constructionism. The reasons for the emerging literature include improving psychological health and well-being, improving social and cultural health, and also reducing or eliminating racism and negative stereotyping. Elashi, Mills & Grant (2009) point out "83% of Muslim individuals reported an increase in implicit racism and discrimination following September 11th," making the Muslim-American cultural, ethnic, and religious cohort one of the most important populations in America to understand through sociological data (Elashi, Mills & Grant, 2009, p. 379). Discrimination may be related to the dominant or white culture's fear of non-integration of existing or new immigrants and perceived threats to an imaginary cohesiveness of the dominant culture -- something that…
Each outside label has an affect on that individuals own conception of them, effectively rising or lowering self-image. These categories allow individuals of the same label to sometimes band together in order to further develop their own unique identities away from the labeling and discrimination from the larger group who may view them as abnormal, (Oxoby & McLeish, 2007: 13). Once inside a more specific group, these individuals have the capacity to flourish, and gain more and more self-esteem, (Handler, 1991: 223). However, when placed outside of these smaller groups into the larger population, this identity is once again viewed in a discriminatory manner, (Taylor & Moghaddam, 1994: 134). This occurs mainly due to the xenophobia each group portrays towards other groups, which then creates a hostile environment for the establishment of strong individual identities.
One way to examine the formations of deaf and queer identities using the Social Identity…
Adam, B. 2000. "Love and Sex in Constructing Identity Among Men Who Have Sex
With Men." International Journal of Sexuality and Gender Studies 5(4).
Barry, P. (2002). Lesbian and gay criticism. Beginning Theory: An Introduction to Literary and Cultural Theory. Manchester: Manchester University Press.
Bourdieu, P. & Passeron, J.-C. (1977) Reproduction in Education, Culture and Society,
With Kim's help, I saw that I had a knack for helping people. I was able not just to be supportive of others, but I could really connect with people and help them. I also had a great knowledge of course planning for almost every major at UConn, because I liked to read through the course booklet and see what kinds of classes were out there and see the different majors and what the requisites were for each. Also, I realized that I often helped my friends with their course selections and major planning before they went to their own advisors. Therefore, I decided to major in Human Services, where my concentration was in academic advising.
Thus, in my own way, I was able to travel through each of the seven vectors identified by Chickering and elucidated by eisser, ultimately arriving at the final point: the development of purpose in…
Chickering, a.W. Education and Identity. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1969.
Straub, C. And Roberts, R.F. "An Exploration of Chickering's Theory and Women's
Development." Journal of College Student Personnel, 1986, 27, pp. 216-224.
Reisser, L. "Revisiting the Seven Vectors." Journal of College Student Personnel, 1995, 36, pp.
A widely quoted and interesting functioning definition has been provided by Geert Hofstede who suggests that culture should be considered as software of a person's mind. He is reported to have said that each individual possesses certain patterns and forms of contemplation, emotions and possible acting that they have probably acquired during their life (Hofstede and Hofstede, 2005).
Most of these patterns have been obtained through their early childhood experiences as those are the time when an individual is most likely to acquire learning and build on it. Just the way a computer regards its "thought processes" and functioning as its software, the patterns or formations of thinking, experiencing and carrying out psychological processes in an individual can be referred to as the software program of the mind (Hofstede and Hofstede, 2005).
However, this does not imply, most definitely that individuals are supposed to function or behave as a computer…
Valentine, V. (1995). Opening up the Black Box: Switching the Paradigm of Qualitative Research. ESOMAR Seminar, Paris, 6-8th December, 25-47. Corbu, N. (2010). Cultural Identity as a System: Toward the Crystallization of a European Cultural Identity. Romanian Journal of Communication and Public Relations. 12(1), 121-132.
Waterman, a.S. (1999). Identity, the identity statuses, and identity status development: A contemporary statement. Developmental Review, 19, 591 -- 621. Taken from SETH, J.H., et al. (2010). The Relationships of Personal and Cultural Identity to Adaptive and Maladaptive Psychosocial Functioning in Emerging Adults. The Journal of Social Psychology, 150(1), 1 -- 33
Williams, R. (1976), Keywords: A Vocabulary of Culture and Society, Fontana, London. Corbu, N. (2010). Cultural Identity as a System: Toward the Crystallization of a European Cultural Identity. Romanian Journal of Communication and Public Relations. 12(1), 121-132.
Gender and Identity
Perhaps the most important question facing any human, be they male or female, is that of the discovery of their own identity. The majority of child development theories, from Freud onward, have dealt with the way in which children must learn to disengage their own identity from that of their parents (mothers in particular) and discover who they are as adults. Yet this process is far from over when one reaches physical maturity, and one may even see many other psychological theories, from Maslow to the existentialists, as exploring the stages through which one continues to define one's true identity as distinct not only from one's parents but also from one's biological and social circumstances. It is somewhat ironic that the word identity which was originally used to note categories of same-ness and unity (Connell 2002) is now so vitally bound up with defining distinctness. At the…
Bessant, J. And Watts, R. (1999) 'Sex and Gender in Australia' (Chapter 7) in J. Bessant and R. Watts (eds) Sociology Australia, Sydney: Allen and Unwin, pp. 164-193
Connell, R.W. (2002) Gender, Oxford: Blackwell. (Chapters 1, 2 and 5).
Connell, R.W. (1995) 'The Social Organization of Masculinity' (Chapter 3) in R.W. Connell (ed) Masculinities, Sydney: Allen and Unwin. pp. 67-86.
Kidd, W. (2002) 'Feminism, Gender, and Sexuality' (Chapter 11) in W. Kidd (ed) Culture and Identity, New York: Palgrave. pp. 171-189.
The intersections between gender, sexuality, identity, and lifestyle converged at an expected moment. I was as prepared as anyone else. Andrew is my brother, and I know him well. It was his friend Darren's 21st birthday. Darren is adorable: he's six feet tall, with plump lips naturally blushed the color of Fuji apples. His skin is milky white, and his eyes are shimmering sateen blue. I haven't got a crush on Darren; I would, but Darren is gay. He's been out of the closet since he was fifteen years old. My brother has known Darren since the two played together in our little apartment complex playground. Almost two decades later, the two friends are doing shots together in a gay nightclub. My brother is straight. Really, he is. But on Darren's birthday, something happened to place my brother Andrew temporarily in an interstitial realm. My brother, not being the…
Complexities and Potential in Cross-Cultural Counseling
In 1897 the French sociologist Emile Durkheim wrote about the influence of culture on suicide rates among different groups. He found that while suicide seems to be the most private and most individualistic choice that a person can make (what could be more private than the dialogue that an individual has with eternity, after all) cultural values still hold sway. His research has been criticized over the decades, but its central point remains valid. Culture seeps into every level of both our conscious and unconscious behaviors, and therefore must be attended to in every aspect of the therapeutic process. However, while at least most therapists as well as most of those individuals studying to become therapists are certainly aware of this fact, this awareness does not necessarily translate into sufficient care taken to minimize the harm that cross-cultural misunderstandings or blindnesses that…
Bimrose, J. (1996). Multiculturalism, in Bayne, R., Horton, I. & Bimrose, J. (Eds.) New directions in counseling. London: Routledge.
Fouad, N. et al. (2012). Qualitative study of the dislocated working class. Journal of career development 39, 287-310.
LaFromboise, T., Trimble, J., & Mohatt, G. (1990). Counseling intervention and American Indian tradition: An integrative approach.The counseling psychologist 18(4), 628-654.
Jones, A.C. (1985). Psychological functioning in black Americans: A conceptual guide for use in psychotherapy. Psychotherapy 22 (2), 363-369.
Social Media on Human Perception
The human interactivity has its rots in the inception of faster communication systems like the telephone, telegraph and later on the email system. As the IT continued to develop and the globalization intensified, the frequent interaction between people on extreme ends of the world became a more regular phenomenon and hence more valued over the years. The continued interaction has been seen in the gaming industry where competitors from different parts of the world connect to each other in real time over the internet and compete in the same game for hours. This has over the years engaged people from different parts of the globe though it has been limited to the gaming aspect only. The other predominant mode of interaction in the contemporary society is the social media which has mushroomed over the last decade, seeing companies like facebook, twitter, SnapChat, Instagram, Flickr among…
Society for Human Resource management, (2010). What are the Advantages and Disadvantages of Social Networking Sites? What Should we Include in a Policy? Retrieved April 19, 2016 from http://www.aamga.org/files/hr/WhatAreTheAdvantagesAndDisadvantagesOf%20Social.pdf
Worsman S., (2011). Media's Influence on Social Norms and Identity Development of Youth. Retrieved April 19, 2016 from http://www.personal.psu.edu/bfr3/blogs/applied_social_psychology/2011/11/medias-influence-on-social-norms-and-identity-development-of-youth.html
Wallace K., (2015). Teens spend a 'mind-boggling' 9 hours a day using media, report says. Retrieved April 19, 2016 from http://edition.cnn.com/2015/11/03/health/teens-tweens-media-screen-use-report/
Hispanic vs. Latino
In these times of political correctness and cultural awareness and sensitivity, it is very important to know the right term when discussing a people or their culture. It is very easy to offend without intending to so or to cause emotional pain through ignorance. This is why it has become increasingly important to know the right cultural term for a given population. People with Mexican heritage have interchangeably been referred to by the terms Hispanic or Latino for many years. Lately, it has become necessary to create a single identifying term so that the group feels unified and no one feels at all slighted by a term they deem to be in any way offensive to themselves or their culture. Many cultural critics have argued that the term Hispanic is more offensive that Latino because it the term was created by the government and Latino was the…
Beretto, Holly." Cuts, by Budget. "Cultural Uniqueness: Hispanic vs. Latino | USARiseUp.
Cubias, Daniel. "Hispanic vs. Latino: What's in a Name?" Latino Like Me.
Granados, Christine. "Hispanic vs. Latino." Hispanic Magazine. Dec 2000.
Grech, Dan and Jose Maya. "Episode 4: Hispanic vs. Latino."
Factors Influencing the Formation of the Organizations
Organization formation is a tentative figure that has led to the establishment of many human interactive features in the world. There are different approaches through which organization formation takes place. The developmental strategies that led to the establishment if the present societies is accrued to the fact that the existence of the societal structures is a basic feature that promotes organizational formation. The modes of organization formation are different in different regions of the world. For instance, the development of organizations takes several and varied scales as applied in the UK, USA, and in Germany among other nations.
Factors Influencing the Formation of the Organizations
Myriad steps are related to access and utilization of facilities exists within the periphery of the organization's formation. Organizational formation system refers to a global facility, which will enable global access of the organization's facilities…
Bai, Y. (2007). Factors that influence the formation of research and development consortia:
an empirical study from the Chinese aluminum industry. Thesis (Ph.D.) -- La Trobe
Baumu-ller, M. (2007). Managing cultural diversity: an empirical examination of cultural networks and organizational structures as governance mechanisms in multinational corporations. Bern, Lang.
Formation of Self
The central unifying theme for the readings analyzed for this particular assignment is the effects of culture on the individual. Moreover, culture specifically affects a number of crucial cognitive, emotional, and motivational factors for people (Markus and Kitayam, 1991, p. 225), as they pertain to an individual's perception of (his or her) self. Some of the facets of culture include "a distinct language; a distinct customs…and distinct beliefs" (Galotti, 2007, p. 574). Personally, I can identify with many of the concepts introduced in the readings pertaining to what essentially is how an individual defines his or her self. I am fairly fiercely attached to my own individuality, and was pleased to read a number of works which essentially discussed varying factors that contribute to individuality. However, it is somewhat of a paradox to consider the fact that culture specifically contributes to individuality, since one of the precursors…
Akechi, H., Senju, A., Uibo, H., Kikuchi, Y., Hasegaw, T., Hietanen, J.K. (2013). Attention to eye contact in the west and east: Autonomic responses and evaluative ratings. PLoS One. 8(3), 1-10.
Furuya, S. (2013). Dual-task interference. Saybrook University.
Furuya, S. (2013). The accuracy of memory. Saybrook University.
Furuya, S. (2013). Unconscious mental contexts. Saybrook University.
cultures and identities in today's world. The author explores the different dimensions that influence individuals and identities and how it impacts the way society operates in the world. There were five sources used to complete this paper.
As the world continues to evolve, societal changes are taking place. Globalization contributes to the melting pot called earth and as societal barriers come down, people have a chance to learn about other cultures throughout the globe. Wars, religions, education aspirations and other elements of daily life are impacted by one's identity. Whether one wants to be a scientist, housewife, rabbi or actor their personal identity has an impact on that desire being developed. Another important factor in how identity develops is the culture in which one is raised. Cultural differences play a strong part in the development of identity. They are similar yet different as their individual elements overlap and separate to…
The reasons behind Iraq's rebellion; The Iraqis felt liberated, not defeated, and there is a powerful Muslim reluctance to be ruled by non-Muslims
Jewish Advocate, The; April 22, 2004; Pipes, Daniel
The Middle East: some new realities and old problems.
International Social Science Review; June 22, 2003; Bargeron, Carol L.
Body, Identity, Gender]
From birth, humans learn, act out and experience their gendered identities. The society's concepts of femininity and masculinity form a person's relationship to his/her body and the bodies of other individuals. The issue of gender is also an aspect of prevailing norms of inequality and oppression. Discrimination based on appearances continues to be a common occurrence.
For example, feminists and philosophers, such as Simone de Beauvoir in The Second Sex question, "what is a woman?" (in Ashton-Jones101). She dislikes the traditional explanation of "woman is a womb," but recognizes that throughout history woman has been defined as "the Other" of man: "Thus humanity is male and man defines woman not in herself but as relative to him." (in Ashton-Jones 102). In other words, man is the absolute being and woman takes on all of the negative bodily, mortal and irrational aspects that he prefers not to find…
de Beauvoir, Simone. "Femininity and Sisterhood." In Evelyn Ashton-Jones and Gary A. Olson (Eds.) The Gender Reader. Boston: Allyn & Bacon, 1991, pp. 34-350.
Bordon, Susan. "Material Girl." In Roger N. Lancaster and Micaela di Leonardo (Eds.) The Gender Sexuality Reader. New York: Routledge, pp. 335-358.
Butler, Judith. "Exerpt from 'Inroduction' to Bodies That Matter. In Roger N. Lancaster and Micaela di Leonardo (Eds.) The Gender Sexuality Reader. New York: Routledge, pp.531-542.
hooks, bell. Black Looks: Race and Representation. Boston: South End Press, 1992.
The European military policy is based on the activities taking place within military of United States i.e. merger-mania of U.S. defense firms.
But there are three other factors pushing the Europeans for taking concrete measures for pursuing the ESDI. The measures are must to overcome the delays and constraints the Union experiences. The first of the blockade is with reference to the defense spending of European countries. The new NATO Secretary-General estimated that, 'total military spending of European countries is around 60% of the U.S. total, and yields only 10% of the capabilities'. Secondly, European firms are becoming increasingly angry that the U.S. while procuring new weapons and equipment refuses to "buy European military products." Thirdly, European governments are not satisfied with U.S. restrictions 'on the transfer of technology even though the Europeans are investing money in the development of new U.S. built weapons such as the Joint Strike Fighter'…
Lawrence Freedman, "The Coming War on Terrorism" in Lawrence Freedman, ed., Super terrorism (Oxford: Blackwell, 2002).
Julian Lindley-French, Terms of Engagement. The paradox of American power and the trans-Atlantic dilemma post-11 September (Paris: EU-ISS, 2002)
Gordon Adams, "Fortress America in a changing trans-Atlantic defense market," in Burkard Schmitt, ed., Between Cooperation and Competition: The Trans-Atlantic Defense Market (Paris, WEU-ISS, 2001)
George Parker, "France and UK call for new force at top of EU," Financial Times, 15 May 2002.
How cognition, affect, and behavior have an impact on attitude formation
Cognition, affect, and behavior are the most common measures used to examine attitudes. Sometimes it is difficult to measure attitudes because they are arbitrary. Following their implicit-explicit dichotomy, attitudes could be examined through observed behaviors or cognitive reports. William McGuire's tripartite model views attitude to be made up of behavioral, effective, and cognitive components (Castelli & Carraro, 2011). However, critics argue that the view requires effective, behavioral, and cognitive relations of attitudes for it to be consistent. However, this could be implausible. Therefore, some perceptions on attitude formation see the behavioral and cognitive aspects as derivative effect, behavior or affect as derivative of prevailing beliefs.
The theory of self-perception has been greatly utilized in the conceptualization of how cognition, affect, and behavior can affect the attitude formation. However, studies indicate that an individual's past behavior depends on…
Albarracin, D., & Handley, I.M. (2011). The time for doing is not the time for change: Effects of general action and inaction goals on attitude retrieval and attitude change. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 100(6), 983 -- 998. Retrieved from the Walden Library using the PsycARTICLES database.
Castelli, L., & Carraro, L. (2011). Ideology is related to basic cognitive processes involved in attitude formation. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 47(5), 1013 -- 1016. Retrieved from the Walden Library using the ScienceDirect database
Hogg, M.A., & Cooper, J.M. (Eds.). (2007). The Sage handbook of social psychology (concise student ed.). Los Angeles, CA: Sage. Chapter 6, "Attitudes: Foundations, Functions, and Consequences" and Chapter 9, "Attitude Change"
Irimia, C. (2011). Empathy as a source of attitude change. Contemporary Readings in Law & Social Justice, 2(2), 319 -- 324. Retrieved from the Walden Library using the Academic Search Complete database.
According to Phinney and Alipuria (1987), ethnic self-identity is the sense of self that an individual feels; being a member of an ethnic group, along with the behavior and attitudes with that feeling (p. 36). The authors point out that the development of ethnic identity is an evolution from the point of an ethnic identity that is not examined through an exploration period, so as to resonate with a specified and attained ethnic identity (p. 38).
Ethnic identity refers to a feeling, attitude and identification of one with the behavior and character of people of a specified culture and cultural ethos. They often have a common origin, values, beliefs, practices, customs and other commonalities. Therefore, as opposed to the race concept in which the physical traits are the main controlling factor, ethnicity relates to the common values, beliefs and concepts help by a group of people (Yeh & Huang,…
Hall vs. Goffman
Goffman (1959) defines identity in a metaphoric manner as a type of theatrical performance that is shaped by the motives of the actor and the audience. Thus, person's identity is dependent on the social and relational aspects of the situation. There is degree as to how much someone actually believes that the performance one is giving represents reality. At one extreme, a person/performer believes whatever they are doing represents reality and at the other extreme the performer has no belief at all that their actions stand for anything sincere or real. Goffman's analogy is an attempt to relay the notion that identity is social in nature and a social construction.
A central concept in Goffman's analogy is the concept of front, the standardized expressive equipment that people use to define situations in a fixed way. There are several components of a front: The setting represents the environmental…
Goffman, E. (1959). The presentation of self in everyday life. New York: Doubleday
Hall, S. (1996). New ethnicities. In D. Morley & K.-H.Chen (eds.) Critical dialogues in cultural studies (pp. 441-449). London: Routledge.
Cheesman (2002) conducted a study on Karen identity in the Union of Myanmar with regards to historical and social conditions. The study found that Karen identity is a relatively difficult identity because individuals from this ethnic background do not have a common language, material attributes, religion and culture. While most of the existing assessments of this ethnic identity have been carried out in Thailand, it is largely influenced by historical and social conditions in the Union of Myanmar. Based on a review of contemporary Myanmar, people of Karen identity are seemingly virtuous, illiterate (uneducated), and oppressed. Many aspects relating to this identity appear to emphasize inferiority and subordination mostly because of mythology and modifications by the elite. Similar to the Union of Myanmar, Karen identity was brought by political dynamics and created by elite groups in the society.
The information provided in the article is accurate with regards to the…
Of "Identity" to Diversity
Self-reflect on how your family affected your beliefs and values. Describe at least two specific examples from your memory. Also include reflections on how your family shaped your views, and how that affects your feelings about diversity-related issues.
Self-Reflections on Childhood, Family, and Family Attitudes about Diversity
In self-reflecting on how my family affected my present beliefs and values, and my current attitudes about diversity, my main recollections are of being from a relatively well-off family, but of also of being surrounded as a child by other families that were less well-off, and sometimes of diverse ethnic backgrounds. I am a Caucasian male, and was raised in a series of small Midwestern areas where there were many families with lower-than- average incomes, although my own family was fortunate enough to not be one of them. Still, I feel that based on…
Child Development Institute. "Stages of Social-Emotional Development in Children and Teenagers." Child Development Institute. Retrieved October 15, 2005, from: .
Habke, Audrey, and Ron Sept. "Distinguishing Group and Cultural Influences in Inter-Ethnic Conflict: A Diagnostic Model." Canadian Journal of Communication (CJC). Vol. 18, No. 4 (1993). Retrieved October 15, 2005,
Regional Identity and Its Literal Purpose
Regionalism is a common sense of identity. It is an expression of an identity that shapes activities in a particular geographical region. In early 1980's regions resurgence of regional self-consciousness was part of the general democratization process. Members of different regions, minorities and majorities, reclaimed what they considered as history leading to regional development. The process of increasing social and political awareness has led to rise of cultural and political dimensions of regionalism (Roth 59). A group of identity is politicized when it affects human judgments on political issues, or affects human decisions on how we act politically like voting for someone. This can define regionalism as the politicization of regional identity. This implies that regional populations have certain common interests that they can advance as a group. They advance these interests to preserve cultural identity, which is threatened by cultural standardization and to…
Diaz, J., San Francisco, C. "Regional Business News." Inside a House Devided, 2012.
Fitjar, R.D. The Rise Of Regionalism: Causes of Regional Mobilization In Western Europe. Atlanta: Taylor and Francis, 2009.
Roth, K., Ulf, B. Region, Regional Identity Regonalism In South Eastern Europe. Chicago: LIT Verlang, 2010.
Gender, Sexuality, and Identity -- Question 2 "So, is the category bisexuality less or more threatening to the status quo than is homosexuality?"
The passage suggests that in fact, rather than presenting patriarchic constructs of identity with less threatening formulation of human sexual identity, bisexuality does the exact opposite -- it presents common social norms with the more threatening notion that human sexuality is not an either/or 'Chinese menu' option of stable choices. The practice of homosexuality, even when it is deemed taboo and beyond the pale of the human sexual order is still a 'comfort' to the heterosexual norm. The construct of homosexuality suggests that human sexuality exists in an either/or dichotomy. So long as one is attracted to the opposite gender one is, in essence, safe from the presumably aberrant, even pathological orientation of homosexuality.
However, bisexuality presents a potentially fluid rendering of human sexual desire, whereby even…
Clash of Identities
Is a private identity a curse or a blessing? Is it necessary or valid to hide who you really are? According to "Aria: Memoir of a bilingual childhood" by Richard Rodriguez and "How it feels to be colored me" by Zora Hurston, creating a private identity and leaving your public identity behind, may be necessary, especially living, growing or entering an environment where it is not that accepting to cultural differences, there is probably not other culture during these times such as the exchange students from the Islam culture from the Azerbaijan State that can relate. "You need to study abroad! In the United States!" are two sentences many high school seniors, that do not live in the United States, hear from their mothers, fathers and counselors. There is a current obsession for children to get educated in the United States. The Azerbaijan State has gone as…
Author's last name, first name. Title of Book. City: Publisher, Year.
Author's last name, first name. "Title of Article." Title of Publication Date Published: Pages.
Author's last name, first name. "Title of Online Article." Title of Online Publication Version (Year Published): Pages. Date Accessed .
"Title of Article." Title of Media. CD-ROM. City: Publisher, Year.
Many white people were indentured servants. However, as slavery and blackness became increasingly common categories of negative description, the notion of slavery as a black and racial state of being became accepted, and black national identity of country origin was erased. The idea of white as racially non-black is also a relatively recent innovation. Once upon a time, Jews, Irish people, and Chinese people were considered alien, other, and non-white by European society. In the United States, however, although such groups were discriminated against, because of the early history of slavery, whiteness and blackness, free and slave, became the dominant categories within the American framework of thought about race.
Race can thus be transformed by societal change, self-definition, and political struggle, but it cannot be ignored or subsumed under ideas that class, gender, or national origins is what 'really' matters Omni and inant analyze race's intersection with society on macro…
Omi, Michael & Howard Winant. Racial Formation in the United States: From the 1960s to the 1980s. New York: Routledge, 1986/1994.
Tame a Wild Tongue
Language and Identity in Anzaldua How to Tame a Wild Tongue
How to Tame a Wild Tongue is a fascinating internal expose of the evolution and development of language among immigrants of Spanish linguistic heritage. Gloria Anzaldua recognizes herself as a "blended" individual who speaks and contributes to a myriad of native and blended languages that are all varied and regionally expressive of both native Mexican and other "Chicano" immigrants as well as many of this heritage which were born in the U.S. To new immigrants or second generation immigrants to the U.S. Or even some who were isolated linguistically from their mother tongue by political borders. The work is powerful and expressive; it also lends itself to an internalized (externalized) idea of self. Anzaldua specifically discusses the cultural connections and disconnections that are created by language and its evolution and also addresses issues of internal…
Anzaldua, G. (1993). "How To Tame a Wild Tongue." Ways of Reading: An Anthology for Writers. Eds. David Bartholomae and Anthony Petrosky. Boston: Bedford, 39-48. Print.
Fought, C. (2008). "On the borderlands of communities: Taking linguistic research to la frontera." Plenary talk at-New Ways of Analyzing Variation 37?(NWAV-37), 8 November, Houston, Texas. Retrieved December 10, 2010 from: http://nwav37.rice.edu/abstracts/Fought_Preston.pdf.
Lynch-Biniek, A. (Summer/Fall 2009) Filling in the blanks: They say, I say, and the persistence of formalism. The CEA Forum 38 (2) Retrieved December 10, 2010 from: http://www2.widener.edu/~cea/382lynchbiniek.htm.
The Evolution of American Identity Through Literature
The diversity within the American experience, and as well within the canon of American literature, precludes the possibility of singling out two or even ten of the novels, poems, or short stories that best encapsulate what it means to be American. From the colonial and early national era and the fledgling formation of national identity through the struggles of emancipation from slavery and transcendentalism, onwards to the industrial and capitalist eras, American literature has provided an accurate reflection of the lives of individuals and communities that comprise life in different regions of the country. Geographic and cultural differentiations also help to expand what it means to be American, taking into account race, class, gender, and generation. Threads that tie together Americans throughout time and in spite of radical differences in worldview include staunch independence and self-reliance, coupled with a profound optimism. Trust in…
The diverse nature of the world we live in provides both a source of inspiration and challenge. The challenging aspects of diversity are heightened within a counseling environment where the crossroads of identity and culture meet and intersect. To be successful in any counseling attempt the psychic power of empathy must be employed in order to reach out and communicate to the one seeking help.
The concept of the self becomes very important in developing new behavioral habits that can be funneled in a constructive manner that aligns with the greater societal needs and blends, in harmony, the internal ideals of the self. ace and ethnicity are important factors in understanding oneself and holds key information about how one can realize their true self within the presence and context of others.
The purpose of this essay is to explain the synthesis of both race and ethnicity into the…
Christopher, J.C., Wendt, D.C., Marecek, J., & Goodman, D.M. (2014). Critical Cultural Awareness: Contributions to a Globalizing Psychology.
Cohen, L. (2011). The Psychology of Prejudice and Racism. Psychology Today, 24 Jan 2011. Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/handy-psychology - answers/201101/the-psychology-prejudice-and-racism
Hardin, E.E., Robitschek, C., Flores, L.Y., Navarro, R.L., & Ashton, M.W. (2014). The Cultural Lens Approach to Evaluating Cultural Validity of Psychological Theory.
Mabus, L. et al. (2011). A Look at the Ethical, Legal, and Clinical Issues Associated with Information Technology. Psychiatric Times, 28 June 2011. Retrieved from http://www.psychiatrictimes.com/risk-assessment-0/look-ethical-legal-and-clinical - issues-associated-information-technology
participation in deviant social structures. What makes people commit to a deviant identity? What makes people adhere to the social structures of deviant groups? Why are members of deviant groups so deeply loyal to each other and to the organization? The paper endeavors to offer insight into these questions and more as part of a quest to understand deviant behaviors, deviant organizations, and the construction of identity.
Exploring the Continuum of Deviant Organizations
For this essay, use Best & Luckenbill's continuum of deviant organizations as outlined in the textbook to explain how a person or group could become increasingly invested in his/her deviance. For example, consider how a youth from a gang-impacted area could move his/her way through from less organized to more organized deviant social organizations and imagine how this would ultimately impact his/her identity formation.
The higher the degree of deviant behavior demonstrated to serve and/or participate in…
Adler, P., & Adler, P. (2012) Constructions of deviance: Social power, context, and interaction. (7th ed.) Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.
Best, J., & Luckenbill, D.F. (1980) The Social Organization of Deviants. Social Problems, 28(1), 14 -- 31.
She is in the stereotypical subservient housemaid role, and she does not divulge her sexual identity either.
Sexual knowledge is also intimately equated with death in Turn of the Screw. The title suggests at once the screws in a coffin but also the sexual act. The governess sees ghosts instead of fulfilling her desire to have sex with the father of the children she hawks over. hile the governess seems assertive at times, brave enough to look into the eyes of a stranger and a ghost, she is also too timid to directly confront the father of the children. His request that she never contact him seems ridiculous, given Flora and Miles are his children. The fact that the governess obeys the orders at all shows that she lacks the internal conviction and self-confidence to assert herself. Feminist theories of identity formation therefore lend a considerable amount of insight into…
James, Henry. Turn of the Screw. Biblios. 2010.
Norton, R. (1999). "Henry James's the Turn of the Screw," Gay History and Literature, 1971, 1999, updated 20 June 2008 .
Parkinson, E.J. "Apparitionists vs. Non-apparitionists: 1934-1948." Chapter 3 in the Turn of the Screw: A History of Its Critical Interpretations 1898-1979. Retrieved online: http://www.turnofthescrew.com/ch3.htm
Sociology of Youth
The Structural Arrangements
The class view using the Social-Psychological perspective precipitates a point-of-view in the context of society as the dictator to the actor, the environment perpetuating the role that young individuals play in contemporary society. The social interaction is engaged through the environmental variables that lead to the psychological parameters to which the youth operate within. This approach is ostensibly akin to Ethnomethodology that views humans as a rule ridden species predicated on acting within a given societal or moral framework.
The identity formation of bonded child laborers in India is an example of youth that have no control over their environment and to where their environment or social paradigm shapes their individual thought process. These youth become a function of their environment. Essentially, a product of their environment that is based on exploitation and abuse of the children of the society. The structural arrangements for…
Erikson, Erick H. "Adolescence and the life cycle stage. Identity, youth & crisis,(pp. 128-135). New York W.W. Norton & Co. 1968.
Hostetler, J. "A sectarian society. Amish society (pp. 6-17). Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press. 1980.
Kovasevic, Natasa. "Child Slavery." Harvard International Review 29.2 (2007): 36,36-39. ABI/INFORM Global.Web. 16 June 2011.
Milner Murray. "Freaks, Geeks and Cool Kids, American Teenagers, Schools, and the Culture of Consumption." (2004) Routledge
Breda O'Hara-Davies (2010): The paradox of English, Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural
Development, 31:2, 107-118
In this article the author explores the contradictions present as a result of teaching English within the Brunei society. The study is important because it examines the vestigial influences of colonization. Deep currents of nationalistic fervor run counter to the need to fit into the wider global environment. Additionally, the study examined the question of the existence of a "colonized consciousness" and sought to understand the spread of the English language through Brunei. The author examines the theoretical framework of English as a colonizing tool, as opposed to English as a medium to preserve otherness and segregation. Using a qualitative research design the author found a multiplicity of themes that pointed to a movement of students towards a more centrist position. Many of the young persons were not unconsciously subsumed into the English culture. They…
His stance is also one of superiority as he presents himself as the victim of his own vision and artistic expression. In this context, the generic pronoun "they" symbolizes Craig's detachment from the world around him as he feels superior which he believes, is what causes his isolation.
Craig's wife, Lotte, is perhaps the most radically changed as a result of traveling through the portal. She becomes convinced that she is a transsexual, and consequently, feels the only way she can be true to herself is to assume a new sexual identity, i.e. that of a man. However Lotte abandons her desire of sexual reassignment when she becomes aware that by starting a relationship with Maxine, she can in fact assume a different gender role simply by falling in love with Maxine. Maxine, on the other hand, embarks on a sexual relationship with Malkovich so she can be with Lotte.…
Weeks, Jeffrey. 2003. The Invention of Sexuality. In Sexuality, 11-28. New York: Routledge.
Dragunoiu, Dana. "Psychoanalysis, Film Theory and the Case of Being John Malkovich." Film Criticism 26.2 (2001): 1-7
Gauntlett, David. 2002. Michel Foucault. In Media, Gender, and Identity: An Introduction, 115-134. London: Routledge.
As Gloria Anzaldua states in "How to Tame a ild Tongue" from Borderlands/La Frontera: The New Mestiza, "Chicano Spanish sprang out of Chicanos' need to identify ourselves as a distinct people," (447). Chicano Spanish is a "secret language" of cultural bonding and binding. This is true for the many "forked tongues" that have sprung up in communities of opposition: patios tongues that become crucial to identity formation and preservation (Anzaldua 447). The dominant culture finds "wild tongues" to be inherently frightening, evil, and subversive (Anzaldua 446). The dominant culture does all it can to stamp out, suppress, and "cut out" the wild tongues that threaten social hierarchy and preserve patterns of oppression in non-white, non-Anglo, communities (Anzaldua 446). Suppressing language is a means of oppressing people. Therefore, clinging to language diversity is a political move. hen Anzaldua corrected her teacher's pronunciation of her name, and was sent to the…
All readings from: Augenbraum, Harold and Olmos, Margarite Fernandez. The Latino Reader.. New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1997.
Thomas, Piri. Down these Mean Streets. Vintage, 1997.
Tomas and the Eternal Return
Kundera states that "if every second of our lives recurs an infinite number of times, we are nailed to eternity as Jesus Christ was nailed to the cross" (5). For him as well as for Nietzsche, this is frightening prospect for it places an almost insupportable burden of "responsibility…on every move we make" (5). Yet, Kundera quickly questions whether one ought to be so frightened: hy should the heavy weight of responsibility cause us to want to run away? After all, as Kundera notes, there is a relation between love and responsibility: "In the love poetry of every age, the woman longs to be weighed down by the man's body. The heaviest of burdens is therefore simultaneously an image of life's most intense fulfillment" (5). It is this realization that Tomas comes to through his association with and love for Tereza. In one…
Kundera, Milan. The Unbearable Lightness of Being. NY: HarperPerennial, 1999.
" (Halpin and urt, 1998) Duois states: "The history of the American Negro is the history of this strife -- this longing to attain self-conscious manhood, to merge his double self into a better and truer self. In this merging he wishes neither of the older selves to be lost. He would not Africanize America, for America has too much to teach the world and Africa. He would not bleach his Negro soul in a flood of White Americanism, for he knows that Negro blood has a message for the world. He simply wishes to make it possible for a man to be both a Negro and an American, without being cursed and spit upon by his fellows, without having the doors of Opportunity closed roughly in his face. (Duois, 1903)
The work of Pope (1998) conducted a study to make examination of the relationship between psychosocial development and racial…
Alessandria, Kathryn P. And Nelson, Eileen S. (2005) Identity Development and Self-Esteem of First-Generation American College Students: An Exploratory Study. Project Muse January/February 2005 Vol. 46 No. 1 Online available at http://muse.jhu.edu/demo/journal_of_college_student_development/v046/46.1alessandria.pdf
ARMY ROTC: The John Hopkins University (nd) Training and Curriculum. Online available at http://www.jhu.edu/rotc/training.htm
Astin, a.W. (1984). Student involvement: A developmental theory for higher education. Journal of College Student Personnel, 25, 297-308.
Astin, a.W. (1993). What matters in college? Four critical years revisited. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Proposal for Study: Is society causing biracial children to struggle with their identity?
hen forming their identity, children seek to look, act, feel, and mimic significant people in their social environment. "In his book Youth and Identity, Erickson relates ego identity and self-esteem to racial identity. He states that ambiguous messages about one's race may place a person at risk for developing what he referred to as a 'negative identity'" (Oka, 1994, p. 3). The possibility of negative identity is a controversial topic regarding biracial children. Opponents of interracial marriage argue that interracial couples are jeopardizing the futures of their children, as there is a possibility that biracial children will not be accepted by either culture and this rejection will lead to personal problems.
Some studies have found that it is more likely for interracial children to experience difficulties related to a poor self-identity, such as gender confusion,…
Beswick, Richard (1990) Racism in America's schools. ERIC Clearinghouse on Educational Management: ED 320-196.
Cole, Michael & Cole, Sheila (1993) The development of children (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Scientific American Books, 339-369.
Hoskins, Nichele (1996). Mixed-race couples, children brave racism. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.startelegram.com/news/doc/1047/1:Metro73/1:Metro73101296.htm
Oka, Julie Mari (1994). Self-concept and parental values: Influences on the ethnic identity development of biracial children. Thesis, San Jose State University.
ut in the 30s, most waves of Korean migrants came in because of the policy of forced conscription. Japan's economy rapidly improved at the time and there was a huge demand for labor. This and industrialization led to the creation of a Japanese national mobilization plan. This plan, in turn, led to the conscription of roughly 600,000 Koreans. Japan's military forces continued to expand and the government had to regular the increase in the Korean population. They were required to carry an identification card. In 1942, the government promised them equal citizenship if they extended their work contracts. They became eligible to vote, run for public office and serve in election committees. Conscription was implemented in the same year. Despite official political equality, Korean inferiority remained prevalent. Yet they were expected to observe and practice Japanese culture as a condition to political equality (Minorities at Risk).
With the defeat of…
Alvin, Koh Zhongwei. Koreans in Japan. National University of Singapore: NUS
History Society E-Journal, 2003.
Kichan Song. The Appearance of "Young Koreans in Japan" and the Emergence of a New Type of Ethnic Education. Vol 9 237-253. Kyodo University: Kyodo Journal of Sociology, 2001
Kyodo. Jong Raps Japan for Historical Crime Against Koreans. Asian Political News.
Income is less of an issue than profession in determining class status in my community. A professor who earns half or even a fourth of what a doctor makes would still be considered in a higher class than a plumber earning a similar income. Business executives, lawyers, doctors, and any other professional designation signals social status in my community. At the same time, students in my community who aspire to be professional athletes, artists or musicians also have a high social status. Athletes are artists are lauded in popular culture and individuals who pursue paths like those are considered to be non-conformists. Being non-conformist is a source of social clout: a way of telling other young people that we are free thinkers and therefore capable of changing the world.
I am happy with my status within my community. As a member of a dominant social group, I am aware of…
Socially-constructed Societies and Cultures Among Transmigrants and Transnationals: The Case of United States Migration History
Migration, as a social activity, is a vital element considered not only for its importance in determining specific aspects of a country's socio-demographic characteristics, but in determining the psycho-demographic characteristics of societies and cultures within that country. Indeed, it is evident that apart from serving as a catalyst in changing the social structure of societies, migration also helps change and bring dynamism to a the norms, traditions, and values held important by a society and culture. Take as an example the history of migration in the United States. Historical events such as the first and second World Wars have triggered the sudden increase in migration of people from different countries in the world. Furthermore, migration also increased as an effect of the economic and political stability of the U.S., as compared to other countries in…
Castles, S. And M. Miller. (1993). The Age of Migration: International Population Movements in the Modern World. London: Macmillan Press Ltd.
Kennedy, P. And V. Roudometof. Transnationalism in a global age. In Communities across Borders: New immigrants and transnational cultures. (2002). P. Kennedy and V. Roudometof (Eds.). NY: Routledge.
Massey, D. Why does immigration occur? A Theoretical Synthesis. In The Handbook of International Migration: The American Experience. (1999). C. Hirschmann, P. Kasinitz and J. DeWind (Eds.). NY: Russell Sage Foundation.
Matthews, K. Boundaries of diaspora identity: The case of Central and East African-Asians in Canada. In Communities across Borders: New immigrants and transnational cultures. (2002). P. Kennedy and V. Roudometof (Eds.). NY: Routledge.
The traditional adage is that it takes an entire village to raise a child. In my case, this expression has a certain degree of validity. As I reminisce about my adolescence, there are a number of different experiences I have had which are directly related to my environment or surrounding ecosystem at the time. The best way to categorize this environment is in accordance to Bronfenbrenner’s ecological systems theory, which includes a number of different stratifications for a child’s milieu.
Contextualizing my teenage years through this psychological lens, as well as others such as social learning theory andPiaget’s childhood cognitive development theory, I am able to clearly explain certain facets of my behavior and personality traits.
The crux of Bronfenbreener’s ecological systems theory is that there are a number of subtle layers to the overall ecology which influences people as they mature and age. The first of these is the…
The fourth chapter of the work of literature edited by Suzuki and Ponterro, "Cultural identity, racial identity, and the multicultural personality" alludes to the fact that ethnic and racial difference pertain a lot to the development of identity for an individual. It was somewhat surprising, however, to learn of the polarization of the concept of race considered within this chapter. The authors discuss developments and instruments relating to African-Americans, Caucasians, and those who embrace a multicultural conception of themselves. It is surprising to see such a simplified dichotomy when these categories leave out a variety of other different types of races including Asians, Latinos, Islanders, Native Americans, and various hybrids (although the multicultural identity can be applied to hybrids). I sincerely hope that the research of identity formation as related to race within the field of psychology has additional measures and concerns for other races and…
Suzuki and Ponterotto. (2000). Handbook of Multicultural Assessment. New York: Jossey-Bass.
This renunciation, depending on one's perspective, represents either a willful act of sacrifice or a selfish act of disobedience. Sandra Pouchet Paquet, however, frames this problematic deed in neutral terms in her analysis of the text, which focuses on its ambivalence toward the role of ancestral knowledge in identity formation. Paquet (2009) asserts that Janie "repudiates the values of her surrogate parents in her conscious quest for selfhood" (p.501). She also suggests that ancestral knowledge operates merely as a means to "psychic wholeness" in the novels and argues that the text is successful in exploring "the divorce from ancestral roots that accompanies conventional notions of success" (p. 500) Indeed, this tension between ancestral knowledge and individualistic goals is why Janie has to grapple with interpreting the nature of the knowledge imparted in her moments of coming to consciousness. Specifically, she wants to interpret the mystery conferred to her through the…
Jones, Sharon L. A Critical Companion to Zora Neale Hurston: A Literary Reference to her Life and Work (New York: Facts on File, 2009)
Hurston, Zora Neale. Their Eyes Were Watching God. 1937. New York: Perennial Classics, 1998. Print.
Morrison, Toni. "Intimate Things in Place': A Conversation with Toni Morrison." The Massachusetts Review. By Robert Stepto. 18.3 (1977): 473-89. JSTOR. Web. 9 December 2009.
Ramsey, William M. "The Compelling Ambivalence of Zora Neale Hurston's Their Eyes Were Watching God." The Southern Literary Journal. 27.1 (1994): 36-50. JSTOR. Web. 26 October 2010.
Black Colleges Homosexuality
In order to create more egalitarian, prosocial, and productive campus environments, it is necessary to understand attitudes toward homosexuality and homosexual students. Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) students experienced relatively high rates of substance abuse, depression, and stress related to discrimination, difficulties forming social relationships, and low self-esteem (Heck, Flentje & Cochran, 2011). As Kirby (2011) points out, "Having a negative self-concept plays a major role in youth suicides, in how well one does in school, and in how one interacts with society at large." Therefore, the need for a more supportive social environment on college campuses is a pressing one.
Unfortunately, traditionally white universities and historically black universities in the United States have addressed the needs of the LGBT student community differently. Historically black colleges and institutions are defined as "institutions classified as higher education that were chartered prior to 1964 and created with the…
Burleson, Douglas A. "Sexual orientation and college choice: Considering campus climate." About Campus 14, no. 6 (January 2010): 9-14. Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed October 14, 2013).
Eisen, V., & Hall, L. (Eds.). (1996). Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people and education [Special issue]. Harvard Educational Review, 66(2).
Griffin, H. (2000). Their Own Received Them Not: African-American Lesbians and Gays in Black Churches. Theology & Sexuality: The Journal Of The Institute For The Study Of Christianity & Sexuality, 6(12), 1.
Heck, N.C., Flentje, A., & Cochran, B.N. (2011). Offsetting risks: High school gay-straight alliances and lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth. School Psychology Quarterly, 26(2), 161-174. doi:10.1037/a0023226
Discursive construction refers to the ways identities related to gender, ethnicity, nationality, race, or any other parameter, are constructed through discourse. Discourse implies relationship and communication, and it can also relate to power differentials. For example, Narayan (1995) refers to the "self serving collaboration between elements of colonial rights discourse and care discourse," especially related to the "white man's burden" type scenarios (p. 133). The colonizer had once framed colonization as doing the Other a favor, by "promoting the welfare of the colonized" out of a belief in presumed superiority. Thus, the discourse creates a superior/inferior binary.
Narayan, U. (1995). Colonialism and its Others. Hypatia 10(2).
Subjectivity is embedded in postcolonial discourse and identity formation. In Black Skin White Masks, the author shows how black identities are constructed subjectively as opposed to actively because the colonizer projects values and ethics onto the Other. The poetry of Derek Walcott also…
Abdulhadi, R. (2003). Where is home? Radical History Review 86.
Yosso, T.J. (2005). Whose culture has capital? Race, Ethnicity, and Education 8(1).
Woolf / Women in Violence and War
The current paper deals with the use of stream of consciousness and narrative technique by Virginia Wolf. The author has discussed how Woolf comes and goes in time and space to reveal her inside feelings, and why she used them especially in time of war and domestic violence.
Much has been written about Woolf's use of the stream-of-consciousness technique used widely by other Modernist writers of her time such as DH Lawrance and James Joyce. Stream of Consciousness is the technique use by Woolf and she is considered the pioneer of this technique. The stream of thought was first proposed by William James, Harvard Professor of Psychology in 1890.
In a diary entry that Woolf wrote on the 23 of February in 1926, she compares the writing process she went through while writing Mrs. Dalloway with the process she experienced while writing…
Bakhtin, Mikhail.M.. Art and Answerability. Eds. Michael Holquist and Vadim Liapunov. Trans. And notes, Vadim Liapunov. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1990. Print.
James, William. Different Times of Thought" Principles of Psychology. 260. Print
Herbert, Christopher. Mrs. Dalloway, the Dictator, and the Relativity Paradox. Novel. 35.1 (Fall 2001): Duke University Press. 104-124. Academic Search Premier. Web. 5 April 2010.
Mathis, Mary Shirlene, Ph.D., ?War/narrative/identity: Uses of Virginia Woolf's modernism. Dissertation. The University of Texas. 1995. Academic Search Premier. Web. 5 April 2010.
Barbie doll top ten viral commercials as of 2013 rely mostly on You Tube, Dailymotion, Facebook and Twitter.
The third doll brand, subject to this study is Bratz. As evidenced from the four commercials assessed in the course of this study, Bratz deploys a slightly different mode of advertising, which involves marketing adult entertainment to kids. Social psychologists have argued that this strategy is very effective within the realm of modern-day material culture. Adult entertainment, which often involves depiction of violence, sex, strong language and obscenity, has become very popular among children
. For Bratz, one of the most popular commercials involves cowgirls in Texas fighting crime modelled along the risque film group Charlie's Angels. The use of guns to depict violence is central to this commercial, which has since increased the brand's digital reach through pervasive advertising on TV and in the internet. In a similar commercial, Bratz acquired…
Meyers, Laurie. "Dangerous dolls? Psychologists push back against market forces and products that sexualize young girls." American Psychological Association September 2006, Vol 37, No. 8
Eglinton, Kristen Ali Youth Identities, Localities, and Visual Material Culture: Making Selves, Making Worlds New York: Springer, 2013
Doeschka, J. Anschutz and Rutger, C.M.E. Engels. "The Effects of Playing with Thin Dolls on Body Image and Food Intake in Young Girls" U.S. National Library of Medicine
Whereas the pristine manicured lawns of the course might seem to be a boon for Bottom, the encroachment of white culture onto African-American culture will prove devastating. The golf course signifies white control over newly-gained black property, the imposition of white culture on that of African-American culture, and also the reclamation and reformation of land, something that African-Americans had only recently been permitted to own. While it would seem that such a tragic possibility would serve to strengthen the tries between Bottom residents, by the end of the novel, black families are slowly edging their way out of Bottom and into Medallion, destroying the integrity of the African-American community. Added to the moral and ethical conundrums symbolized by Sula, the problem of American race relations threatened to shatter Bottom's fragile identity.
Sula becomes an unwitting martyr for her community. "In Sula, the character of Sula must sacrifice her 'self' completely…
In Poland, a ritual exists by which a znajomy becomes a kolega: When the two parties-- regardless of gender -- give mutual permission to allow each other to drop the "Mr." And "Miss" and call each other by their first names. A celebration involving drinking frequently follows, frequently with the two drinking shots of alcohol with arms linked. The English terms closest to kolega are "buddy," "pal," and "companion."
The authors (McAndrew & ybak, 2006) hypothocized that since the Poles had more formalized and precise friendship words, they would differentiate more readily and consistently between different types of friends than Americans. They also looked at sex differences in judgments made about friendship, expecting that women in both America and Poland would probably make more discriminating judgments about relationships than would men.
Participants were either college students from the U.S. Or Poland. There were 56 Polish and 57 American participants. All…
Bell, S., & Coleman, S. (Eds.). (1999). The anthropology of friendship. Oxford: Berg.
Bond, M.H. (1988). Finding universal dimensions of individual variation in multicultural studies of values: The Rokeach and Chinese value surveys. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 55, 1009-1015.
Erikson, E.H. (1968). Identity: Youth and Crisis. New York: Norton.
Greenberger, E., & Chen, C. (1996). Perceived family relationships and depressed mood in early and late adolescence:a comparison of European and Asian-Americans. Developmental Psychology, 32, 707-716.
According to Croucher (2003), there are five layers in the erotic life of human beings. The first of these is sexual identity. This is the physical differentiation between male and female, which is fixed by the end of the first trimester in the development of the foetus. Transsexuals feel that they have the "wrong sex" and therefore the wrong core identity. The second layer is sexual orientation, which refers to hetero- or homosexuality. This is also almost impossible to change, since a genetic component plays a role here. The third layer, which is sexual preferences, refers to the elements of sexual stimulation. For men, for example, this would generally be female body parts, while women are aroused by factors such as intimacy, character, and other more subtle factors. The fourth layer is sex roles, where roles are assigned accordign to gender. This demarcation is strongest in young children.…
Berman, J.R. (2005). Physiology of female sexual function and dysfunction. International Journal of Impotence Research, Vol. 17. Retrieved from: http://www.nature.com/ijir/journal/v17/n1s/full/3901428a.html
Croucher, R. (2003, Jan 4). What you Can Change and What you Can't. John Mark Ministeries. Retrieved from: http://jmm.aaa.net.au/articles/2136.htm
Hucker, S.J. (2005). Paraphilias. Forensic Psychiatry.ca. Retrieved from: http://www.forensicpsychiatry.ca/paraphilia/overview.htm
Magnus Hirschfield Archive for Sexology. (2011). The Role of Hormones. Retrieved from: http://www2.hu-berlin.de/sexology/ATLAS_EN/html/the_role_of_hormones.html
Altruism or Egoism
The dating website has become an online phenomenon where people across the world find relationships, love and intimacy. The hottest trend in the online dating is that people who have been single for several years have finally found their true love. The theories of relationship, love, intimacy, social comparison, self-categorization, and social identity reveal that individuals develop a social relationship to boost their social esteem, and people are likely to cooperate with a group who belong to their social identity. Frisen, & Wangqvist, (2010) argue that people have been dating one another in Sweden without going through informal rules. The authors maintain that people continue to indulge in love relationship despite their social identity. Williams, & Russell (2013) argue that adolescent and younger adults quest for love, and increasing number of girls believe in intimacy relationship while boys adore sexual intercourse. Additionally, Finn, (2012) think that emotional…
American Enduring Vision
American History 1820-1840 Enduring Vision
How did the changes experienced by Americans after 1820 incorporate elements of the 'Enduring Vision' to preserve a common national identity?
During this early period of American identity formation between 1820-1830, one of the most profound developments was the removal of Indian peoples from their native territories. Increasingly, the common American, the common American White man sought political enfranchisement and territory to farm on his own. These two desires, of political power and land, conjoined to make Indian removal politically popular and expedient for those in authority.
During this time, the ideal of the genteel American farmer in government began to recede. The Jeffersonian ideal was replaced by what became the Jacksonian ideal of the common man voicing his will in politics. Andrew Jackson was elected President in 1828 on a promise of full enfranchisement for all men, without former…
Cultural identity formation theories reveal the intersections between race, class, gender, sexuality, status, self-concept, and power. Applying critical race theory and racial identity development models to social work can prove tremendously helpful and promotes the overall goals of the profession. It is not just about becoming more culturally competent and aware of structural racism and other factors that might be affecting clients; the work of increasing cultural competence means becoming more self-aware. Learning about my own cultural identity formation helps me to recognize any biases that I have picked up from environmental cues. Moreover, increasing cultural competence depends on honesty and insight. It is one thing to intellectually understand that racism is psychologically and socially traumatic for people, but quite another to recognize the ways racism has affected my own perceptions and cognitions.
My plan to increase cultural competence includes daily journaling about my inner thoughts as well as my…
Abrams, L.S. & Moio, J.A. (2009). Critical race theory and the cultural competence dilemma in social work education. Journal of Social Work Education 45(2).
Hud-Aleem, R. & Countryman, J. (2008). Biracial identity development and recommendations in therapy. Psychiatry (Edgemont) 5(11): 37-44.
National Association of Social Workers (2001). NASW standards for cultural competence. Retrieved online: https://www.socialworkers.org/practice/standards/naswculturalstandards.pdf
Sue, D.W., Jackson, K.F., Rasheed, M.N. & Rasheed, J.M. (2016). Multicultural Social Work Practice. John Wiley.