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Historical Art Periods
Words: 865 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15691143
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Impressionism vs. Post-Impressionism

Impressionism vs. Post

This paper will explore impressionism vs. post-impressionism including the influences of each on each other and society, and the effects of each other on the 19th century. The paper will ascertain how one period revived or continued the style and characteristics of the other, or how one period originated in reaction to the other. Impressionist paintings tended to focus less on detail and more on making impressions of form and figure, as the name implies. The brush strokes were less inclined to add detail and structure or order. Post-impressionists considered this trivial, and created artistic work that was decidedly more expressive according to some; more organized and structured, the Post-Impressionist movement could be best described as a response to the Impressionist movement. Some focused on methods including Pointillism, or the use of dots of color, whereas others used bright fresh colors used by Impressionists…


Brettell, R. 2000. Impression: Painting quickly in France, 1860-1890. New Haven and London: Yale

Denvir, B. 1990. The Thames and Hudson Encyclopaedia of Impressionism. London: Thames and Hudson.

Sweeny, J.J. 1996. Post-Impressionism. Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia, Microsoft Corp.

Tinterow, G. And Henri Loyrette. 1994. Origins of Impressionism. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art.

Nineteenth and Twentieth Century Art Movements
Words: 741 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 7129863
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Expressionism: This movement was launched in the early 20th century and it used exaggeration, alteration and "primitivism" ( Expressionism alludes to art works that "emphasize the extreme expressive properties of pictorial form," according to the Guggenheim Museum. Expressionism departed from the "appearance of reality" and promoted idealistic values that oppose the "constricting forces and repressive materialism of bourgeois society" (Guggenheim). The example used is "Paris Society" by Max Beckmann: given that this painting was finished on the eve of the Third Reich, all the people appear foreboding and depressed (perhaps for good reason); it's a black-tie party but people are exaggeratedly solemn. This could be a response to materialism as party-goers are supposed to be gay and enthusiastic.

Symbolism: This movement actually began as a literary concept, but came to be a part of the style of younger painters as well, who, like the writers, rejected "…the conventions of Naturalism"…

Works Cited

Guggenheim (2012). Movements > Symbolism. Retrieved March 21, 2014, from

Metropolitan Museum of Art. (2010). Impressionism: Art and Modernity. Retrieved March 21,

2014, from .

WebMuseum. (2009). Expressionism. Retrieved March 21, 2014, from .

Cleaving George Seurat's Work Is
Words: 1118 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 88572627
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This is an essential part of understanding Seurat -- the ways in which he sought a seamless blending between art and science. He saw no barriers to doing so because his own ways of working along with his understanding of how the world worked lead him to view the world through a sort of bifocals. He viewed everything through both art and science -- through both fact and metaphor.

But while this is an essential perspective on Seurat and his work, there are other lenses through which his work must be viewed and understood. Analyses of both Seurat and generally of Impressionism and Neo-Impression tend to write about their marriage of science and art were a foregone conclusion. As if embracing the scientific and the new were the most natural pathway for artists to take.

But French artists might well have gone the way of a number of their British…

Impressionist Era and Society in France
Words: 1755 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46380944
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Mary Cassatt and Impressionism

Mary Cassatt was an Impressionist and post-Impressionist painter covering individuals -- especially women and children -- at a time when their role in society at large was becoming more prominent and self-assured. Like herself on the world stage, Cassatt's female subjects demanded attention and investigation, and by looking at one of her works, The Boating Party, in more detail along with some critical information regarding Cassatt and Impressionism in general, it will be possible to see how her choice of subject and style reveal the changes occurring in French society at the end of the nineteenth century, especially as they relate to the representation and centrality of women.

Before considering The Boating Party in more detail, it is useful to begin with a brief examination of Mary Cassatt's earlier life and works as a means of placing this study in a historical and scholarly context and…

Works Cited

Cassatt, M. (1893-1894/2011). The boating party. National Gallery of Art. Retrieved from 

Lewis, R, & Lewis, S.I. (2009). The power of art. Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth.

Metropolitan Museum of Art. (1997). Mary cassatt. Retrieved from /explore/cassatt/html/index.html

National Endowment for the Humanities. 'The boating party'. Picturing America Artwork,

Paintings of the French Impressionists
Words: 1098 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37672402
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Monet used brushstrokes and many shades of vivid greens and pinks to portray the garden as if it were viewed through a mist.

In 1910, English writer oger Fry coined the phrase "post impressionism" as he organized an exhibition in London (Shone, 1979, p. 9). Just as the paintings of the impressionists caused a scandal in the art world some forty years earlier, the post impressionist work of artists such as Gaugin and Van Gogh "outraged all notions of what good painting should be" (Shone, p. 9).

The post-impression movement included, in addition to Gaugin and Van Gogh, artists such as Toulouse-Lautrec, Seurat, and the later work of Cezanne. Like the Impressionists, these artists used real-life subjects, portraying them with distinct brushstrokes, thick paint, and bright colors. Times were changing, and the post-Impressionists responded by modernizing what the Impressionists had done, imposing more form and structure to show greater depth…


Brettell, R.R. (1995). Modern French painting and the art museum. Art Bulletin 77 (2).

Retrieved from Academic Search Premier database.

Hill, I.B. (1980). Paintings of the western world: impressionism. New York: Galley Press.

Shone, R. (1979). The post-impressionists. New York: Galley Press.

Paintings and Gives Opinions About Which Ones
Words: 2421 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 97087339
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paintings and gives opinions about which ones are neo-classical and romantic, which ones use impressionism and how so. There were six sources used to complete this paper.

Throughout history art has been a universal language. The love or emotion that is elicited from a painting can happen regardless of the language the viewer speaks. Paintings do not require interpreters or language commonality. They speak to hearts and do so with a silent voice that draws emotion from those who view them. There are different styles of painting and different explanations of those styles. One can take several of the more well-known paintings and hold them against stylistic measure to determine how well they were followed and why those styles work for those particular works.


There are two paintings that are well-known and can be compared to determine the styles used and the efficiency of those styles. In Watteau's The…

Reality Is Relative Upon Viewing the Starry
Words: 1057 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 6148314
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Reality Is Relative

Upon viewing the Starry Night by Vincent van Gogh

and Isambard Kingdom Brunel and the Launching Chains of the Great Eastern by Robert Howlett it became apparent that Realism and Post Impressionism can become blurred and are not as distinct as one might initially believe. In fact, although one is a painting and the other a black and white photograph, the images, though completely different, have striking similarities.

he Starry Night is an oil on canvas painting with vivid colors and roiling gusts in the sky. hese energetic gusts appear large and volatile and ever changing. he stars too, appear large in the sky, as do the trees, in comparison to the village. he village is compartmentalized and smaller than the depictions of the elements of nature. hus, it is the background which begs attention and demands notice.

Isambard Kingdom brunel and the Launching Chains of the…

Thus, one can see that art is always subjective. The artist may use varying devices to try and convey exactly what he or she was thinking at the time. These devices may include color, texture, light, brushstrokes, and roughness to try and capture either an objective piece of reality or a subjective interpretation of the night from a sanitarium but, the end result is that no two people will see the same thing and interpret the meaning exactly the same regardless if it is categorized as Realism or Post Impressionism. ?

Gauguin and Degas Paul Gauguin
Words: 1945 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 53308288
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These pastel-colored etches influenced Degas' late-life paintings. Those were characterized by women frequently engaged in some type of grooming, such as bathing. Rather than the tightly-structured lines of his earlier works, these later works seemed more hurriedly-drawn and less meticulous than his early works.

For example, in oman Drying Her Hair, a pastel on paper, Degas depicts the back of a nude woman, drying her hair. Unlike many of his works, which overtly differentiate between women of different classes and different occupations, this image in the photo is very every-woman. The bather is classically female, but the painting holds no clues as to her lifestyle outside of the bath. Moreover, the work demonstrates Degas' unique use of light, as it contains unrealistic amounts of shadow, almost as if the bather is caste in an artificial light. Though Degas rejected much of what has come to be associated with Impressionism, his…

Works Cited

Degas, Edgar. Dancer at Rest, Hands Behind her Back, Right Leg Forward. Brooklyn Museum,

Brooklyn, NY, 1882-1895.

Degas, Edgar. Portrait of Mlle Fiocre in the Ballet "La Source." Brooklyn Museum, Brooklyn,

NY, 1867-1868.

U S A Germany and England Were
Words: 1290 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82222066
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Monet started his creative activity being young by making scratches and cartoons for a local frame-maker. He took classes of art from Eugene Budent, who taught him lessons of work on open air. Later he goes to Paris and enters the circle of Paris painters. Because he had no financial support he enters French army and after military service he continues painting with Pierre-Auguste enoir, Alfred Sisley, Edgar Degas, Gustave Caillebotte, Frederic Bazille who were experimenting and searching for a new style different from official canons of art.

Technique developed by Monet and other impressionists was unique and innovative. Monet realized that a painting which was made on the open air, has a unique freshness and liveliness, which is unable to be achieved when working in the workshop, where artist plans the painting beforehand. Monet advised artists to rebuild the impression of image perception substituting routine objects by some naive…


Hannoosh, M. Delacroix, E. 1995.Painting and the Journal of Eugene Delacroix. Princeton University Press

Jobert, B. 1998. Delacroix. Princeton University Press

Schapiro, M. 1997.Impressionism: Reflections and Perceptions. George Braziller

Forge, a. 1995.Monet Art Institute of Chicago (Artists in Focus).Harry N

Innovative Qualities of Impressionist and
Words: 555 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40571193
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The manner in which Cezanne abstractly modulated color in his paintings was seminal to the controversial cubist style. What is more, Pablo Picasso's Les Demoiselles d'Avignon simplified previous endeavors in terms of structure by employing a savage two-dimensional angularity, and as such was exponential for early modern art.

Modernist painting, in Clement Greenberg's words, "used art to call attention to art" (193) as opposed to ealism's alleged concealment of art. Formerly inferred drawbacks attached to the limits imposed by the medium of painting, such as the plain surface, the pigment's properties or the shape of the support, were brought to light in modernism and even considered positive elements (Greenberg 195). To list various embodiments of the modern newly found openness and embracing of factors that used to be regarded as glitch, Piet Mondrian's minimalist Composition in Yellow, ed, and Blue, Jack Pollock's abstract expressionist Autumn hythm, Mark othko's 1959 Lavender…


Greenberg, Clement. Modernist painting. Art and Literature Spring 1965: 193-201

History of Western Art Looking
Words: 1837 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54328299
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To illustrate these different views, he creates Starry Night over the Rhone. This shows the sense of anticipation that is occurring before the evening begins. As he is depicting, a quit outdoor cafe that is waiting for: the customers to begin arriving and the festivities to commence. To illustrate this sense of anticipation he uses different colors and lighter brush strokes. As there is: yellow, black, blue, tan and gray; to highlight the overall emotions that Van Gogh is feeling (when he reflects on his life in Paris). At the same time, the lighter brush strokes are used to show the changes of time that are taking place, by making the background somewhat blurry. This is important, because it is illustrating how the artist is trying to create that sense of realism and the passage of time, by showing their positive emotions about their past lives. ("Vincent Van Gough," 2011)…


Dance at Le Moulin de la Galette. (2011). Web Museum Paris. Retrieved from:  

Compare Vienna and Paris in the Decade 1900-1910
Words: 2497 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 75167778
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Vienna and Paris

in the Decade 1900-1910

Vienna and Paris in the Decade 1900-1910

Europe of 1900 -- 1910 saw the rise of several cultural meccas, including Vienna and Paris. Vienna was a center of literary, cultural and artistic advancement in "middle" Europe, enjoying booming population and innovative developments in all those spheres, even as it endured the rising tide of anti-liberal, anti-Semitic Christian Social forces. In keeping with this innovation, Vienna's music enjoyed avant garde developments of Art Nouveau from Paris, notably represented in Vienna by the works of composers Gustav Mahler and Arnold Schonberg. As Vienna became the literary, cultural and artistic center of "middle" Europe, Paris became the literary, cultural and artistic center of the orld. Drawing exceptionally gifted people from the entire globe, Paris boasted the first Olympics to include women and the orld's Fair of 1900. Reveling in its invention of Art Nouveau, Paris also…

Works Cited

Bloy, M. (2011, January 5). The third republic: 1870-1914. Retrieved from Web site: 

Bonyhady, T. (2011). Good living street: portrait of a patron family, Vienna 1900 . New York, NY: Pantheon Books.

Brandstatter, C. (2006). Vienna 1900: art, life & culture. New York, NY: Vendome Press.

George, H.S. (2008). Paris 1900. Oklahoma City, OK: Oklahoma City Museum of Art.

Art as a Political Statement
Words: 1399 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 72394390
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Art as Political tatement

It is almost impossible to completely separate art from the social and political context in which it originates. When considering art works from a variety of contexts and situations, it is clear that artist as often as not ignored and embraced politics as either inspiration for their work, or indeed treated it as a force to be shunned for its destruction of the creative spirit. Both acceptance and defiance of the political arena, it will be shown below, constitute a form of political statement in terms of art.


Expressionism began its evolution during the early part of the 20th century. This movement contrasted with impressionism in that it did not aim to reproduce, but rather to impose its views of objects in the world. When taken from a political context then, the political agenda is not always clear, as the artist is attempting to represent…


Andre Derain." 2004.

Hughes, Robert. "Henri Matisse." 2004. 

Pioch, Nicolas. "Expressionism." 2002.  

French Influence Upon Catalan Modernists
Words: 3751 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 83082708
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Symbolism first developed in poetry, where it spawned free verse. Forefathers included the poets Baudelaire, Verlaine, and Rimbaud; practitioners included Laforgue, Moreas, and Regnier. The Swiss artist Arnold Becklin is perhaps the most well-known Symbolist painter; his pictures are like allegories without keys, drenched in melancholy and mystery. Other artists working in this vein include Odilon Redon and Gustave Moreau. The Surrealists drew heavily on the Symbolists later on.

Catalan Artists

Catalan masters played a major role in the development of 20th Century modern art in many fields. For example, modernism expressed by Gaudi, Rusinol, Gimeno, Camarasa, Picasso, Nonell or Miro epitomized the efforts of the Catalan people. Still, most of them expressed their talents outside Spain in Paris where many of them lived and worked before going home to continue their expression. Like anyone honing a craft, they needed a foundation of knowledge for their art and Paris offered…

Works Cited

2000. Catalan Masters. Available at" Accessed on 9 January 2005.

2002. Notes on Picasso: Important Terms, People, and Events. Available at . Accessed January 2005.

Art Nouveau in Catalonia. Available at;. Accessed 9 January 2005.

Catalan Painting. Available at . Accessed January 2005.

Camille Pissarro the Little Country Maid
Words: 1093 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 82978916
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Country Maid

Art analysis: The Little Country Maid

The Little Country Maid is a painting by the French Impressionist artist Camille Pissarro. The painting has a seemingly humble subject, and depicts a fairly mundane image. However, in this image, the painter suggests a point-of-view of how the servant class was regarded at the time of the painting's construction in 1882. Servants like the young woman in the picture were regarded as functional items, much like brooms or sweeping pans, rather than as human beings. Pissarro, by using the maid as a subject, gives the woman a dignity that she might not be regarded with in real life, by making her the central subject of his painting.

The painting depicts a young maid sweeping the floor of a room. A small child sits to the right of the gazer. The room seems to be a breakfast room. The table is partially…


Brettell, Richard. Pissarro's People. Prestel, 2011.

"Groundbreaking perspective on Camille Pissarro opens at the Legion of Honor this fall."

Art Daily. December 12, 2011, 

"The Little Country Maid." Juggle References. December 12, 2011.

Art Compare Contrast Le Pin De
Words: 1026 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 56917947
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The perspective might seem extreme. In this sense, it is important to understand that Van Gogh was trying to break free from the limitations of the perspective frame which imposed realistic perspectives and proportions. Moreover, towards the end of his life, at the peak of his artistic maturity, he rebelled against the muted colors that Dutch painters were using at the time.

tylistically, the task of understanding Van Gogh's paintings cannot be undertaken without a proper look at what Post-Impressionism meant. Post-Impressionism took Impressionism to another level. However, Post-Impressionists continued to use vivid colors and real-life subject matter, as well as thick layering of paint. In addition, nonetheless, Post-Impressionists rejected the confines of Impressionism which upheld natural colors and traditional forms. From this point-of-view, Van Gogh along with other Post-Impressionists such as Cezanne, Gaugain and Bonnard, blurred the limitations of conventional form, and distorted it in order to increase the…


Neo-Impressionism." Accessed November 8, 2008. 

Paul Signac Biography." Paul Signac Online. Accessed November 8, 2008. 

Post-Impressionism." Art Movements. Accessed November 8, 2008. 

Vincent Van Gogh Paintings." Vincent Van Gogh Gallery. Accessed November 8, 2008. /

Art Period France Has Been
Words: 1174 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 14189196
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The figures of people, carriages, etc. are "washed-out," they are as small as ants are. The method of reflecting motion and dynamics of routine life by "washed-out effect" was borrowed "from a new invention of photography" (Schapiro 81). Photographic cameras of that epoch were not sensitive for picturing motion, so all objects in motion were "washed-out."

Some impressionists, for example Edgar Degas (1834-1917), were influenced by ethnic painting techniques such as Chinese and Japanese graphics, characterized by striking representation of shape and figures. Degas continued Monet's experiments with light and reflection of motion. Many of his paintings were influenced by other methods similar to photography: uncommon visual angles and asymmetric perspectives, which can be observed in such paintings as a Carriage at the aces (1872), Ballet ehearsal (1876) characterized by unusual visual solution and geometric interpretation.

Auguste enoir (1841-19191), father of Impressionism, became famous for his mass portraits. enoir's Impressionism…


Sayre, Henry M.A world of art Prentice Hall; 4 thedition 2004

Schapiro, M. 1997.Impressionism: Reflections and Perceptions. George Braziller

The Impressionists, Article from web resource: 

Pool, Phoebe Complete Paintings of Monet. New York: Abrams,1967

Paintings Colors and Self-Portrait Introduction
Words: 14235 Length: 50 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 62048188
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Pissarro took a special interest in his attempts at painting, emphasizing that he should 'look for the nature that suits your temperament', and in 1876 Gauguin had a landscape in the style of Pissarro accepted at the Salon. In the meantime Pissarro had introduced him to Cezanne, for whose works he conceived a great respect-so much so that the older man began to fear that he would steal his 'sensations'. All three worked together for some time at Pontoise, where Pissarro and Gauguin drew pencil sketches of each other (Cabinet des Dessins, Louvre).

Gauguin settled for a while in ouen, painting every day after the bank he worked at closed.

Ultimately, he returned to Paris, painting in Pont-Aven, a well-known resort for artists.

X...for pic

Le Christ Jaune (the Yellow Christ) (Pioch, 2002) Still Life with Three Puppies 1888 (Pioch, 2002)

In "Sunny side down; Van Gogh and Gauguin," Martin…


Bailey, Martin. (2008). Dating the raindrops: Martin Bailey reviews the final volumes in the catalogues of the two most important collections of Van Gogh's drawings. Apollo Magazine Ltd. Retrieved February 26, 2009 from HighBeam Research: 

Martin. (2005) "Van Gogh the fakes debate. Apollo Magazine Ltd. Retrieved February 26, 2009 from HighBeam Research: . Bell, Judith. (1998). Vincent treasure trove; the van Gogh Museum's van Goghs. Vincent van Gogh's works from the original collection of his brother Theo. World and I. News World Communications, Inc. Retrieved February 26, 2009 from HighBeam Research:

Art From Realism Through the Postmodern Era
Words: 2125 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 42276737
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Color Me Three

The use of color by artists depends on both personal predilections as well as environmental and social circumstances. This paper will use the works from three well-known artists to illustrate the assumption that the use of color and the style of each artist is combination of these various factors. An important issue that will be dealt with is the artistic climate and the predominant view on art and art theory at the time. Another important aspect is the artist's personal creative aims and views as they relate to color and art in general.

The use of color is part of the artist's creative process and forms an important part of the works of the following three artists: Claude Monet, Pierre onnard and Paul Signac. Specific woks by these artists will be referred to in this discussion.

Color, while not the only element that constitutes their works is…


Beetem R.. Discover Master Artist Pierre Bonnard at the Denver Art Museum March 1 - May 25, 2003. Accessed June 1, 2005.

Blanshard, F.B. (1949). Retreat from Likeness in the Theory of Painting. New York: Columbia University Press.

BONNARD Pierre. June 2, 2005.

Arists Six Major Artists of
Words: 1025 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 98067319
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He began with very fuzzy looking works of light and sun, then began to paint more sharply drawn works, especially of women. His earliest works have urban subjects. They are typical "Impressionist snapshots of real life, full of sparkling colour and light," but by "the mid-1880s," Renior "had broken with the movement to apply a more disciplined, formal technique to portraits and figure paintings, particularly of women" such as his "Bathers," painted slowly over the course of the years of 1884-87. (Picoch, 2002)

Edgar Degas -- representing movement and the working class

Of all the Impressionists, Edgar Degas is acknowledged as the master of drawing the human figure in motion. Degas worked in many mediums, preferring pastels to oils. He is perhaps best known for his paintings, drawings, and bronzes of ballerinas and of race horses. Movement's ability to engage in the expressive aims of impressionism is what is important.…

Works Cited

Burns, Sarah. "Cassatt, Mary." World Book Online Reference Center. 2005. World Book, Inc. .[12 Aug 2005]

'Camille Pissarro." Encyclopedia Britannica. 1994. Web Museum Paris.  

Renoir Mixed Flowers in an
Words: 831 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Data Analysis Chapter Paper #: 86556247
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Everything influences its surroundings, and is influenced by them. In short, it all shimmers together in the light, glowing softly from within and without. It was Renoir's challenge to freeze the changing light and varying tones in pigment, an altogether bold step toward observing ordinary things under certain spell.

his pair, Monet and Renoir, continued to work together and learn from one another, painting popular river resorts and views of a bustling Paris from outdoors. While Monet attended to the changing patterns of nature, Renoir soon sought out friends and lovers as new subjects in a whole new style of portraiture. More than any of the Impressionists, he was entranced by Paris. He managed to avoid the copyist treatment of what he saw but focused instead upon appearance, allowing the viewer to respond with immediate pleasure. "Pleasure" may be described as Renoir's artistic goal, a far cry from Realism's toiling…

The Impressionists considered themselves realists because they remained true to their senses, even though they disregarded many of the traditional techniques for representing whatever was "out there." They had no use for the "exact" reproduction of an object for its own sake, and decried any demands that they capture "objective" reality. The importance of rendering objects declined, while attempts to represent the subjective grew. Through Impressionism, the definition of realism was transformed into subjective realism, and the ultimate subjectivity of modem art was born.

Impressionism is classified as a movement of Fine Arts, but it also influenced other forms of artistic expression, as literature and music also evolved under this movement. Under the influence of Impressionism, recreation of objective reality was frowned upon and replaced by the response of a piece to actual experience. The Fine Arts School found this theory more suitable for blurred and often vague objects; through a flurry of short strokes of pure and bright colors. Sculpture also soon reflected this style with partially modeled volumes, and roughened surfaces to create uneven displays of light.

Claude Monet (1840-1926) and his early work "Impression: Sunrise" is identified as the source of the name for the new vivid hues and fluent brush strokes, while Edouard Manet (1832-1883), Camille Pissaro (1830-1903), Edgar Degas (1834-1917) and Auguste Renoir (1841-1919) followed with their own unforgettable Impressions. The world of man-created images was never the same!

Naret Applying Feldman's Method of
Words: 837 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 73435447
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hile not an example of Pop Art, the intense use of color and the pastiche of subject matter (although a pastiche of 'high art' rather than popular culture like arhol) demonstrates the contemporary nature of the work.

Like the earliest estern artists discussed in Gardner's Art Through the Ages, Naret pays visual homage to the subject of the art 'masters' that have come before him and adopts their subject matter (flowers, simple furniture) to his own style. His biography states he is inspired by the landscapes of his own region of Mexico. This stress upon personal interest in the landscape is Impressionistic, and highlights the difference in purpose between early estern and past estern art. Before the 19th century, art was functional in decoration and worship, and it transmitted the messages of political or ecclesiastical authority. The purpose of art was not to communicate the art's own soul or personal…

Works Cited

Art Criticism: Final Exam." Princeton Online: 25 Jun 

Kleiner, Fred S. & Christian J. Mamiya. Gardner's Art Through the Ages: Volume 1. 12th

Ed. Wadsworth Publishing, 2004.

Van Gogh in Search of
Words: 6470 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 18823907
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On the contrary, if I had been able to be a clergyman or an art dealer, then perhaps I should not have been fit for drawing and painting, and I should neither have resigned nor accepted my dismissal as such. I cannot stop drawing because I really have a draughtsman's fist, and I ask you, have I ever doubted or hesitated or wavered since the day I began to draw? (Van Gogh, Letter to Theo, April 1882).

That he was a talented artist was undeniable. Yet, art was no substitute for religion, and, further still, art was no direct avenue to sanctifying grace. Van Gogh's increasing sense of alienation and feeling of despair would continue unabated -- evidenced by he and his brother Theo's inability to live together for long; the inability of his dream of an artists' collective (the artistic equivalent of a kind of monastic community) to come…

Reference List

Fritillaries. (2006). Musee d'Orsay. Retrieved from http://www.musee-[pidLi]=509&tx_commentaire_pi1[from]=841&cHash=4a0a47f91d

Garrigou-Lagrange, R. (1938). The Three Ways of the Spiritual Life. London: Burns

and Oates.

Art Memo We Are a Company at
Words: 948 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86925928
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Art Memo

We are a company at the head of the fashion industry. Our image is crucial to our success. The appearance, the environment, the overall decor, and the ambiance of our office space is what sends the first messages to our clients. If we expect consumers to value their appearance, then it is up to us to be role models for fashion sense and sensibility.

Therefore, I propose the installation of six major works of art in our corporate office space. Each of these six works of art is carefully selected because it reflects the vibe and mission of our company. The colors, the tone, and the style of the artwork matches our corporate vision. In this memorandum, I will list and describe the six works of art, telling you why these pieces reflect our image.

Camille Pissarro's "Apple Tree at Eragny"

This richly textured painting conveys a sense…


The Metropolitan Museum of Art (2011). Impressionism: Art and Modernity. Retrieved online: /toah/hd/imml/hd_imml.htm

Pioch, N. (2006). Impressionism. Retrieved online:  

Camille Pissaro Camille Pissarro Was Born in
Words: 1918 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 43033770
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Camille Pissaro

Camille Pissarro was born in St. Thomas in Virgin Islands. A famous Fresh impressionist, Pissarro was taught and influenced by Barbizon and Corot School. ("Pissarro, Camille," 2012) It wasn't until later that Pissarro linked himself with the other impressionists and thus was portrayed in all the impressionist exhibitions. The era of the eight impressionists lasted from 1874 till 1886. From 1885 till 1890, Pissarro led a Neo-impressionist phase. Along with sharing and trying out different forms of art, Pissarro didn't back away from being an amazing teacher. He taught art to artists like Van Gogh, Cezanne and Gaugin.

The first school that Pissarro attended was at Passy near Paris during 1842 till 1847. It was his time during this school that Pissarro developed interest in drawing and going to museums. None of his parents had a link or interest in art as they were both merchants. It was…


(2007). Technique, style and method of Camille Pissarro. Retrieved from: . Accessed November 23, 2012.

(2012) Pissarro, Camille. The Columbia Encyclopedia (6th ed).The Columbia University Press

Clement, R.T., & Houze, A. (1999) Neo-Impressionist Painters: A Sourcebook on Georges Seurat, Camille Pissarro, Paul Signac, Theo Van Rysselberghe, Henri Edmond Cross, Charles Angrand, Maximilien Luce, and Albert Dubois-Pillet. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press

DeLue, R.Z. (1998) Pissarro, Landscape, Vision and Tradition. The Art Bulletin, 80 (4).

MANET's Paris Edouard MANET's Paris
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And yet, it is also important to understand that not everyone criticized Manet, for it was also Dejeuner which set the stage for the advent of Impressionism.

Indeed, Manet emerged as something of an enfant terrible in the Parisian art scene of this era. In the same year, he would also produce Olympia, another painting featuring a female nude that would become the centre of much controversy. Olympia caused a major uproar when it was first exhibited in 1865 at the Salon in Paris. Despite the fact that it calls to mind the classical images of Giorgione (Venus Sleeping), Titian (Venus of Urbino), and Ingres (Odalisque with a Slave), the public was outraged by Manet's depiction of a common prostitute laying nude on a bed. A black female servant stares at her as she fixes the Madame's bed, while a black cat stands on edge at the end of the…


Hughes, R. 1990, Nothing if Not Critical: Selected Essays on Art and Artists, Penguin

Books, New York.

JSS Gallery 2005, Edouard Manet's Olympia, Available at

Kapos, M. 1995, the Impressionists and Their Legacy, Barnes & Noble Books

Post Modern Art When Analyzed
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The preoccupation for light effects is present in this painting as well, portrayed by the many lights and reflections seen on the great mirror behind the girl; objects that accentuate her presence by drawing the eye towards her, instead of stealing the attention of the viewer.

The image reflected on the mirror transforms the scene into a more dynamic one by the tacit introduction of more characters: the girl, that is seen from the back, and the gentleman, that is not overtly present in the picture, but plays a part as well, as his presence is suggested in the corner of the image, giving the sensation of a continuing crowd outside of the painting. Although this work represents one single character standing alone against the background, the impression of crowded space is skillfully given by the artist's combination of the elements.

Although Ballet ehearsal belongs to another artist the same…


Monan, Berence. (2006). Impressionism. Berlin: Broschiert Sprache.

Muller, Joseph-Emile. (1974). Impressionism. New York: Leon Amiel Publishers.

Pool, Phoebe. (1967). Impressionism in Europe. New York: Thames & Hudson.

Tinterow, Gary. (1994). Impressionism: Styles, Manner and Genres. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Modern Art.

Music Art and Literature
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Music, Art, Literature Trends

From impressionism to pop art, jazz to hip hop, science fiction to beat poetry, artistic, musical, and literary expressions have varied considerably between 1870 and 2005. The period between the end of the nineteenth century to the current day can be generally described as the modern and postmodern eras. The beginning of the modern era, during the final decades of the nineteenth century, coincided with the Industrial evolution. Along with fascination with modern technology and optimism for the future came simultaneous disillusionment. However, modern technological advancements have made such widespread creativity possible. Social and political trends have also influenced creative endeavors, and vice-versa. Art, music, and literature are more accessible and more possible to create than they ever were in the past. The modern era has been characterized by an overall flourishing of the expressive arts, but some trends have a more lasting significance than others.…

Rock music became more than just a musical trend; it also characterized the rise of the teenage culture, symbolized rebellion, and influenced political and social attitudes. Furthermore, rock and roll remains a viable creative endeavor today, and is also internationally popular, which is why the trend is so important. Beyond rock and roll, electronic music and hip hop are recent significant musical trends. Electronic music has been around for decades, and reached a peak with the advent of the rave. Electronic music remains a vital force in the industry, and has also impacted the development of hip hop. Hip-hop is yet another musical trend that coincides with social and race-related realities in the United States. The genre is so important because it represents American urban culture.

Among the literary trends between 1870 and the present day, the most significant ones include post-colonialism, science fiction, beat poetry, and horror. Post-colonial literature such as the works of Joseph Conrad brought awareness to the problems associated with the colonialist mentality. Post-colonial fiction put a human face on the very real political, social, and economic issues of the modern world. Realism was a major literary method used by post-colonial authors, who depicted their worlds with stunning detail. With the modern fascination with technological advancements, science fiction became a highly significant literary trend to emerge during the twentieth century. Science fiction originated in the early twentieth century when Orson Welles' reading of H.G. Wells' novel the War of the Worlds shocked the nation into believing that aliens had indeed attacked the United States. Science fiction literature strongly influenced television and film, too, and is responsible for the popularity of both Star Trek and Star Wars. Related to but different from science fiction, fantasy writing also emerged during this time and gave rise to the writings of J.R.R. Tolkein, whose works recently spawned motion pictures.

Another significant literary trend to emerge during the middle of the twentieth century was beat poetry and beat literature. Beat poetry was completely free verse and free form, in sharp contrast to earlier, more structured forms. Moreover, beat poetry was far more abstract than previous works. Just as modern art was becoming more abstract and expressionist, so too was literature. Another key literary trend to emerge during the past century was horror fiction. While horror derives from earlier Gothic literature as well as from science fiction, the horror genre has had a huge impact on modern literary expression. Authors like Stephen King have become immensely famous by making people afraid, and his works as well as the works of countless other horror writers have impacted the plots and themes of films and television shows.

Orient West Minoan and Romantic Movements Describe
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Orient West

Minoan and omantic movements

Describe the earlier historical art period, characteristics of the style, and social conditions that may have contributed to the advent of this style.

Within the history of the Ancients, the story of Classical Greek art and architecture is prefaced by the earliest epoch of the seafaring Cretan civilization, Minos. The Palace of King Minosis is a magical structure reflective of this early world of classical lyricism. It is in fact, Homer's reference to the island, and its legendary king, in Book XIX of the Odyssey, that has informed us of Aegean cultures, and our fascination with all things Minoan. The central locus of exchange for communique with other civilizations of antiquity such as the nearby lands of Pharonic Ancient Egypt, the Palace of King Minos is our greatest resource for inquiry into the roots of ancient classical civilization.

obust in economy and in cultural…


Art. Grove Art Online. Oxford Art Online. Retrieved from:  de la Croix, H. And Tansey, R.G. (1980). Gardner's: Art Through the Ages. New York: Harcourt and Brace.

Vaughan, W. (2010). Romanticism. Grove Art Online. Oxford Art Online. Retrieved from:

Debussy Schoenberg Stravinsky an Analysis
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Schoenberg developed a kind of experimental method of music composition that was completely relativistic: the free use of 12 tones, in which the relationships are merely one-on-one and not related to a whole (in the traditional sense), mirrored the philosophical modern worldview of the times. This method was meant by Schoenberg to follow in the Germanic tradition of greatness. However, his break from traditional methods of composition (and even from revolutionary methods, such as Wagner's), served to effect a kind of musical equivalent to the future architectural methods of Breuer, who was renowned for Brutalism.

Stravinsky, like the other two, was an innovator who played with rhythm and harmony in an effort to devise an original style. Stravinsky would add or take away notes from a motif without addressing the ways in which this would affect meter. There was a spontaneity to Stravinsky's work, like the revolutionary Rite of Spring,…

Expressionism -- Van Gogh's Starry
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By pointing straight up, it is emulating the church steeple, pointing perhaps to God, and Creator that has brought the stars and the moon and the clouds and the land to the people so they could build a village. In the village the lights are on in many of the houses, or are those bright windows merely reflecting the starry splendor from above?

In conclusion, Van Gogh's painting "Starry Night" received a great deal of exposure when Don McLean sang the song in 1970. Many listeners likely did not know at first the song was about Vincent Van Gogh, but a careful review of the lyrics clearly indicates that the song was an ode to the great expressionist. The painting will endure long after the song though. It will endure as long as humankind is still on the planet. And the planet is better for the fact that artists like…

Works Cited

Bahr, Herman. "Expressionism" From Art in Theory 1900-1990: An Anthology of Changing

Ideas. Eds. Charles Harrison and Paul Wood. Malden, MA: Blackwell, 1992.

Hulsker, Jan. The Complete Van Gogh: Paintings, Drawings, Sketches. New York: Random

House. 1986.

Artwork Piece at a Museum One of
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Artwork Piece at a Museum

One of the most impressive pieces showed in the Denver Art Museum is a painting by Claude Monet entitled "Le Bassin des Nympheas," made in 1904. "Among the museum's regular holdings are John DeAndrea's sexy, soothing, life-size polyvinyl painting "Linda" (1983), Claude Monet's dreamy flowerscape "Le Bassin des Nympheas" (1904), and Charles Deas' red-cowboy-on-horseback "Long Jakes, The Rocky Mountain Man "(1844)." This inclusion among the top three most requested pieces of the museum testifies to its grace and technical beauty, things that make it such a memorable painting.

Monet was part of a group of painters who rejected the "approved" way of painting of the day in their search for something else. "The Impressionists found that they could capture the momentary and transient effects of sunlight by painting " en plein air." They used short, "broken" brush strokes of pure and unmixed colour, not smoothly…


Author not available, "Monet, the Seine and Normandy," "Vernon, Giverny... passionately" Copyright 2005, May 2005, retrieved July 28th, 2006

Author not available, "MONET, CLAUDE," The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition 2006, Copyright 2006 Columbia University Press, retrieved July 28th, 2006 

Author not available, "Impressionism," Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia, July 27, 2006. Retrieved: July 28th, 2006.

Applying a Reading on a Piece of
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Applying a Reading on a Piece of Art

Response: The Night Cafe, Vincent Van Gough

"Two influences work on us, an outer one and one from within us" (Bahr 117). This idea that Expressionism in art is a depiction of the artist's inner reality as much as an exterior reality is manifest even in the post-Impressionist work of Vincent Van Gough entitled The Night Cafe. The swirls of color portraying the hazy lighting and the indistinct features of the cafe's inhabitants create the impression of being in a smoky, dingy bar and also suggest the dissolute lives of the drinkers and pool players. But the portrait is not merely of light and shade -- the circles around the lights, for example, seem like a fantastic creation of the artist, as is the slightly drunken swaying of the lines that show the cafe. The artist's attitude about the cafe is ambiguous.…

Max Ernst
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Described as "one of the leading surrealists" by the world renowned Tate gallery in London, which houses much of his work, Max Ernst remains one of the world's most important and influential artists. He and his colleagues founded one of modern art's earliest but most significant movements called Dada, which was a reaction against formal traditions in art and a celebration of avant-garde creativity.

Ernst is perhaps best known for his legacy of paintings, but Ernst also created a vast body of sculpture and prints, and also wrote surrealist books. Max Ernst is important not only because of his prowess on the canvas, but also because his work reflects the modern psyche, disturbed by human mental and spiritual evolution and curious about what motivates and drives people. Sexuality, death, and desire are common themes in the work of Ernst and his fellow surrealists.

Ernst worked during a time in…

Works Cited

Alley, Ronald. Catalogue of the Tate Gallery's Collection of Modern Art other than Works by British Artists, Tate Gallery and Sotheby Parke-Bernet, London 1981, p.204

Ernst, Max. A Week of Kindness or the Seven Deadly Elements.

Hopkins, David. "The Robing of the Bride: Max Ernst's Response to Duchamp." Chapter 3 in Marcel Duchamp and Max Ernst: The Bride Shared. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998.

The Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation (SRGF). Max Ernst. Retrieved online:

Art La Berceuse Woman Rocking Cradle Augustine-Alix
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La Berceuse (Woman Rocking

Cradle) (Augustine-Alix

Pellicot Roulin, 1851-1930), 1889.

incent van Gogh

Dutch, 1853-1890). Oil on canvas. The Walter H. And Leonore Annenberg Collection,

Partial Gift of Walter H. And Leonore Annenberg, 1996

The world of art is diverse and rich coming together for appreciation overcoming all cultural barriers. The story of an Gogh and his astounding genius while creating canvases has captivated the interest and attention of millions around the world. Even when people cannot afford art they appreciated the creativity and charm that each of his pictures brings forth. Each of his strokes has a life of its own and the lifelike creation gives an illusion of perfection that is hard to imitate.

The Metropolitan Museum boasts one of his best creative efforts done late in his artistic life. ery near the time of his breakdown at Arles.

La Berceuse or a Woman Rocking a Cradle…

Van Gogh, V. 1958. The complete letters of Vincent van Gogh. Vol.

3. London: Thames and Hudson.

Fry, R. 1998. Cezanne. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Comparison of Expressionism and Fauvism
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Expressionism and Fauvism

Expressionism, which originated in Germany and Fauvism, which originated in France were fueled by artist's need for self-expression. These artistic movements make significant use of color, which is an important tool. However, German Expressionism and French Fauvism used this single tool in new and exciting means. Their use of the tool of color sometimes intersects though mostly different or diverging. Due to their divergence in the use of color, German Expressionism and French Fauvism end up in varying places. Fauvism and Expressionism are some of the first artistic movements that marked the commencement of modern art in 1900 and dominated visual art for nearly half a century. Generally, these artistic movements are associated with several similarities though they have significant differences that enable viewers to distinguish them.

One of the main differences between these two movements is that Fauvism emerged from negative criticism whereas Expressionism emerged from…

Works Cited


Dickinson University. Fairleigh Dickinson University, n.d. Web. 25 Mar. 2016. .

"Comparing German Expressionism and Fauvism." Yak Max. Yak Max, 25 June 2014. Web. 25

Mar. 2016. .

Analyzing Modern and Contemporary Style Guide
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fresh and contemporary style. And it ended up coming exactly that way. The piece has a female figure as the centre piece. The intention was to create an impression of a woman, who, although was faced with many problems, dreamt of a better future. The stresses or problems are portrayed through red colors above the woman's figure and some indications to show heat rising in the background. Then below the figure there is a shade of blue to show that she is in a dream state. However, she is never totally peaceful or stressed; she is in a kind of a limbo, which is depicted by the shade of black in the middle segment of the figure. The dream state is emphasized by the use of bright colors around the figure and drawing the figure itself in dark and dull colors. I attempted to bring about some movement in the…


Brett, D. (2015, August 2). Pierre Puvis de Chavannes, Young Girls on the Edge of the Sea. Retrieved from Art of the Day: 

Galbreat, D. (2014, July 26). Style Guide. Retrieved March 12, 2016, from Prezi: 

Kumskova, M. (2013, March). Paul Gauguin: Vision after the Sermon. 1888. Analysis. Retrieved from Marina's Blog: 

Matthew, B. (1977, September 1). The Origin of Paul Gauguin's Vision After the Sermon: Jacob Wrestling with the Angel (1888). Art Bulletin, 59(3), p. 415.

La Grenouillere & Wheat Field
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Perhaps one of the best description of the painting is made by the painter himself in a letter to his brother: "I have a canvas of cypresses with some ears of wheat, some poppies, a blue sky like a piece of Scotch plaid; the former painted with a thick impasto . . . And the wheat field in the sun, which represents the extreme heat, very thick too."

With Monet, La Grenouillere seems a simple artistic exercise, an expression of his creative style in a purely rational manner. The combination between a realistic expression of the external environment and his capacity to innovate comes naturally in this case: there are people on a boat on the water, with trees surrounding them and the sky above them. The people are barely sketched, but this is in no way an expression of mental disorder, because it fits wonderfully in the work and…


1. Callow, Philip. Vincent van Gogh: A Life, Ivan R. Dee, 1990

2. Beaujean, Dieter. Vincent van Gogh: Life and Work. Konemann, 1999

3. Bernier, Roland. Monument, Moment, and Memory: Monet's Cathedral in Fin De Siecle France. Bucknell University Press. 2007.

4. Charles Merrill Mount. Monet a biography. Simon and Schuster. 1966

Edouard Manet Was Born on
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She looks whimsically at the audience as if she knows they are watching her, while the two men with her carry on an animated conversation. In the background, Manet includes another woman, bent over as if gathering mushrooms from the forest floor clad only in a shift.

This painting is very similar in style to the "Music in the Tuileries." Like that painting, Manet does not use really bright colors; instead, they are muted and often dark. He also uses the technique of outlining the characters, which makes them stand out from the forest background, and almost makes them seem to jump off the canvas and away from the background. Another critic notes, "Two hallmarks of Manet's work are the use of frontal lighting and the varying treatment of different figures and elements in the foreground and background -- some precise, some almost sloppily painted" ("Manet's Snapshots"). This painting illustrates…


Armstrong, Carol. Manet Manette. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2002.

Bataille, Georges. Manet. Trans. Austryn Wainhouse and James Emmons. New York: Albert Skira, 1955.

Editors. "Music in the Tuileries Gardens." National Gallery. 2008. 23 May 2008.

Galligan, Gregory. "The Self Pictured: Manet, the Mirror, and the Occupation of Realist Painting." The Art Bulletin 80.1 (1998): 138+.

Women Are Portrayed in Late
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It would seem that the artists and the press of the era both recognized a hot commodity when they saw one, and in this pre-Internet/Cable/Hustler era, beautiful women portrayed in a lascivious fashion would naturally appeal to the prurient interests of the men of the day who might well have been personally fed up with the Victorian morals that controlled and dominated their lives otherwise. In this regard, Pyne (2006) reports that, "hen scandalized critics attacked Rodin's nudes, Camera ork defended the drawings by a strategy of veiling the body with the soul, praising them as 'the perception of the mystery of surfaces.... The adventure of the mind in matter... The divinizing of the sensual and the materializing of the sensuous.' Stieglitz thus used a histlerian gloss of shadows and music to mystify the eroticism of Rodin's 'pagan' figures" (44).

The portrayal of women was even regarded as a…

Works Cited

Banta, Martha. Imaging American Women: Idea and Ideals in Cultural History. New York: Columbia University Press, 1987.

Clements, Candace. (1992) "The Academy and the Other: Les Graces and Le Genre Galant." Eighteenth-Century Studies 25(4):469-94 in Lathers at 23.

Danto, Arthur C. (1986, December 13). "John Singer Sargent." The Nation 243:679.

Downes, William Howe. John S. Sargent: His Life and Work. Boston: Little, Brown, 1925.

Life With Apples Ca 1893-94 The Original
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Life with Apples," ca. 1893-94. The original work is an oil on canvas, hung in the J. Paul Getty Museum in California. Cezanne painted many still lifes, and many with apples, but this is one of his most interesting and detailed looks at common, everyday objects.

Paul Cezanne was born in 1839 in Aix-en-Provence, a small town about fifteen miles north of Marseilles. His family was prosperous, and the boy was well educated. He first studied law, but also began to take lessons at the Drawing Academy of Aix, and found he enjoyed art much more than the law. By 1861, his father allowed him to go to Paris to continue his art studies, and his career as an artist was born. Even his art teacher did not encourage his interest in supporting himself as an artist. He returned for a time to his hometown to work in his father's…


Cezanne, Paul. "Still Life with Apples. J. Paul Getty Museum. 2005. 15 Oct. 2005.


Eitner, Lorenz. An Outline of 19th Century European Painting: From David through Cezanne. 1st ed. New York: Westview Press, 1992.

Schapiro, Meyer. Paul Cezanne. 2nd ed. New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1962.

Kimball Art Museum in Fort
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The Asian art section is so vast it is impossible to view the entire collection in one visit, and that holds for the European collection, too. There are many famous European artists represented, from the childlike, crayon-colored Edvard Munch work "Girls on a Bridge" to the dark, brooding portrait "Bust of a Jew" by embrandt. There are many impressionist works in the collection, including Camille Pissarro's pastoral "Near Sydenham Hill." This dreamy work has a calming effect on the viewer, and represents a bucolic country scene with large, bare trees in the foreground and green pastures in the distance. It is a beautiful rendition of the English countryside, and the blues and greens of the work are muted, as if the viewer is looking at the painting through a soft, gentle mist.

There is also quite a remarkable collection of enaissance Art, mostly from Italy, which includes sculpture and other…

Art Masterpiece Bridge at Giverny
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The painter's choice of a pictorial vantage point creates the apparent symmetry of the bridge and the woven flower garlands. The point of the painting is not that such symmetry literally exists in nature, but that in the impression of the painter, such symmetry was evident to his eyes, at a particular moment in time and in his life.

This painting would be especially useful to teach young children how to create meaningful pictures out of common, every day images. The teacher could point out to the students that the painting is of Monet's garden, something that he saw everyday, and painted many times. Monet painted many paintings water lilies, but every picture was different, because the French artist brought a different perspective to the work of art, during different times of his life.

Asking students to name different everyday things that look different at different times of the year,…

Avant-Garde an Analysis of Duchamp and Kandinsky
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An Analysis of Duchamp and Kandinsky

This paper discusses the relationship of Marcel Duchamp's 1917 Dada "sculpture," or "found art" Fountain and Wassily Kandinsky's 1923 abstract portrait On White II. Duchamp's Fountain, a urinal on which he simply painted the signature "R. Mutt" before displaying it at the Society for Independent Artists exhibit in New York. Made of porcelain and designed to be used as a urinal, Duchamp used it to illustrate the absurdist principles that governed the Dada movement. Kandinsky's On White II, on the other hand, is an oil-on-canvas (105 x 98 cm) that goes beyond surrealism to portray the abstract, spiritual side of things.

Duchamp's Fountain may be considered "avant-garde" because it was certainly a new and original way of expressing the absurdism of the Dada movement. In fact, it was so "avant-garde" that it upset many of the followers of Dada, and Duchamp promptly quit…