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The Jones case was dismissed, as the alleged conduct clearly did not meet federal standards for sexual harassment, and although Lewinsky confirmed the affair and produced evidence (an infamous blue dress with the President's semen stain on it) she said she had never been asked to lie or had been given a job in payment for her silence. Yet impeachment proceedings, rather than censoring for bad conduct (as called upon by Democrats in Congress) were instated against Bill Clinton, based upon his voluntary testimony before Starr's grand jury for Jones' spurious lawsuit and the hitewater investigation. Votes on the final impeachment were decided on strict party grounds: On Article 1, the charge of perjury, 55 senators, including 10 Republicans and all 45 Democrats voted not guilty. On Article 3, obstruction of justice, the Senate split evenly, 50 for and 50 against the President, well beneath the two-thirds majority needed to…
Ellis, Richard. (2009). Impeachment. U.S. Supreme Court. Retrieved from Answers.com
April 1, 2009 at http://www.answers.com/topic/impeachment
Impeachment: Andrew Johnson. (2000). The History Place. Retrieved April 1, 2009 at http://www.historyplace.com/unitedstates/impeachments/johnson.htm
Impeachment: Bill Clinton. (2000). The History Place. Retrieved April 1, 2009 at http://www.historyplace.com/unitedstates/impeachments/clinton.htm
ealities of Impeachment
Impeachment is not necessarily a common occurrence among federal officials. Still, impeachment proceedings and formal impeachment does take place. It is probably more accurate to state that the impeachment of federal officials is not uncommon, as opposed to stating that it is common for these individuals to get impeached. What is probably more common than either of these two statements is that federal officials do labor under the threat of impeachment. In this regard, impeachment is actually something of an addition to the systems of checks and balances that govern our country. Federal officials realize that they are held accountable to the American people to do their jobs in accordance with propriety. If they do not, they can always get impeached. Therefore, the daunting reality that those who do not perform their jobs up to standard might get impeached certainly helps to influence the behavior and actions…
Bellafante, G. (2007). Devoted to expanding the power of the president. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2007/10/16/arts/television/16bell.html?_r=1
CNN Wire Staff. (2010). Senate removes federal judge in impeachment conviction. www.cnn.com Retrieved from http://www.cnn.com/2010/POLITICS/12/08/washington.impeach.judge/index.html
Andrew Johnson served as protagonist in what marked the start of renewal in America. His courageous and often untactful Tennessean expression showed Congress who he was and who he had been when he took up Lincoln's plans after his assassination in order to reconstruct a nation. He knew of Lincoln's previous struggles with the extremists in Congress and tried to continue Lincoln's aim for reconstruction within a charitable and constitutional manner. However, because of Johnson's fiery temperament, the reconstruction period took a turn for the worse with oss playing Johnson's savior.
Andrew Johnson was a permanent Democrat as well as slave owner who gained a place together with Abraham Lincoln on the "1864 epublican ticket in order to gain the support of pro-war Democrats. Johnson was fiercely pro-Union and had come to national prominence when, as a Senator from the important border state of Tennessee, he denounced secession as "treason"…
Law2.umkc.edu,. 2015. 'An Introduction To The Impeachment Trial Of Andrew Johnson'. http://law2.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/impeach/imp_account2.html .
impeachment of Samuel Chase. The writer provides an overview of what an impeachment is and how it is implemented. The writer takes the reader on an exploratory journey through the life of Samuel Chase and discusses the impeachment proceedings that he was subjected to. The writer ends the paper with the conclusion of the impeachment attempt. There were seven sources used to complete this paper.
Mention the name Monica Lewinski and it brings immediate recognition. It is the name of the intern whom then President William Jefferson Clinton had an affair with. That affair and the disclosure of the affair led to a snowball of disaster for the president that ended in an impeachment. Mention the name ichard Nixon and it brings an immediate recognition of another former president who violated public trust. He was about to face impeachment proceedings when he resigned from the presidency. These are very famous…
Samuel Chase (1741-1811) http://www.mdarchives.state.md.us/msa/speccol/1545/grarem/chase.html
Samuel Chase http://www.altavista.com/r-ck_sm=9ac7e135&ref=100020080&uid=7703007adcaf247&r=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.rebelswithavision.com%2FSamuelChase.com%2F
The Senate's Impeachment Role http://www.senate.gov/learning/brief_5.html
Separation of Powers:
The United States Constitution protects the right to impeach public officials and provides the procedures and grounds for such measures. According to this constitution, civil servants in America shall be impeached for conviction of bribery, high crimes and misdemeanors, and treason. President Adam Johnson is one of the U.S. presidents who have been impeached while President ichard Nixon resigned before impeachment. President Bill Clinton faced impeachment during his tenure, which contributed to concerns that such an action could contribute to weakened presidency. The impeachment trials of these three presidents present some ethical dilemmas that were evident in the Senate's trial proceedings and political aspects. Moreover, these impeachment trials have certain similarities and differences that were fueled by the actions of the presidents in question.
Impeachment Trial of the Three Presidents:
President Adam Johnson was removed from office in May 1868 when the Senate voted unanimously to remove…
Brunner, B. (2007). A Short History of Impeachment. Retrieved September 10, 2013, from http://www.infoplease.com/spot/impeach.html
Linder, D.O. (n.d.). The Impeachment Trial of Andrew Johnson. Retrieved from University of Missouri-Kansas City -- UMKC School of Law website: http://law2.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/impeach/imp_account2.html
"The Clinton Impeachment." (n.d.). Bill of Rights Institute. Retrieved September 10, 2013, from http://billofrightsinstitute.org/resources/educator-resources/lessons-plans/presidents/clinton-impeachment/
Whittington, K.E. (2000, March). Bill Clinton was No Andrew Johnson: Comparing Two
The tactic backfired on him as Northern Republicans viewed with
hostility his interest in reconciling fast and returning the south to
viability. Bitter northerners felt this denoted a suspect allegiance and
brutally attacked his policies, especially his effort to create a cabinet
more sympathetic to his interest in reconciliation.
By outcome, his opponents amongst northern republicans struck
preemptively. "Sensing vulnerability, Congress moved against Johnson by
passing the Tenure of Office Act, which limited Johnson's ability to remove
cabinet officials without congressional approval." (Bacon, 1) hen the
inevitable struck and Johnson attempted to remove a divisive secretary of
war, fringe elements of congress rallied for his impeachment. Though his
presidency was preserved by one vote, his fate as a divider and a president
made impotent by political opposition was sealed.
Bacon, D.C. et al. (1995). History of the United States Congress. New
Bacon, D.C. et al. (1995). History of the United States Congress. New
York: Simon & Schuster.
The second proposal stated that the decision as to whether or when an independent counsel needed to be appointed would be at the absolute discretion of the President (Kavanaugh, 1998).
The third proposal suggested that Congress should ensure that the President and the Attorney General solely define and monitor the jurisdiction of the independent counsel, emphasizing the importance of how the responsibility for these jurisdictions should be on these officials that are publicly accountable, rather than on any court (Kavanaugh, 1998). The implementation of this proposal would greatly expedite investigations by special counsel (Kavanaugh, 1998). Fourth, the statutory reporting requirement should be eliminated by congress so that financial and time resources could be saved (Kavanaugh, 1998).
Kavanaugh's (1998) fifth proposal maintained that it should be established by Congress that the President can only be indicted after a voluntary leave of office or impeachment. Some may argue in favor of the…
Kavanaugh, B.M. (1998). The President and the independent counsel. Georgetown Law Journal. Retrieved 2/08/2007 from FindArticles.com http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3805/is_199807/ai_n8807527 .
O'Sullivan, J.R. (1998). Interaction between impeachment and the Independent Counsel Statute. Georgetown Law Journal. Retrieved 2/08/2007 from FindArticles.com http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3805/is_199807/ai_n8801616 .
He also loses his robe in the process; this increases his pathetic quality and allows for a mantle to be passed on to someone with twice the art.
Swift's Gulliver's Travels
5) Based on what you've read, is this really a work for children? What is going on here that might fly right over the heads of most young children? This book satirizes almost every institution of Swift's day, from the government to the Church. The fact the Lilliputians and Blefuscuans are fighting over which end of the egg to eat first is funy to children, but has deeper and somewhat sadder implications for adults.
6) Describe the narrator. What kind of character is he? What observational details does he choose to focus on? What, if anything, do these observations tell us about his own preoccupations or obsessions? Te things Gulliver notices seem to shift with each new country and…
"The criterion for the admissibility of a confession has thus evolved into the quality of voluntariness. The aim of admitting into evidence only voluntary confessions is to prevent the introduction of unreliable evidence. & #8230; the result is that judges may exclude confessions where the coercion is blatant and obvious but not exclude confessions where the coercion" is more subtle -- the jury is left to decide the confession's veracity in this case (akefield & Underwager 20009).
Discuss and provide examples pertaining to the waiver of privilege against self-incrimination.
The protection against self-incrimination does not apply to "non-testimonial evidence" such as giving examples of one's voice, police line-ups, blood samples or fingerprints (Lesson 12, 2009, Slide 4)
The principal restriction of impeachment by the use of evidence of misconduct can result in a conviction of a witness. Explain this concept and give examples.
Impeaching the testimony…
Exceptions to the hearsay rule. (2009). Everything2.com. Retrieved May 28, 2009 at http://everything2.com/title/Exceptions%2520to%2520the%2520Hearsay%2520Rule
ELMO evidence presentation. (2009). Middle District of Pennsylvania. Retrieved May 28, 2009
Evidence. (2009). eNotes. Retrieved May 28, 2009 at http://www.enotes.com/forensic-science/evidence-chain-custody
Presidential power is thus a matter of persuasion of the public and the other branches and actors within the government. Today in particular, because of the ability of the President to invoke the information of the intelligence agencies, information which the President has special authority over, he can persuade members Congress that if they do not do his bidding, they are jeopardizing America. hen the presidential office was first created, the federal army and navy were far smaller than today -- and only Congress has the power to declare war. Yet many undeclared wars have been waged subsequently, and Congress has ceded some of its powers of controlling these institutions, from the Gulf of Tonkin resolution during Vietnam, to being persuaded by faulty intelligence it is assured it is true, as in Iraq. Presidents like Gerald Ford have limited the prosecutorial abilities of the nation by bestowing pardons, even changed…
Neustadt, Richard E. Presidential Power and the Modern President. New York: Free Press,
Clinton's Lewinsky Speech
Presidential scandal speeches should be considered a unique form of discoursed that follow a common pattern and have similar elements. All of these may not be found in every single speech but most certainly will, including ichard Nixon's Second Watergate Speech (1973), onald eagan's Iran-Contra Speech (1987), and Bill Clinton's Monica Lewinsky Speech (1998). All the presidents used strong, direct and active voice when making these speeches, with Clinton seeming to be particularly prone to narcissism and use of the first-person singular. A standard feature of all such speeches is for the president to take responsibility for what went wrong, express regret, and then call on the country to move on so the government can return to dealing with the nation's 'real' business. Both Nixon and Clinton also had a strong tendency to blame their political enemies for their predicament, and with good reason, although in Nixon's…
Clinton, B. (1998). Monica Lewinsky Speech.
Nixon, R. (1973). Second Watergate Speech.
Removing Judges: Texas
Removal of Judges in Texas
Texas judges, could, according to the American Judicature Society, be removed from office in four ways. To begin with, the process of removal could in this case be set in motion by the findings of the state commission on judicial conduct. This particular commission according to the American Judicature Society "investigates, and if warranted, prosecutes allegations of misconduct by Texas judges." Should preliminary investigations reveal that claims of misconduct on the part of the judge are unfounded or fabricated, further proceedings are terminated. It is important to note that it is after the commission recommends the retirement or removal of a judge that a review tribunal is selected by the Supreme Court for purposes of verifying the recommendations made. The review tribunal is made up judges from the court of appeals. In this case, the review tribunal has the power…
American Judicature Society. "Methods of Judicial Selection: Removal of Judges." Judicial Selection. American Judicature Society, 2014. Web. 15 February 2014
Article III describes the judicial branch of government, including the Supreme Court. It establishes that there is one court, the Supreme Court, however Congress may create lower courts, although judgements and orders may be reviewed by the Supreme Court. The trials of all crimes, except those involving impeachment, shall be by jury and held in the state where the crimes were committed, but if not committed within a state, the Congress will decide where the trial will take place. The judicial power extends to all cases arising under the Constitution, the laws of the United States, and treaties made, or which may be made, under their authority. No one can be convicted of treason without the testimony of two witnesses to the same act, or on confession in open court. The Congress has the power to decide the punishment of treason.
Article IV establishes the relationship among the states, and…
United States Constitution." Cornell Law School. Retrieved May 22, 2006 at http://www.law.cornell.edu/constitution/constitution.table.html#articlei
The Constitution is based on several key principals the most notable would include: separation of powers as well as checks and balances. Separation of powers is when there are clearly defined powers that are given to the various branches of: the government, the federal government and the states. Checks and balances is when one branch of the government will have the power to the check the authority of another branch. (Wood) for example, the Constitution would specifically spell out various powers of the executive branch. During the course of exercising these different powers, a citizen brings a lawsuit against the government in the judicial branch. Where, they claim that the actions that the executive branch is taking are unconstitutional. In this particular case, the executive branch would work off of the powers given to them in the Constitution. When they begin to overstep these boundaries, another branch of the government…
"British Political Parties." Politics Resources. 2010. Web. 29 Apr. 2010.
"Fuel Efficiency Standards Hiked for 2011." MSNBC. 27 Mar. 2009. Web. 28 Apr. 2010.
"Key British Political Parties Pursuing Lilly Allen." One Indie. 2010. Web. 29 Apr. 2010.
"Markets in New Territory in Three Party Britain." Thompson Reuters. 26 Arp. 2010. Web. 29 Apr. 2010.
Congress will assemble at least one a year, beginning on the first Monday in December.
Section 5: Congress must have a minimum number of members in attendance in order to meet, and that it has the authority to fine those who don't show up. Members may be expelled if there is disorderly behavior or if the rules of proceedings are violated. The concurrence of 2/3 majority can expel a member from Congress. A journal of proceedings must be kept to record what goes on and votes that are made. Neither house can adjourn without the direct permission of the other.
Section 6: Members of the Congress will be paid for their services. They will have immunity from arrest and freedom of speech while in office unless they commit treason, which is a felony, or a breach of the peace. While in office, no member of Congress may accept another office…
This type of evidence includes perception and memory, is subjective, and can be inaccurate. Almost all evidence must be sponsored by a witness who has sworn or solemnly affirmed to tell the truth. All persons are presumed to be qualified to serve as witnesses in trials and other legal proceedings, and all persons are also presumed to have a legal obligation to serve as witnesses if their testimony is sought. Witnesses are generally required to give their testimony in the form of statements regarding what they saw, heard, felt, tasted, or smelled, and they are generally forbidden to express opinion or draw conclusions. A person who is not testifying as an expert will be allowed to present an opinion as testimony if his opinion is both rationally based on his perception and helpful to an understanding of his testimony. Opinions of a competent layperson are specifically permitted by rule, statute,…
Waltz, Jon R. And Park, Roger C. (1998) Gilbert Law Summaries: Evidence. 17th Edition. New York: Harcourt Brace Legal and Professional Publications.
Judge roderick concluded that the Compulsory Process Clause of the Sixth Amendment does not give a defendant the right to require immunization of a witness, but that such a right is "probably" contained in the Due Process Clause of the Fifth Amendment. Id. However, he declined to accord the defendants the benefit of this "probable" Fifth Amendment right to defense witness immunity for two reasons. First, he ruled that the defendants' motion was untimely, since it should properly have been made at the beginning of the trial. Second, he concluded that defense witness immunity would be available only to secure testimony that was material and exculpatory and that the defendants had not shown that any of the witnesses for whom they sought immunity would give material, exculpatory testimony."
The only federal appellate decisions that have ruled in favor of defense witness immunity are stated to appear to be the Third…
Cornell University Law School (2009) "Bill of Rights from Cornell University Law School. United States Constitution. LIT/Legal Information Institute. Online available at: Cornell University Law School. "Bill of Rights from Cornell University Law School
Charters of Freedom - The Declaration of Independence, The Constitution, The Bill of Rights
Sosnov, Leonard N. (nd) Separation of Powers Shell Game: The Federal Witness Immunity Act. Temple Law Review.
UNITED STATES of America, Appellee, v. Norman TURKISH, Defendant-Appellant. United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit May 27, 1980 623 F.2d 769. Online available at: http://www.altlaw.org/v1/cases/557484
Johnson rebuked generals and Congress continued to pass into legislation laws Johnson had vetoed. Johnson's antics caused more and more supporters to abandon him, and impeachment became a very real concern.
Congress voted to impeach Johnson in 1868 after he violated the Tenure of Office Act and tried to remove Secretary of War Stanton, but the Senate did not convict him. During this time, a struggle between the court system and Congress also developed, which in effect allowed the court to send a message that econstruction was not a constitutional problem but a political one. Ultimately, the power struggle showed the viability of the Constitution and American federalism. While the struggles were great, the Supreme Court, Congress, and the President all survived the crisis and supported the separation of power that separate the three branches of government.
By driving a wedge between the Congress, the judiciary, and the presidency, Andrew…
McPhearson, J.M. (2001). Ordeal by fire: The Civil War and reconstruction. New York: McGraw Hill.
The purpose of these impeachment techniques is to verify to the best of one's purpose that the jury members are objective and competent as well as reliable enough to officiate in the trial.
Limitations placed are that a party may only impeach his own witness if the witness were an adverse party (i.e. called to stand; if the witness was hostile; if law as witness required the witness; and if the witness surprised the party by offering damaging testimony. It seems to me that the technique of 'bias' is the most important specifically so since witnesses have to be above bias, and one biased witness can potentially corrode jury decision-making.
Defendant's decision to testify / not testify
A defendant may want to testify at his own trial due to not having the resources to employ the lawyer he most wants to represent him, or due to feeling that the lawyer…
The American Jury Bulwark of Democracy A jury of one's peers www.crfc.org/americanjury/jury_peers.html
Lawyers. Com. What's impeachment of a witness?
Dumping $2.6 Million on Bakersfield (Or How Not to Build a Migratory Farm orker's Clinic)
The central issue of this case was that the social ecology of administration and other external factors were not taken into consideration during the implementation of a plan to build new health clinics for migrant farm workers in Bakersfield California.
The program was created to meet the requirements of legislation of the 1970 Migrant Health Act sponsored by Senator alter Mondale. Although there was plenty of money available, the money came with time constraints and the group who needed to spend the money had a poor overall knowledge of the community the funding was supposed to serve. This case was significant because it demonstrated how multiple levels of government, both federal and local, often mismanage their responsibilities simply because of poor communication and planning.
There were several factors that created this problem. The…
Aron, Michael. (1972). "Dumping $2.6 Million on Bakersfield (Or How Not to Build a Migratory Farm Worker's Clinic)." The Washington Monthly. October: pp.23-32.
Charles, Michael T.. (1989). "The Last Flight of Space Shuttle Challenger." Coping With Crises: The Management of Disaster, Riots and Terrorism.
Sciolino, Elain., Bronner, Ethan. (1999). "The Decision To Bomb the Serbs." New York Times. April 18.: p.1+.
The session erupted in brawl, and in the end, the vote favored impeachment
. This became known as "loody Monday." This time, Long's bullying tactics did not work.
Long took his case to the people, claiming that his impeachment was a raucous attempt by Standard Oil to deprive the people of what they deserved. As the trial began, Long passed around "Round Robin" document that was signed by more than one -- third of the Senate members. The round robin document stated that they did not believe his offenses warranted removal from office
. As it takes an over two-thirds vote to remove him from office, the impeachment attempt failed. Long rewarded his faithful with state jobs, favors and some say cash as well
. Long became more harsh with his enemies, founding a newspaper to promote his ideas. Long began to receive death threats and was forced to surround…
Andrews, James and Zarefsky, David. American Voices: Significant Speeches in American history 1640-1945. (White Plains, NY: Longman, 1989.)
Authier, Philip. Duplessis, warts and all. 22 May 1999. Wednesday-Night. Available from http://www.wednesday-night.com/Duplessis.asp . Internet: accessed 29 September 2008.
Botting, Gary. Fundamental Freedoms and Jehovah's Witnesses. (Calgary, Alta: University of Calgary Press. 1993).
Corner, Richard. The Kingfish and the Constitution: Huey Long, the First Amendment, and the Emergence of Modern Press Freedom in America. (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1996).
Much like the announced plans by President-elect Barack Obama to launch the most massive public works program since orld ar II by investing in the nation's highways and bridges, the same approach was used by the newly installed Israeli government to stimulate the economy. This approach, though, was considered a comprise approach since there were vastly differing views on what issues should be made priorities following the Oslo Peace Accords (Alterman 141). According to this author, "The shift of priorities was visible on the ground within a year or two: major highways and interchanges, long-neglected by the Likud governments, were upgraded. Environmental projects received public funds. Even the long-neglected rail system received a boost, which though modest was nevertheless its largest since pre-State British Mandate times" (Alterman 141). Despite this shift in priorities over the years, Israeli expansion and Palestinian statehood remain at the forefront of the ongoing and convoluted…
Alterman, Rachelle. Planning in the Face of Crisis: Land Use, Housing and Mass Immigration in Israel. London: Routledge, 2002.
Bird, Eugene. (1998, March). "With Oslo Accords in Shambles, a President Who Let it Happen Feels Shackled by Both Old and New Mistakes." Washington Report on Middle East Affairs, Special Report 15-16.
Details of the Oslo Peace Accords. (2008). Palestine Facts. [Online]. Available: http://Palestinefacts.org/pf_1991to_now_oslo_accords.php.
Dunsky, Marda. (2001). "Missing: The Bias Implicit in the Absent." Arab Studies Quarterly, 23(3), 1.
" The bill then goes on a calendar, so it can be debated, discussed, or amended. The bill then goes to the floor of the house where it is read, discussed, and voted on. If it passes by a two-thirds margin, it goes on to the Senate, where it goes through the same process. If it makes it this far, it is "enrolled," signed by the Speaker of the House and the Vice-President, and then it goes to the president for signature ("Ben's Guide"). Both legislative branches seem to have similar means of passing bills, Canada's follows about the same procedure in a different order.
In Canada, Canadians elect a Parliament, and the most the members can sit on Parliament is five years. The Parliament is made up of the House of Commons and the Senate. The leaders of the two bodies are the Speaker of the House and the…
Andres, Gary J. "Left, Right Left; Liberals, Lobbyists and Laws in Lock Step." The Washington Times 2 Feb. 2006: A19.
Editors. "Ben's Guide to Government." Ben'sGuide.gpo.gov. 2007. 21 Sept. 2007. http://bensguide.gpo.gov/9-12/index.html
Editors. "Canadians and Their Government." CanadianHeritage.gc.ca. 2007. 21 Sept. 2007. http://www.canadianheritage.gc.ca/special/gouv-gov/section2/infobox2_e.cfm
Editors. "Office of the Registrar of Lobbyists." ORL-BDL.gc.ca. 2007. 21 Sept. 2007. http://www.orl-bdl.gc.ca/epic/site/lobbyist-lobbyiste.nsf/en/h_nx00162e.html
There are three types of stimuli used, which are:
2) Irrelevant; and 3) Probes.
These are used "in the form of words, pictures, or sounds..." which a computer presents for a second or even a partial second. Incoming stimulus, if it is worth noting, results in a P-300, which is an electrical brain response. The P-300 is part of a MERMER or a memory and encoding related multifaceted electroencephalographic response, which is a larger brain response.
Originally event related potentials (ERP) was the method used for studying brain activity information processing. The limitation of the ERP is that it causes elimination of all patterns that are complex and results in the meaningful signals also being lost. The multifaceted electroencephalographic response analysis or MERA was developed due to the limitation of the ERP. Farwell found that incorporation of this technique resulted in the elicitation of MERMER when the individual…
Taylor, Erich (2007) a New Wave of Police Interrogation? Brain Fingerprinting, the Constitutional Privilege against Self-Incrimination and Hearsay Jurisprudence
Pope, Harrison (nd) the Emperor's Tailoring. FMS Foundation Newsletter. Online available at http://www.fmsfonline.org/fmsf96.d31.html
Stetler, Russell and Wayland, Kathleen (2004) Capital Cases - Dimension of Mitigation. June 2004. Online available at http://220.127.116.11/search?q=cache:8FdkQI0WFDsJ:www.fd.org/pdf_lib/Capital%2520CasesDimensions%2520of%2520Mitigation%2520Stetler.pdf+MRI:+forensics,+determination+of+guilt+or+innocence&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=50&gl=us.
1960's through the 1980's (and eyond)
The chosen historical event is actually a 4 1/2-year phenomenon: Kenneth Starr's extensive investigation of President and Mrs. William Clinton, culminating in the impeachment of President Clinton. Given the leeway of choosing an event from later than the 1960s through the 1980s, an event was chosen from the 1990s. The choice was not necessarily made due to the writer's relative youth but due to the searing controversy and clear memory of the event. Patterson's recollection of the event is genteel compared to the acidic nastiness and political maneuvering recalled by this writer.
The appointment of Independent Counsel for investigation and possible prosecution was authorized by the Ethics in Government Act of 1978, passed in at least partial reaction to the Watergate Scandal.[footnoteRef:1] According to Patterson, this appointment was used by conservative members of Congress to counter the political savvy of President William Clinton, "who…
Carville, James. ...and the Horse He Rode In On: The People V. Kenneth Starr. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster, 1998.
Harris, John F. The Survivor: Bill Clinton in the White House. New York, NY: Random House, 2005.
Patterson, James T. Restless Giant: The United States from Watergate to Bush v. Gore. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2005.
Schmidt, Susan, and Michael Weisskopf. Truth at Any Cost: Ken Starr and the Unmaking of Bill Clinton. New York, NY: HarperCollins, 2000.
Accountability in a Liberal Democracy: A Critical Appraisal
A liberal democracy is defined as a political philosophy by which people have inalienable rights to power and free elective process of their country. In other words, a liberal democracy is a political system characterized with a free election, and political decision made by an independent legislature, a multiple political system, and independent judiciary. In a liberal democratic system, people have the right to voice a decision making process of their country with application of a majority rule and vote a candidate they wish to run the political office. A liberal democracy is a democracy of the people and for the people.
Typically, liberal democracy gives the citizens the overall strategy to improve the political economy of their country through a better government. Under a liberal democratic rule, people have the right to vote and participate in the civil engagement to protect…
Borowiak, C.T. (2011). Accountability and Democracy. The Pitfalls and Promise of Popular Control. London. Oxford University Press.
Chen, W. & Hsu, J.C. (2014). Horizontal Accountability in a Polarised New Democracy: The Case of Post-Democratisation Taiwan. Australian Journal of Asian Law. 15(2): 1-19.
Cheung, C. & Leung, K.(2007). Enhancing life satisfaction by government accountability in China. Social Indicators Research. 82.3: 411-432.
Kellman, A. (2004). Democracy Assistance in Practice: The Designing of a Political Party Training Program in the Republic of Kenya', MA thesis, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.
It separates the various forms of government and does not allow one to become more powerful than another, and it ensures that laws are created fairly, that justice is fair, and that the President does not gain too much power. Essentially, it is the backbone of our Democracy, and that assures our freedom and the public good.
Critics of the Constitution and its support of the public good believe that the laws can promote gridlock in legislation, and that it can make it easier for government leaders to not take responsibility for problems. However, the framers of the Constitution had the citizens in mind, and they formed it to create a Democratic country with the good of the public as a foremost concern.
The Virginia Plan was a plan favored by James Madison, and it had three branches, legislative, executive, and judicial. The legislature chose the executive and judicial branches,…
This as an important moment in the history of the Cold War because it marked the start of a new series of talks between the Palestinians and the Israeli side. This moment also proved the importance of the State Secretary in relation to the issues of foreign policy and the international community.
At this moment, some of the most important cabinets in the executive concern issues such as internal affairs and job security. These are essential portfolios from the perspective of internal and external factors. The homeland security refers in particular to aspects which take place inside the borders of the U.S. And tackle the threats that are visible on the U.S. territory. There are several departments inside the Homeland Security portfolio. These concern issues of counterterrorism, border security, immigration, or cybersecurity
. Counterterrorism measures are crucial at this moment, especially given the national security advisory which changed to orange…
Department of Homeland Security. 2010. Accessed from http://www.dhs.gov/index.shtm
Department of Homeland Security. Counterterrorism. 2010. Accessed from http://www.dhs.gov/files/counterterrorism.shtm
Department of Labor. On the Recovery Act. 2009. Accessed from http://www.dol.gov/recovery/
Department of Defense. Travels with Gates. 2010. Accessed from
Also unlike the president, it is entitled to be part of the political party. This is an important aspect because its adherence to the party ensures its support for the political figure and for the measures to be taken throughout the mandate. This enables the administration to avoid potential situations when political support lacks.
Political accountability rests in the power of the Parliament to hold accountable the Government. In this sense, similar to the other cases, the Parliament plays a crucial role in the life of the executive branch. Given the fact that the Executive is represented by the major parties in the Parliament, the interpellations of the Government are often settled. In any case, the strong relation between the executive, the political parties, and the parliament enable a strong relation and commitment on the lines of the ruling parties.
Efficiency of the systems
It is rather difficult to consider…
French Constitution. Accessed 10 June 2010 from http://www.assemblee-nationale.fr/english/8ab.asp
Gregg, G.L. The Presidential Republic: Executive Representation and Deliberative Democracy. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 1997.
Hoffmann, V., Hellmut Wollmann (eds). State and local government reforms in France and Germany: divergence and convergence, Wiesbaden: VS Verlag, 2006.
Newton, K., Jan W. van Deth Foundations of comparative politics: democracies of the modern world. Cambridge University Press, Cambrige, 2005.
To prove either side of the argument, the sensitivity and impact needs to be assessed -- there is no blanket rule of everything being transparent, or everything being private; it is dependent upon the sensitivity and overall impact of the issue at hand.
3. ources: Hunold, C. And B. Peters. (2004). "Bureaucratic Discretion and Deliverative Democracy." Transformation in Governance. IGI Publishing; Holzer, M. And K. Yang. (April 1, 2005). "Administrative Discretion in a Turbulent Time: An Introduction. Public Administration Quarterly. Cited in: www.highbeamresearch.com.
4. How does a cost-benefit analysis used in the determination of due process?
Using, for example, Miranda v Arizona, a cost-benefit analysis is used to determine due-process in the sense of the decision's impact on law enforcement and the community needs to be taken into consideration before a ruling of using Miranda, 5th Amendment Rights, and basic procedures. The Rehnquist Court's decision in the idea of cost-benefit,…
Sources: Administrative Procedure Act of (1946); Federal Administrative Procedure Act, Cited in: http://biotech.law.lsu.edu/Courses/study_aids/adlaw/
4. Distinguish among the following three terms: procedural rules, interpretive rules, and substantive rules. Explain the meaning and use of each.
a. Procedural Rules are rules that govern how prosecutions are conducted. The rules, which may be Federal or State, and may also govern different types of legal proceeding, e.g. criminal, are designed as a guide or template for the manner in which the Court proceeds on a given matter -- what it hears, what happens, and in what manner are issues resolved. The rules are designed to protect due process and ensure a fair and consistent application across the board. Essentially, Procedural Rules outline a "means" of conducting a court action. Creation of law.
b. Interpretive Rules -- Used in various ways depending on Federal, State, or local, they are the Court's view of the specific rule and the interpretation of its meaning. Known sometimes as the "legal effect" test, sometimes interpretive rules suggest or even engender new law. At times, law is so complex in specific cases or events, that a greater "interpretation" of the intent
In cases of treason accusations, the testimony of two additional parties, or an open court testimony of the defendant is required: "No person shall be convicted of treason unless on the testimony of two witnesses to the same overt act, or on confession in open court" (Section 3).
- No national or international party is exempt from following the legislations and all those who break the laws will as such be trailed in front of the Supreme Court or other inferior courts: "The judicial power shall extend to all cases, in law and equity, arising under this Constitution, the laws of the United States, and treaties made, or which shall be made, under their authority; -- to all cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls; -- to all cases of admiralty and maritime jurisdiction; -- to controversies to which the United States shall be a party; -- to…
Ginsberg, B., Lowi, T.J., Weir, M., 2009, We the People: An Introduction to American Politics, 7th Edition, WW Norton & Co Inc., ISBN 0393932141
The United States Constitution, Retrieved from www.constitutioncenter.org/633876696043236250.pdf on September 14, 2009
Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English, Online Version, http://www.ldoceonline.com last accessed on September 14, 2009
S. Constitution under the Fourteenth Amendment. States can no longer ignore the Fourteenth Amendment following the ruling in Duncan v. Louisiana, and that makes this case a landmark case.
Justice hite delivered the opinion of the Court, saying that basically if a state is going to convict a person to a crime that is - by state law - punishable by up to two years, it is then considered a serious crime, and the Fourteenth Amendment comes into play. That amendment, hite wrote, "denies the States the power to 'deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law." The laws of "every state," hite continued, "guarantee a right to jury trial in serious criminal cases; no state has dispensed with it; nor are there significant movements underway to do so." In fact, hite went on, the right of the accused to a jury trial is given…
FindLaw (2007). U.S. Supreme Court: District of Columbia v. Clawans, 300 U.S. 617 (1937).
Retrieved April 29, 2008, at http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com .
FindLaw. (2007). U.S. Supreme Court: Duncan v. Louisiana, 391 U.S. 145 (1968). Retrieved April 29, 2008, at
(United States Supreme Court, 2008). It is impossible to completely determine why a president choices a Supreme Court nominee. However, it seems likely that Ginsburg's feminist history had something to do with his choice. She was one of the first females to attend Harvard Law School, where she struggled for acceptance as a woman. She was instrumental in forwarding women's rights, not only when with the ACLU, but also in other aspects of her professional life. "hile leaning towards the liberal side of the Court's political spectrum, Ginsburg has not hesitated to vote with her conservative colleagues...There is little doubt that Ginsburg's position on women's rights, and civil liberties in general, will play an important role in many controversial issues to come." (Oyez, 2008).
Mount, S. (2006). Constitutional topic: checks and balances. Retrieved March 2, 2008, from the U.S. Constitution Online
eb site: http://www.usconstitution.net/consttop_cnb.html
Oyez. (2008). Ruth Bader…
Mount, S. (2006). Constitutional topic: checks and balances. Retrieved March 2, 2008, from the U.S. Constitution Online
Web site: http://www.usconstitution.net/consttop_cnb.html
Oyez. (2008). Ruth Bader Ginsburg. Retrieved March 2, 2008 from Oyez.org
Web site: http://www.oyez.org/justices/ruth_bader_ginsburg/
In a democratic system, whose underlying foundation is a philosophy of independence and equal representation, giving somebody the power to buy political power or interest is unethical. For this reason, must governing boards have codes of ethics that specifically prohibit bribery.
The mayor's proposed plan to lure tourism to igtown is akin to the illegal bribery committed by the SLOC. In other words, what the mayor proposes is to give convention planners government contracts for coming to igtown, which is essentially giving the planners political power not available to the city's citizens. According to the governing rules, this form of political bribery is illegal. If the mayor does go through with this plan, he could be punished with such actions as fines or an impeachment from his position.
15 United States Code Sec. 78. (2006): The Foreign Corrupt Practices Act.
Longman, Jere. (1999): "Olympics: 2 Officials Quit in Salt…
15 United States Code Sec. 78. (2006): The Foreign Corrupt Practices Act.
Longman, Jere. (1999): "Olympics: 2 Officials Quit in Salt Lake City as Olympic Scandal Details Grow." New York Times.
Typically, applications for pardons are referred for review and non-binding recommendation by the Office of the Pardon Attorney, an official of the Department of Justice (Pardons and clemency in the United States http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pardon)."
Those who oppose the pardon power of the president point to the royal misuse of days gone by when the U.S. was still under English rule and pardoning power was abused by members of the royal family throughout history.
Those who support the power of a president to pardon believe it is an elected power with regard to the United States and as such the people have provided the power to their elected president to make pardons available to those he or she sees fit.
A pardon can be granted at any point following the commission of the crime including before a conviction has been handed down, but for the most part individual pardons are granted to…
Pardons and clemency in the United States (accessed 4-10-07)
PRESIDENTIAL PARDON POWER (accessed 4-10-07) http://commdocs.house.gov/committees/judiciary/hju71180.000/hju71180_0f.htm
Black, Eric (2001)Presidential pardoning power harks back to right of royalty; Presidential pardons were endorsed by the founding fathers and the U.S. Supreme Court.(NEWS)
hen Cheney is seen, it is because he is usually attending a Republican fundraiser and attacking Democrats who criticize Bush's war in Iraq. Gore was seen as a very open vice president whose work achieved very high visibility; Cheney works behind the scenes, and is believed to be very influential in the Bush administration in matters of fighting terrorism and war strategy in Iraq.
Bush is very much aware of one of his main political constituencies, the conservative Christian movement; this movement is anti-abortion and very negative about gay people. In fact, Bush has supported a constitutional amendment (which makes his conservative Christian supporters happy) that would ban gay marriage. Clinton, meanwhile, reached out to the gay community and initiated the "Don't ask, don't tell" policy toward gays in the military. Many gays were being pushed out of the military based on old suspicions and values.
Clinton was involved in…
Miller Center University of Virginia. "Governing American in a Global Era: Presidential Oral
History / Bill Clinton." Retrieved April 10, 2007, at http://millercenter.virginia.edu.
Wikipedia. "George W. Bush." Retrieved April 10, 2007, at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_W_bush .
Partisan differences of support and disapproval of our two most recent presidents are quite clear, with the personal popularity of President Bush among Democrats lower than was President Clinton's among Republicans while his impeachment proceedings were under way. The ongoing
Iraqi war is especially indicative, with diametrically opposite opinions on whether the conflict is going well or has improved national security.
In a purely logical sense it would seem that Jimmy Carter's presidency would have been anything but a galvanizing force for America's right-wind Christian conservatives. Ironically, though, that was not the case. For example, Joy Porter examines the ironically ground-breaking, unintended political effects of Jimmy Carter's Presidency, i.e., the impacts (or, as Porter actually argues, a lack of them) of the former President's non-right-wing; relatively liberal Evangelism, on future religiously-based American political discourse. As Porter argues, during Carter's 1976 and 1980 campaigns especially, Carter's faith-based but also distinctly liberal…
The weaknesses to Judge Johnson's case included the fact that there was a law on the books by constitutional stipulation that has in the past denied the legislature the power to provide for retirement benefits for state officers, including, by implication, judges (Alabama Const. Art. IV, Sec. 98, 2011). Another weakness is that of the fact that even though she was officially retired from the state she was still working at the federal level. It is possible that this could be construed as double dipping, since technically she would be getting paid from both systems.
It is very easy to see in this case that there is a possibility that the judges involved would not be very objective in making their decision. One would think that they thought would have to go through their minds that this may in fact one day be them in the same position…
Alabama Const. Art. IV, Sec. 98 (2011)
Amendment XIV. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h232.html
Code of Ala. § 12-18-6 (2011)
James v. Thompson, 392 So. 2d 1178 (Ala. 1981).
gov). egardless of the administration, the President must ultimately bow to the will of the Senate on treaties; President Wilson failed in his attempt at the passage of the League of Nations, just as President Obama is having difficulty in passage of trade bills with Columbia, South Korea, and Panama.
The Senate's powers also include further checks on the Executive Branch, namely the authority of impeachment by trial, two of which have been conducted on sitting Presidents: Jackson and Clinton. In addition the Senate has investigative powers on "malfeasance in the Executive Branch and elsewhere in American society" (United States Senate.gov).
Apart from the specific powers reserved for the Senate, perhaps its greatest role is as the ultimate arbiter of policy and government action. Because of the unique rules of the Senate, many proposed legislative bills end up languishing in committees or are never brought to a vote. The Senate's…
Economist.com. The Non-Deliberative Body. May 19, 2011. Retrieved May 19, 2011
Kramer, Lisa. "World's Greatest Deliberative Body. The League of Ordinary Gentlemen.
August 11, 2010. Retrieved May 19, 2011 from http://ordinary-gentlemen.com/blog/2010/08/11/worlds-greatest-deliberative-body/
Social Media and the ed Shirt evolution
Most scholars are in conflict with regard to the subject of revolution in the age of social media. Until now, revolution has been considered a top-down process. In Thai situation, things might have been different. The ed Shirt evolution in Thailand was one of the first of the "Twitter" revolutions, that is one that was fueled by social media and Web 2.0 technology. Since then, other revolutions have come as well. The lone citizen is now no longer on their own. The dissident in Chiang Mai now can commiserate with their brother or sister in Tahrir Square and plan revolution on a country to country or even on a global basis. Even as this writer types up a dissertation proposal, demonstrators coordinate strategy on a global basis to protest corporate greed. It is with this in mind that this study looks back at…
Bailey, M and Labovitz C (2011). Censorship and Co-option of the Internet Infrastructure. Ann Arbor,
MI: University of Michigan. p1-14.
Bajpai, K and Jaiswal, A (2011). A Framework for Analyzing Collective Action Events on Twitter.
Lisbon, Portugal: Proceedings of the 8th International ISCRAM Conference. p1-10.
During the 70's and 80's some of these opportunities were eliminated by the actions of the Burger and Rehnquist courts but habeas corpus actions remain a major problem for both systems and our a source of much acrimony. In 1996, Congress amended the federal habeas corpus statute in order to provide some clarification as to how habeas corpus was to be applied and interpreted nationwide.
XI. The Eleventh Amendment and State Sovereign Immunity
Litigation occurring under the 11th Amendment attempts to reconcile two competing ideas: 1) state sovereign immunity which assumes that a state is immune from suit unless it consents to be sued, and 2) the power of the federal government that assumes that the states are subsidiary sovereigns to the federal system. Interpretations of the 11th Amendment have varied throughout the history of decisions on said issue but, presently, are a bar to unconsented suits by private citizens…
Particularly post war era women entered the workforce in huge numbers but there were many hindrances in their way as they tried to secure their credit. They had to found for the ownership of property as well as equal right to employment opportunities and salary. The idea of women being spender in the house also strengthened. As a result of reforms in the society women became powerful economically and socially.
eligious leaders were of the opinion that "religious principles should be broadened so as to include 'all useful social theories' lest Christianity be left behind in the onward march of society." (Charles Howard Hopkins, 1940. P.32)
As envisaged by the Christian religious leaders, the office of deaconess declared that women can a deaconess, with the provision that she holds right spirit and the appropriate training (Golder, 1908) yet the best role for her lies under the institution of marriage.
Charles Howard Hopkins, "The Rise of the Social Gospel in American Protestantism 1865-1915" New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1940, p. 32.
Charles Howard Hopkins, "The Rise of the Social Gospel in American Protestantism 1865-1915" New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1940, p. 32.
Chatman, S.. "Discourse: Non-narrated stories. In S. Chatman (Ed.), Story and discourse: Narrative structure in fiction and film" (pp. 146-195). Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. 1978
Christian Golder, "History of the Deaconess Movement in the Christian Church" Cincinnati, OH: Jennings and Pye, 1908. pp. 527-528.
The naked use of executive power completely bypassed the DOJ clemency review process referenced above (Love, 2007, 5).
Has a president reached the apogee when he reaches into the judicial process itself (while it is motion no less) and run roughshod over the very clemency review process that is in place within his own DOJ? hile not a violation of the letter of the law, it certainly is not in the spirit of it. According to an article by Mary Colgate Love in the Federal Sentencing Reporter, she remarks that "while the Framers did not subscribe to a notion of pardon as
a species of high-level gift-giving...For them, pardon was a necessary and functional part of their carefully calibrated system of checks and balances...pardon was a necessary and functional part of their care-fully calibrated system of checks and balances...(ibid)." hat she further points out is a little remembered fact that…
Clemency. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.thefreedictionary.com/clemency .
Love, M.L. (2007). Reinventing the president's pardon power. Federal Sentencing Reporter, 20(1), 5-15.
The pocket constitution. (2010). Retrieved from http://www.usconstitution.net/consttop_pard.html .
Notable pardons: the clinton presidency. (2004). Retrieved from http://jurist.law.pitt.edu/pardons6.htm
Suppose I was asked to donate money to "Citizens for Better Schools," what would I need to find out about the group first? The first thing would be find out if they are a bona fide public charity -- a 501 C3 -- and if they were, I would examine their bylaws and mission statement. Secondly, I would locate board members and examine public statements they have made and projects they have injected themselves into. Something with a vague title like this one has could actually be a protest group trying to remove certain board members from the school board or they might be advocating to have the science textbooks changed so evolution isn't taught. I would also look through newspaper reports to find what the group has been advocating in its public pronouncements.
Should journalists have the right to protect their sources? The answer is yes. One example relates…
Department of Homeland Security. (2003). "Executive Order (EO-13284): Amendment of Executive Orders, and Other Actions, in Connection with the Establishment of the Department of Homeland Security." Retrieved March 11, 2012, from http://www.dhs.gov/xnews/releases/press_release_0072.shtm.
Executive Order 9066. "The President Authorizes Japanese Relocation." Retrieved March 12,
2012, from http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/5154 .
FindLaw. "Williams v. State of North Carolina, 317 U.S. 287 (1942)." Retrieved March 12,
political structure and philosophy of South Korea is a unique interplay of four major forces: first, and most obvious, the individual native customs and beliefs of the Korean people; second, Confusion notions and ideals; third, estern European and U.S. political models; and fourth, Marxist philosophy. The internal notions of governance have been greatly influenced by these three outside ideologies and come together to form the current South Korean form of government. To understand the modern South Korean government is to recognize it as a conglomeration of philosophies that appear on the surface to be contradictory, but arose out of several periods of economic and political strife.
The fifteenth century saw the rise of Neo-Confucianism in South Korea; this came out of a response to the established system of noble overlords. The new political movement sought to establish a government that addressed the issues of the citizenry rather than simply act…
1. "Korea, South." Infoplease.
Pearson Education, publishing as Infoplease.
14 Nov. 2004 .
2. Macdonald, Donald Stone. The Koreans: Contemporary Politics and Society. Boulder: Westview Press, 1996.
In 1863, President Abraham Lincoln delivered a brief but stirring speech while the country was in the process of tearing itself apart in a civil war. During that speech President Lincoln stated a phrase that has helped to capture what democracy means. Lincoln told the audience that had gathered to dedicate a soldier's cemetery that the government that had been formed "of the people, by the people, for the people" would not "perish from the earth." In that phrase, Lincoln summarized what the founding fathers had hoped to capture in documents that shaped the system of government they believed was essential for prosperity and happiness for all mankind. The fact that the United States has remained in existence for more than 200 years does not necessarily mean that the ideals Lincoln spoke of are in existence today. In fact, many would argue that the concepts Lincoln captured in his…
Hamilton, Alexander, "Federalist Paper 79," Independent Journal 18 Jun. 1788
Madison, James, "Federalist Paper 37," Daily Advertiser 11 Jan. 1788
Madison, James, "Federalist Paper 52," New York Packet 8 Feb. 1788
Most Americans know that former President Clinton just had his library dedication in Arkansas. He was a popular president and even the Monica Lewinski scandal was not enough to taint his legacy. Unfortunately, Richard Nixon's library does not seem to have the same prestigious following as Bill Clinton seems to have. Consider that just after Christmas of last year; the Nixon's Foundation and Library won an award that almost no American on the street knows anything about. I have to admit that before I saw the Dimitri Simes who is the current President of the Nixon Center in ashington, D.C., I never even considered that there was a Nixon Foundation. "The Nixon Center is the Nixon Foundation's programmatically independent public policy institute. It recently celebrated its 10th anniversary by acquiring The National Interest, a prestigious foreign policy journal, and by presenting its Distinguished Service Award to Mikhail Baryshnikov at…
C-Span. Interview with Simes, Dimitri. Nixon Center Chief On C-SPAN: Simes Enters Ring on Boxing Day. Washington, D.C. December 23, 2004.
Nixon, Richard M. RN: The Memoirs of Richard Nixon. New York: Touchstone, 1990.
Reeves, Richard. President Nixon: Alone in the White House. New York: Touchstone, 2001.
Today's President has many important duties, and while some have delegated some tasks to their vice presidents, they are ultimately still in charge of these tasks. As the country has evolved, so has the importance of the vice president, therefore making it comprehensible that the vice president may eventually officially assume some of the President's current duties.
Felzenbery, Alvin S. The Vice Presidency Grows Up. Policy Review. (2001): 01 February.
Outline of U.S. Government. (accessed 25 January, 2005). http://usinfo.state.gov/products/pubs/outusgov/ch3.htm).
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Felzenbery, Alvin S. The Vice Presidency Grows Up. Policy Review. (2001): 01 February.
Outline of U.S. Government. (accessed 25 January, 2005). http://usinfo.state.gov/products/pubs/outusgov/ch3.htm).
The Presidency. (accessed 25 January, 2005). http://ap.grolier.com/article?assetid=1003810-h&templatename=/article/article.html).
The President of the United States. (accessed 25 January, 2005). http://bensguide.gpo.gov/3-5/government/national/president.html ).
functional approach to the study of emotions, the current study by Larissa Z. Tiedens examines whether the expression of anger is related to the conference of social status. "Anger and Advancement vs. Sadness and Subjugation: The Effect of Negative Emotion Expressions on Social Status Conferral" incorporates the results of four separate research designs. Prior research in the area focuses on negative emotions for two main reasons: negative events encourage an active awareness of one's surroundings; and negative events may lead people to question the existing social hierarchies. The ways people deal with negative situations and the emotions they express in public largely determine their perceived competence and their social status. Past studies have also distinguished between different negative emotions as well as different ways of exercising power. There are two main ways of exercising power according to prior research: through coercion and intimidation or through legitimate and endorsed power. Power…
A long passage is quoted here by way of showing what all these various writers are concerned about: (Kane, 2003)May 2002 brought the odd spectacle of ex-President Jimmy Carter standing shoulder to shoulder in Havana with one of the U.S. government's oldest enemies, Cuban president Fidel Castro. Carter, on a mission to convey a message of friendship to the Cuban people and to seek some common ground between Cuba and the United States, made a point of meeting and encouraging local democratic, religious, and human rights activists. In a televised address, he endorsed the rights of dissidents and urged democracy on the island nation (Sullivan 2002). He also advocated an end to the U.S. embargo on Cuba (a call immediately echoed at home by 20 Democratic and 20 epublican representatives in Congress).
President George W. Bush's administration responded angrily to Carter's latest adventure as international arbiter. A senior state department…
Now he is to be punished fo his good deed: "...the said Quinbus Flestin, in open beach of the said law, unde colou of extinguishing the fie kindled in the apatment of his Majesty's most dea impeial consot, did maliciously, taitoously, and devilishly, by dischage of his uine, put out the said fie..." Aticle II stated "That, the said Quinbus Flestin having bought the impeial fleet of Blefuscu into the oyal pot and being aftewads commanded by his Impeial Majesty to seize all the othe ships...and educe that empie to a povince, to be govened by a vice-oy fom hence; and to destoy and put to death not only all the Big-Endian exiles, but likewise all the people of that empie, who would not immediately fosake the Big-Endian heesy: he... like a false taito against his most auspicious seene, Impeial Majesty, did petition to be excused...: In Aticle III he…
references to women throughout and nearly always they are negative. He refers to the misery of marriage, to women's vanity, selfishness, and greed. He mentions their idle, incessant chatter. The only woman in the book he likes is Glumdalclitch who is really a young girl about nine or ten years old. Swift makes fun of women but not at great length. This is understandable since it is a man's world he's criticizing.
In the fourth part of the book, Swift makes his most devastating criticisms of human beings. They are cast as lower animals in a place where horses are noble, moral, and rational. The uncivilized humans are called "Yahoos," an expression that endures today. Yahoos today are generally country people without city manners who speak in vernacular and wear overalls. The Yahoos in Gulliver's Travels are gross, violent, and stupid. By looking them, Swift points out that human beings are the only animals capable of deception. Other animals have no vices and are incapable of crime. Only human beings desire power and riches. Only human beings go to war with each other -- and over whether flesh be bread, or bread be flesh; whether the juice of a certain berry be blood or wine: whether whistling be a vice or a virtue; whether it be better to kiss a post, or throw it into the fire; what is the best color for a coat, whether black, white, red, or grey; and whether it should be long or short, narrow or wide, dirty or clean; with many mores" (p. 214).
Of war, he states a number of foolish causes, "Sometimes one prince quarrelleth with another for fear the other should quarrel with him (reminds one of George Bush and Saddam Hussein). Sometimes our neighbors want the things which we have, or have the things which we want, and we both fight until they take ours, or give us theirs" (p. 214). This leads to two pages of irony on war and the uncivilized use of weapons: "a soldier is held the most honourable of all others; because a soldier is a Yahoo hired to kill in cold blood as many of his own species, who have never offended him, as possibly he can" (p. 215).
Swift is especially hard on lawyers, judges, laws of precedence, and the trial system, which deals only with irrelevant facts. Legal language and jargon perverts and postpones justice.
He states his low opinion of lawyers succinctly: "...that in all points out of their own trade they were usually the most ignorant and stupid generation among us, the most despicable in common conversation, avowed enemies to all knowledge and learning..." On the use of money, he points out "That the rich man enjoyed the fruit of the poor man's labor...that the bulk of our people was forced to live miserably, by labouring every day for small wages, to make a few live plentifully."
The 16th Amendment was the first to be passed in the 20th century. It allowed incomes to be taxed as a clear response to the Supreme Court decision in the Pollock v Farmers' Loan and Trust Company (Fonder and Shaffrey 2002). Congress previously passed an income tax law in 1894, which the Supreme Court found to be unconstitutional, not being divided among the states by population. efore the 16th Amendment, the Constitution protected citizens in Article 1, Section 9, which provided that no capitation, or other direct tax chall be laid, unless in proportion to the census or enumeration. This protection was eliminated with the passage and ratification of the 16th Amendment, which gave Congress the power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, from whatever source derived, without apportionment among the States and without regard to census or enumeration. efore the 16th Amendment, taxation was based on consumption and…
Baker, J. (2000). United States (Government). MSN Encarta Online Encyclopedia: Microsoft Corporation. http://encarta.msn.com/text_1741500781_44/United_Sttes_(government
Collins, R.A. (1993). Gibbon, D., ed. The History of America. New York: CLB Publishing.
Fonder, M. And Shaffrey, M. (2002). American Government. Pearson Education Company
Francese, P. (2002). The Exotic Travel Boom - Leisure Travel Market Will Benefit from Aging American Population. American Demographics: Media Central, Inc. http://www.findarticles.com/articles/mi_m4021/is_2002_June_1/a_8867
His accomplishments included simplifying government jobs, and helping create the Democratic Party. He is most remembered as a great general and for defying Congress. Martin Van Buren served from 1837 to 1841. He was married to Hannah, and he died in 1862. His vice-president was ichard Johnson, and his nickname was the "Little Magician." His accomplishments included regulating banks and federal funds, and creating an independent treasury. He is most remembered for the Panic of 1837, and for being opposed to slavery. William Henry Harrison served in 1841 and died after only one month in office. He was married to Anna. His vice-president was John Tyler. He is most remembered for being the first president to die in office. John Tyler served from 1841 to 1845. He was married to Letitia and then Julia and he died in 1862. His nickname was "Old Tippecanoe." His accomplishments included annexing Texas and…
Editors. "Biographies." Vice-Presidents.com. 2006. 22. Sept. 2006. http://www.vicepresidents.com/Biography%202006.htm
Editors. "The Presidents of the United States." WhiteHouse.gov. 2006. 22 Sept. 2006. http://www.whitehouse.gov/history/presidents/index2.html
In this respect, it was not the reality which mattered but rather the perception of that reality. Most of the times during the Cold War, but especially after the fall of the Iron Curtain, the reality showed that the perception of the Russian Soviets as the strongest forces in the world was often not true. Still it motivated the U.S. To consider all sorts of side games to defeat the communist threat, which in fact was not as big as considered throughout the decades.
Diversionary war has its own motivation in terms of psychological impact on the population. People tend to view the international threat as being the ultimate point of reference for danger. The state in itself is the most trusted instrument for the insurance of security, and an international threat constitutes the questioning of this establishment. More precisely, it has been argued that "as the leader of one…
Baker, William D.. "The Dog That Won't Wag: Presidential Uses of Force and the Diversionary Theory of War" Strategic Insights, Volume III, Issue 5 (May 2004).
Clausewitz, Carl Von. On War.. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1984
Hendrickson, Ryan. "Clinton's Military strikes in 1998: diversionary uses of force?" In Armed Forcea & Society, vol. 28, no. 2. Winter 2002, pp 309-332.
James, Patrick and John R. Oneal, "The Influence of Domestic and International Politics on the President's Use of Force," Journal of Conflict Resolution 35 (1991): 307-332.
) (Stevenson, 1972). Certainly, in a world in which moral ambiguity is commonplace, a framework or reference for moral analysis is relevant and necessary -- particularly as we begin to include concepts from other societies.
Clearly, Sandel is more readable for the modern audience. Despite dealing with some very serious topics, he does so in a manner that is approachable for the lay reader. His greatest gift, though, is making the complex issues of philosophy (e.g. metaphysics, communitarianism, existentialism, etc.) relevant to issues that are current and impact our lives. For example, humans have debated the concept of right motives since before Aristotle. Aristotle's concept of justice and relationship to teleology, though, can be quite complex. Sandel uses the children's classic Winnie the Pooh to illustrate that it was justice to get the honey. Pooh had no realization that the bees might need or want the honey, or that other…
Sandel, C. (2010). Justice: What's the Right Thing to Do? New York: Farar, Straus and Giroux.
Stevenson, C. (1972). Ethics and Language. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
" (Rise of the Commons)
The 14th century was a time when the aristocracy (the Commons in particular) acted on account of their personal interests in addition to acting in accordance with the King's wishes. These individuals gradually started to consider that it was only natural for them to have a word in governing the country and that it was irrational for them to simply accept the King's decisions with regard to taxes. The Parliament thus emerged as a result of people's reluctance to follow the King's laws blindly. The aristocracy played an active role in reestablishing its influence in the country throughout the fourteenth century.
Edward III's last years were less impressive when considering his leadership abilities and the fact that he was largely inactive due to his age and sickness materialized in the masses becoming stronger. The people named Sir Peter de la Mare as a spokesman on…
Bond, Maurice, "The History of Parliament and the Evolution of Parliamentary Procedure," Retrieved July 7, 2013, from the Parliament Website: http://www.parliament.uk/documents/parliamentary-archives/evolution.pdf
Harper-Bill, Cristopher, and Vincent, Nicholas, "Henry II: New Interpretations," (Boydell Press, 2007)
Lord Irvine of Lairg, "The Spirit of Magna Carta Continues to Resonate in Modern Law," Retrieved July 7, 2013, from the Parliament of Australia Website: http://www.aph.gov.au/binaries/senate/pubs/pops/pop39/lairg.pdf
"Magna Carta and the Rule of Law 1215," Retrieved July 7, 2013, from the Moonogian-Demirdijian School Website: http://agbumds.edlioschool.com/ourpages/auto/2009/8/25/44063368/Magna%20Carta%20and%20the%20Rule%20of%20Law%201215.pdf
consult a minimum academically credible sources. Bibliographies citations Chicago Manual Style format. The subject: How account atergate scandal? hat significance?.
The atergate scandal is one of the most intriguing discussions in the history of the U.S. And it provided the whole world with the opportunity to see that corruption could reach unimaginable levels. President Richard Nixon's determination to win the 1972 presidential elections proved to be in disagreement with ethics and with the position that he wanted to keep. Nixon and his advisors practically chose the most effective way to gain an advantage over their opponents, despite the fact that such behaviors were clearly illegal. The atergate scandal was the materialization of Nixon's struggle to stay on top and this is why it had such an impact on the masses: people were unable to understand how a person chosen by the majority could be so corrupt.
The atergate scandal involved…
Anderson, Dale, "Watergate: Scandal in the White House," (Capstone, 01.07.2006)
Bernstein, Carl, and Woodward, Bob, "Bug Suspect Got Campaign Funds," Retrieved July 10, 2013, from the Washington Post Website: http://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/bug-suspect-got-campaign-funds/2012/06/06/gJQAyTjKJV_story.html
Stern, Sheldon, "Averting 'The Final Failure': John F. Kennedy and the Secret Cuban Missile Crisis Meetings," (Stanford University Press, 2003)
This study reviews Pat obertson's "Courting disaster: How the Supreme Court is usurping the power of Congress and the people." Pat obertson is the founder and chairperson of the Christian Broadcasting Network, founder of egent University, and The Center for Law and Justice. He and his wife have four children and thirteen grandchildren. They reside in Virginia Beach, Virginia. Using both legal and religious points-of-view, obertson attempts to prove that the current operation of the judicial system is dangerous to both the republican form of government and our individual freedoms. While seeking to strengthen his argument, the author has compiled fascinating facts, quotes, case decisions, and opinions of the Court (Mu-ller-Fahrenholz, 2007).
From this study, it is evident that obertson undertook a political expedition seeking to identify various issues that bedeviled the American society. However, he fails to provide solutions to the identified problems. This is an action…
Barrett, P., & Smolla, R.A. (2010). A year in the life of the Supreme Court. Durham [u.a.: Duke Univ. Press.
Edwards, L., & Meese, E. (2011). Bringing justice to the people: The story of the freedom-based public interest law movement. Washington, DC: Heritage Books.
Melashenko, E.L., & Smith, D.B. (2009). Rock-solid living in a run-amok world. Hagerstown, MD: Review and Herald Pub. Association.
Mu-ller-Fahrenholz, G. (2007). America's battle for God: A European Christian looks at civil religion. Grand Rapids, Mich. [u.a.: William B. Eerdmans Publ.
Federal and State Court Systems in George
The federal and state court system in the United States is tasked with providing timely adjudication of all cases within their jurisdiction. Each of the several states, including Georgia, is part of a larger federal system of district courts and courts of appeal, and their courts have their state-level counterparts, each of which is responsible for hearing cases of certain types. To determine which courts are responsible for what in the State of Georgia today, this paper provides a review of the relevant literature, followed by a summary of the research and important findings concerning the federal and state court systems in place in Georgia today in the conclusion.
eview and Analysis
The Federal Court Structure in the Southern District of Georgia
The U.S. Courts of Appeals for the Eleventh District for the Southern District form part of the overall adjudicative coverage of…
Black's law dictionary. (1990). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.
Federal Courts of Appeal. (2013). Georgia Institute of Technology. Retrieved from http://www.
Georgia Small Claims Court. (2013). Nolo. Retrieved from: http://www.nolo.com/legal-encyclopedia/georgia-small-claims-court-31687.html .
The Presidents accused of scandals in the history of American politics have been known to make memorable apology speeches. Even though, the speech that the Presidents made were done by different people and in different times, marked similarities and patterns have been noted. The Lewinsky scandal was basically a political sex scandal that occurred in 1999. This scandal came out because the President was accused of having a sexual relationship with an intern in the White House, Monica Lewinsky. The Watergate scandal occurred in 1970 because five men were caught at the Democratic National Committee and further investigations led to President Nixon being found guilty of committing fraud. Another fraud that highlighted a President as the causative agent was the Iran Arms and Contra Aid Controversy. This scandal occurred when President Reagan was in the administration and the officials in charge were accused of selling arms to Iran…