Impaired Driving on American Society
Supporting ationale: This topic was chosen because many impaired driving cases are reduced or dismissed because of the errors made by police officers as discussed further below.
Today, there is increasing concern over the potential traffic safety risks that are associated with impaired driving (Owusu-Bempah, 2014). A growing body of evidence confirms that there is an inextricable interrelationship between higher levels of blood alcohol concentrations (BAC) an increased risk of motor vehicle accidents (Owusu-Bempah, 2014). While the number of alcohol impaired driving incidents decreased by a hefty 30% from its peak in 2006 of 161 million to 112 million in 2010, alcohol-impaired driving is still responsible for thousands of American deaths each year (McNamara, 2011).
Although there was an overall decline in the incidence rate for impaired driving since 2006, there are some geographic differences in the United States and some states continue to experience…… [Read More]
Driving hile Impaired in Canada
Tough new laws have been enacted in Canada in response to the problem of driving while impaired. In this case "impaired" means driving while intoxicated on alcohol -- being over the limit on blood alcohol (driving under the influence, DUI / driving while intoxicated, DI) -- or on drugs. This paper describes the issue, reviews the relevant legislation and laws, reviews the history of laws pertaining to impaired driving sanctions, and offers analysis of the contemporary legal situations regarding impaired driving laws in Canada.
hat is Impaired Driving?
The Ministry of Transportation in Ontario defines impaired driving as driving "while you ability is affected by alcohol or drugs… a deadly combination" (www.mto.gov.on.ca). The fact is that one drink can reduce a driver's ability to concentrate on the road and the traffic. Even one drink can affect a driver's reaction time, the MTO explains. The MTO…… [Read More]
One recent study examined victim impact statements and their ability to reduce repeat offenses of drunk driving (ojek, 1999).
The study looked at those who had been arrested and convicted of drunk driving in which an accident occurred. It examined those who had been rearrested after being in attendance for a victim impact statement program and compared them to those who had been rearrested but had never been exposed to a victim impact statement program.
The study concluded that those who had been exposed to a victim impact statement with regard to their offense had a lower rearrest rate than those who had not heard victim impact statements.
The study examined the results of those who did not receive victim impact statements and found that legal punishment was often the only consequence of driving while under the influence (ojek, 1999).
By contrast, VIPs address the emotional component of the DUI…… [Read More]
messaging during simulated driving," Drews et al. (2009) study the effect that text messaging has on driver attention spans and response times. The authors studied drivers in a driving simulation to examine how the drivers responded to texting while driving. Their findings indicate that texting while driving results in poor driver performance with respect to attention span and response time. The authors note the their scores, which are some of the first in the field, indicate that texting while driving is more dangerous than other forms of driver distraction.
The authors first provide an extensive literature review discussing the issue of distracted driving. They present evidence of how different forms of distracted driving have been show to affect driver competence. The authors also discuss the issue of texting and driving specifically, noting that there has not been much research to this point on the subject, but that they believe texting…… [Read More]
Problems to be addressed:
There are several problems associated with the issue of cell phone use while driving and the ineffective regulations to restrict the use of mobile phones on the road. First, the increased use of these devices while driving has significant impacts on driving performance. This is because mobile phone use during driving distracts the driver physically, cognitively, and visually. The distractions contribute to the inability of drivers to maintain required speed, lateral position, and throttle control on the road. Since the driving performance reduces, the risk of crashes and accidents on the roads increases. Studies have shown that drivers miss 13% targets when talking and 24% when dialing or texting (Brace, Young & egan, 2007).
Secondly, cell phone while driving contributes to a major social problem of increased crash risk since it endangers the lives of passengers, drivers, and passersby. In addition to the distractions it causes…… [Read More]
That is because texting also involves the same brain regions and cognitive processes as communicating by telephone that are responsible for the dangers associated with cell phones and driving and combines that risk factor with another additional independent risk factor: visual distraction.
Unlike cell phones, which distract the driver visually for only a small percentage of the time when they are being used for verbal communication, texting while driving is a continuous visual distraction by its very nature that makes it much more dangerous by comparison. Whereas cell phone users only look at their devices to dial and identify in-coming calls drivers who text must continually shift their attention back and forth from watching the road to looking at their communications devices. Especially at typical highway speeds, the amount of time typically required to look at a mobile device for texting purposes is too much time to look away from…… [Read More]
Proposal for New DWI Laws for Missouri
DWI laws will always be contentious, with different viewpoints impacting on requirements of the laws. If rewriting the Missouri DWI laws the following would be recommended, the reasons for each recommendation are provided.
1. The legal limit; A person will be deemed to be intoxicated if they have a blood alcohol content higher than the level allowed. The level allowed for drivers of commercial vehicles will be 0%, for drivers under age of 21 and under it will be 0.01 and for drivers over the age of 21 it will be 0.05. The bill will also include any type of intoxication or undue influence of other substances which impair judgement.
There is a clear relationship between higher blood alcohol content and higher road traffic accidents (Karakus et al. 440; Fell and Voas 869). The implementation of a zero blood alcohol level would be…… [Read More]
One of the most important concepts in public safety is the idea of "accidents." That is the wrong word for a collision that was avoidable either through attention or preventative measures. There are very few accidents on the roads. There are collisions, and they are caused by either mechanical error or human error. The word 'accident' lets people off the hook for their mistakes, mistakes that nobody should make if they are doing their job. The reality is that there are a lot of things that people do to cause collisions. One is that they take their attention away from the task at hand. When a person is operating a 2000-lb, traveling at a speed sufficient to induce deadly force, one may wish to pay attention, to prevent collisions. Mobile phones are just one of many sources of driver distraction, but there should be penalties associated with driving…… [Read More]
cell phone use while driving. Specifically it will discuss the increased use of cell phones in the United States, and the dangers of driving while talking on a cell phone. Talking on a cell phone while driving is dangerous. Studies show it is just as dangerous as drunk driving, and talking on a cell phone while driving should be banned nationally, not simply on a state-by-state basis.
CELL PHONES SHOULD E ANNED
Driving while talking on a cell phone has become quite controversial as more Americans use cell phones every day. Using cell phones in public can be annoying and downright rude, but driving while talking on a cell phone can be deadly. One analyst noted, "Driving and talking on a cell phone is like drinking and driving. In both cases, the driver's reaction time is slowed, especially in the event of a roadway mishap requiring urgent response. In addition,…… [Read More]
One solution to enhance learning might be to require that all officers take the initial course and to then develop online content for 'follow-up' briefings and re-testing of knowledge every six months. This would be more rigorous than the current method of having refresher courses every three years. The frequency of the retraining would reinforce the seriousness of the issue.
While it is true that there is an optional SFST update course to be taken within six months, the course is not mandatory. While an SFST instructor must supervise the SFST practitioner administering the SFSTs' in initial administration, the 35 test cases within six months of the initial training that the officer must complete are not supervised and thus there is no ongoing feedback during the course, limiting its effectiveness. Feedback is an essential component of learning -- in the classroom and in the field.
Level 3: Behavior
While Levels…… [Read More]
For instance, a decline in peripheral vision may impact the ability to pass approaching vehicles safely, and the decreased range of motion in an older person's neck may impair the ability to look behind when backing up. Also, reaction time decreases by almost 40% on average from age 35 to 65 (Jackson, 1999).
It also appears that the aging process may affect cognitive skills. Short-term memory loss, for instance, can decrease driving skills by interfering with an individual's ability to process information effectively when merging onto a highway into traffic or changing lanes. Such issues are magnified when driving under stressful situations. The higher incidence of cognitive impairment, particularly dementia, among older men and women leads to an increased risk of accident involvement (Jackson, 1999).
According to AAP, as a group, persons age 65 and older are relatively safe drivers. Although they represent 14% of all licensed drivers, they are…… [Read More]
One of those alarming physical changes is that the younger a person is when they begin drinking, even at low levels the more likely they are to become alcoholics. This change even overrides a known genetic predisposition for alcoholism. (Butler, July 4, 2006) Time forward ads regarding adult failure could be developed at a later time but again such images and concerns do not seem to sway teens. Funding for such a campaign would likely come from national and local foundations that stress clean living, and possibly from litigation funds that have been secured for healthier youth programs.
Alcohol use may begin simply as an exciting experiment, or as a way for a teen to feel a part of his or her peer group, lowering the feeling of awkwardness that often comes with the territory. Yet teen drinking can become a social disaster, that brings on extreme grief and loss.…… [Read More]
Most of the arguments for legalization of drugs are based on the pragmatic realities that it is difficult or impossible to legislate morality. Drug use has always been part of society and even though it may not be socially desirable there are many benefits that can be gained through legalization. One primary benefit is definitely financial. In a study by the Cato Institute, the report estimates that drug legalization would reduce government expenditure about $41.3 billion annually; roughly $25.7 billion of this savings would accrue to state and local governments, and roughly $15.6 billion to the federal government; about $8.7 billion of the savings would result from legalization of marijuana, $20 billion from legalization of cocaine and heroin, and $12.6 billion from legalization of all other drugs (Miron & aldock, 2010).
There are many other benefits beyond money as well. The United States has an expensive and…… [Read More]
These breath-testers use a range of technologies including electrochemical fuel cells, infrared absorption, metallic oxide semiconductors and disposable color-change testers.
The disposable breath-testers are cheap to purchase and very useful in detecting alcohol in a person's system. When the test is positive, to check for other drugs in his system, the person is required to give a blood sample for confirmation by a laboratory. In addition his urine sample is also taken to test for the presence of other drugs in his system.
Breath testers have been in use in the United States since the 1940s. Then the machines used to detect alcohol were not as accurate as the ones used today. Nowadays mostly infrared absorption devices are used. They have a sample chamber from where the breath passes. This comes in contact with the infrared light, which counts the ions of alcohol thus measuring the alcohol level.
The Tennessee…… [Read More]
First Student Placement Experience Expectations
Overall, I am anticipating an extremely positive experience although I am also sure that it will be punctuated with certain doubts, failures, and disappointments. In those instances, I will try to remember that perfection is another type of addiction and that as long as I am making the best and most genuine effort that I can to help my clients, that is the best that I can do. Nevertheless, I expect this experience to be a learning opportunity more than anything else but I hope to accomplish something beneficial for clients during the process.
Allen, K. "Development of an instrument to identify barriers to treatment for addicted women, from their perspective" International Journal of Addictions, Vol. 29, No.
4; (1994):429 -- 444.
Allen, K. "Barriers to treatment for addicted African-American women" Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 87; (1995):751 -- 756.
Beckman, L.…… [Read More]
Teen Alcohol Abuse
Adolescent alcohol abuse has been an ongoing public health problem for many years. While alcohol abuse trends tend to increase and subside over time, recent research continues to show an alarming level of alcohol use. For example, surveys by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) show that alcohol use has dropped slightly when compared with previous years, in 2011 almost two thirds (65%) of high school seniors and almost one third (29%) of eighth graders had used alcohol within the past month (Winters, Botzet & Fahnhorst, 2011).
Health Needs Assessment
As of 1988, the purchase of alcohol by youth under the age of 21 is prohibited. Therefore, the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) define underage drinking as consuming alcohol prior to the minimum legal drinking age of 21 years. Further, zero tolerance laws make it illegal in all states for youth under age 21 to drive…… [Read More]
Kyle is a 42-year-old, single, Caucasian male, with 16 years of education. He works as a software programmer. Kyle reports that he is seeking assistance in helping to "kick his drinking problem." Kyle explains that his use of alcohol has gotten progressively worse over the last five years. He explains that he began drinking as a teenager in high school, but then only occasionally. He never felt that his drinking was problematic until he returned from the service and in the last five years it has gotten worse. He began drinking more regularly following his deployment in the Gulf War. As a reservist in the U.S. Marines Kyle served in Iraq and while on a weekend leave just before he was sent back to the United States Kyle was exploring a rural marketplace with several military colleagues. A bomb detonated at the market killing several dozen local civilians and one…… [Read More]
Human Ecosystem & Technological Change
Drugs should not be legalized
Drug policy in the United States has been on the forefront of polarizing issues in the political spectrum. The United States has been regulating and criminalizing the use of drugs for roughly a century and in the last few generations these efforts have culminated in what has been referred to as a "war" on drugs. This war has resulted in a large number of American citizens being incarcerated for the involvement in the drug trade or for their own personal drug use. In one report, the Bureau of Justice Statistics estimated that roughly fifty-five percent of federal prisoners are incarcerated due to drug-related crimes and spends about twenty-two billion dollars annually of this effort (Head, N.d.). Whether you are for, or against, drug criminalization and the war on drugs, one of the factors that makes this such a polarizing debate…… [Read More]
Legal Age for Alcohol Consumption
Laws are established for the legal age of alcohol consumption in order to attend to the best interests of both youth and society at large. With exposure to such influences as music, television, movies, and peers, youth are under pressure to behave in certain ways and partake in certain activities to be perceived as being "cool." Alcohol consumption among young people may be seen as a way to loosen up, fit in, or even possibly as a sign of rebellion against parents, teachers, and figures of authority in general.
It is often difficult for youth to know their limits and exactly how much alcohol they can consume and yet still be somewhat "in control." This results in increased risks of alcohol poisonings, drunk driving, and in some cases death among the adolescent population. Therefore, with the well being of youth and society in mind, it…… [Read More]
Ditter S, Elder RW, Shults RA, Sleet DA, Compton R, Nichols JL, Task Force on Community Preventive Services. Effectiveness of designated driver programs for reducing alcohol -- "impaired driving: a systematic review. Am J. Prev Med 2005;28(5S):280 -- "7.
What were researchers looking for?
The research was conducted to find out and evaluate the proof of effectiveness of a program designed for drivers to assist in the lowering the number of people driving under the influence of alcohol.
How was the experiment carried out?
The experiment was carried out through the use of two different programs, whereby volunteers were selected and used as a population-based crusaders. Through population campaign, a number of drivers were selected and encouraged to take part in the driver both under the influence of alcohol and when not under the influence of alcohol (sober). Incentives were given to those people who acted as designated drivers during…… [Read More]
Public health issues have been a concern for society since the dawn of civilization. Current issues focus on driver safety and certain precautions taken to ensure less accidents on the road. One thing that has gained some traction is the possible universal requirement for hearing tests for all driver's licenses. The CDL or commercial driver's permit and license requires a hearing test. The non-commercial permit and licensing does not.
Of the possible tests to determine adequate hearing in order to drive safely, two are most implemented which are audiometry and the forced whisper test. In the whisper test, drivers must be at least five feet from the examiner with the driver's ear being examined turned in the direction of the examiner. The other ear has to be covered. Then the examiner has to whisper random number or words with the individual then attempting to identify the words. Failure in the…… [Read More]
Furthermore, it appeared that the consumption of alcoholic beverages among the youth increased throughout the three-year duration of the survey. In terms of the young females (in high school), the drinking path has been described as "an absolute disaster" (Fyfe, 2010). The primary explanation as to why alcopops became even more popular among the youth is given by the inability of the tax to impact the parents -- who in most cases are the very sources of alcohol. "As parents were the primary source of alcohol among current drinkers, their ongoing preference for premixed spirits may not be surprising, as it is likely that these beverages are affordable to most parents, even after the tax increase" (Fyfe, 2010).
The Australian case of the excise tax on alcopops reveals a limited efficiency in reducing binge drinking among adolescents and it is expected that the same results would be registered within the…… [Read More]
Mandatory Drug Testing
In certain professional occupations, mandatory drug testing is not only a good idea, it is very important to public safety. There are good arguments on both sides as to whether all professional athletes should be tested for drugs -- or whether high school athletes should be tested. And in the business world, one could argue that drug testing is an invasion of privacy, and unless an employee is acting irresponsibly and clearly is ineffective, there is no good reason to require regular (or even sporadic) drug testing. But this paper takes the position that employees in certain professions -- airline pilots, bus drivers and heavy equipment operators -- should accept that mandatory drug testing is part of the job. The public safety is vastly more important than concerns over personal privacy issues, hence, the need for mandatory drug testing.
The Literature on Mandatory Drug Testing -- Airline…… [Read More]
This study indicates that introducing new policing methods can be extremely problematic, (at least in the CMP organization), and that it can lead to dissention in departments and even in executive areas. It also shows a shift in overall thinking and governance to a more liberal outlook, both on crime and in the public, and it seems this shift is likely to continue. This seems to be a result of an overall shift in the public's awareness and needs in policing, and it should continue in the future. This seems to be continued in the public outcry and legislative response introducing legislation to get tougher on crime, as well.
Finally, the final article expresses the views of Canadians on three key issues: sentencing severity, the purposes of sentencing, and mandatory sentences of imprisonment. Canadians over the past 30 years have felt these issues are too lenient, and this continues, even…… [Read More]
From day one, when a teenager reaches the age of 16 to 18, it has always been a dream to drive a car to school, to the mall or to a friend's house. It is at this point in time wherein driving turns into a fad rather than a skill, to impress, to flaunt and to enjoy, A usual part of adolescence. The car or any kind of vehicle becomes an accessory to a teenager caring only to his or her personal enjoyment and satisfaction. Most often, responsibilities are only secondary to an endless list of teenage pleasure and delight. The need for speed is a race against time and life. For them having to drive is an expression of freedom.
ut for the caring parents of these teenagers, here is the real score as indicated by Dr. Dale Wisely, Ph.D (2005)., Clinical Psychologist.
"...nothing you will deal…… [Read More]
Therefore, it recommends legislative restrictions irrespective of strictly economic factors.
ennessy, D.A. And Wiesenthal, D.L. (2005). Contemporary Issues in Road User
Behavior and Traffic Safety. Toronto: Nova.
This source is a trade book authored by two professors of Public ealth: Dwight ennessy of the State University of New York at Buffalo and David Wiesenthal of York University in Toronto. The book provides a comprehensive analysis of all behaviors related driver behavior, particularly in relation to safety. It details issues such as unsafe assumptions about safe following distances and signaling, drivers' beliefs about their abilities relative to other drivers, and various behaviors by drivers that impact detrimentally on safety. In addition to practices such as map-reading and grooming while driving, the authors also devote considerable attention to the practice of cell phone use by drivers. With respect to cell phone use in particular, the authors conclude that cell phone use dramatically…… [Read More]
Speakes wee told to shae a "close call" stoy that they had not shaed with the dive befoe.
Thee wee two distinct sections of the expeiment: dual-task and single-task. Duing the dual-task scenaio dyads wee convesing eithe in peson o ove a simulated phone call. Duing the single-task thee was only diving and no convesation: the single-task scenaio seves as the contol. The ode of the assignments was andomized. In all diving conditions, dives wee given cetain instuctions on what exit amp to use. The whole expeiment took 60 minutes, but individual diving sequences lasted ten minutes fo both single-task and dual-task sections.
What types of measues do they use?
Measues include those involving diving pefomance and convesation analysis. Diving pefomance measues include opeational, tactical, and stategic measues. Opeational measues include "how well paticipants stayed in the cente of the lane without lateal moving o difting," (Dews, Pasupathi & Staye…… [Read More]
The issue was a charged issue that many people felt very strongly about, i.e. race and was an allowable and supported social stigma, and yet when faced with the real life decision to break the taboo and serve Chinese people they did so with little hesitation and then effectively lied about it in self report. (Pager & Lincoln, 2005, p. 355)
Drinking and driving is a seriously socially charged issue that could have the same self-report results if given the correct avenue to do so. The self-report dogmatic dialogue regarding drinking and driving is an absolute rejection of the behavior (even after 1-2 drinks as is asked in the New Zealand Study) and yet this is an attitude and a self-report dogma, what we would say when offered the social choice, not a real reflection of how individuals would behave if given the opportunity to drink and drive. Another fault…… [Read More]
ecently, I was riding behind a car in a 40 mph zone. The Toyota Corolla in front of me was going 25 mph. A line of angry motorists were following behind us. The slow car was bobbing and swaying, not keeping a clear, linear path forward. When the road finally opened up into two lanes, I was able to pass the car. Instead of a frail and elderly person in the driver's seat, which my slightly prejudiced mind's eye had envisioned, there was a young man -- yakking away on his cellphone, oblivious to the world around him.
People who drive while talking on a cellphone insist they are great drivers. Other people might have problems with distractions, but they do not, they say. However, all of the anecdotal evidence to which I have been exposed indicates the contrary. I have seen people run red lights -- or…… [Read More]
cars in the 20th century, man has always been in a hurry to cover more distance and save more time. This allowed man to populate different areas without even minding the distance from his daily destination, either work or leisure. Suburbs were developed, far flanged areas were reached, industries flourished in and out of the cities, the economy reached new heights among other improvement and speed was the primary ingredient for all of these developments.
Trains cars and other vehicles of transport became a practical means of living, studying, and working, at times, the site of urban behaviours and could be observed as an effect for the speedily modernising city itself. The impact of this sense of dependence of man towards his traveling machine has completely altered his perception about its real use and advantage. Traveling in trains, cars or any other means of transport has become more of a…… [Read More]
Like most litigations on such complicated issues the company had little to do but show reasonable accommodation, adopt better surface practices and wait out a lengthy period before their liability was reduced substantially by the courts.
The key ethical issues of the case are pretty clear, did the captain knowingly endanger the environment by continuing to retain his position and navigate tankers through the area and did the company know that such was the case. Both ethical dilemmas are clear and were ruled upon by many hours of court time and subsequent appeals, though the final Supreme Court ruling on Exxon's liability for the spill was split 4:4 every other deciding body laid full responsibility on Exxon's lap. ("Exxon Valdez Damages educed," June 2008, NP). An additional ethical issue, though much less openly understood or known by the average American is weather it was ethical to pay fishermen…… [Read More]
Furthermore, 34 other states offer insurance discounts of up to 10% following completion of such a course. Insurance points assigned by the individual insurance carrier are used to determine the cost of auto insurance and, therefore, are not reduced upon course completion (Young). In recent years, a number of states have adopted various forms of graduated licensing in an effort to manage the high crash rates among teenage drivers and, concomitantly, improve traffic safety for the public; such graduated licensing programs allow complete licensure only following the completion of a series of steps that involve removing the various restrictions from licensure have been satisfied (Williams, Weinberg, Fields, & Ferguson, 1996).
New Jersey's Motor Vehicle Services office has developed an online overview of the state's point system and includes the penalties for violating drunk driving laws, as a state with some of the most severe penalties for drunk driving and related…… [Read More]
This may consist of arising and seating in chairs securely. Following the progressive characteristics of this illness, all people gradually lose their capability simply to move and will need to advance and use a wheelchair.
Burbank, P.M. (2006). Vulnerable older adults: Health care needs and interventions. New York, NY: Springer Pub.
Donaldson, I.M., & Marsden, C.D. (2011). Marsden's book of movement disorders. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.
Egerton, T., Williams, D. & Iansek, . (2009). Comparison of gait in progressive supranuclear palsy, Parkinson's disease and healthy older adults. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Fabio, ., Zampieri, C., Tuite, P. (2006). Gaze-shift strategies during functional activity in progressive supranuclear palsy. eceived: 20 July 2006 / Accepted: 26 September 2006 / Published online: 8 November 2006. Springer-Verlag 2006.
Fabio, ., Zampieri, C., Tuite, P. (2008). Gaze Control and Foot Kinematics During Stair Climbing: Characteristics Leading to Fall isk in Progressive Supranuclear Palsy.…… [Read More]
Condoms are effective against the spread of AIDS as transmitted through sexual activity. The condom prevents the transmission of fluids between individuals during sexual activity. It is that transmission of fluids that can result in the transmission of the AIDS virus between people. In many poorer communities and countries, condoms have proven effective in reducing the rate of AIDS and HIV transmission between individuals. Condoms do not, of course, affect the rate of transmission by other means, such as intravenous drug use or transfusions. But they do lower the rate of transmission because a lot of AIDS and HIV transmission does occur through sexual activity. Education plays an important role because in many communities and countries, condoms are a novel idea, and people are unaccustomed to using them. There also has to be a certain degree of female empowerment to insist on condoms as a means of protection,…… [Read More]
Michigan vs. Tyler, the Supreme Court decided that "fire fighters, and/or police and arson investigators, may seize arson evidence at a fire without warrant or consent, on the basis of exigent circumstances and/or plain view"
This may only occur during the extinguishing operations or immediately after, otherwise a warrant or the owner's consent is necessary. This came as a response to an accusation of "conspiracy to burn real property," where the prosecutors had collected and used evidence of numerous days after the firefighting operations. The Supreme Court ruled in favor of the defendant, as evidence was collected without warrant in the subsequent days.
I think the process used by a gas chromatograph (heating, etc.) is not appropriate for separating sand granules and the gas chromatograph cannot identify sand grains as a substance. In my opinion, something like filtration should have been used to separate sand from the rest of the…… [Read More]
08% or higher. Blood Alcohol content is the concentrated amount of alcohol in the blood, and this number can be assessed via chemical and Breathalyzer tests. Though this limit was previously as high as.10% in some states, even the lowered limit is not adequate to prevent alcohol related vehicle accidents. In fact, law enforcement officials classify an accident as alcohol related if a driver's blood alcohol content was.01%, or two drinks, or higher. Though some groups praise the.08% law as one of the biggest steps in drunk driving prevention, other groups believe a no tolerance policy should be adopted for operating under the influence of alcohol, similar to the policy that is already in effect for minors.
The physiological effects of alcohol do not begin at.08%. In fact, they begin at much lower blood alcohol content levels. According to Brown University, moodiness increases at.02-.03%; fatigue, delayed reaction time, and errors…… [Read More]
Collective behavior" and the tonewall Riots
The term "collective behavior" refers to behavior that militates against social norms and conventions regarding the way that individuals should behave in society and differing to the way that they normally behave when not in a crowd environment. A crowd environment causes certain spontaneity to actions and a certain animal emotion that is lacking in regular 'separate existence'. cholars have devoted considerable attention to assessing why such is the case, and have generated various theories that may explain the phenomena.
Examples of instances of collective behavior include religious revivalist meetings where individuals behave in unusual ways, oftentimes totally contradictory to their private persona; panic in a burning location; or the spectacle of Black Friday where frenzy climbs and swirls around bargain hunting. The phenomenon of collective behavior too was clearly evident in the debacle of the "The tonewall Riots" and we will, therefore, take…… [Read More]
speech of a public institution's faculty member to be protected under the Pickering/Connickline of cases, what criteria must be satisfied? Do these criteria suitably balance the interests of faculty members and the institution in the higher education context?
There are really two key principles that must be satisfied. The first is that the court determines whether the speech in question hinges on a matter of public concern. If it does, the court takes further criteria into consideration such as:
Whether the statement impairs discipline in school or harmony amongst superiors or amongst cookers.
Whether the statement has a negative impact on close working relationships
Whether the speech interferes with the way the operator usually conducts his business,
Yes, these criteria take the interests of faculty members and school into consideration.
Specifically, what was the fatal flaw in the instructor's speech? Was it the profanity itself? Or was it the belittling…… [Read More]
Instead, it is a problem that the entire community must address. We all contributed to the deaths of these teens by remaining silent, but not holding a community vigil to stop such tragedies from repeating themselves. And so they did repeat themselves, more than fourteen times. And no one can be blamed but us -- the community?
So how can we make these lives that so many believe to be wasted matter? What can we do to honor the memory and stop the tragedy? The answer is simple: we must be upfront about our community's problems. Local schools, government agencies, parents' forums, and the media must band together so that we can broadcast our problem, telling teens that it is no longer acceptable. We won't stand for them to take another drink. It is no longer an action that fathers will smirk about and mothers will dismiss. Instead, we'll view…… [Read More]
It was a bit frustrating. My friend actually asked me if I was feeling okay. She said I seemed distracted, so I ended up telling her about the earplug. We were going into the movie anyway then.
Because it was quiet in the cinema, I had an easy time hearing the film. A few words were lost here and there, but for the most part, it was an okay experience. Because I am used to the surround sound at the cinema, I felt like I wasn't hearing that as much and I missed the full effect of going to the movies.
Wearing the two earplugs was a completely different experience from wearing the one. I went to a cardio class at my gym and because the routines are always different, I was having a very hard time following because I couldn't hear what the instructor was saying. I had to…… [Read More]
S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2011). Furthermore, subpart C explains the privileges and the protections of confidentiality that is attached to the patient's record along with much exception (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2011).
The penalty for anyone who breaks confidentiality is imperative. In "November, 23, 2009" was increased to $11,000 (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2011). This goes for anyone in the medical field or has access to this information. A person has to follow HIPAA precisely or face a huge fine. If one thought of this ahead of time, whether or not they own a business, then no issues would arise legally. However, sometimes this does occur, especially for those who want to harm another person, yet in the medical field the goal is not to do this to any individual, regardless, otherwise he or she could face losing their license in…… [Read More]
Askov points out that many adults returning to the educational system after failing to meet its standards will not succeed in a system that is built upon the same ideals. Race, class, gender, and corresponding power structures also play into how educators approach adult learners. Adult education presents a host of challenges not present in elementary education, problems that refer to the very values upon which the society is formed. Research and theories in psychology and learning present multiple perspectives upon which educators and policy makers can build a more promising future for adult learners. Visions for the future include embedding metacognitive skills into adult learning programs. Adult learners need literacy skills, not so they can score well on standardized testing but so they can reach their highest potential as human beings. Grassroots movements may be the key to promoting adult literacy throughout the country, to making adult literacy and…… [Read More]
Hours of Sleep, Life Satisfaction & Cognitive Functioning
ELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HOUS OF SLEEP, SATISFACTION WITH LIFE AND COGNITIVE FUNCTIONING
elationship between Hours of Sleep and Both of Satisfaction with Life and Cognitive Functioning
Proper sleeping hours are very important for our body's functioning. When a person is sleeping, his body is in the process of repair; thus allowing his brain to have some rest and the needed down time. There are many negative effects of less sleeping hours on the cognitive function as well as life satisfaction of a person.
Just like a proper diet, sleep plays a very essential role in the maintenance of overall health of an individual. Unfortunately, Americans are facing some serious cognitive and life satisfaction problems due to lack of sleeping hours. According to an estimate from U.S. Center for Disease Control & Prevention (CDC), approximately 25% of U.S. citizens have less sleeping…… [Read More]
Confusion: Trailer Hitches
Facts: The state of Confusion enacted a statute requiring all trucks and towing trailers that use its highways to use a B-type truck hitch, which is manufactured by only one manufacturer in confusion. As a result, truckers either have to avoid Confusion or have the hitch installed. The federal government has not attempted to regulate truck hitches on the nation's highways. Tanya Trucker, a trucking company owner in the state of Denial, intends to file suit against Confusion to overturn the statute.
What court has jurisdiction over the dispute? Is the Confusion state statute Constitutional?
easoning: Determining the court of original jurisdiction is a matter of examining the applicable statutes. Under 28 U.S.C.S. § 1332(a)(b), the federal courts have original jurisdiction over lawsuits where the parties are citizens of different states, if the amount in controversy is at least $75,000. Under 28 U.S.C.S. § 1331, the district…… [Read More]
GEONTOLOGICAL & GIATIC NUSING
Nursing Paper-Gerontological & Griatric Nursing
End of Life Issues and the Elderly
(2) "Identify and discuss the role of the nurse in providing family centred care to an elderly client who is palliative and living at home with his/her spouse or another family member."
Palliative care is an approach to provide a coordinated medical, nursing, and allied health service to address the patient's physical, social emotional and spiritual needs for people with progressive incurable illness. Palliative care seeks to deliver allied health service within the environment of person's choice to improve quality of life for both an ill person and the family or friends. In the United States, Europe and other part of the world, number of people reaching the advanced age and having the need of specialities for the management of pain control continues to increase. (oyal College of Nursing, 2004).
Meanwhile, a nurse plays…… [Read More]
Labeling, Life Chances, And Adult Crime
Jon Gunnar Bernburg and Marvin D. Krohn build on a body of criminology research related to labeling theory in their report entitled "Labeling, Life Chances, and Adult Crime: The Direct and Indirect Effects of Official Intervention in Adolescence on Crime in Early Adulthood." The report reflects in-depth research and statistical analysis conducted by the researchers. Specifically, Bernburg and Krohn attempt to fill in gaps in prior research by addressing three specific areas. First, the authors examine "the effect of police intervention and juvenile justice intervention on subsequent early adulthood crime," (1295). To do so they use a random sample taken from a population of adolescents. Second, Bernburg and Krohn look at "the long-term effect of official intervention during adolescence on young adult criminality," and whether "educational attainment and periods of nonemployment mediate this effect," (1295). Third, the researchers try to determine "whether the effect…… [Read More]
Alcoholism and Upbringing
James' father is responsible for James' involvement in crime and burglary. Origin of the problem. Alcoholic parents are the reason for the moral decay of juveniles
Another reason for James' feelings of inadequacy
Effect of alcoholism in the upbringing of a child
The effect of taking James out of his mother's home as a juvenile
An examination of James' denial of his responsibility over his problem
Personality and sociological theory
An explanation of James' behaviors, and his father using the two frameworks
Thorburn (2005) suggests that a misapprehension that numerous alcoholics seem to have is that their behavior does not affect other people. They deny ever hurting other people but themselves. A great deal of research and huge anecdotal proof suggest otherwise. The behavior of alcoholics can affect those around them, including family members, friends, coworkers and employers. Children…… [Read More]
Incentives and Performance
Kopelman, ., et al. (2012); Further Development of a Measure of Theory X and Y Managerial Assumptions. Journal of Managerial Issues. 24 (4): 450-62.
Certainly, there is no one best way to ensure that either employees or managers are properly motivated. Most scholarship, in fact, indicates that motivation is a balance between the task-relevant behavior and the maturity and acumen of the group in which the individual manages or participates in. In fact, motivation is the basic driving force that helps individuals work, change and actualize to achieve their goals. This motivational behavior may be intrinsic or extrinsic, depending upon the individual and the manner in which that individual's personality uses different sets of motivation to incur actualization. Much of the basic theory of motivation tends to be based on the work of Benjamin Maslow, not only on human needs, but on the manner in which those…… [Read More]
Transition Experiences for Students with Disabilities
Several years ago I was privileged to teach students with cognitive disabilities in Korea. I taught in an after school program for high school students. As I thought about the subjects that were being taught, I realized that no provisions were made to provide opportunities for the students to interact within the community setting.
Even though most of the students were going to work in a sheltered workshop after graduation, a need existed for them to learn "community skills" such as paying for things with their own money, using public transportation, and interacting with various residents of the neighborhood. It was there that my strong belief that cognitively impaired students should have chances to engage in as many "normal" activities as possible as long as the students were not confused or upset by the situation or were subject to negative comments, etc. from others.…… [Read More]
Childhood type diabetes and obesity
Which three databases will you use?
Search each database, using key words, for relevant research on this subject. What key words did you use in the Search Strategy fields? nclude all attempts and limitations used to refine your search.
Childhood obesity diabetes
Childhood obesity diabetes
Report the number of citations identified from each database in the number of articles found field.
Select one article from a peer-reviewed nursing journal published within the last three years -- or a germinal article which may contain an earlier publication date -- and provide the citation in APA format.
Hayden, M.R., Joginpally, T., Salam, M., & Sowers, J.R. (2011). Childhood and adolescent obesity in cardiorenal metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes: A clinical vignette and ultrastructure study. Diabetes Management, 1(6), 601-614. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.2217/dmt.11.50
Answer the following questions using your selected research article:
Q1. s this…… [Read More]
Age: 30 years, 11 months
Dates of Evaluation: 10/25/15 -10/30/2015
eason for eferral
This is a 30-year-old right-handed woman referred by Dr. Smith for a psychological evaluation to determine any lingering psychological and cognitive effects as a result of a mild head injury that she suffered on October 15, 2015 as a result of an automobile accident. The client has complained of severe memory problems, being disoriented at times, feeling depressed and anxious, and having nightmares the accident. Her physical complaints consist of headaches, back aches, poor sleep, nausea, and vomiting.
The client is a 30-year-old, divorced, Hispanic woman who lives with her children in a home that she rents in XXX (client please insert city). She has been married three times and has three children from two of the marriages.
The client grew up in XXXX (insert). She reported that her…… [Read More]
Illinois Department of Conservation Police Law Enforcement
The American system of local governance for the purpose of maintaining parks and other recreational areas is political as well as democratic, and is based on certain citizens' awareness and desire to create better living conditions as far as environment is concerned, for the benefit of future generations. This entails preservation and conservation of natural parks and wildlife to a large extent. This is especially true in the case of the citizens of Illinois, who are always on the campaign for more open spaces, more parks, and more as well as better recreational facilities for its citizens. Officials are elected for the purpose of looking after and governing the problems that arise from these forests and natural forest preserves, and these officials do believe and also demonstrate the same determination and strongly idealistic beliefs of their predecessors, of the days gone by. The…… [Read More]
drives under the influence of alcohol, it is a criminal offense abbreviated as driving under the influence (DUI). However alcohol is but one of the many substances that can interfere with one's driving capability. DUI charges can also be pressed against individuals who are driving under the influence of other kinds of drugs, including illegal drugs and even prescription medication. Taking drugs and driving at the same time, whether the drugs are just prescription muscle relaxers or medicinal marijuana is illegal and a DUI offense. The argument that one took drugs because of doctor's orders is not a defense to DUI charges. Various drugs have different effects on drivers. The drugs that impair concentration, judgment, alertness and/or motor skills are regarded as dangerous and in several cases even more dangerous than alcohol. Driving while having a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of more than 0.08% or higher is illegal in the…… [Read More]
Fault: An Alternative to the Current Tort-Based System in England and Wales
The United Kingdom
statistics regarding claims
THE NATIONAL HEALTH SYSTEM
OBSTACLES TO DUE PROCESS
THE CASE FOR REFORM
THE REGULATORY ENVIRONMENT
THE RISING COST OF LITIGATION
LORD WOOLF'S REFORMS
MORE COST CONTROLS
THE UNITED STATES
THE INSURANCE INDUSTRY
TORT REFORM IN AMERICA
STATISTICS FOR ERROR, INJURY AND DEATH
THE CALL FOR REFORM IN 2003: A FAMILIAR REFRAIN
THE UNITED STATES SITUATION, IN SUMMARY
NEW ZEALAND CASE STUDIES
THE SWEDISH SCHEME
COMPARISON: WHICH SYSTEM IS BETTER?
FIRST: UNDERLYING DIFFERENCES
TALKING TORT: AMERICAN PECULIARITIES
AMERICANS CONSIDER NO-FAULT
BRITAIN CONSIDERS NO-FAULT
Appendix A THE UNITED KINGDOM
At issue is the economic effectiveness of tort law in the common law legal system of England and Wales, as applied to medical and clinical negligence and malpractice cases. In response to economic concerns and a continual…… [Read More]
Alcohol has extreme effects on physical and social functioning that has the potential to harm people who are not involved with the actual consumption. If an individual who has consumed alcohol chooses to drive while intoxicated then the potential for harm is increased exponentially. Of course, the effects on the body itself demonstrate that alcohol is a dangerous drug that should not be available to the general public. As with many illegal or controlled substances or other objects, it has been shown time and time again that the general public often needs protection from themselves, and protection from each other. hen the dangers are also translated to innocent victims like strangers, and close friends, the choice should be removed for those not responsible enough or strong enough to avoid the temptation. Since the existence and knowledge of alcohol cannot be removed, the legality can be and serious punishment imposed on…… [Read More]
, 2005). At no time is any state obligated to comply with the federal guidelines for federal highway fund eligibility or to give up any sovereign rights established by the Tenth Constitutional Amendment. Furthermore, there is no issue of "withholding" or "withdrawing" any federal funds from states that choose not to comply with federal guidelines pertaining to the drinking age eligibility. Those monies are supplemental to any other federal funds and would not be offered except as an incentive to follow federal recommendations about the minimum drinking age. States do not have to comply if they prefer to lower the drinking age.
Reason # 3 -- Adults Younger than 21 are not as Responsible as Adults over 21
At the age of 18 or 19, most young people lack the fundamental abilities to make good decisions, especially about things such as taking risks and considering all of the consequences of…… [Read More]
ADHD (what it is this disease) and what are the symptoms and result of this disease. The paper also discusses the affects of ADHD on patients. In this paper the treatment of ADHD is also discussed and explained.
All the details relating to this condition and its symptoms and treatments are explained and supported by the use of literature review.
ADHD in Children
ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity syndrome) is a chronic condition that affects the children and continues till their adulthood in many cases. This disease results in the combination of a number of problems such as difficulty in focusing on something and paying attention, 'hyperactivity and impulsive behavior'. (Mayo Clinic, 2013)
In the children, the children suffering from ADHD also experience lack of confidence and self-esteem, trouble in relationships and bad performance in school. The disease is usually preceded by behavioral and learning problems and lack of attention in…… [Read More]
Criminal laws absolutely prohibit furnishing alcohol to minors, even formally requiring bartenders to check the identification of any patron who appears even slightly older than the legal age for alcohol consumption (Schmalleger 1997). Conceivably, the same absolute standard could easily be applied to drinking in conjunction with driving. Furthermore, when it comes to protecting their own financial interests, bartenders often enforce standards beyond what it required by law: they may prohibit certain forms of attire associated with violent criminal gangs, and they often serve drinks in plastic cups, precisely because they are fully aware of the degree to which alcohol impairs good judgment and that glass bottles and glassware are capable of inflicting much more damage in situations where intoxicated patrons provoke physical altercations.
In fact, bartenders know or should know that the social culture of alcohol consumption, particularly among certain demographic groups, makes it the norm rather than the…… [Read More]
mericas Coalition Puts Marijuana Legalization Up for Discussion. Retrieved from the New York Times: http://www.nytimes.com/2013/05/18/world/americas/nations-in-americas-urged-to-consider-legalizing-pot.html?_r=0
Bakalar, N. (2006). Marijuana as Medicine: Consider the Pros and Cons,. The Mayo Clinic .
Lawrence Genen, M.M. (2012). Cannabis Compound buse. Medscape Reference .
National Instritute of Health. (2012, December). DrugFacts: Marijuana. Retrieved from National Institute on Drug buse: http://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/drugfacts/marijuana
Considering the magnitude of the worldwide illicit drug trade and its impact on the United States, take a position on merican enforcement policy in the world. nalyze the impact that merican drug enforcement has had on the international drug trade. Has it been effective?
The countries in which drug plants such as poppy (for opium and heroin) and cannabis (for marijuana), such drugs are smuggled into them. International drug trafficking is a billion-dollar business that grows each year.
Drugs trafficked on an international scale include heroin, cocaine, methamphetamine etc. It has been…… [Read More]
There are many of these individuals, and it is time that this is changed.
Parents often look away from these kinds of problems, or they spend their time in denial of the issue because they feel that their child will not be harmed by parental involvement with drugs or alcohol. Some parents have parents that were/are addicts themselves, and some are so busy with their lives that they do not actually realize that their child has any kind of problem with the lifestyle of the parent until it becomes so severe that it cannot be overlooked, or until it is brought to their attention by police, the school, or someone else that has seen it first hand. Parents are not the only ones that overlook this issue, though.
Sometimes siblings and friends also see problems that they ignore, do not understand, or do not talk to anyone about, and the…… [Read More]