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The Impressionist movement coincided with tremendous social, political, and economic changes. Likewise, the movement initiated change by planting the seeds for small but significant cultural revolutions. One of the seeds planted was feminism: the "radical notion that women are people," (Shear, cited by Lord, 2012, p. 173). Nineteenth century France was no different from anywhere else in the world at the time; women were not considered equal. Women lacked the power to vote, and were likewise excluded from positions of power in the worlds of business or education. By the end of the nineteenth century, however, there were whispers of change especially among the bourgeoisie. Change was slow, though. Unmarried women in upper class Parisian society were severely constrained by patriarchy in their daily lives. They could not venture out alone without a chaperone, without serious risk to reputation ("obbins & Wander, 2008). Writing and the arts became legitimate…
"Impressionism, Realism, and Gender Roles as Expressed by Mary Cassatt and Thomas Eakins," (2013). Development of Modern Art FA2012. Retrieved online: http://devofmodartfa2012.blogspot.com/2012/10/impressionism-realism-and-gender-roles.html
Lord, M.G. (2012). The Accidental Feminist. Bloomsbury.
"Paris, Impressionism, and the Rise of the Female Artist," (n.d.). Retrieved online: http://www.angelfire.com/art2/women2/fem4.html
Pfeiffer, I. & Nochlin, L. (2011). Women Impressionists. Retrieved online: http://www.bookforfree.us/PDF/Women-Impressionists-BY-Ingrid-Pfeiffer-Linda-Nochlin-ID12492.pdf
Mary Cassatt and Impressionism
Mary Cassatt was an Impressionist and post-Impressionist painter covering individuals -- especially women and children -- at a time when their role in society at large was becoming more prominent and self-assured. Like herself on the world stage, Cassatt's female subjects demanded attention and investigation, and by looking at one of her works, The Boating Party, in more detail along with some critical information regarding Cassatt and Impressionism in general, it will be possible to see how her choice of subject and style reveal the changes occurring in French society at the end of the nineteenth century, especially as they relate to the representation and centrality of women.
Before considering The Boating Party in more detail, it is useful to begin with a brief examination of Mary Cassatt's earlier life and works as a means of placing this study in a historical and scholarly context and…
Cassatt, M. (1893-1894/2011). The boating party. National Gallery of Art. Retrieved from http://www.nga.gov/collection/gallery/ggcassattptg/ggcassattptg-46569.html
Lewis, R, & Lewis, S.I. (2009). The power of art. Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth.
Metropolitan Museum of Art. (1997). Mary cassatt. Retrieved from http://www.metmuseum.org/explore/cassatt/html/index.html
National Endowment for the Humanities. 'The boating party'. Picturing America Artwork,
" In other words, this barmaid "is automatic and impersonal" and reflects the upper-class social nature of Paris with its drinkers and party-goers enjoying themselves immensely while the barmaid merely stares into oblivion as if bored to death with her surroundings and her life (Monan, 2006, 435).
In contrast to these two paintings by Manet, Edgar Degas' Ballet ehearsal (1876, oil on canvas) presents "the infinite variety of particular movements that make up continuous motion" via a group of ballerinas practicing their moves in a spacious studio somewhere in Paris. Obviously, the ballerinas in this painting are part of the upper classes. Artistically, Degas used several devices to bring the viewer into the pictorial space. First, the frame cuts off the spiral staircase, the windows in the background and the group of ballerinas in the right foreground. Second, the rapid diagonals of the bases of the walls and the floorboards…
Monan, Berence. (2006). Impressionism. Berlin: Broschiert Sprache.
Muller, Joseph-Emile. (1974). Impressionism. New York: Leon Amiel Publishers.
Pool, Phoebe. (1967). Impressionism in Europe. New York: Thames & Hudson.
Tinterow, Gary. (1994). Impressionism: Styles, Manner and Genres. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Modern Art.
The manner in which Cezanne abstractly modulated color in his paintings was seminal to the controversial cubist style. What is more, Pablo Picasso's Les Demoiselles d'Avignon simplified previous endeavors in terms of structure by employing a savage two-dimensional angularity, and as such was exponential for early modern art.
Modernist painting, in Clement Greenberg's words, "used art to call attention to art" (193) as opposed to ealism's alleged concealment of art. Formerly inferred drawbacks attached to the limits imposed by the medium of painting, such as the plain surface, the pigment's properties or the shape of the support, were brought to light in modernism and even considered positive elements (Greenberg 195). To list various embodiments of the modern newly found openness and embracing of factors that used to be regarded as glitch, Piet Mondrian's minimalist Composition in Yellow, ed, and Blue, Jack Pollock's abstract expressionist Autumn hythm, Mark othko's 1959 Lavender…
Greenberg, Clement. Modernist painting. Art and Literature Spring 1965: 193-201
Post-Impressionist artists were interested in the ideas of Friedrich Nietzsche, particularly in his concept of the Ubermensch, a superman who would be capable through intense struggle of surmounting the lower forces that would limit his ability to achieve. The idea that man could evolve beyond his present capacities influenced the relationship of European man to previous cultures and to contemporary but less "civilized" societies. This paper explores the ways in which Paul Gauguin applied the Ubermensch concept to his art and to his life, and examines parallel motifs in the oeuvres of his contemporaries.
The Artist Gauguin: Man, Nature, Ubermensch and God
At the beginning of the enaissance, Massacio painted The Expulsion of Adam and Eve from the Garden of Eden, and initiated a new view of humanity: an intensely personal and emotionalized struggle against fate. In spite of the Neo-Classical return to the formal norms of the past, the…
Biography of Gauguin. http://www.abcgallery.com/G/gauguin/gauguinbio/html (November 14, 2002).
Dillon, John K. (1997) The Death of Tragedy: The philosophy of Friedrich Nietzsche's Ubermensch. http://www.nsula.edu/scholars_college/Thesisabstracts/HSTtheses/dillon.html (November 14, 2002).
Gauguin, Paul. (1897) Noa: The Tahitian Journal. 1985 ed. Dover Publishing.
Norris, George. (1996) Expressionism: Its Spiritual and Social Voice. http://www.br.cc.va.us/vcca/norris.html (November 15, 2002).
Critique of Surreal and Post-Impressionist Works of Art
Dali's Autumn Cannibalism (1936) http://arthistory.about.com/od/from_exhibitions/ig/dali_retrospective/dali_pma_05_07.htm
Salvador Dali is one of the great and mercurial figures in art history. The surrealistic Spanish painter was influenced heavily by the tumultuous period of history in which he lived and by the haunting images in his own psyche. Both are on dramatic display in the 1936 piece, "Autumn Cannibalism." Here, Dali paints a depiction of the military conflict tearing his motherland apart from within, offering us this terrifying rendering of civil war as seen through the eyes of one consumed by it.
In the confrontation between the social commentary and the internal reflection that comprise this piece, Dali creates a piece that is decidedly representative of the surrealist movement both in aesthetic and motif. In spite of Dali's incredible influence, surrealism was ultimately a short-lived movement, leaving its impression on the art world through…
S. were not "hostile" to evangelicalism (Bebbington, p. 367). After II, the Church of Scotland and British Methodism launched "sustained evangelistic thrusts" and in Britain the "National Young Life Campaign" got involved in evangelical activities, Bebbington continued.
The American Presbyterian denominations announced in 1946 that they were to become "a crusading organ for evangelical religion" (Bebbington, p. 367). And when Billy Graham began preaching and healing in the post-II era he did "almost as much" to bring the evangelical movement strength in Britain as he did in the United States, Bebbington asserts. Even in the staid, conservative Church of England there was a "new evangelical revival" by 1959; further promoting the movement was the fact that the British and American evangelical movements linked their talents and strengths across the Atlantic Ocean.
Bebbington notes that the charismatic movement in Britain during the 1960s was in part inspired by the writings of…
Bebbington, David. 1994. Evangelism in Its Settings: The British and American Movements
Since 1940. Eds. Mark a. Noll, David W. Bebbington and George a. Rawlyk, in Evangelicalism: Comparative Studies of Popular Protestantism in North America, the British Isles, and Beyond, 1700-1990. New York: Oxford University Press.
Bebbington, David W., and Bebbington, Davi. 1989. Evangelicalism in Modern Britain: A
History from the 1730s to the 1980s. New York: Routledge.
Monet used brushstrokes and many shades of vivid greens and pinks to portray the garden as if it were viewed through a mist.
In 1910, English writer oger Fry coined the phrase "post impressionism" as he organized an exhibition in London (Shone, 1979, p. 9). Just as the paintings of the impressionists caused a scandal in the art world some forty years earlier, the post impressionist work of artists such as Gaugin and Van Gogh "outraged all notions of what good painting should be" (Shone, p. 9).
The post-impression movement included, in addition to Gaugin and Van Gogh, artists such as Toulouse-Lautrec, Seurat, and the later work of Cezanne. Like the Impressionists, these artists used real-life subjects, portraying them with distinct brushstrokes, thick paint, and bright colors. Times were changing, and the post-Impressionists responded by modernizing what the Impressionists had done, imposing more form and structure to show greater depth…
Brettell, R.R. (1995). Modern French painting and the art museum. Art Bulletin 77 (2).
Retrieved from Academic Search Premier database.
Hill, I.B. (1980). Paintings of the western world: impressionism. New York: Galley Press.
Shone, R. (1979). The post-impressionists. New York: Galley Press.
These pastel-colored etches influenced Degas' late-life paintings. Those were characterized by women frequently engaged in some type of grooming, such as bathing. Rather than the tightly-structured lines of his earlier works, these later works seemed more hurriedly-drawn and less meticulous than his early works.
For example, in oman Drying Her Hair, a pastel on paper, Degas depicts the back of a nude woman, drying her hair. Unlike many of his works, which overtly differentiate between women of different classes and different occupations, this image in the photo is very every-woman. The bather is classically female, but the painting holds no clues as to her lifestyle outside of the bath. Moreover, the work demonstrates Degas' unique use of light, as it contains unrealistic amounts of shadow, almost as if the bather is caste in an artificial light. Though Degas rejected much of what has come to be associated with Impressionism, his…
Degas, Edgar. Dancer at Rest, Hands Behind her Back, Right Leg Forward. Brooklyn Museum,
Brooklyn, NY, 1882-1895.
Degas, Edgar. Portrait of Mlle Fiocre in the Ballet "La Source." Brooklyn Museum, Brooklyn,
" In more general terms, Conrad uses Marlow to give his tale, neither the full close of the plot of earlier fiction, nor James' more limited completeness in the formal structure, but a radical and continuing exposure to the incompleteness of experience and the impossibility of fully understanding it." (Watt, 1978)
The strength of subjectivity as far as perception was concerned is another modern theme. It is safe to state that Conrad managed to prove the profound importance of the subjective dimension in a very complex manner. The stream of consciousness and first person technique which he applied had as a result a process through which the reader completely identified with the inner life of the character.
Naturally all certainty and objectivity is lost in the process and not only does the reader not know where he is going, but he embraces the upcoming transformations as exciting surprises. From this…
Conrad, J. Heart of Darkness. Norton Critical Edition. Norton and Company Press. 2006
Levenson, M. "The value of facts in the Heart of Darkness." Nineteenth century fiction, vol 40. no. 3. Dec, 1985. pp. 261-280. University of California Press.
Watt, I. "Marlow, Henry James, and "Heart of Darkness." Nineteenth century fiction, vol. 33, no.2, sep. 1978, pp.159-174. University of California Press
Watt, I. "Impressionism and symbolism in Heart of Darkness." Conrad in the nineteenth century. Berkeley. University of California Press. 1979
People often confuse the Expressionists with the Impressionists. Provide a guideline that helps differentiate them. Use technique, artists, and paintings to help state your positions.
As explained by the Economist, an art gallery decided to put the two different art forms side by side so as to show the clear difference between the two. Impressionism happened during the 19th century. The art was typified by brush strokes that were small and narrow. However, the strokes were clearly visible to the naked eye. Light was shown in accurate forms and in the ways it changed depending on the sources of light, what those light sources were and where they were coming from. Artists that typified the Impressionist movement included Claude Monet, Frederick Bazille, Pierre-August enoir and Alfred Sisley. Another big name from the Impressionist movement was Charles Gleyre. The backgrounds for Impressionst paintings were almost always on white or at least…
Economist. (2015). Side by side at last. The Economist. Retrieved 19 March 2016, from http://www.economist.com/blogs/prospero/2015/05/impressionism-and-expressionism
HTA. (2016). History, Trade and Art: Art and Artistic Reactions to the Industrial Revolution. Historytradeart.blogspot.com. Retrieved 19 March 2016, from http://historytradeart.blogspot.com/2010/05/art-and-artistic-reactions-to.html
The face of this second presence has been painted in a lighter nuance and his uncombed hair clearly suggests an inferior position on the social ladder. The boy's eyesight is somewhat directed towards the copy of the periodical in the woman's hand and his mouth is open, suggesting his amazement upon gazing at the newspaper.
Finally, the third presence in La evue Blanche is a large shadow, which has been interpreted for years as an angry, child, another woman or other features. The shadow is painted in the same color as the outfit of the woman and the urchin, blurring the contours even more. Against the faces of the two distinguishable characters and the light colored background, the single white presence in the painting is the copy of the periodical held in the woman's hand. This could imply that the periodical is aimed to shad light in a world of…
Toulouse-Lautrec: Divas Japonais, San Diego Art Museum, http://www.sdmart.org/lautrec/DivanJap.htmllastaccessed on April 21, 2008
To illustrate these different views, he creates Starry Night over the Rhone. This shows the sense of anticipation that is occurring before the evening begins. As he is depicting, a quit outdoor cafe that is waiting for: the customers to begin arriving and the festivities to commence. To illustrate this sense of anticipation he uses different colors and lighter brush strokes. As there is: yellow, black, blue, tan and gray; to highlight the overall emotions that Van Gogh is feeling (when he reflects on his life in Paris). At the same time, the lighter brush strokes are used to show the changes of time that are taking place, by making the background somewhat blurry. This is important, because it is illustrating how the artist is trying to create that sense of realism and the passage of time, by showing their positive emotions about their past lives. ("Vincent Van Gough," 2011)…
Dance at Le Moulin de la Galette. (2011). Web Museum Paris. Retrieved from: http://www.ibiblio.org/wm/paint /' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Impressionism vs. Post-Impressionism
Impressionism vs. Post
This paper will explore impressionism vs. post-impressionism including the influences of each on each other and society, and the effects of each other on the 19th century. The paper will ascertain how one period revived or continued the style and characteristics of the other, or how one period originated in reaction to the other. Impressionist paintings tended to focus less on detail and more on making impressions of form and figure, as the name implies. The brush strokes were less inclined to add detail and structure or order. Post-impressionists considered this trivial, and created artistic work that was decidedly more expressive according to some; more organized and structured, the Post-Impressionist movement could be best described as a response to the Impressionist movement. Some focused on methods including Pointillism, or the use of dots of color, whereas others used bright fresh colors used by Impressionists…
Brettell, R. 2000. Impression: Painting quickly in France, 1860-1890. New Haven and London: Yale
Denvir, B. 1990. The Thames and Hudson Encyclopaedia of Impressionism. London: Thames and Hudson.
Sweeny, J.J. 1996. Post-Impressionism. Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia, Microsoft Corp.
Tinterow, G. And Henri Loyrette. 1994. Origins of Impressionism. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art.
He began with very fuzzy looking works of light and sun, then began to paint more sharply drawn works, especially of women. His earliest works have urban subjects. They are typical "Impressionist snapshots of real life, full of sparkling colour and light," but by "the mid-1880s," Renior "had broken with the movement to apply a more disciplined, formal technique to portraits and figure paintings, particularly of women" such as his "Bathers," painted slowly over the course of the years of 1884-87. (Picoch, 2002)
Edgar Degas -- representing movement and the working class
Of all the Impressionists, Edgar Degas is acknowledged as the master of drawing the human figure in motion. Degas worked in many mediums, preferring pastels to oils. He is perhaps best known for his paintings, drawings, and bronzes of ballerinas and of race horses. Movement's ability to engage in the expressive aims of impressionism is what is important.…
Burns, Sarah. "Cassatt, Mary." World Book Online Reference Center. 2005. World Book, Inc. .[12 Aug 2005]
'Camille Pissarro." Encyclopedia Britannica. 1994. Web Museum Paris. http://www.ibiblio.org/wm/paint /' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Pissarro took a special interest in his attempts at painting, emphasizing that he should 'look for the nature that suits your temperament', and in 1876 Gauguin had a landscape in the style of Pissarro accepted at the Salon. In the meantime Pissarro had introduced him to Cezanne, for whose works he conceived a great respect-so much so that the older man began to fear that he would steal his 'sensations'. All three worked together for some time at Pontoise, where Pissarro and Gauguin drew pencil sketches of each other (Cabinet des Dessins, Louvre).
Gauguin settled for a while in ouen, painting every day after the bank he worked at closed.
Ultimately, he returned to Paris, painting in Pont-Aven, a well-known resort for artists.
Le Christ Jaune (the Yellow Christ) (Pioch, 2002) Still Life with Three Puppies 1888 (Pioch, 2002)
In "Sunny side down; Van Gogh and Gauguin," Martin…
Bailey, Martin. (2008). Dating the raindrops: Martin Bailey reviews the final volumes in the catalogues of the two most important collections of Van Gogh's drawings. Apollo Magazine Ltd. Retrieved February 26, 2009 from HighBeam Research:
Martin. (2005) "Van Gogh the fakes debate. Apollo Magazine Ltd. Retrieved February 26, 2009 from HighBeam Research:
http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-127058183.html . Bell, Judith. (1998). Vincent treasure trove; the van Gogh Museum's van Goghs. Vincent van Gogh's works from the original collection of his brother Theo. World and I. News World Communications, Inc. Retrieved February 26, 2009 from HighBeam Research:
The figures of people, carriages, etc. are "washed-out," they are as small as ants are. The method of reflecting motion and dynamics of routine life by "washed-out effect" was borrowed "from a new invention of photography" (Schapiro 81). Photographic cameras of that epoch were not sensitive for picturing motion, so all objects in motion were "washed-out."
Some impressionists, for example Edgar Degas (1834-1917), were influenced by ethnic painting techniques such as Chinese and Japanese graphics, characterized by striking representation of shape and figures. Degas continued Monet's experiments with light and reflection of motion. Many of his paintings were influenced by other methods similar to photography: uncommon visual angles and asymmetric perspectives, which can be observed in such paintings as a Carriage at the aces (1872), Ballet ehearsal (1876) characterized by unusual visual solution and geometric interpretation.
Auguste enoir (1841-19191), father of Impressionism, became famous for his mass portraits. enoir's Impressionism…
Sayre, Henry M.A world of art Prentice Hall; 4 thedition 2004
Schapiro, M. 1997.Impressionism: Reflections and Perceptions. George Braziller
The Impressionists, Article from web resource: http://www.biography.com/impressionists/artists_morisot.html
Pool, Phoebe Complete Paintings of Monet. New York: Abrams,1967
She looks whimsically at the audience as if she knows they are watching her, while the two men with her carry on an animated conversation. In the background, Manet includes another woman, bent over as if gathering mushrooms from the forest floor clad only in a shift.
This painting is very similar in style to the "Music in the Tuileries." Like that painting, Manet does not use really bright colors; instead, they are muted and often dark. He also uses the technique of outlining the characters, which makes them stand out from the forest background, and almost makes them seem to jump off the canvas and away from the background. Another critic notes, "Two hallmarks of Manet's work are the use of frontal lighting and the varying treatment of different figures and elements in the foreground and background -- some precise, some almost sloppily painted" ("Manet's Snapshots"). This painting illustrates…
Armstrong, Carol. Manet Manette. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2002.
Bataille, Georges. Manet. Trans. Austryn Wainhouse and James Emmons. New York: Albert Skira, 1955.
Editors. "Music in the Tuileries Gardens." National Gallery. 2008. 23 May 2008. http://www.nationalgallery.org.uk/cgi-bin/WebObjects.dll/CollectionPublisher.woa/wa/work?workNumber=ng3260
Galligan, Gregory. "The Self Pictured: Manet, the Mirror, and the Occupation of Realist Painting." The Art Bulletin 80.1 (1998): 138+.
Luncheon of the Boating Party
Pierre Auguste Renoir
Pierre-Auguste Renoir saw an abundance of beautiful things in the world and his paintings expressed a never-ending sense of joy and discovery. ith his brilliant use of natural light and color, he shows the extraordinary splendor of everyday life. A prime example of the artist's ability to capture the joy of a single moment on canvas can be seen in The Luncheon of the Boating Party. This painting depicts the carefree gathering of French revelers, having just concluded a convivial meal. Renoir recreates the beauty of the river scene with the posing of models, all friends of the artist; his use of vibrant color applied in small brush strokes to recreate natural light and a richness in texture, and his use of contrasting white with black. All these elements come together to show one of life's greatest pleasures; the joy of eating…
Rathbone, Elizabeth. "Renoir's Celebration of Luncheon of the Boating Party:" Tradition and New." Impressionist on the Seine. Washington: Counterpoint, 1996.(Monograph)
Renoir, Jean. Renoir, My Father. Boston: Little, Brown & Company, 1962. (Biography)
Genevoix, Maurice. "Why I Love Renoir." Reprinted in Daulte, Francois. Renoir, The Great
" (Ansell and Fraprie, 2007)
Ruisdael possesses the ability to "render nature's subtleties in a faithful manner that botanists have been able to identify species of plants and trees in his paintings and oceanographers have marveled at his accurate depiction of breaking waves." (urlington House, Royal Academy of Arts, 2006) it is also stated of Ruisdael's sea paintings as follows: "As a painter of the sea, he far surpasses all the marine artists." (Cundall, 2007) the following picture is Ruisdael's 'Rough Seas with a Pier' labeled Figure 2.
Rough Seas with a Pier
The work of Cundall (2007) entitled: "The Landscape and Pastoral Painters of Holland: Ruisdael, Hobbema, Cuijp, Potter" states that it is stated that Ruisdael's "sea pieces...are easily distinguished from the works of the same kind; they carry the seal of his genius as all the rest. The following illustration is Ruisdael's painting 'Spruces…
Cundall, Frank (2007) the landscape and pastoral painters of Holland: Ruisdael, Hobbema, Cuijp, Potter. Illustrated biographies of the great artists. S. Low, Marston, Searle & Rivington, ltd., 1891. Harvard University 27 Jun 2007
Jacob Van Ruisdael (nd) Online available at: www.casa-in-italia.com/artpx/dut/Ruisdael.htm
Jacob Van Ruisdael: Master of Landscape (2006) Royal Academy of Arts -- Burlington House, Piccadilly, London, WIJ OBD United Kingdom. 25 Feb -- 4 Jun 2006. Online available at http://www.codart.nl/exhibitions/details/916/
Landscape Tour (2010) Ruisdael, Jacob van. Online available at: http://www.artchive.com/artchive/R/ruisdael/jewish_cemetery.jpg.html
Luis Bunuel and Orson Welles: Influential and evolutionary Filmmakers in Film History
In the history of film, two important directors are recognized all over the world because of their great contribution to the development of film throughout the years. These two directors are Luis Bunuel, director of the Surrealist film "Un Chien Andalou" (An Andalusian Dog) and Orson Welles, director of the American classic film, "Citizen Kane." Both directors have given significant contributions to the history of film that are currently and still in practice. There are numerous filmmakers who are equally qualified to be considered as influential filmmakers, but Bunuel and Welles' contribution surpasses the other directors' contributions and revolutionary practices that changed and shaped the world and history of film at present.
Luis Bunuel is a Spanish director who was known primarily for his contribution the Surrealist movement that emerged along with the French Impressionist movement during the…
Bordwell, David and Kristin Thompson. "Film Art: An Introduction." New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co. 1997. p. 455.
Sarris, Andrew (Ed.). "Interview with Film Directors." New York: Bobbs-Merrill Company, Inc. 1995. pp. 457-78.
Stone, Judy. "Conversations with International Filmmakers." California: Silman-James Press. 1997. pp. 569-77.
Western Art and Christianity
During the past millennium, Western art has been heavily influenced by Christianity. Art is an extension of the many complex thoughts and images that swim within an artist's mind. Because many Western artists have traditionally been raised in a Christian environment, it is difficult for their religious beliefs to be fully separated from their artwork, and oftentimes it is embraced in the works, or a patron has requested it be the specific subject matter. Although this heavy Christian influence would see a swift departure during the Renaissance, it would remain engrained in Western culture until the present day.
The Reformation heralded a swift separation between Christians in Europe, as Roman Catholics and Protestants divided roughly along a North to South split. Protestants seemed to dominate the North while the South remained dominated by Catholic countries. While much of the art in Protestant countries retained a secular…
French associate their country with a geometrical shape.
Having read the section on geography and weather, which one of the following regions is best known or most typically known for this type of weather:
Hot summers and cold sometimes snowy winters
North and Western Coastal Regions
Vosges, Jura, Alps, Pyrenees
Central and Eastern France
The South (also known as the Midi)
Having read the section on geography and weather, which one of the following regions is best known or most typically known for this type of weather:
Hot summers and mild winters often made colder by the cold Mistral wind
North and Western Coastal Regions
Vosges, Jura, Alps, Pyrenees
Central and eastern France
The south (the Midi)
Having read the section on geography and weather, which one of the following regions is best known or most typically known for this type…
In "Burial at Ornans," the brightest and most colorful figures are various figures in the church. An altar boy, a priest, a man carrying a staff of the crucifix, and bishops are in the forefront. They direct our eyes to the left of the painting and create a movement towards the right where the majority of the figures are in the painting. Our eyes gravitate to their area first because there are reds and because that is where the most light is. Just as the figures walk to the right, our eyes do so as well. We see onlookers and patrons -- average members of the society. They blend together due to the similarity of hue and color. This conveys that they are interchangeable and unimportant. In "Third Class Carriage," the brightest areas of the painting are of the woman nursing and the elderly woman. They are strongly lit…
Asia and Africa in estern European Art
Globalization is generally associated as a modern phenomenon, however, it is a global movement that began with the Greeks and did not accelerate until the renaissance era. The est, going back to Alexander the Great, has a long history of interactions with Asia and Africa. Ideas and goods were consistently traded. This trend of globalization accelerated with the age of exploration in the 16th century when Europeans came into further contact with Africa, Asia, and the Americas. Driven by the quest for gold and natural resources estern European traders navigated the world. This had a profound effect back home, as Europeans developed an interest in the exotic. The interest blossomed during the 18th and 19th century, during the height of estern power and colonialism. Curiosity into the foreign permeated all levels of society. Artists incorporated Asian and African artistic styles into their…
Soltes, Ori. "They All Came to Paris." YouTube. YouTube, 11 Oct. 2011. Web. 2 Apr. 2014. .
Soltes, Ori. "Asia and Africa in the Western Mind." YouTube. YouTube, 11 Oct. 2011. Web. 2 Apr. 2014. .
art time period (1860-1910) catches eye, reviewed Case assignment. It reminds event life kind emotional reaction . I ntroduce report information artist, work chose reflects Impressionist values, information helps understand work.
Van Gogh's "Starry Night"
Vincent Van Gogh's 1889 painting Starry Night is certainly compelling and likely to captivate the attention of any individual seeing it for the first time. There is something special about this particular artwork, as it virtually transports viewers to a surreal world, one that Van Gogh designed especially with the purpose of having people confused and hypnotized at the same time. The fact that the painting is one of the most replicated works in the modern era makes it possible for someone to understand the impact it has had on society and the fact that it has come to be one of humanity's defining works. "One of the beacons of The Museum of Modern Art,…
Crispino, Enrica, "Van Gogh," (The Oliver Press, Inc., 2008)
"Vincent van Gogh Biography," retrieved March 29, 2013, from the ariel art galleries Website: http://arielartgalleries.com/Artists/Van%20Gogh%20Starry%20Night.htm
"Vincent Van Gogh: The Starry Night," (The Museum of Modern Art, 2008)
Art analysis: The Little Country Maid
The Little Country Maid is a painting by the French Impressionist artist Camille Pissarro. The painting has a seemingly humble subject, and depicts a fairly mundane image. However, in this image, the painter suggests a point-of-view of how the servant class was regarded at the time of the painting's construction in 1882. Servants like the young woman in the picture were regarded as functional items, much like brooms or sweeping pans, rather than as human beings. Pissarro, by using the maid as a subject, gives the woman a dignity that she might not be regarded with in real life, by making her the central subject of his painting.
The painting depicts a young maid sweeping the floor of a room. A small child sits to the right of the gazer. The room seems to be a breakfast room. The table is partially…
Brettell, Richard. Pissarro's People. Prestel, 2011.
"Groundbreaking perspective on Camille Pissarro opens at the Legion of Honor this fall."
Art Daily. December 12, 2011, http://www.artdaily.com/index.asp?int_sec=11&int_new=51257&int_modo=1
"The Little Country Maid." Juggle References. December 12, 2011.
Monet started his creative activity being young by making scratches and cartoons for a local frame-maker. He took classes of art from Eugene Budent, who taught him lessons of work on open air. Later he goes to Paris and enters the circle of Paris painters. Because he had no financial support he enters French army and after military service he continues painting with Pierre-Auguste enoir, Alfred Sisley, Edgar Degas, Gustave Caillebotte, Frederic Bazille who were experimenting and searching for a new style different from official canons of art.
Technique developed by Monet and other impressionists was unique and innovative. Monet realized that a painting which was made on the open air, has a unique freshness and liveliness, which is unable to be achieved when working in the workshop, where artist plans the painting beforehand. Monet advised artists to rebuild the impression of image perception substituting routine objects by some naive…
Hannoosh, M. Delacroix, E. 1995.Painting and the Journal of Eugene Delacroix. Princeton University Press
Jobert, B. 1998. Delacroix. Princeton University Press
Schapiro, M. 1997.Impressionism: Reflections and Perceptions. George Braziller
Forge, a. 1995.Monet Art Institute of Chicago (Artists in Focus).Harry N
Impressionism in art developed in the 19th century. Impressionist paintings were characterized by visible brush strokes, and subject was drawn from ordinary life and outdoors, rather than being confined to still life, or portraits and landscapes drawn in studios. Emphasis was laid on the effect of light changing its qualities as well as movement. These characteristics of impression can be well observed in the works of art by Gustave Caillebotte, Edgar Degas and Edouard Manet in their paintings Paris: A ainy Day, The Absinthe Drinker and The Bar at the Folies Bergere respectively.
Paris: A ainy Day is an oil painting drawn in 1877 encompasses the Impressionist use of landscape scene. The curator of the Art Institute of Chicago was quoted describing the painting by Hedy Weiss in the Chicago Sun-Times (December 12, 1995) as "the great picture of urban life in the late 19th century." The masterpiece gives…
1. Gaustave Caillebotte, Paris Street: A Rainy Day, retrieved on July 9, 2012 from http://sites.google.com/site/beautyandterror/Home/bourgeoisie-and-proletariat
2. L' Absinthe-Degas, retrieved on July 9, 2012 from http://labsinthedegas.blogspot.com/
3. Edouard Manet, A Bar at the Folies-Bergere, retrieved on July 9, 2012 from http://sites.google.com/site/beautyandterror/Home/capitalism-and-the-death
On the contrary, if I had been able to be a clergyman or an art dealer, then perhaps I should not have been fit for drawing and painting, and I should neither have resigned nor accepted my dismissal as such. I cannot stop drawing because I really have a draughtsman's fist, and I ask you, have I ever doubted or hesitated or wavered since the day I began to draw? (Van Gogh, Letter to Theo, April 1882).
That he was a talented artist was undeniable. Yet, art was no substitute for religion, and, further still, art was no direct avenue to sanctifying grace. Van Gogh's increasing sense of alienation and feeling of despair would continue unabated -- evidenced by he and his brother Theo's inability to live together for long; the inability of his dream of an artists' collective (the artistic equivalent of a kind of monastic community) to come…
Fritillaries. (2006). Musee d'Orsay. Retrieved from http://www.musee-
Garrigou-Lagrange, R. (1938). The Three Ways of the Spiritual Life. London: Burns
And the goal of Impressionist painting is always just that -- to given an impression, rather than to suggest a coherent, linear picture of experience. Impressionists depicted emotions and subjective concepts, rather than attempted to convey a singular view. There is no 'point' to Monet's paintings of water lilies; there is merely the artist's reflection on color. The story goes nowhere in "Prelude to the afternoon of a faun," but the atmospheric canvas of light, shade, and sound creates a scene. Backdrops rather than plot; emotions and desires and dreams rather than clear movements characterize this Impressionistic work of art.
The original inspiration of the work was a poem by the French poet Mallmarme. However, the poem's uncertainty and daydream-like quality is not a literal 'synthesis' of the poem (Lloyd 154). Instead, Debussy created something entirely new in his work. The music allows for a greater ambiguity in its composition…
(Steichen and Sandburg, 2002) Although the paintings from this period are less well remembered by posterity than his photographs they are still striking in their design and were formative in his conceptualization of himself as an artist and his later arrangement of his photographic subjects. ("Steichen as Painter," National Gallery of Art, 2005)
For instance, like the revelation of a painting, 'true' Swanson emerges in her photograph more vividly through the haze of lace than would a perfect shot of the young actress' beauty, just as the true "George ashington Bridge, 1931's" expanse of loneliness and cold, steely beauty illuminated in the darkness of that photograph speaks deeply about what the surface represents about modern city life, as well as what it looks like to an outsider's eyes. This iconic quality of his photographic work has also caused Steichen to be called an early albeit unintentional pioneer of what was…
Flatiron NYC on a Rainy Night." Photograph by Edward Steichen. 1924. Image available online at http://www.allposters.com/gallery.asp?aid=1205661015&c=&search=Edward+Steichen
George Washington Bridge: 1931." Photograph by Edward Steichen. 1931. Image available online at
Life with Apples," ca. 1893-94. The original work is an oil on canvas, hung in the J. Paul Getty Museum in California. Cezanne painted many still lifes, and many with apples, but this is one of his most interesting and detailed looks at common, everyday objects.
Paul Cezanne was born in 1839 in Aix-en-Provence, a small town about fifteen miles north of Marseilles. His family was prosperous, and the boy was well educated. He first studied law, but also began to take lessons at the Drawing Academy of Aix, and found he enjoyed art much more than the law. By 1861, his father allowed him to go to Paris to continue his art studies, and his career as an artist was born. Even his art teacher did not encourage his interest in supporting himself as an artist. He returned for a time to his hometown to work in his father's…
Cezanne, Paul. "Still Life with Apples. J. Paul Getty Museum. 2005. 15 Oct. 2005.
Eitner, Lorenz. An Outline of 19th Century European Painting: From David through Cezanne. 1st ed. New York: Westview Press, 1992.
Schapiro, Meyer. Paul Cezanne. 2nd ed. New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1962.
artworks subject matter, the artist (enri de Toulouse-Lautrec), and the art movement. Look for information on the context found most relevant to the artwork (I think which should be biographical). Consider how a visual description and an analysis of the work, using Elements of Art and Principles f design supports discussion of context. In addition, discuss how initial interpretation from assignment 1 was challenged, changed, and/or supported by the research process.
The Artist and his style of painting
enri de Toulouse-Lautrec (24 November 1864 -- 9 September 1901), a French painter, printmaker, draughtsman and illustrator, was a colleague of Cezanne, Van Gogh and Gauguin, and was one of the great artists of the Post-Impressionist period .
Physically handicapped (with child-size legs and an unknown genetic disorder, that may have been pycnodysostosis) and constrained by his physical limitations, Lautrec threw himself in his art becoming a lithographer, are nouveau illustrator, and…
His paintings have often been described as drawings in colored paint; his paint was applied in long thin brushstrokes with much of the canvass showing through.
A Woman Resting (1889)
We see Lautrec's style exemplified most vividly in one his image titled A Woman Resting (1889) (J. Paul Getty museum). The image painted in tempera or casein with oil is of a young woman sitting in a chair that appears to me to be draped with a white furry blanket. We see her from behind, and this viewpoint emphasizes her submissiveness and the spectator's control over subject. A part of her left breast is exposed. It could mean that she's a nude model and she's on the set of the shoot, that she's a prostitute resting from a long day at work (and Lautrec, indeed, became acquainted with one of his famous prostitutes around this time, a woman in Montmartre called Marie-Charlotte (Milner, 1992)) or it could be her way of relaxing. The row of green small round tables and chairs further indicate that she may be a prostitute and that this may be a brothel since the setting seems less of a home and
hey created art that was unusual and unique, but they also created art that made statements about who they were and what they believed. Again, this has continued throughout the 20th century. Many critics and experts feel that other more modern examples of avant-garde work include the music and art of John and Yoko Ono, and the arrival of digital media in the art world.
Each of the avant-garde artists wanted the art world to accept their work too, no matter how different or unorthodox it might be. Pissarro, Manet, and Cezanne all were Impressionists at a time when art was more natural and lifelike. heir art was not accepted for years, and they struggled with their style while others simply conformed to what was in style at the time. hat is another mark of the avant-garde in the art world. hey do not conform, rather, they dare to be…
Through their art, they changed what was accepted in the art world, but they also made social commentaries about what was happening in society. For example, in 1938, Picasso painted "Guernica," an emotional reaction to the bombing of a Spanish Basque town by Nazi bombers. The painting has remained one of his most famous and well-known, as much for its depiction of the destroyed town and some of the victims as for its staunch and clear stand against the brutality of the Nazis. These artists were not afraid to stand up for what they believed in, and they wanted to change society to become a better place. They created art that was unusual and unique, but they also created art that made statements about who they were and what they believed. Again, this has continued throughout the 20th century. Many critics and experts feel that other more modern examples of avant-garde work include the music and art of John and Yoko Ono, and the arrival of digital media in the art world.
Each of the avant-garde artists wanted the art world to accept their work too, no matter how different or unorthodox it might be. Pissarro, Manet, and Cezanne all were Impressionists at a time when art was more natural and lifelike. Their art was not accepted for years, and they struggled with their style while others simply conformed to what was in style at the time. That is another mark of the avant-garde in the art world. They do not conform, rather, they dare to be different and unique and hope tastes will change and people will begin to embrace their art. They do not give up, however. Matisse is a good example of that tenacity that turns into favor. His work was modern when Impressionism had finally come into vogue, and he had to wait many years for his artwork to be accepted and viable. The avant-garde artist is different and unique - on the cutting edge so to speak - and so, they create new and daring art forms that take time to be accepted, but usually are.
It is also interesting to note that once an artist and their style or movement has become accepted, they often move on to a new style or movement. For example, modern artist Salvador Dali embraced Dadaism, and then took it one step further with his own "Paranoiac Critical Method." When that movement became accepted, he created another, "Nuclear Mysticism" later in his life. Dali also did not confine himself to one medium, but worked in sculpture, jewelry, and even theater sets. Each of these artists worked for what they believed in and for social change and acceptance.
The black in the male cafe patrons' suits, renders an aura of sophistication. The combination of white and black grabs the eye and creates a sense of movement that corresponds with the lively dancing.
Painted only 12 years later, Van Gogh's "Night Cafe" conveys a completely different cafe ambiance. Whereas Renoir's cafe is full of life and light, Van Gogh's is strikingly lonely, occupied by a few sullen drunks with their heads on their tables and the central figure who stands next to a billiards table. Van Gogh uses muddy hues to parallel the theme of the painting. Renoir's black and white affair conveys a bourgeois ambiance, and Van Gogh's ruddy earth tones clearly impart a working class sensibility. Moreover, Van Gogh's cafe uses indoor lighting, which is less inspirational than the uplifting feeling from the open-air "Le Moulin de la Galette." Correspondingly, Van Gogh uses yellow for lights rather…
Also a landscape scene painted in France, Derain's 1906 "The Turning Road" has a far different feel than Monet's "The River." Like Monet, Derain relies on earthy tones to emphasize nature. However, Derain's palate is more saturated. The hues allow the painting to approach expressionism, especially the predominance of red-orange on the canvas. Using violet periodically such as on the lower part of the tree trunks also makes the painting seem more abstract than Monet's.
In "Le Moulin de la Galette," Renoir creates a remarkably light feeling with his palate. Using white liberally to convey visual light but also emotional lightness, Renoir balances his impressionist masterpiece with black. The black in the male cafe patrons' suits, renders an aura of sophistication. The combination of white and black grabs the eye and creates a sense of movement that corresponds with the lively dancing.
Painted only 12 years later, Van Gogh's "Night Cafe" conveys a completely different cafe ambiance. Whereas Renoir's cafe is full of life and light, Van Gogh's is strikingly lonely, occupied by a few sullen drunks with their heads on their tables and the central figure who stands next to a billiards table. Van Gogh uses muddy hues to parallel the theme of the painting. Renoir's black and white affair conveys a bourgeois ambiance, and Van Gogh's ruddy earth tones clearly impart a working class sensibility. Moreover, Van Gogh's cafe uses indoor lighting, which is less inspirational than the uplifting feeling from the open-air "Le Moulin de la Galette." Correspondingly, Van Gogh uses yellow for lights rather than the pure white of Renoir.
4 in the background, there is what appears to be a huge gray shadow which some viewers of this poster have seen as the "rear view of a man wearing a top hat with collar upraised" while he looks at a wall of flyers or advertisements for other French magazines like "La Revue lanche." 5 it is pretty easy to see the top of the black hat, but the gray area might be his cape flapping in the breeze along the busy Paris street. The last thing about this poster is the white lettering which runs across the bottom. These letters appear to have been done like handwriting because of their wobbly shape. Overall, this poster is two-dimensional, very flat and decorative and onnard is definitely referring here to "Japanese woodcut prints where flat areas of plain color and pattern deny the illusion of space." 6 Also, this poster tells…
Pierre Bonnard: Observing Nature." National Gallery of Australia. Internet. 2003. Retrieved March 27, 2008 at http://nationalgallery.gov.au/Bonnard/Detail.cfm?IRN= &MnuID=1.
Artwork Piece at a Museum
One of the most impressive pieces showed in the Denver Art Museum is a painting by Claude Monet entitled "Le Bassin des Nympheas," made in 1904. "Among the museum's regular holdings are John DeAndrea's sexy, soothing, life-size polyvinyl painting "Linda" (1983), Claude Monet's dreamy flowerscape "Le Bassin des Nympheas" (1904), and Charles Deas' red-cowboy-on-horseback "Long Jakes, The Rocky Mountain Man "(1844)." This inclusion among the top three most requested pieces of the museum testifies to its grace and technical beauty, things that make it such a memorable painting.
Monet was part of a group of painters who rejected the "approved" way of painting of the day in their search for something else. "The Impressionists found that they could capture the momentary and transient effects of sunlight by painting " en plein air." They used short, "broken" brush strokes of pure and unmixed colour, not smoothly…
Author not available, "Monet, the Seine and Normandy," "Vernon, Giverny... passionately" Copyright vernon-visite.org 2005, May 2005, retrieved July 28th, 2006
Author not available, "MONET, CLAUDE," The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition 2006, Copyright 2006 Columbia University Press, retrieved July 28th, 2006 http://www.highbeam.com/ref/doc3.asp?docid=1E1:Monet-Cl&refid=gg_x_01
Author not available, "Impressionism," Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia, July 27, 2006. Retrieved: July 28th, 2006. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Impressionism
Art One-Point Linear Perspective in the enaissance
One-Point Linear Perspective in the enaissance
In the context of art, perspective is generally defined as "… the technique an artist uses to create the illusion of three dimensions on a flat surface" (Essak). Perspective is in essence an illusion of depth and realism in the work of art. It is also an intrinsic part of human evolutionary makeup. As Edgerton ( 2006) states, "
Every human being who has ever lived from Pleistocene times to the present, has experienced in vision the apparent convergence of parallel edges of objects as they extend away from our eyes and seem to come together in a single "vanishing point" on the distant horizon… (Edgerton, 2006)
However, from an art historical perspective it is also true that linear or single-point perspective has not always been an accepted part of painting and artistic creation. It is in…
Edgerton, S. ( 2006). Picturing the Mind's Eye. Tampa University. Journal of Art History,
1. Retrieved from http://journal.utarts.com/articles.php?id=4&type=paper
Op Art History Part I: A History of Perspective in Art. Retrieved from http://www.op-
Vebell was interested in art from a very early age and he attended the Harrison Art School at the age of 14 where he excelled at life drawings. When he graduated from high school, Vebell won three art scholarships and he attended all three schools -- moving from each throughout the day. He launched his professional illustration career in a busy Chicago agency and then enlisted in World War II. It was not long after this that he was recruited to create images for the Stars and Stripes, a military publication that had also featured Norman ockwell's drawings during World War I. In 1945, he participated in the Nuremberg War Crimes Trial as a courtroom artists, capturing the likenesses of Goering, Hess, Speer, and ibbentrop (now in the collections of the Museum of the Holocaust in Washington, D.C.). He created paintings and drawings for mass circulation magazines like eaders Digest,…
Arisman, Marshall. "Wilson McLean: 2010 Hall of Fame Inductee." Society of Illustrators. Accessed on November 17, 2010:
Fame/Current-Inductees/2010 -- Wilson-McLean.aspx
ArtNet. "Francis Livingston." 2010. Accessed on November 17, 2010:
Given some other details of the painting's construction, however, and specifically of the halo, this interpretation could be seen in an ironic light.
Most of the painting's colors are quit vibrant, with red and yellow dominating. There are several instances in the painting where certain objects seem to blend in with or fade into the background. The halo is one such object; in both color and size it is one of the least assuming objects in the painting, and almost no attention would be focused on it if not for its mention in the title. Gauguin could be ironically commenting on his attitude towards religion, hedonism, or just basic lust, but the near transparency of the halo makes it hard to accept as sincere.
The nearly complete use of space Gauguin employs in this painting has a nearly claustrophobic effect; even the fields of red and yellow that dominate, respectively,…
Paul Gauguin. Slef Portrait with halo. Oil on wood, 1889. Accessed via the National Art Gallery website 29 March 2009. http://www.artchive.com/artchive/G/gauguin/gauguin_halo.jpg.html
Lope. "The Halo in Western Art." 2002. Accessed 29 March 2009. http://www.lope.ca/halo/
Nostalgia for the Past
Nostalgia can take many forms, but can perhaps be summarized by the phrase 'appropriating selected aspects of the past for the use of the present'. It tends to involve an emotional or spiritual response to the past rather than a rationalizing one, and as a result is associated with the art of sentiment rather than of intellect. As we shall see, however, eighteenth- and nineteenth-century artists who made use of nostalgia were prepared to shape its appeal in intellectual as well as purely sentimental or aesthetic forms.
Jacques-Louis David (1748-1825) was a passionately political artist, a proponent of history painting in its most elevated form and of the neoclassicist aesthetic. His 'The Oath of the Horatii' of 1784 (Louvre, Paris) depicts a scene from the Roman historian Livy: the three Horatii brothers pledge to fight the three Curiatii brothers in order to settle a dispute between…
William Bouguereau is regarded as one of history's true artistic geniuses, and among his unparalleled accomplishments, was responsible for opening French academies to women (Ross pp). He is arguably the greatest painter of the human figure, capturing not only the physical anatomy, but the subtle nuances of personality and mood, as well as the souls and spirits of his subjects (Ross pp). If Rembrandt captured the soul of age, then Bouguereau captured the soul of youth (Ross pp).
Bouguereau once said, "One has to seek Beauty and Truth ... There's only one kind of painting. It is the painting that presents the eye with perfection, the kind of beautiful and impeccable enamel you find in Veronese and Titian" (Bouguereau pp). To support himself while attending the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, he worked as a bookkeeper for a wine merchant and colored lithographic labels for a local grocer (Bouguereau pp). After hours,…
And yet, it is also important to understand that not everyone criticized Manet, for it was also Dejeuner which set the stage for the advent of Impressionism.
Indeed, Manet emerged as something of an enfant terrible in the Parisian art scene of this era. In the same year, he would also produce Olympia, another painting featuring a female nude that would become the centre of much controversy. Olympia caused a major uproar when it was first exhibited in 1865 at the Salon in Paris. Despite the fact that it calls to mind the classical images of Giorgione (Venus Sleeping), Titian (Venus of Urbino), and Ingres (Odalisque with a Slave), the public was outraged by Manet's depiction of a common prostitute laying nude on a bed. A black female servant stares at her as she fixes the Madame's bed, while a black cat stands on edge at the end of the…
Hughes, R. 1990, Nothing if Not Critical: Selected Essays on Art and Artists, Penguin
Books, New York.
JSS Gallery 2005, Edouard Manet's Olympia, Available at http://www.jssgallery.org/other_artists/Manet/Olympia.htm#Top
Kapos, M. 1995, the Impressionists and Their Legacy, Barnes & Noble Books
The perspective might seem extreme. In this sense, it is important to understand that Van Gogh was trying to break free from the limitations of the perspective frame which imposed realistic perspectives and proportions. Moreover, towards the end of his life, at the peak of his artistic maturity, he rebelled against the muted colors that Dutch painters were using at the time.
tylistically, the task of understanding Van Gogh's paintings cannot be undertaken without a proper look at what Post-Impressionism meant. Post-Impressionism took Impressionism to another level. However, Post-Impressionists continued to use vivid colors and real-life subject matter, as well as thick layering of paint. In addition, nonetheless, Post-Impressionists rejected the confines of Impressionism which upheld natural colors and traditional forms. From this point-of-view, Van Gogh along with other Post-Impressionists such as Cezanne, Gaugain and Bonnard, blurred the limitations of conventional form, and distorted it in order to increase the…
Neo-Impressionism." Accessed November 8, 2008. http://www.impressionniste.net/neo-impressionism.htm
Paul Signac Biography." Paul Signac Online. Accessed November 8, 2008. http://www.paul-signac.com/
Post-Impressionism." Art Movements. Accessed November 8, 2008. http://www.artmovements.co.uk/postimpressionism.htm
Vincent Van Gogh Paintings." Vincent Van Gogh Gallery. Accessed November 8, 2008. http://www.vangoghgallery.com/
Color Me Three
The use of color by artists depends on both personal predilections as well as environmental and social circumstances. This paper will use the works from three well-known artists to illustrate the assumption that the use of color and the style of each artist is combination of these various factors. An important issue that will be dealt with is the artistic climate and the predominant view on art and art theory at the time. Another important aspect is the artist's personal creative aims and views as they relate to color and art in general.
The use of color is part of the artist's creative process and forms an important part of the works of the following three artists: Claude Monet, Pierre onnard and Paul Signac. Specific woks by these artists will be referred to in this discussion.
Color, while not the only element that constitutes their works is…
Beetem R.. Discover Master Artist Pierre Bonnard at the Denver Art Museum March 1 - May 25, 2003. Accessed June 1, 2005.
Blanshard, F.B. (1949). Retreat from Likeness in the Theory of Painting. New York: Columbia University Press.
BONNARD Pierre. June 2, 2005. http://www.londonfoodfilmfiesta.co.uk/Artmai~1/Bonnard.htm
ealism as a Social Movement
ealism as an art movement established itself around the time when there were many social changes and political movements, enlightenment and industrial revolution. The 1940s saw hard times both economically and socially and realism as a form of art and a social movement came in to defy the traditional trends of art depicting heroic figures and towing the political lines. ealism achieved a democratic political dimension that depicted the true living conditions of people in society and the despondency that existed. It had a leftist origin and it was art against social decadence and advocated for social change especially from the political class. This break brought about by realism made realism to be considered the beginning of modern art. The artist call for social change through their painting at time displayed unflinching and a lot of time ugly moments of life as it was hence…
Ireland C., (2010). When Photography Became Art. Retrieved March 12, 2016 from http://news.harvard.edu/gazette/story/2010/10/when-photography-became-art/
The Art Story, (2016). Realism. Retrieved March 12, 2016 from http://www.theartstory.org/movement-realism-artworks.htm#pnt_3
Webexhibits, (2016). Impressionism: The Innovations and Influence. Retrieved March 12, 2016 from http://www.webexhibits.org/colorart/page18.html
Vienna and Paris
in the Decade 1900-1910
Vienna and Paris in the Decade 1900-1910
Europe of 1900 -- 1910 saw the rise of several cultural meccas, including Vienna and Paris. Vienna was a center of literary, cultural and artistic advancement in "middle" Europe, enjoying booming population and innovative developments in all those spheres, even as it endured the rising tide of anti-liberal, anti-Semitic Christian Social forces. In keeping with this innovation, Vienna's music enjoyed avant garde developments of Art Nouveau from Paris, notably represented in Vienna by the works of composers Gustav Mahler and Arnold Schonberg. As Vienna became the literary, cultural and artistic center of "middle" Europe, Paris became the literary, cultural and artistic center of the orld. Drawing exceptionally gifted people from the entire globe, Paris boasted the first Olympics to include women and the orld's Fair of 1900. Reveling in its invention of Art Nouveau, Paris also…
Bloy, M. (2011, January 5). The third republic: 1870-1914. Retrieved from Historyhome.co.uk Web site: http://www.historyhome.co.uk/europe/3rd-rep.htm#dreyfus
Bonyhady, T. (2011). Good living street: portrait of a patron family, Vienna 1900 . New York, NY: Pantheon Books.
Brandstatter, C. (2006). Vienna 1900: art, life & culture. New York, NY: Vendome Press.
George, H.S. (2008). Paris 1900. Oklahoma City, OK: Oklahoma City Museum of Art.
This is an essential part of understanding Seurat -- the ways in which he sought a seamless blending between art and science. He saw no barriers to doing so because his own ways of working along with his understanding of how the world worked lead him to view the world through a sort of bifocals. He viewed everything through both art and science -- through both fact and metaphor.
But while this is an essential perspective on Seurat and his work, there are other lenses through which his work must be viewed and understood. Analyses of both Seurat and generally of Impressionism and Neo-Impression tend to write about their marriage of science and art were a foregone conclusion. As if embracing the scientific and the new were the most natural pathway for artists to take.
But French artists might well have gone the way of a number of their British…
Everything influences its surroundings, and is influenced by them. In short, it all shimmers together in the light, glowing softly from within and without. It was Renoir's challenge to freeze the changing light and varying tones in pigment, an altogether bold step toward observing ordinary things under certain spell.
his pair, Monet and Renoir, continued to work together and learn from one another, painting popular river resorts and views of a bustling Paris from outdoors. While Monet attended to the changing patterns of nature, Renoir soon sought out friends and lovers as new subjects in a whole new style of portraiture. More than any of the Impressionists, he was entranced by Paris. He managed to avoid the copyist treatment of what he saw but focused instead upon appearance, allowing the viewer to respond with immediate pleasure. "Pleasure" may be described as Renoir's artistic goal, a far cry from Realism's toiling…
The Impressionists considered themselves realists because they remained true to their senses, even though they disregarded many of the traditional techniques for representing whatever was "out there." They had no use for the "exact" reproduction of an object for its own sake, and decried any demands that they capture "objective" reality. The importance of rendering objects declined, while attempts to represent the subjective grew. Through Impressionism, the definition of realism was transformed into subjective realism, and the ultimate subjectivity of modem art was born.
Impressionism is classified as a movement of Fine Arts, but it also influenced other forms of artistic expression, as literature and music also evolved under this movement. Under the influence of Impressionism, recreation of objective reality was frowned upon and replaced by the response of a piece to actual experience. The Fine Arts School found this theory more suitable for blurred and often vague objects; through a flurry of short strokes of pure and bright colors. Sculpture also soon reflected this style with partially modeled volumes, and roughened surfaces to create uneven displays of light.
Claude Monet (1840-1926) and his early work "Impression: Sunrise" is identified as the source of the name for the new vivid hues and fluent brush strokes, while Edouard Manet (1832-1883), Camille Pissaro (1830-1903), Edgar Degas (1834-1917) and Auguste Renoir (1841-1919) followed with their own unforgettable Impressions. The world of man-created images was never the same!
Vincent Van Gogh, Frank Lloyd right and Madeleine Vionnet. hat did this 19th century artist, architect, and fashion designer share in common? Very simply: They all incorporated Japanese techniques into their works of genius. hen Commodore Perry opened the doors to this Eastern country in 1853, an abundance of unique and influential styles of art rushed out and captured the imaginations of artists throughout the estern world. As author Emile Zola once said,
It is certain that our students painting with black bitumen, were surprised and enhanced by these horizons, these beautiful vibrating spots of the Japanese painters in watercolours. There was a simplicity of means and an intensity of effect which struck our young artists and then influenced them with a painting filled with air and light
This flow of Japanese artistic riches and influence continues to this day. Ask any graphic designers including those at alt Disney Company…
Coburn, F.W. "Mr. Benson's Birds," The Boston Herald, November 16, 1913, 28.
Encyclopedia of Visual Art. Grolier Educational Corp., 1984 printing. Danbury, CT: 1983.
Gardiner, Debbi. Japan, Inc., January 2003. Anime in America. http://www.japaninc.net/article.php?articleID=972.Visited 8/03/03.
Japan Economic Society, November/December 2002. Impact of the Kimono on Modern Fashion. http://www.jef.or.jp/en/jti/200211_016.html . Visited 8/04/03.
Symbolism first developed in poetry, where it spawned free verse. Forefathers included the poets Baudelaire, Verlaine, and Rimbaud; practitioners included Laforgue, Moreas, and Regnier. The Swiss artist Arnold Becklin is perhaps the most well-known Symbolist painter; his pictures are like allegories without keys, drenched in melancholy and mystery. Other artists working in this vein include Odilon Redon and Gustave Moreau. The Surrealists drew heavily on the Symbolists later on.
Catalan masters played a major role in the development of 20th Century modern art in many fields. For example, modernism expressed by Gaudi, Rusinol, Gimeno, Camarasa, Picasso, Nonell or Miro epitomized the efforts of the Catalan people. Still, most of them expressed their talents outside Spain in Paris where many of them lived and worked before going home to continue their expression. Like anyone honing a craft, they needed a foundation of knowledge for their art and Paris offered…
2000. Catalan Masters. Available at http://www.artcult.com/na125.html" http://www.artcult.com/na125.html. Accessed on 9 January 2005.
2002. Notes on Picasso: Important Terms, People, and Events. Available at http://www.tamu.edu/mocl/picasso/archives/2002/opparch02-281.html . Accessed January 2005.
Art Nouveau in Catalonia. Available at http://www.gaudialigaudi.com/A0003.htm;. Accessed 9 January 2005.
Catalan Painting. Available at http://www.mnac.es/eng/dinou/s6.htm . Accessed January 2005.
Music, Art, Literature Trends
From impressionism to pop art, jazz to hip hop, science fiction to beat poetry, artistic, musical, and literary expressions have varied considerably between 1870 and 2005. The period between the end of the nineteenth century to the current day can be generally described as the modern and postmodern eras. The beginning of the modern era, during the final decades of the nineteenth century, coincided with the Industrial evolution. Along with fascination with modern technology and optimism for the future came simultaneous disillusionment. However, modern technological advancements have made such widespread creativity possible. Social and political trends have also influenced creative endeavors, and vice-versa. Art, music, and literature are more accessible and more possible to create than they ever were in the past. The modern era has been characterized by an overall flourishing of the expressive arts, but some trends have a more lasting significance than others.…
Rock music became more than just a musical trend; it also characterized the rise of the teenage culture, symbolized rebellion, and influenced political and social attitudes. Furthermore, rock and roll remains a viable creative endeavor today, and is also internationally popular, which is why the trend is so important. Beyond rock and roll, electronic music and hip hop are recent significant musical trends. Electronic music has been around for decades, and reached a peak with the advent of the rave. Electronic music remains a vital force in the industry, and has also impacted the development of hip hop. Hip-hop is yet another musical trend that coincides with social and race-related realities in the United States. The genre is so important because it represents American urban culture.
Among the literary trends between 1870 and the present day, the most significant ones include post-colonialism, science fiction, beat poetry, and horror. Post-colonial literature such as the works of Joseph Conrad brought awareness to the problems associated with the colonialist mentality. Post-colonial fiction put a human face on the very real political, social, and economic issues of the modern world. Realism was a major literary method used by post-colonial authors, who depicted their worlds with stunning detail. With the modern fascination with technological advancements, science fiction became a highly significant literary trend to emerge during the twentieth century. Science fiction originated in the early twentieth century when Orson Welles' reading of H.G. Wells' novel the War of the Worlds shocked the nation into believing that aliens had indeed attacked the United States. Science fiction literature strongly influenced television and film, too, and is responsible for the popularity of both Star Trek and Star Wars. Related to but different from science fiction, fantasy writing also emerged during this time and gave rise to the writings of J.R.R. Tolkein, whose works recently spawned motion pictures.
Another significant literary trend to emerge during the middle of the twentieth century was beat poetry and beat literature. Beat poetry was completely free verse and free form, in sharp contrast to earlier, more structured forms. Moreover, beat poetry was far more abstract than previous works. Just as modern art was becoming more abstract and expressionist, so too was literature. Another key literary trend to emerge during the past century was horror fiction. While horror derives from earlier Gothic literature as well as from science fiction, the horror genre has had a huge impact on modern literary expression. Authors like Stephen King have become immensely famous by making people afraid, and his works as well as the works of countless other horror writers have impacted the plots and themes of films and television shows.
Applying a Reading on a Piece of Art
Response: The Night Cafe, Vincent Van Gough
"Two influences work on us, an outer one and one from within us" (Bahr 117). This idea that Expressionism in art is a depiction of the artist's inner reality as much as an exterior reality is manifest even in the post-Impressionist work of Vincent Van Gough entitled The Night Cafe. The swirls of color portraying the hazy lighting and the indistinct features of the cafe's inhabitants create the impression of being in a smoky, dingy bar and also suggest the dissolute lives of the drinkers and pool players. But the portrait is not merely of light and shade -- the circles around the lights, for example, seem like a fantastic creation of the artist, as is the slightly drunken swaying of the lines that show the cafe. The artist's attitude about the cafe is ambiguous.…
(oime, et. al.).
Similarly, author James Joyce helped define the modernist novel by taking the traditionalist concept of telling a coming of age story and adding to it the modernist characteristics of open form, free verse, discontinuous narrative and classical allusions. The result is a novel that, like Starry Night, captures the movement and color of the real world.
Perhaps no other work of Joyce's demonstrates his modernist characteristics then his magna opus, Ulysses. At its core, Ulysses is a retelling of the classic tale by Homer, the Odyssey.
One of the main uses of modernism is found in the final, unpunctuated chapter, popularly referred to as Molly loom's Soliloquy, a long, free verse (or stream of consciousness) passage that list her thoughts as she lies in bed next to the main character, Leopold loom. This is a key modernist passage as it reads as human dreams or thoughts really…
Blamires, Harry. The New Bloomsday Book: A Guide Through Ulysses. London: Routledge, 1988.
Boime, Albert. Vincent van Gogh: Starry Night. A history of matter, a matter of history. Washington: Smithsonian Institute Press, 1994.
The modernist era was not just a revolution in art, but rather a whole social, economic, and cultural movement away from the previous era. As a result, Parisian society and the growing disparate classes meant that Manet's painting is capture both the decadent and the "now," the sense of immediacy that was occurring within the city. The depiction of in his masked ball for instance, depicts the rising "shift" within city life, no longer is everything and everyone stationary and domestic, but always on the move, with people passing by each other without a clue to their actual identity. The indistinct nature of the masses is Manet's theme, he looks at the clash between traditional depictions of French upper class, and compares it with the "mobile population" of Paris's underground as urban leisure has created Paris as not a cohesive image, but a series of constantly changing actions and people,…
Tapies, Van Gogh, And Munch
Antoni Tapies' Composition with Figures (1945) is a work of modern art that uses the impasto technique to create a figurative or symbolic painting. Its style and use of color appear to be inspired by Van Gogh, yet its melancholic tone and expression (most clearly seen in the hollow, hopelessness of the central subject's eyes) appear inspired by Munch. Tapies' Composition comes at the beginning of his career but at a time in history when the modern world has already attempted to rip itself apart twice (WWI and WWII). Thus, one sees in this composition a subject located between two extremes with a "celestial light" above it that does not seem to be able to fill the entity below. Yet what the light is doing is indeterminable exactly because the more one looks at the painting, the more realizes that it contains complexities that arouse…
Cirlot, L. (2009). Grove Art. Oxford University Press.
Johnson, P. (2003). Art: A New History. NY: Harcourt.
Turner, E. (2015). Art Review: Marble Dust & More in Miami's Antoni Tapies Exhibit.
Hampton's Art Hub. Retrieved from http://hamptonsarthub.com/2015/03/18/art-review-marble-dust-more-in-miamis-antoni-tapies-exhibit/
His use of expressionism is evident in the ways that he used his interior consciousness to realize his artistic objective. The Little Mountain Goats is a dizzying smear of motion and color. Its kinesthetic sensibility and paler color palate recalls Marcel Duchamp's Nude Descending a Staircase more than any of Gauguin's works, suggesting a new influence upon Marc's style. The triangular features of the goats, the geometric primary colors, particularly the unnatural yet earthy tones of the reds and pinks, along with the whites and greens clearly show an evolution in his philosophy, which must be also partially ascribed to the Fauves. Fauvist works used stirring and unusual colors and bold brushstrokes and lack the clearer and more defined lines of Gauguin. ather appropriately, given Marc's frequent subject matter, the word 'Fauve' in French means 'wild beast.'
Over the course of his career, Marc became personally acquainted with both Henri…
Lucie-Smith, Edward. (1999). Lives of the Great 20th-Century Artists.2nd edition.
London: Thames & Hudson. Except accessed November 10, 2009 at http://www.artchive.com/artchive/M/marc.html
Neue Kunstlervereinigung Munchen. (2009). Ketterer Kunst.
Retrieved November 10, 2009 at http://www.kettererkunst.com/dict/neue-kunstlervereinigung-munchen.shtml
Perhaps one of the best description of the painting is made by the painter himself in a letter to his brother: "I have a canvas of cypresses with some ears of wheat, some poppies, a blue sky like a piece of Scotch plaid; the former painted with a thick impasto . . . And the wheat field in the sun, which represents the extreme heat, very thick too."
With Monet, La Grenouillere seems a simple artistic exercise, an expression of his creative style in a purely rational manner. The combination between a realistic expression of the external environment and his capacity to innovate comes naturally in this case: there are people on a boat on the water, with trees surrounding them and the sky above them. The people are barely sketched, but this is in no way an expression of mental disorder, because it fits wonderfully in the work and…
1. Callow, Philip. Vincent van Gogh: A Life, Ivan R. Dee, 1990
2. Beaujean, Dieter. Vincent van Gogh: Life and Work. Konemann, 1999
3. Bernier, Roland. Monument, Moment, and Memory: Monet's Cathedral in Fin De Siecle France. Bucknell University Press. 2007.
4. Charles Merrill Mount. Monet a biography. Simon and Schuster. 1966
All of these examples show that there is no linear narrative of art, rather the construction of even so-called periods between different nations and periods lies in the mind of the beholding academic, not in some universal truth of what is art's history. Critics also have their own abysses, and their own sands of what seems familiar and unfamiliar. Even art periodization is subjective as art, it is not a science, and thus periods should not be taught as absolute standards and markers of art history.
Furthermore, other nations such as China have had different histories and different conceptions of what constitutes making art altogether, as well as different forms of periodization as a result. Western art's periods have been much more dynamic, and more characterized by seismic revolutions in aesthetics, as opposed to other nations. There is more blurring between what art is, and what has a practical religious…