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Identity Theft: Managing the Risk Management
What's New for the Future of Identity Theft Prevention
In this paper I examine the basics of identity theft in today's age of widespread and accessible information. The fundamental problem is that while information technologies continue to make aspects of our lives as simple as "point and click," they tend to make certain forms of crime equally simple. The internet, in particular, makes information not only instantly available but also available to an untold number of faceless strangers. However, the central methods for preventing identity theft remain what they were before personal computers became as common as the television; social security numbers and credit card information must be guarded.
I begin this discussion with an overview and definition of identity theft, including the most common ways it is committed. I identify the fundamental steps towards prevention, as well as the latest laws enacted to…
1. Garfinkel, Simson. (2000). Database Nation: the Death of Privacy in the 21st Century. Cambridge: O'Reilly and Associates, Inc.
2. Hammond, Robert. (2003). Identity Theft: How to Protect Your Most Valuable Asset. Franklin Lakes: Career Press.
3. May, Johnny R. (2001). The Guide to Identity Theft Prevention. New York: 1st Books.
4. McElwee, Andrew. (2004). Preventing Double Identity. Best's Review, Oldwick: Dec. 2004. Vol. 105, Issue 8; pg. 76.
Identity Theft Corp (ITC) is a new company specializing on the identity theft service. The company assists customers to monitor their credit report in order to identify any suspicious charge. The company will also provide the leg work to clean up the mess left behind because of the identity theft and assist customers to rebuild their credits.
The objective of this proposal is to provide strategic planning and implementation for Identity Theft Corp. The report uses SWOT model to analyze the internal and external environments that ITC will be operating.
SWOT model involves analyzing the strengths and weaknesses of the ITC internal factors and using the opportunities and threats to asses the company external factors. The analysis will assist the company to formulate an effective strategy to achieve its mission.
Strength: The strength of the ITC is its technical and professional skills that the company has already possessed for the…
Best Identity Protection (2011). American Express ID Protection Review. Top Identity Protection Inc.
Tynan, D. (2008). Identity-Theft Protection: What Services Can You Trust? PCWorld.
Loughborough University (2010). Globalization and World Cities Research Network. GaWC.
Identity Theft III
Identity Theft Clean-Up and Credit Monitoring Product Solutions for the United States Market
Potential Market Growth
In previous reports various aspects of a new market expansion for a credit monitoring and other related services would be introduction crossed borders from the corporate headquarters in Canada into the United States. The move into the United States marketplace represents a new market expansion that represents an incredible opportunity for the Canadian firm. However, at the same time, it is necessary to understand the differences that are inherent in this market for the expansion to be successful. Any misstep could result in the expansion not creating value for either the consumers or the parent company.
The products offered in the organization's product line-up are focused on individual consumers' credit reports. The compositions of the products are centered around…
Identity Theft Labs. "Monitoring vs. Fraud Alerts." 2011. Identity Theft Labs. Web. 25 November 2011.
"Javelin Strategy & Research." 1 December 2007. Research and Markets. Web. 25 November 2011.
LifeLock. Relentlessly Protecting Your Credit. 20 November 2011. .
Once your personal or financial information has been compromised, it may take months and even years to secure them again. This may involve filing fraud case with your bank, information everyone about your stolen SSN and generally avoiding credit cards or debit card transactions. This is indeed a major problem getting one's identity and peace of mind back once it has been compromised. For this reason prevention is the best way of protecting identity online. There are several ways in which this can be done.
1. Anti-Virus software
Internet users must have a genuinely brilliant and secure anti-virus program installed. Instead of copying free versions online, it is better to purchase a copy of licensed software and use it on your computer. This will help protect against hacker attacks and also alert the user when a suspicious web site appears. Anti-virus software also check for security certificates and inform users…
Javelin Strategy & Research, 2007 Identity Fraud Survey Report, February 2008.
Gartner, Inc., "Gartner Survey Shows Phishing Attacks Escalated in 2007; More than $3 Billion Lost to These Attacks," http://www.gartner.com/it/page.jsp?id=565125 .
Kristin Finklea, 2009. Identity Theft, Trends and Issues. Congressional Research Service.
Hoar, Sean B. Identity Theft: The Crime of the New illennium (2001). U.S. Department of Justice. Retrieved arch 20, 2007 at http://www.cybercrime.gov/usamarch2001_3.htm.
Has some clown taken over your good name? (2004). The Police Notebook. University of Oklahoma Police Department. Retrieved arch 20, 2007 at http://www.ou.edu/oupd/idtheft.htm.
Thorne, J. And Segal, a. (2006). Identity theft: The new way to rob a bank. CNN online. Retrieved arch 20, 2007 at http://www.cnn.com/2006/U.S./05/18/identity.theft/index.html.
New technology may increase identity theft (2005). The Age Company Ltd. Retrieved arch 20, 2007 at http://www.theage.com.au/news/technology/new-technology-may-increase-identity-theft/2005/09/04/1125772413215.html.
cCarthy, Jack (2000). National Fraud Center: Internet is driving identity theft. CNN online. Retrieved arch 20, 2007 at http://archives.cnn.com/2000/TECH/computing/03/20/net.identity.theft.idg/.
Leland, J. And Zeller, T. (ay 30, 2006). Technology and Easy Credit Give Identity Thieves an Edge. The New York Times online. Retrieved arch 20, 2007 at http://www.nytimes.com/2006/05/30/us/30identity.html?ex=1306641600&en=f77c2572cbfb4709&ei=5088&partner=rssnyt&emc=rss.
ore Social Surfing means more Identity Theft (2007). Usability News online. Retrieved arch 20, 2007 at http://www.usabilitynews.com/news/article3758.asp.…
More Social Surfing mean more Identity Theft (2007). Usability News online. Retrieved March 20, 2007 at http://www.usabilitynews.com/news/article3758.asp .
Sullivan, B. (2004). 9/11 report light on ID theft issues. MSNBC. Retrieved March 20, 2007 at http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/5594385/ .
Newman Graeme R., McNally Megan M., Identity Theft Literature Review (July 2005). Retrieved March 20, 2007, at http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/grants/210459.pdf
Spyware runs automatically without the user's knowledge and transmits vital information. Spyware can also record your keystrokes and one might end up revealing all usernames, passwords and other details to identity thieves. (Atlantic Publishing, 2008); (Schwabach, 2005)
Identity thieves have also found novel ways to steal and use identities. For instance, cyber criminals recently hacked Facebook, a popular social networking site, and changed a user's page asking people to help him. Even though the matter was resolved with the help of Facebook; the fact remains that identity theft can have far-reaching and diverse consequences. (Caroll, 2009) the damage caused by identity theft can take years to be rectified. The consequences of the fraudulent practices initiated by the identity thief can continue to reach the victim and credit companies long after the thief has been apprehended and the abuse of the victim's identity stopped. Therefore, consumers must take utmost precautions to…
Atlantic Publishing. (2008) "The Online Identity Theft Prevention Kit: Stop Scammers,
Hackers, and Identity Thieves from Ruining Your Life" Atlantic Publishing Company.
Caroll, Jason. (2009) "Identity Theft: Cyber criminals hack Facebook"
Retrieved 28 March, 2009 from http://ibnlive.in.com/news/identity-theft-cyber-criminals-hack-facebook/84607-11.html
In one case in 2000, two-20-year-olds hacked into the Lowe's credit card mainframe from a white Pontiac Grand Prix parked outside a store, synching a single laptop to the wireless system that was meant for employees to use to locate products.
The hackers, obviously to blame for the crime, played on the flaws of a computer system that should not have allowed for a security breach. While the same hackers were responsible for the fall of a non-profit online service provider named Arbornet only months before, they were unaware of the increasing watchful eye of the Lowe's corporation on their actions. While Lowe's was not yet able to smooth the seams of its system and the holes allowing access, they were able to keep watch, something that all corporations need to take responsibility and do. From the corporate data center in North Carolina, Lowe's employees were able to trace the…
Sahadi, "Personal Data."
Warne, Dan. "Mandatory Filtering by ISPS. http://archive.humbug.org.au/aussie-isp/2003-03/msg00253.html
Hearing on Identity Theft/Data Broker Service.' http://www.bespacific.com/mt/archives/008225.html#008225
Pharmers now not only small local servers operated by Internet service providers (ISP) but they also target the 13 servers on which all other DNS servers depend.
Businesses & Large Organizations: Among large scale businesses that get affected includes the financial sector other than individuals. Electronic banking services have been greatly affected by these criminals who are euphemistically called hackers or crackers who conduct phishing or pharming. They not only steal the information and enter into the security system of banks but when they are caught they also retaliate. They retaliate using computer viruses, "worms" and "logic bombs" that can destroy hard drives. While robbers of banks using guns and other such weapons can also steal big amounts but they could end up in prison and the amount looted could be recovered. In case of these hackers, the sleuths have new technological tactics to deal with. These criminals use…
Brinkhorst, J.A. (2007, April 1). 2007 trends in security. Kentucky Banker Magazine, 16.
Brody, R, Mulig, E, Kimball, V (2007). Phishing, Pharming and Identity Theft. Academy of Accounting and Financial Studies Journal, 11(3), 43
Stephens, G. (1995, September/October). Crime in Cyberspace. The Futurist, 29, 24+.
Bielski, L. (2005). Breakout Systems and Applications Give Bankers New Options. ABA Banking Journal. 97(6): 61+.
Many people in the United States and around the world have become the victims of identity theft. This is a crime wherein a person pretends to be someone else by assuming their identity in order to obtain money and other benefits that should belong to the person whose identity they are taking (Michael 2012). Often, the person whose identity is stolen can become financially damaged by the theft, particularly if they are held accountable for the other person's actions. Identity theft is a notoriously difficult crime to prove. Victims frequently do not know they have been targeted until days, weeks, or even months after the crime was committed. Because of this, the date of the crime is hard to determine and the person responsible even more difficult to detect.
According to the article "Men Plead Guilty to Identity Theft Crimes that Included Ventura County Victims," (2013) a large…
Hernandez, R. (2013). Men plead guilty to identity theft crimes that included Ventura County victims. Ventura County Star. E.W. Scripps.
Michael, S. (2009). Getting red flag ready. Physicians Practice. Retrieved from physicianspractice.com
Identity theft has always been possible, but the internet and technology have made it something that can often be accomplished far too easily. According to Hoar (2001), identity theft is the "crime of the new millennium." Stealing someone's identity can cause them countless problems, thousands of dollars, and literally years to correct. Problems are not limited to credit reports, either. Some people even file tax returns using the social security numbers of others. They get big refunds from the government, and when the real person files his or her tax return, the federal government rejects it, saying that person already filed (Hoar, 2001; McFadden, 2007). Naturally, that can be a huge issue for anyone who has to find ways to sort that out. Just telling someone they were the victim of identity theft is not enough. A police report should always be filed, and often there are many steps which…
Hoar, S.B. (2001). Identity theft: The crime of the new millennium. 80 Or. L. Rev. 1423
McFadden, L. (2007). Detecting synthetic identity fraud. Bankrate.com
Measuring the black web. (2011). The Economist.
Olmos, D. (2009). Social security numbers can be guessed from data, study finds. Bloomberg.
Criminals don't always need to have shotguns and masks to threat and rob money; it only takes a social security number, or a pre-approved credit card application from trash to make things according to their wicked way (ID Theft, 2004).
Some consumers have had credit card numbers and Social Security numbers stolen and used fraudulently or identity theft. By taking reasonable steps to protect your personal information, this can mitigate the chance that it may be stolen (What you should know about internet banking, 2007) by identity thieves.
Identity theft is a term used for serious crimes associated with someone uses your name, address, Social Security number, bank or credit card account number or other identifying information without your knowledge to commit fraud. This fraud may only take setting up accounts in your name and make online transactions without you knowing (Get the Upper Hand on Credit Crime, 2004).
Convenience Factors. (2002). Retrieved March 14, 2007. http://jobfunctions.bnet.com/whitepaper.aspx?docid=50925
Bank Information - Internet and Online Banking. (2005). Retrieved March 14, 2007. http://www.uk-bank-account.co.uk/online.html
Einhorn, Monique F. (2005). Coping with identity theft: imagine discovering that someone has opened credit card accounts or secured a home equity or car loan under an assumed name: yours. Consider receiving an IRS W-2 form reporting wages earned by someone else who has used your name and Social Security number (Cover Story). Partners in Community and Economic Development. Retrieved March 14, 2007. http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-132841950.html
Get the Upper Hand on Credit Crime - Protect Your Identity With a Few Simple Tips; Your Credit Card Companies Alerts Consumers About Ways to Fight Back Against Identity Theft Scams. (2004). Retrieved March 14, 2007. http://goliath.ecnext.com/coms2/gi_0199-893980/Get-the-Upper-Hand-on.html
hen a Social Security number is stolen, contacting the Social Security Administration can help to place a watch on its use as well (SSA 2009). This particular problem can lead to many complications, as obtaining a new Social Security Number can create many difficulties for the victim while keeping the old number might allow the thief to continue using the victim's identity (SSA 2009). Generally, though, a new number is not necessary to stop most identity thieves.
The government also plays a major role both in preventing identity theft and in addressing both the victims and the thieves after the crime has been committed. The Social Security Administration has set limits on the number of replacement cards an individual may obtain, as well as new and more stringent methods of identity verification when fulfilling a request for replacement cards (SSA 2009). Though this can also make things more difficult for…
The system that Networks Update critiques is IMAG ("Identity Managed Access Gateway") by Apere, Inc.
The way it works is by an innovative way of permitting or denying access to applications that are critical to a business; the IMAG systems knows who should and who should not have access to those critical files and applications because it has "auto discovery capabilities" that immediately click into place when any attempt is made to enter into privileged files.
But what makes this system unique - in an IT world that already has firewalls and other seemingly effective preventative measures - is that, according to the Mark Rhodes-Ousley, author of the book Network Security, The Complete Reference, IMAG automatically creates and manages "...access policies based on all sources of identity information in the network," and avoids wasteful use of IT resources "for manual network access provisioning and policy management."
hile the future success…
Congress Daily. (2006). Reid Becomes Victim Of Identity Theft. Retrieved 29 August, 2006 from http://www.congressdaily.com.
Foust, Dean; & Ryst, Sonja. (2006). ID Theft: More Hype Than Harm. Business Week, Issue
3991, p. 34-36.
Kiernan, Vincent. (2006). New Center at Utica College will Study Identity Theft. Chronicle of Higher Education, 52(45).
Of course, most people will call their banks, credit card companies, and other institution at the first sign that identity theft has occurred, but what happens to those victims who do not realize it immediately?
People need to be aware of what identity theft is, how it is committed, what can happen when such information is stolen, and what should be done when identity theft has occurred. It is not a bunch of hype and it does cause a lot of harm, not only to the victims, but also to the victim's family. Evidently, Foust is trying to calm the reader by saying that most information that is stolen is never used. Rather it is used or not, the fact that someone has or can be a victim of identity theft is cause for concern.
Dean Foust is correct in saying that most information is not ever turned into financial…
Foust, Dean. (7/3/2006). ID Theft: More Hype than Harm. Business Week Magazine.
Consumer Beware: The Growing Problem of Identity Theft
American consumers today are increasingly concerned, with good reason, about how to avoid joining the ranks of unfortunate millions who are already victims of the newest, most widespread national financial crime: identity theft. According to the web article "The Crime of Identity Theft": It can happen to anyone. The phone rings and a collection agency demands that you pay past-due accounts for goods you never ordered. The supermarket refuses your checks because you have a history of bouncing them." Stealing (most often by strangers) of personal information about individual consumers (e.g., full name; birth date; social security number; bank account numbers; credit card numbers, and other confidential data) has in recent years become epidemic. ithin the United States in particular (one reason for the phenomenon of identity theft in America in particular is that the United States is the only nation with…
Bellah, Ashley. Personal Interview. June 22, 2005.
'The Crime of Identity Theft. Coping with Identity Theft: Reducing the Risk of Fraud. Privacy Rights Clearinghouse. Retrieved June 23, 2005, from:
'Groups Push for More Protection Against Identity Theft. Freep: The Detroit Free
4. File your complaint with the FTC. The FTC maintains a database of identity theft cases used by law enforcement agencies for investigations. Filing a complaint also helps us learn more about identity theft and the problems victims are having so that we can better assist you. (FCC, 2006)
II. SIGNS OF IDENTITY THEFT
The FCC consumer alert entitled: "What To Do If Your Personal Information Has een Compromised" states that signs of identity theft having occurred are inclusive of:
receiving credit cards that you didn't apply for;
being denied credit, or being offered less favorable credit terms, like a high interest rate, for no apparent reason; and getting calls or letters from debt collectors or businesses about merchandise or services you didn't buy." (FCC Consumer Alert, 2005)
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
The article reviewed has clear and concise steps the individual should take if they believe that identity theft may…
What To Do If Your Personal Information Has Been Compromised (2005) March Online available at http://www.ftc.gov/bcp/conline/pubs/alerts/infocompalrt.htm .
Welcome to the Federal Trade Commission: Your Resource about Identity Theft" (2006) Online available at http://www.consumer.gov/idtheft/ .
Issues of Law: Identity Theft
Identity theft is a kind of theft that involves someone stealing the identity of someone else by assuming that person's identity (Lai, Li, & Hsieh, 2012). This is usually a method of gaining access to the person's resources like credit cards and other things in the person's name. This is considered a white-collar crime and it has gained popularity amongst criminals. Identity theft does not involve any physical theft. Therefore, the victim might not realize the theft until significant damage has occurred. Identity thieves make use of a variety of methods, and not all of them are computer based. Thieves can go through the person's trash or mail searching for bank and credit card information, statements, and tax information. The information stolen can then be used to commit crimes like accessing credit under the person's name and using their details. Another method used to steal information is stealing the person's…
Lai, F., Li, D., & Hsieh, C.-T. (2012). Fighting identity theft: The coping perspective. Decision Support Systems, 52(2), 353-363.
Tajpour, A., Ibrahim, S., & Zamani, M. (2013). Identity Theft Methods and Fraud Types. International Journal of Information Processing & Management, 4(7).
identity theft due to an increase in Internet usage
Identity theft is on the rise. This research paper will explore how the increased use of the Internet has made identity theft (once a relatively rare crime) extremely common. It will hypothesize that the use of online technology by a wider pool of individuals has contributed to the explosion of identity theft and also that the integration of social networking websites has facilitated identity theft. In the most recent comprehensive study conducted by the federal government on the crime: "federal identity theft convictions increased 26% in 2007 from the year prior...According to the 'Identity Theft Task Force eport,' as many as 1,534 people were convicted in 2006, and a year later, 1,943 were convicted nationwide on various identity theft violations" (Kravets 2008).
The use of the Internet has become integral to the functioning of daily life, spanning from connecting with work…
Honan, Mat. (2012). How Apple and Amazon security flaws lead to my epic hacking. Wired.
Kravets, David. (2008).U.S. identity theft convictions increase 26%, feds Say. Wired.
By doing so, she is willing to provide an answer to a question that some historians would say is unanswerable, namely -- how could Bertrande be so deceived, and what would be her motivations in keeping up such a ruse? Davis suggests that her motivations were economic, personal, and social, and were the production of various historical forces, like the rise of Protestantism and the new value accorded to individual choice in society.
Of course a dissenter might respond that the reason Davis' psychological reading is so persuasive to a modern reader is because it comes from the mind of a modern woman, and the tale is told to appeal to modern-day readers, just like a film. e value individual choice, and the right of a woman not to suffer in misery, in the thrall of an unfair law that makes her a nonperson because her husband leaves her yet…
Davis, Natalie Zemon. The Return of Martin Guerre. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1984.
identity is a means of classifying an individual when it comes to private matter and the government. How a government identifies someone or an institution, is through the use of an identity card. An identity card has a serial number and a picture that helps law enforcement, government agencies and other organizations identity an individual for potential jobs, loans, and even for medical care. However there are some issues with identity cards. For instance, are can people who have access to this information treat individuals unfairly, will there be higher instances of identity theft? Can "Big Brother" use this as a means of spying on civilians? It's important to look at this issue from various angles.
The UK has, for a number of years, set in motion creation of a system to update their identity card regulations and procedures. "A law was passed which established the intention to create a…
Andreouli, E. And Howarth, C. (2012). National Identity, Citizenship and Immigration: Putting Identity in Context. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour, 43(3), pp.361-382.
Beynon-Davies, P. (2011). The UK national identity card. Journal of Information Technology Teaching Cases, 1(1), pp.12-21.
Identity theft is a kind of theft that involves someone stealing the identity of someone else by assuming that person's identity (Lai, Li, & Hsieh, 2012). This is usually a method of gaining access to the person's resources like credit cards and other things in the person's name. This is considered a white-collar crime and it has gained popularity amongst criminals. According to statistics, each year hundreds of thousands of people have their identities stolen. The thieves will use the person's personal information like bank account numbers, credit card numbers, social security numbers, and insurance information to purchase goods fraudulently. The Federal Trade Commission has reported that over 7 million people were victims of identity theft in the past year. This is quite a huge number, and it indicates identity theft is a growing in the United States. When someone manages to use another person's personal information to obtain credit,…
Holt, T. J., & Turner, M. G. (2012). Examining risks and protective factors of online identity theft. Deviant Behavior, 33(4), 308-323.
Lai, F., Li, D., & Hsieh, C.-T. (2012). Fighting identity theft: The coping perspective. Decision Support Systems, 52(2), 353-363.
Saleh, Z. (2013). The Impact of Identity Theft on Perceived Security and Trusting E-Commerce. Journal of Internet Banking and E-Commerce, 18(2), 1-11.
Medical ID Theft and Securing EPHI
Medical Identity Theft
Medical information can be stolen by 1) the bad guys getting sick and using a victim's information to obtain services, 2) friends or relatives use another friend's or relative's information to obtain treatment, 3) when professionals, such as physicians, fabricate services that did not exist, 4) organized crime, and 5) innocent or not so innocent opportunists (Lafferty, 2007). ad guys that get sick can take a victim's insurance information to obtain services for treatment. Professionals can fabricate false claims to cover medical errors. Opportunists have access to patient data and the ability to steal, use, or sell that information.
Effective security requires clear direction from upper management (Whitman). Assigning security responsibilities and access controls with audit controls to organizational elements and individuals helps to place accountability on individuals. They must formulate or elaborate security policies and procedures based on the organizational…
HIPAA Security Series. (n.d.). Retrieved from HHS.gov: http://www.hhs.gov/ocr/privacy/hipaa/administrative/securityrule/techsafeguards.pdf
Hoffman, S. & . (2007). SECURING THE HIPAA SECURITY RULE. Journal of Internet Law, 10(8), 1-16.
Lafferty, L. (2007). Medical Identity Theft: The Future Threat of Health Care Fraud is Now. Journal of Healthcare Compliance, 9(1), 11-20.
Whitman, M. & . (n.d.). Case B: Accessing and Mitigating the Risks to a Hypothetical Computer System, pages B1-B24 .
Identity Theft: Understanding of the Concept of Protecting Personal Information
The recent scandal involving stolen credit card and personal information from Target consumers over the Thanksgiving 'black Friday' shopping holiday weekend dramatically highlighted the risks of even using a simple credit card. Identity theft -- whether of credit card numbers, social security numbers, or other vital private information -- is a constant, very real worry for many consumers. Depending on the nature and type of the identity theft, a variety of remedies are available although there is no single, surefire solution that will always protect one's identity online or at brick and mortar stores. Thanks to the ubiquity of technology, identity theft is far easier and more common than it was in previous generations.
If you suspect that your credit-related information has been stolen, the first step is to place a fraud alert with one of the three major credit…
Create an identity theft alert. (2014). FTC. Retrieved from:
EFF's top ways to protect your online privacy. (2002). EFF. Retrieved from:
Identity heft in Modern Society
Identity heft Report Prep
he topic chosen by this student is "Identity heft in our Contemporary Society." he reason the author chose this is because it is a topic that is becoming more and more prevalent as even major organizations like arget and JX, among others, have been victimized over the recent years. It applies to the author's life as well as everyone else's because the only way that anyone can avoid being the victim of identity theft is to be a financial hermit and never use credit cards or any things that could hit a credit profile and that is basically impossible. Even if it were possible, even children are having their Social Security Numbers stolen and used for electricity bills or even credit accounts. Quite often, the perpetrators of this and other identify crimes are the victim's own families. his topic is universal…
This report is more philosophical in that it asks whether identity theft is really theft. They justify this analysis by saying that many of the concepts of identity are more abstract than tangible and this means that the questions should be asked.
TIGTA: Identity theft protection needs improvements. (2013). Journal of Accountancy, 216(4), 77-78.
This final source points to the fact that the IRS has gotten a lot better at detecting theft including false tax filings and frequently Social Security Number activity.
The prosecuting of identity thieves has proven difficult. Although there has been a rapid increase in the number of statutes addressing the situation on both the state and federal level, the nature of the crime, the anonymous aspect of it, and the time parameters make apprehension and prosecution quite difficult (Pastrikos, 2004). Nevertheless, there has been an aggressive effort on both the state and federal levels to increase their efforts and successes.
The best approach to defeating identity theft is prevention. Potential victims should be cautious about sharing personal information with anyone not possessing a legitimate need for such information. In today's society where business transactions are done more frequently over the telephone and computer this is particularly important. Additionally, and most importantly, the use of one's social security number should be limited to those situations for which it was originally intended, that is, for employment and financial relationships.
Berghel, H. (2000). Identity Theft, Social Security Numbers, and the Web. Communications of the ACM, 17-21.
General Accounting Office. (2009). Identity Theft: Governments have acted to Protect Personally Identifiable Information, but Vulnerabilities Remain. Washington, D.C.: General Accounting Office.
Pastrikos, C. (2004). Identity Theft Statutes: Which Will Protect Americans the Most? Albany Law Review, 1137-1157.
Bertrande knew the real identity of "Martin Guerre" [i.e. Pansette] from the beginning, and took the opportunity to redefine her own identity, improve her personal life, and improve her status in the village. hat sources did Davis use to reconstruct the story of "Martin Guerre"? hy was identity theft such a serious crime in the sixteenth- century France? hy did people consider an impotent couple to have been "cast under a spell" or "bewitched"? hy does Davis imply that widows were later persecuted as witches? According to Davis, what role did Protestantism play in this story (particularly concerning the concept of marriage)? as justice served when the real Martin Guerre returned?
How could she not know? How could the 'widow' or wife of Martin Guerre not know that the man who slept beside her was not in fact her long-lost husband, presumed dead, but was plainly and simply an imposter,…
Davis, Natalie Zemon. The Return of Martin Guerre. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1984.
Canadian Policies to Thwart Terrorist and Criminal Activities
Canadian Policies to Combat Crime and Terrorism
Problems being faced due to Cyber-Crime in Today's World
What is Identity Theft?
How and Why Cyber-Crime Occurs?
Why Cyber-Crime has become an Important Issue?
How elease of Personal Information makes an Individual vulnerable to Identity Theft?
Since time immemorial, crime and criminal activities have been found at an accelerated pace, however, with the penetration of the world into the twenty first century with numerous technological advancements and innovations, these acts have taken a new form. This evidently signifies that crime through cyberspace has become one of the widespread and prevailing activities of the today's fast paced world, where the entire human race is moving towards the industrial and hi-tech progressions at a constant speed. Moreover, the criminal and terrorist activities in a more sophisticated version have become a common aspect of mundane…
Balkin, J.M. (2007). Cybercrime: Digital Cops in a Networked Environment. Edited Version. New York, USA: NYU Press.
Brenner, S.W. (2010). Cybercrime: Criminal Threats from Cyberspace. USA: ABC-CLIO.
Burgess, A., Regehr C., & Roberts, A. (2011). Victimology: Theories and Applications: Theories and Applications. USA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Clough, J. (2010). Principles of Cybercrime. 1st Edition. New York, USA: Cambridge University Press.
Technology, Terrorism, and Crime (APA).
Technology, Terrorism, and Crime
One of the most heinous terrorist groups currently operating in the U.S. In called the "Aryan Nations." This group openly states on their website that they have been "Fighting Jewish Takeover for over 35 years." (aryan-nation.org) This group of domestic terrorists post articles on their website with grammatically incorrect titles like "The menace of Multiculturalism," and "Jews that control Hollywood: Meet the filthy Kikes are behind that industry." (aryan-nation.org) There is no doubt that his group is one that is dedicated to ideals of Adolph Hitler and the supremacy of the Aryan race. This group has also used the latest technology to spread their message of hate.
The Aryan Nations is a far right white supremacist religious organization based on the teachings of Wesley Swift, who founded a church based on anti-Semitism in California in the 1940's. In the 1970's, ichard…
"Aryan Nations/Church of Jesus Christ Christian." Extremism in America. Retrieved from http://www.adl.org/learn/ext_us/aryan_nations.asp?xpicked=3&item=an
Church of Jesus Christ Christian: Aryan Nations. Retrieved from http://www.aryan-nation.org/
"Identity Theft." (2006, Jan. 5) Retrieved from http://www.bloomshare.com/identity-theft/identity-theft-stories/identity-theft/
Squires, Jennifer, (2009, March 5). Aptos 'neighbors from hell' sentenced in massive ID theft case. Santa Cruz Sentinel. Retrieved from http://www.santacruzsentinel.com/localnews/ci_11840106
Some of the violations of civil and human rights that have resulted for the PA include "aggressive deportations, crackdowns at borders, surveillance of mosques and homes...destroyed livelihoods, splintered families and the loss of a sense of belonging and citizenship," the group asserts on their eb site. Moreover, many peace activists, demonstrators at anti-war rallies, animal-rights groups, student organizations, and critics of the U.S. policy towards Cuba, have been monitored and added to FBI and CIA databases as potential "enemies of America."
ID CHIPS: An article in ABA Journal (Tebo, 2006) points out that employees of some companies are being asked to have ID chips implanted in their arms so their employers "can monitor their movements," Tebo writes. And while the company that is using these ID chips, (www.Cityatcher.com) can rightly say absolute security is pivotal to their customers, many experts, the article continues, "worry that the law is not…
American Civil Liberties Union. (2006). Federal Court Strikes down NSA Warrantless
Surveillance Program. Retrieved 27 Oct. 2006 at http://www.aclu.org/safefree/nsaspying/26489prs20060817.html .
Berghel, Hal. (2006). Phishing Monger and Posers. Communications of the ACM, 49(4), 21-25.
Eggan, Dan. (2005). Bush Authorized Domestic Spying. Washington Post, Retrieved 27 Oct, 2006, at http://www.washingtonpost.com .
Protecting Personal Information
When considering the ever-changing and highly competitive global landscape of business today, large firms must be able to effectively globalize their operations in order to reach a greater potential client base, stay at the cutting edge of their respective fields and sustain profitability in the long-term. With the current exponential growth of technology and computerization of business and learning, consumers have become much more connected to the businesses they patronize (Kurzweil, 2001). Accordingly, companies are faced with the continuous task of finding new ways to understand and subsequently accommodate the needs of those customers, while simultaneously securing lucrative business models and job environments. In accomplishing the aforementioned objectives, firms must also be able to supply a secure environment in which clients can feel safe in accessing the products and services of the business. Knowing that many organizations are utilizing the highly effective means of online systems construction…
Allen, C., & Morris, C. (2007). Information Sharing Mechanisms to Improve Homeland Security. Retrieved March 28, 2011, from http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/expectmore/issue_summary/issueDetailedPlan_24.pdf
Berghel, H. (2000). Identity Theft, Social Security Numbers, and the Web. Communications of the ACM, 43 (2).
Chou, N., Ledesma, R., Teraguchi, Y., & Mitchell, J.C. (2004). Client-Side Defense Against Web-Based Identity Theft. 11th Annual Network and Distributed System Security Symposium. San Diego, CA.
Jagatic, T.N., Johnson, N.A., & Jakobsson, M. (2007). Social Phishing. Communications of the ACM, 50 (10), 94-100.
Foundation and Focus The foundation for the Classical Theory to crime focused less on the criminal and targeted more on securing a rational, fair system for controlling and putting punishments in order. Little concern was given to causes of criminal behaviors. Significant words/definitions related to this theory include:
Classicism - The Enlightenment view of crime that stresses free will and rationality and the corresponding rationality of the justice system....
Free will - According to the classical school, people possess reason. This means that they can calculate the course of action that is in their self-interest. This in turn gives them a degree of freedom....
Just deserts - A justification for punishment which insists that offenders should be punished only as severely as they deserve. It was a reaction against the unfair excesses of rehabilitation and the 'get tough' drive from conservatives during the 1970s." (Carrabine, Iganski, Lee, Plummer &…
Carrabine, E., Iganski, P., Lee, M., Plummer, K., & South, N. (2004). Criminology: Sociological Introduction. New York: Routledge.
Crime and punishment. (2006). In Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved July 14, 2006, from Encyclopedia Britannica Premium Service:
Cybercrime - High Tech crime." (2006). JISC Legal Information Service. Retrieved 15 July 2006 at http://www.jisclegal.ac.uk/cybercrime/cybercrime.htm.
Ethics in Technology
Business - Management
The purpose of this paper is to highlight and present the ethical issues that are involved in using modern technology. The paper highlights some of the current ethical issues faced by computer users that are due to unethical practice and lack of proper ethical policies by different businesses. The paper pinpoints the causes and gives recommendation on how the current issues can be minimized. A portion of this paper also consists of lawsuits that have recently occurred due to unethical practices adopted by businesses.
Ethics in Technology
We live in a modern era, the era of modern technology and innovation. Our lives are encircled by modern creations. These technology and advancement have surely brought comfort and ease in our life but unfortunately, the use of modern technology has also given rise to many ethical problems out of which few are a topic of discussion…
Anderman, E.M., & Burton Murdock, E. (2007). Psychology of academic cheating. (p. 1). California, USA: Elsevier Academic Press.
Morley, D., & Parker, C.S. (2009). Understanding computers: Today and tomorrow, comprehensive. (12th ed., p. 712). Boston, USA: Course Technology Cengage Learning.
Rogozea, L. (2009). Towards ethical aspects on artificial intelligence. Manuscript submitted for publication, Transylvania University of Brasov, Romania. Retrieved from http://www.academia.edu/1044129
Michigan vs. Tyler, the Supreme Court decided that "fire fighters, and/or police and arson investigators, may seize arson evidence at a fire without warrant or consent, on the basis of exigent circumstances and/or plain view"
This may only occur during the extinguishing operations or immediately after, otherwise a warrant or the owner's consent is necessary. This came as a response to an accusation of "conspiracy to burn real property," where the prosecutors had collected and used evidence of numerous days after the firefighting operations. The Supreme Court ruled in favor of the defendant, as evidence was collected without warrant in the subsequent days.
I think the process used by a gas chromatograph (heating, etc.) is not appropriate for separating sand granules and the gas chromatograph cannot identify sand grains as a substance. In my opinion, something like filtration should have been used to separate sand from the rest of the…
1. Ramsland, Katherine. Trace Evidence. On the Internet at http://www.crimelibrary.com/criminal_mind/forensics/trace/1.html?sect=21
2. Pierce, Dwain A. Focus on Forensics: Latent Shoeprint Analysis. On the Internet at http://www.totse.com/en/law/justice_for_all/latshoe.html
3. Expert Law. On the Internet at http://www.expertlaw.com/library/pubarticles/Criminal/Drunk_Blood_Alcohol.html#Q16
.....abuse and/or neglect of children and the elderly is a major issue in the American criminal justice system because of increased prevalence of such cases. However, getting accurate information regarding the extent of child and elder abuse is increasingly challenging in the United States. Some of the major issues contributing to this problem include the fact that most child and elder abuse cases are not reported, misreporting of these cases, seeming inability of victims to report the cases, and the fact that most perpetrators are caregivers. Children and senior adults are more likely to be victims of abuse, neglect or maltreatment because of lesser physical and mental capabilities, dependence on caregivers, and tendency to trust easily. The likelihood of vulnerable children and the elderly to fall victims to abuse can be decreased through establishing suitable prevention and intervention measures that effectively identify and deal with risk factors and improve reporting…
Next, firewalls capable of blocking IP addresses need to be installed and used (Becker, Clement, 2006). The focus on these efforts is just the first phase; there needs to be a monthly audit of IP addresses in the departments where P2P file sharing has occurred to make sure it isn't happening again. This an be accomplished using a series of constraint-based configuration tools that will trap on P2P known client footprints or digital signatures and immediately block them (Hosein, Tsiavos, Whitley, 2003). This technology will also work to isolate any inside IP addresses which attempt to reach P2P client-based download sites and immediately log and block all IP activity for the address. This will make a given IP address inoperable and immediately delete it, which will make any subsequent hacking attempts of the system useless. This is precisely the strategy the U.S. Government is using today to ensure a very…
Bailes, J.E., & Templeton, G.F. (2004). Managing P2P security. Association for Computing Machinery.Communications of the ACM, 47(9), 95-98.
Becker, J.U., & Clement, M. (2006). Dynamics of illegal participation in peer-to-peer networks -- why do people illegally share media files? Journal of Media Economics, 19(1), 7-32.
Hosein, I., Tsiavos, P., & Whitley, E.A. (2003). Regulating architecture and architectures of regulation: Contributions from information systems. International Review of Law, Computers & Technology, 17(1), 85-85.
Controlling IM risks. (2003). Risk Management, 50(7), 6-6.
Internet Ethics and the consumer's private existence in an unstable regulatory environment -- untapped economic waters in a wild, wild west of identity theft and chronic consumption
hen it comes to Internet ethics, even in the absence of legal requirements, businesses must themselves self-regulate when it comes to consumer privacy. If they do not, it is likely that the government will step in to do so, as the government has done in the European Union. This will only hurt businesses economically, and do damage to the equal ethical obligation corporations owe to shareholders. Furthermore, good business sense is about trust between the consumer and the business, and this is not honored when businesses unfairly spy upon casual surfers of their websites, or use consumer data for their own profit as well as research and marketing purposes.
Americans, according to a recent poll cited by J. Hodges in the journal of…
Ewald, Helen. (April 1, 2003) "You're a Guaranteed Winner: Composing the You of Consumer Culture" Journal of Business Communication.
Hodges, J. (Feb 2001): No Faith in the System - consumer service shows Internet users concerned about privacy." Internal Auditor. Retrived 8 Jan 2005 at http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m4153/is_1_58/ai_71268466
Kaess, Ken. (June 2004) "Emotion in Advertising." Journal of Advertising Research.
Lofton, Lynn. (October 2004) "Offices Enforce Acceptable Policies to Keep Up with Tech." Mississippi Business Journal.
Advances in electronic communication have made it significantly easier for white-collar criminals to commit fraud. The crux of this point is based on the fact that virtually all aspects of electronic communication are stored and accessible to someone, somewhere. Anything a person does on the internet or via the telephone -- whether mobile or conventional phones -- is recorded and is able to be tracked. Thus, white-collar criminals simply need to gain access to this data since it is available in abundant amounts. Once they are able to access that data, they can successfully leverage relevant aspects of it to their advantage. For instance, they can take a credit card number and make purchases.
If I were a swindler I could use the increasing reliance on electronic communication to my advantage by breaching the secure information of a retail store such as Target and accessing credit cards, and using them…
Business Use of Social Media
Social Media Marketing
Social media refers to the countless Internet-based sites and tools that facilitate and promote social interaction and networking through digitized means (Bulik, 2008). Social media marketing includes sites such as Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube, and should always be included in an organization's business plan in some capacity. Each platform leverages the power of the Internet to facilitate social interaction and allow people to keep up-to-date with hundreds of others instantaneously (Fredericks, 2012). Social media as a marketing genre has the power to bridge distances and communication obstacles in a highly personalized and direct way.
It is estimated that 75% of the global consumers who use the web regularly visit social media websites (Libert, 2011). Visitors are reported as spending anywhere from 3 to 6.5 hours a day on sites such as Facebook. Subscriptions for social media sites are growing by leaps and…
Bulik, B. (2008). Wait…Isn't This the Same as Social Networks?. Advertising Age, 79(11), 47.
Fredericks, R. (2012). We Facebook. Do You?. Journal of Housing & Community Development, 69(4), 20-21.
Libert, B. (2011). Go Beyond Facebook and Twitter. CRM Magazine, 15(2), 19-24.
McCafferty, D. (2011). Brave, New Social World. Communications of the ACM, 54(7), 19-21. doi:10.1145/1965724.1965732.
Some programs are even able to track keystrokes and take snapshots of computer screens, allowing criminals even more information, such as credit card numbers and usernames (Bahl, 219).
While the obtaining of information through fraud is a problem related to Internet activity, there are other concerns with privacy that are still considered legal. For example, a company can obtain your personal information from transactions, and legally sell that information to the highest bidder (Sinrod, 17). While information traded between companies can increase competition, when the information is purchased by unscrupulous buyers, such transactions can threaten the security, privacy, and identity of consumers.
In addition, while restrictions exist on the government's collection of private and personal information from the Internet, loopholes exist that allow the government to obtain information without the knowledge of consumers. An example is the FBI's "Carnivore" system, developed to conduct surveillance of electronic communications by intercepting and…
Bahl, Shalini. "Consumers' Protection of Online Privacy and Identity." Journal of Consumer Affairs 38.2 (2004): 217-235.
Bielski, Lauren. "Security Breaches Hitting Home: Phishing, Information Leaks Keep Security Concerns at Red Alert." ABA Banking Journal 97.6 (2005): 7-18.
Brin, David. "Privacy Under Siege." The Transparent Society: Will Technology Force Us to Choose between Privacy and Freedom? Reading, MA: Perseus Books, 1998: 54-89.
Dunham, Griffin S. "Carnivore, the FBI's E-Mail Surveillance System: Devouring Criminals." Federal Communications Law Journal 54 (2002): 543-566.
This makes it easier for investigators to identify connections by clicking on a particular item in the three-dimensional link.
The difficulties of this process of proving such a chain indicates the importance of creating steps that can help companies simplify the task of conducting a computer forensic investigation, should one ever be required. The article stresses that the most important step is to ensure that network logging devices are turned on, even though these devices use disk space and processor time. If they are turned off, investigations can become impossible. Closing any unneeded ports on the company firewall and patching systems regularly, are also helpful.
This article paints an overall benign portrait of law enforcement, zealously protecting user privacy and safety. It demonstrates how an apparently invisible crime can be rendered visible through the use of technology, and both the law and law enforcement's attempts to stay one step ahead…
Burke, Dan. "Transborder Intellectual Property Issues on the Electronic Frontier." Volume 5. Stanford Law & Policy Review
Lang, David. "A Graphic Picture of Crime." ASIS. Sept 2002.
Workplace is not safe from numerous types of crimes. These crimes can range anywhere from burglary to homicides and from discrimination on the basis of sex to even rape for that matter. But these crimes are physical crimes and it is easy to avoid them or keep them at bay by making use of physical barriers, security cameras and a few sensible risk/security management tactics. For instance, if only 3 or 4 people work at night-time, it is easy to target anyone of them but if a considerable amount of people work together and have no hostility towards each other, these types of situations can be avoided. Use of security systems is a pre-requisite for the protection of material wealth and belongings. These types of systems can help avoid theft and burglary but if somehow these do occur, it will inform the managers of the incident at the earliest…
McCollonel '(2000). Cybercrime And Punishment. Page 8-9. www.mcconnellinternational.com.
Balkin J. M (2007)Cybercrime: digital cops in a networked environment. NYU PRESS. New York. USA.
Perline I.H. & Goldschmidt J. (2004). The psychology and law of workplace violence:a handbook for mental health professionals and employers. Charles C. Thomas Publisher. USA
Keats J. (2010) Virtual Words: Language on the Edge of Science and Technology. Oxford University Press. USA.
' hile in theory this may seem defensible, in practice it is more questionable to carefully watch every second an employee spends online -- if the employee does a bit of Christmas-shopping online, but is otherwise productive, should this be used against the employee? And cannot such objectionable sites be blocked, without violating employee privacy? hat if the employee uses his or her work email to send one or two brief personal emails -- the time 'theft' is quite minimal, yet so easy to do companies are falling prey to this temptation. And the issues of time theft blurs as employees do more work on their home computers for work -- work is taking over the home and ' private time' already. Yet this also means employees can store secret work-related items that they could store and share, if left unmonitored. Finally, RFID (radio-frequency IDs) in the workplace, which track…
EU data privacy directive. (2009). Privacilla. Retrieved September 17, 2009 at http://www.privacilla.org/business/eudirective.html
In your explanation, compare and contrast domestic and international terrorism. Also, please indicate whether either type of terrorism is subject to defeat. or, in a free society such as ours, must we simply learn to live with the annoyance and tragedies of ideological, political, and/or religiously-motivated violence?)
Domestic terrorism is much more statistically common than foreign terrorism, as those who feel they have cause to be angry enough to act against anything are much more likely to act against something they see as wrong in their own environment, Opportunity and ease of access also plays a role in this observation. Though terrorist acts are exceedingly rare they do occur on a somewhat regular basis if definitions are kept broad and are more likely to be domestic in nature than foreign born. (Lewis, 2000, p. 201) Domestic and international terrorism are similar in some ways, they both experience the kind of…
Daniels, D.J. (2002, December). The Challenge of Domestic Terroism to American Criminal Justice. Corrections Today, 64, 66.
Hamm, M.S. (September 2005) Crimes Committed by Terrorist Groups: Theory, Research and Prevention Retrieved April 1, 2008 http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/grants/211203.pdf
Hulnick, a.S. (2004). Keeping Us Safe: Secret Intelligence and Homeland Security. Westport, CT: Praeger.
Lewis, C.W. (2000). The Terror That Failed: Public Opinion in the Aftermath of the Bombing in Oklahoma City. Public Administration Review, 60(3), 201.
Unethical Business esearch Practices
What unethical research behavior was involved?
The antitrust case brought by Wal-Mart and other retailers against Visa and MasterCard in the U.S. Eastern District court, was settled in 2003 for $3 billion and primarily involved a dispute concerning the efficient pricing of access to payment information, including security data that confirmed or refuted the transactional identities of cardholders (oberds & Schreft, 2009). In their pleadings, Wal-Mart and other class action litigants argued that third-party providers such as Visa and MasterCard required them to accept both debit and credit cards issued by MasterCard but the interchange fees were higher for debit cards (Ulzheimer, 2012). In sum, the suit filed by Wal-Mart and other large retailers claimed that Visa and MasterCard "required all merchants who accept their credit cards to also accept their signature debit cards [which] constitutes an illegal tie-in in violation of antitrust law" (Peterson, 2002,…
An introduction to ISO 27001. (2012). The ISO2700 Directory. Retrieved from http://www.
Azola, M. (2011). The Reconciliation Project: Separation and integration in business ethics research. Journal of Business Ethics, 99, 19 -- 36.
Binning, D. (2012). Top five cloud computing security issues. ComputerWeekly. Retrieved from:
ight to Privacy
Being a citizen of the United States comes with many benefits in comparison to citizenship in other countries. Through the U.S. Constitution and the Bill of ights we are granted certain rights -- the right to free speech, freedom of religion, freedom of the press, and freedom of assembly -- just to name a few. However, despite the 27 amendments the Bill of ights that guarantee American protections and liberties, there is no explicit law that guarantees protection to a citizen's right to privacy (Davis, 2009). It is more of an assumed protection, although most Americans do not realize it.
In 1928, Associate Supreme Court Justice Louis Brandeis referred to the right to privacy as the "right to be left alone" (De Bruin, 2010). This assertion is often supported with a citation of the 14th amendment which states: "No State shall make or enforce any law which…
Cowan, J. (2010). Why we'll Never Escape Facebook. (Cover story). Canadian Business, 83(10), 28-32.
Davis, S. (2009). Is There A Right To Privacy? Pacific Philosophical Quarterly. 90(4), 450-475.
De Bruin, B. (2010). The Liberal Value of Privacy. Law & Philosophy, 29(5), 505-534. doi:10.1007/s10982-010-9067-9.
Doyle, C., & Bagaric, M. (2005). The right to privacy: appealing, but flawed. The International Journal of Human Rights. 9(1), 3-36.
The Real ID Act is regarded as unnecessary and useless, time and money consuming. ased on these arguments, several states have already refused the implementation of the Real ID Act on their territory and in many other states there are pending bills regarding the non-implementation of the Act (ehreadt, 2007). Of course, there are states such as California or New York which support the implementation of the Real ID Act, but their number is considerably smaller than the number of states that have already refused to implement the new legislation.
Establishing a national identity card represents one of the steps taken by the American government to create a surveillance society in which the government can have access to all type of data regarding a person under the reason of fighting against terrorism. In fact, it is unlikely that the Real ID Act will discourage terrorism, as terrorists will continue to…
Behreandt, D., "Pushing national ID's: Congress tried its best to shackle the nation with a national ID through passage of the Real ID Act. Now several states try to roll back the measure.," in the New American, Vol. 23, July 9, 2007;
Documentation provisions of the Real ID Act, November, 2005, available at http://migrationpolicy.org/ITFIAF/Backgrounder_Jernegan.pdf
Florence, J., "Making the no fly list fly: a due process model for terrorist watchlists," in Yale Law Journal, Vol. 115, 2006;
Gaur, N., Baker, D., and L. Gioia, Real ID- the art of the possible, available at http://www.diamondconsultants.com/PublicSite/ideas/perspectives/downloads/INSIGHT%20-%20Real%20ID.pdf ;
Phishing Spea Phishing and Phaming
The following is intended to povide a vey bief oveview of examples of some the most dangeous and pevasive secuity isks in the online and netwoked wold. One of the most insidious of identity theft is known as phishing. The tem 'phishing' efes to the pactice of "fishing fo infomation." This tem was oiginally used to descibe "phishing" fo cedit cad numbes and othe sensitive infomation that can be used by the ciminal. Phishing attacks use "…spoofed emails and faudulent websites to deceive ecipients into divulging pesonal financial data, such as cedit cad numbes, account usenames and passwods, social secuity numbes etc." (All about Phishing) . Thompson ( 2006) clealy outlines the basics of a phishing attack.
A typical phishing sends out millions of faudulent e-mail messages that appea to come fom popula Web sites that most uses tust, such as eBay, Citibank, AOL, Micosoft…
references the CISA Review Manual, 2006.
Thompson, S.C. (2006). Phight Phraud: Steps to Protect against Phishing. Journal of Accountancy, 201(2).
This study by Thompson provides some significant aspects that the business owner and customers in online commerce should pay attention to. These include basic but important aspect that should include in e-training; for example, never e-mail personal or financial information or never to respond to requests for personal information in e-mails. This provides useful background to the issue of risk identification and is also related management of this threat.
Wetzel R. ( 2005) Tackling Phishing: It's a Never-Ending Struggle, but the Anti-Fraud Arsenal Continues to Grow. Business Communications Review, 35, 46+.
This study A sheds light on the implications in term of the costs of identity fraud to financial institutions. The study underscores the severity of the vulnerabilities faced by today's organizations in the online world. The author refers to the obvious cost to intuitions like banks and also discusses hidden costs that relate to the erosion of customer confidence as a result of ID theft.
" (Johnson, 2005) the notion of ruling against the defendant in all identity theft or related cases may establish the wrong precedent for future cases. "On the other hand, if liability is too readily assessed, it will have the power to bankrupt valuable enterprises because of the often vast numbers of potential plaintiffs and consequent extensive resulting damages." (Johnson, 2005)
Internet security and identity theft is a very pervasive problem globally. In fact, most every nation with a web presence must deal with the same issue of hackers breaching server security or web browser security and stealing identities or other destructive behavior with malicious intent. The United States has a much more serious issue in this realm, however, when compared to countries within Europe, Asia, Africa, ussia, and South America. Although the threat remains global and can affect any nation at any time, the probability of identity theft in America…
Anthes, G. (2010) Security in the Cloud. Association for Computing Machinery. Communications of the ACM, 53(11), 16. Retrieved December 14, 2010, from ABI/INFORM Global. (Document ID: 2198161791).
Babcock, C. (2010) Cloud Computing Differences Between U.S. And Europe. Information Week. Retrieved from: http://www.informationweek.com/news/government/cloud-saas/showArticle.jhtml?articleID=224202598
2009. New Straits Times. Cyber security challenges. Retrieved from: http://www.lexisnexis.com.rlib.pace.edu/lnacui2api/results/docview/docview.do?docLinkInd=true&risb=21_T10848791436&format=GNBFI&sort=RELEVANCE&startDocNo=1&resultsUrlKey=29_T10848791439&cisb=22_T10848791438&treeMax=true&treeWidth=0&csi=151977&docNo=13
Campbell K., Gordon L., Loeb M., Zhou L. The economic cost of publicly announced information security breaches: empirical evidence from the stock market. Journal of Computer Security Vol.11 Number 3/2003 pgs 431-448
Cell Phone as an Electronic Wallet
apid advances in technology in recent decades have brought about a dramatic change in the way people work, transact and communicate. Yet, it is widely believed that there is still ample scope for technology to make life even more convenient and efficient. For instance, the cell phone is already showing the promise of functioning as an electronic wallet. It is the purpose of this paper to demonstrate that using the cell phone, as an electronic wallet, will in fact add a great deal to convenience and safety, especially in the area of replacing plastic credit, debit and smart cards.
paid card; convenience; efficiency; safety; security; electronic; identification; business; bank; credit card company; consumer; transaction; identity theft; fraud; charge back; commissions.
Advances in Information Technology and Communication in recent decades have brought about a dramatic change in the way people live, work and play.…
Batista, E. (2002, Nov. 25). Shopping by cell phone? No thanks. Wired News.
Retrieved Aug. 29, 2004: http://www.wired.com/news/business/0,1367,56511,00.html?tw=wn_story_page_prev2
Beaudette, M. (2002, Aug. 5). Firms offer cell phone users services to dial for; devices not just for talking anymore. The Washington Times. Retrieved Aug. 27, 2004 from the Cellbucks Web site: http://www.cellbucks.com/en_US/news/080502WT.html
Bhatnagar, P. (2004, Feb.3). New cards: Flash but don't swipe. CNN Money.
Most of the time, intellectual property theft involves stealing copyrighted material in the form of a book, a magazine or journal article or material on the Internet and claiming that the material is one's own property, also known as plagiarism. This type of high-tech crime is very widespread in today's America and often shows up as major news stories in the media, especially when the copyrighted material belongs to a high-profile author.
Another high-tech crime which is closely linked to identity theft is credit card fraud which occurs when "purchases are made using another individual's credit card or credit card number with the intent to defraud" ("Credit Card Fraud," Internet). These purchases might include buying products and goods at a well-known business establishment or purchasing products from Internet sites. Some of the more common forms of credit card fraud found in the U.S. include counterfeiting or creating fraudulent credit cards,…
About Identity Theft." (2008). FTC. Internet. Retrieved January 8, 2009 at http://www.ftc.gov/bcp/edu/microsites/idtheft/consumers/about-identity-theft.html .
Credit Card Fraud." (2009). Criminal Law. Internet. Accessed January 7, 2009 at http://criminal-law.freeadvice.com/criminal-law/credit-card-fraud.htm .
Financial and High-Tech Crimes." January 7, 2009. Interpol. Internet. Accessed January 7, 2009 at http://www.interpol.int/Public/FinancialCrime/Default.asp .
Thompson, William T. (2004). High-tech crime in the United States. Boston: G.K. Hall.
For the patient, there are equally negative consequences, such as medical identity theft, financial loss and potential damage to their health. Medical identity theft can result in erroneous entries to the patient's health care records, which can affect the patient's medical and financial records for a long time (Federal Trade Commission, 2003 & 2007). In each medical facility, there is a need for trained professionals who can properly process Release of Information (ROI) requests. These individuals must also be able to make properly disclosures of request to first and third parties for the preservation of the integrity of the data and the privacy of the PHI. Moreover, these trained professionals cannot become complacent or corrupt, as this can lead to loss of privacy and security of the PHI (ittleton Police Department, 2004).
The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) was an attempt by Congress in 1996 to reform the…
Law enforcement categories medical identity fraud into two types: organized crime and individual identity theft.
An example of individual identity theft occurred at the University of Connecticut when a man with HIV utilized his cousin's health insurance information without the cousin's knowledge to receive approximately $76,000 worth of medical care and treatment (University of Connecticut, 2005).
The privacy and security review process identifies the strengths and weaknesses of the existing system of health care information management. Central to the review process is
The vision Oracle has is one of unifying all of their enterprise applications into their Fusion architecture and creating a single unifying Service oriented Architecture (SOA) was first announced in 2006 (Krill, 13). Since that time Oracle has continually strived to create an SOA in Fusion that would appeal to its corporate customers. The proposed Fusion SOA platform has been designed to be robust and scalable enough to encompass enterprise-level applications including Enterprise esource Planning (EP) applications while also being flexible enough to provide for individualized application development. There are critics of SOA in general and Fusion specifically, with industry analysts considering it too difficult to create a process-centric model that allows for pervasive, in-depth applications necessary for mission-critical business while at the same time allowing for significant scalability (Handy, 2005). Despite these concerns however Fusion continues to gain market acceptance and provide Oracle with a path to the fulfillment…
Alex Handy. 2005. Oracle Fusion: The 'Frankenstein' of SOA? Software Development Times, October 15, 6
Paul Krill. 2006. Oracle Does SOA. InfoWorld, August 14, 11-13
S. than in any other developed nation, yet the quality of care, even for those who are insured, is mediocre at best (Hawkins, 2007).
Doctors and hospitals often treat patients free of charge, if they do not have health insurance. However, that raises costs for other patients and makes healthcare and insurance even more costly. Most Americans recognize that the country's healthcare system is not sustainable and that without significant reform, it is headed for a complete meltdown.
In the U.S., identity theft is a major concern. Now, that, too, has gone into the medical arena. Medical identity theft is being described as the newest frontier in the ever-evolving crime of identity theft and presents a major opportunity for a wide range of criminals as the healthcare industry evolves into an electronic culture. Yet this environment is not properly protected by present law enforcement agencies and criminal offenses (Latour, 2007,…
Andrews, J. (2006). Where the jobs are: eldercare is already creating more jobs than there are people willing to do them. And the market is just heating up. Here's a look at where some of the greatest demand will be. Assisted Living 4(6) S6-9.
Hawkins, D.(12 February, 2007). Bush's Remedy Isn't a Cure; the President's health-care won't help those who need insurance most or the underinsured who can't afford primary care. Business Week Online
Institute of Medicine (2007). Preventing medication errors. National Academies Press, Washington, D.C.:
Lafferty, L. (2007). Medical identity theft: the future threat of health care fraud is now: lack of Federal Law Enforcement efforts means compliance professionals will have to lead the way. Journal of Health Care Compliance 9 (1) 11-21.
0 is "…a broad name used for a number of different experiments that are being done in the research community" (eddy & Goodman, 2002, p. 12). The emphasis here is in 'experiment' as Web 2.0 is a platform for the testing of new applications and innovation, as well as being an area for research and development in education and science.
The differences in the way that Web 2.0 functions can be seen in the concept of the Internet as a new platform or environment. This is a concept that exceeds the idea that a new Internet would merely offer new applications that would be in essence an extension of Internet 1.0. As Tim O'eilly and John Battelle note, Web 2.0 means "… building applications that literally get better the more people use them, harnessing network effects not only to acquire users, but also to learn from them and build on…
Anderson a. ( 2007) What is Web 2.0? Ideas, technologies and implications for Education. Technology and Standards Watch, Feb. 2007. Retrieved from http://www.jisc.ac.uk/media/documents/techwatch/tsw0701b.pdf
Atchison S. (2007) Are You Chasing the Web 2.0 Trend? Part 2. Retrieved from http://www.clickz.com/3626152
Bogatin B. ( 2007) Web 2.0 Social Networks: Cool but marginal and unprofitable?
Retrieved from http://blogs.zdnet.com/micro-markets/?p=1062 )
Physical Security Controls
To document the importance of physical security controls as it relates to the massive pervasiveness of online theft and cyber crime
Background information on the identification and authentication of people.
With the advent of the internet it is often very difficult to properly identify the individual in which business is conducted with. With the extreme ease of the internet comes the secrecy of potential criminal lurking through the shadows. Identification and authentication therefore have profound impacts on how to better protect assets from criminals.
The importance of information systems security and how it relates to globalization
Information systems, particularly those that store personal information, often are very senstivie to criminal activity. Therefore physical store techniques mandate that sensitivity information be locked away and under intense surveillance. Aspects such as disposable drives, printers and workstations should also be considered.
C. Brief overview of the paper.
i. The remainder…
1. Backhouse, J., Hsu, C., & McDonnell, A. (2003). Toward public-key infrastructure interoperability. Communications of the ACM, 46(6), 98-100. Retrieved April 25, 2009, from ACM.
2. Bala, D. (2008). Biometrics and information security. Proceedings of the 5th annual conference on Information security curriculum development, 64-66. Retrieved March 31, 2009, from ACM.
3. Boatwright, M. & Lou, X. (2007). What do we know about biometrics authentication? Proceedings of the 4th annual conference on Information security curriculum development, 31, Retrieved March 31, 2009, from ACM.
4. Chan, A.T. (2003). Integrating smart card access to web-based medical information systems. Proceedings of the 2003 ACM symposium on Applied computing, 246-250.Retrieved February 13, 2009, from ACM.
Contending With Cybercrime Issues
Attacks and Malware
There are numerous laws pertaining to identity theft, privacy, and cybercrime. Prior to designating those laws and their ramifications for the parties involved with a breach, it is sapient to provide a brief overview of the correlation between these three facets of laws. One of the more common means of engaging in identity theft is through the means of cybercrime, in which individuals typically hack into a computerized systems and take personally identifiable information of others and use it for their own illicit purposes. Additionally, such crimes intrinsically invade the privacy of others and intrude upon that privacy by preventing individuals to keep personally identifiable information and other aspects of their lives private.
One of the most salient of the laws relating to these three different aspects of theft in contemporary times is the Fair and Accurate Credit Transactions Act of 2003. This…
North Carolina Department of Justice. (2005). Cooper proposes identity theft protection act of 2005. http://www.ncdoj.gov / Retrieved from
Third is a series of passwords and personal information chosen by the customer. On top of this they guarantee customers that if they are victims of fraudulent activity on their Egg accounts, any losses are covered in full. "This has never happened," says Andrew. "There has never been any breach of internet security." ("- -- : Safety Net for" 2001:44)
Again internet and bank security are largely overexagertated yet they are occurring more frequently all banks and many other institutions are taking daily active precautions to reduce risk to customers and they are largely successful in doing so Electronic banking can take many forms. A recent trend that is a direct threat to banks is the development of e-money which takes the jurisdiction of stored financial value away from banks. The trend is growing as an alternative way in which to do online commerce transactions without utilizing bank systems including…
Figure 5 Online Banking and Ecommerce in Europe (Meyer 2006: http://www.dbresearch.com/PROD/DBR_INTERNET_EN-PROD/PROD0000000000196129.pdf )
Figure 6 Security Breech Experience is Rare in Europe (Meyer 2006:
eal World company (Experian) on the Internet. It has 4 (APA) sources.
Experian is a global organization that provides financial reporting services to its subscribers. The organization helps its users in making informed decisions in the field of marketing, advertising, decision-making and consumer related services (such as CM). Further, Experian also provides outsourcing services to businesses. (Experian Web Site, 2003)
Experian is the biggest consumer and business information provider in the world. The wide network of consumers and businesses subscribed with the organization compliments the status of the company within the industry. The company has maintained a consistent focus on integration with its consumers/businesses. This is significant reason for the magnitude of operations of the organization. (Experian Web Site, 2003)
Experian and the Internet
One of the plots of the high-scale integration of the company includes provision of online services to the consumers/businesses subscribed to the organization. The…
Experian Web Site. (2003) "About Experian: Corporate information." Accessed December 3, 2003. http://www.experian.com/corporate/index.html
Lash, A. (1997). "Credit Reports Taken off Net." August 15, 1997. http://www.pacificnet.net/jue/humor/docs/970815d.html
O'Harrow, R. Jr., Chandrasekaran, R. (1997) "Credit Reports Made Available Online Experian's Move Draws Criticism From Privacy Advocates" The Washington Post, August 15, 1997; Page D01. http://www.pacificnet.net/jue/humor/docs/970815c.html
Saunders, C. (2002). "Experian Offers Credit Card E-mail Service." August 23, 2002. http://www.internetnews.com/IAR/article.php/1451591
Throughout history, police management has experienced numerous changes because of the various significant changes that have continued to occur in the society. The emerging trends have contributed to the development of new policing governance, which has had considerable implications for police management. Towards the end of the 20th Century, the governmental police reforms have contributed to an end to public policing, a claim that is regarded as extrapolated towards a certain extreme. However, in light of the changes that have occurred in the recent past, it's evident that public policing has not come to an end but that the monopoly of public policing has come to an end. As a result, the dominance of public policing that characterized the 19th and 20th centuries is no longer a characteristic of the modern era. Actually, the emerging diverse totality of public policing is a reflection of the so-called post-modern period.…
Cope, S., Leishman, F. & Starie, P. (1997). Globalization, New Public Management and the Enabling State: Futures of Police Management. International Journal of Public Sector Management, 10(6), 444-460.
"Cooperation Agreement between the Government of Canada and the European Police Office."
(n.d.). Europol. Retrieved December 8, 2012, from https://www.europol.europa.eu/sites/default/files/flags/canada.pdf
Forcese, D. (2002). Police: current issues in Canadian law enforcement. Kemptville, Ontario:
So the economy is stuck in an equilibrium well below its production and employment potential, even as gross domestic product resumes modest growth" (p. 3).
As a public sector employee for the State of New Jersey Division of Criminal Justice, this means that some important ongoing initiatives such as gang awareness and enforcement may be cut back in the future. In my capacity as team leader with 4 years' tenure and 13 years' total employment for the State of New Jersey, I have a vested interest in the outcomes of these initiatives as well as the fate of the state's civil service cadre. In addition, I also work part time as a certified emergency medical technician, meaning I must remain cognizant of applicable licensure laws for the profession and how far my authority extends as a first responder. There is also the issue of substantial student loans that remain in…
Abdolian, L.F. & Takooshian, H. (2003). The U.S.A. PATRIOT Act: Civil liberties, the media, and public opinion. Fordham Urban Law Journal, 30(4), 1429-1431.
Best, S. (2008). The son of Patriot Act and the revenge on democracy. Tamara: Journal of Critical Postmodern Organization Science, 3(3/4), 1-2.
Deybach, G. (2007, January). Identity theft and employer liability. Risk Management, 54(1), 14-