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Imprisonment on Individuals, Families, and Communities
Incarceration and its Impacts
"Research has shown that the American prison system -- and the "get tough" approach to crime that has helped increase the incarceration rates -- impacts just the entire society, especially poor communities…" (Shelden, 2004, p. 6).
Incarceration certainly has an impact -- mostly negative -- on the individual that is incarcerated. But what about the family of the incarcerated person? And what about the community where the incarcerated person lived and worked prior to his imprisonment? How are families (including wives ad children) and communities impacted by the incarceration of a member of a family in that community? These issues will be reviewed and critiqued in this paper.
The Influence of Local Politics on the Incarceration of Minorities
It is interesting to note that while the incarceration of individuals has a direct effect on the lives and health of prisoners…
Brookes, Laura, and Baille, Daphne. (2011). Parents in Prison: Justice and Literacy and Public Policy. Reclaiming Children & Youth, 20(3), 31-35.
Chui, Wing Hong. (2010). 'Pains of imprisonment': narratives of the women partners and children of the incarcerated. Child and Family Social Work, Vol. 15, 196-205.
Hendry, Chris. (2008). Incarceration and the tasks of grief: a narrative review. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 65(2), 270-278.
Miller, Keva M. (2006). The Impact of Parental Incarceration on Children: An Emerging Need
This passage also, of course, reflects Sonny's particular struggle. He tells his brother at one point that the feeling heroine gave him at many times was a feeling of being in control, and that it was important for him to have that feeling sometimes. The rest of the world, it is made clear, does not actually give either sonny or his brother a great deal of control, and though both brothers join the military during "the war" (presumably World War II), there is no sense of a wider world of possibilities, but only the darkness and bleakness that exists in Harlem. Heroine provided a sense of control, perhaps, but it is obviously a false impression -- it is actually the cause of Sonny's true, physical imprisonment. It can be seen as part of the ceiling that the young men of Harlem bump their heads into as they grow up in…
Week Three Worksheet
Match the items in the Case Summary column to the Options in the right column by entering the correct corresponding alphabetical letter next to the numbers in the first column. Not all options will be used.
Shaun is driving home at night from work on a six-lane road, under the speed limit. There are no streetlights. A man is crossing the middle of the street, and Shaun does not see him. Shaun hits the man and kills him.
F. Statutory rape
G. Malice aforethought
K. Second-degree murder
M. Corpus delicti
uth's friend Mary asks her to drive her to a convenience store and wait for her. While uth waits in the car, Mary shoots and kills the clerk, and robs the store. Mary…
Cantor, D. M. (n.d.). A.R.S §13-1304 - Arizona Kidnapping Charges Defense Lawyer. Retrieved from http://dmcantor.com/assault-violent-crimes-homicides/kidnapping/
Rock, J. (n.d.). Kidnapping & Unlawful Imprisonment Laws in Arizona Phoenix Lawyer John Rock. Retrieved from http://www.rockslaw.com/kidnapping-unlawful-imprisonment-arizona.html
Zetter, K. (2015, October 26). The Most Controversial Hacking Cases of the Past Decade | WIRED. Retrieved from https://www.wired.com/2015/10/cfaa-computer-fraud-abuse-act-most-controversial-computer-hacking-cases/#slide-3
Zetter, K. (2016, April 13). Matthew Keys Sentenced to Two Years for Aiding Anonymous | WIRED. Retrieved from https://www.wired.com/2016/04/journalist-matthew-keys-sentenced-two-years-aiding-anonymous/
Does the criminal justice system work? This is a very interesting question indeed? Many proponents of system believe it to be a deterrent to manner would be criminals across the United States. However, many pundits point to high profile cases of Trayvon Martin or Emmett Till to show the inequities inherent within the criminal justice system (Crowe, 2012). Proponents for the criminal justice system believe that it is a deterrent for others who are thinking about committing egregious crimes in the future. They also believe it provides closure for those who have been innocently wronged by the death of a loved one. These individuals usually believe in the principle of, "An eye for an eye," in regards to life. The general principle that is fundamental to the argument for the criminal justice system is retribution. The belief is that all guilty individuals must be punished. The punishment should…
1) Bedau, H., Cassell, P. (2004). Debating the Death Penalty: Should America Have Capital Punishment? The Experts on Both Sides Make Their Best Case. Oxford University Press, 2004. p 69. Retrieved February, 19, 2012 from ebrary database.
2) Lauren Glaze. Correctional Populations in the United States, 2009. NCJ 231681. December 21, 2010. United States Bureau of Justice Statistics
3) Crowe, Chris. "The History of Jim Crow." The History of Jim Crow. Web. 02 Apr. 2012. .
4) Gardner, Martin R. "Executions and Indignities -- An Eighth Amendment Assessment of Methods of Inflicting Capital Punishment;." Ohio State Law Journal 96th ser. 39 (1978): 15-23. Print.
The social distancing and alienation is a defense mechanism against exploitation. The lack of social control in the immediate jail atmosphere makes psychological investments in connections unforeseen and risky.
In addition, because many adult correctional facilities are clearly risky locations without escape or exit, inmates become hyper-vigilant and always alert for signs of personal risk or threat. From the high-level presence of individuals in their immediate atmosphere positioned to maximize on the weak point or exploit inattention or carelessness, suspicion and interpersonal distrust often arises. Some inmates learn to project a challenging convict veneer, which threatens others. Indeed, many inmates "believe that unless offenders can project a picture that provides the possibility of a crime, they might be taken over and exploited throughout the length of their sentence." The development and occurrence of psychological sickness in correctional facilities also arise from the atmosphere generated in the facilities, which creates an…
In the United States alone, sexual attacks in prison are considered rape when penetration occurs. It is estimated that inmates are approached with unwanted sexual advances over 80,000 times per day (Anderson, 2001). Other more shocking statistics are (Anderson, 2001):
There is an estimated 300,000++ instances of prison rape a year.
Among this, 196,000 are estimated to happen to men in prison while 123,000 are estimated to happen to men in county jail.
40,000 are estimated to be committed against boys in either adult prisons or while in juvenile facilities or lock ups.
5000 women are estimated to be raped in prison.
The above statistics were all estimated because it is a common knowledge that most rape, particularly that which happened inside the prison cells, are not reported. The same study (made by Anderson) also revealed that the common attributes of the rape victims are (Anderson, 2001):
Those who are…
Anderson, Scott L. (2001). "Rape in Prison. http://www.loompanics.com/Articles/RapeInPrison.html.
Harper, Iane. (January, 2005). "Jail rape: The sordid facts. http://www.news24.com/News24/South_Africa/Politics/0,2-7-12_1669654,00.html .
Maxwell, Sheila Royo. (2000). "Sanction Threats in Court-Ordered Programs: Examining Their Effects on Offenders Mandated Into Drug Treatment." Sage Publications.
Canadian Criminal Justice Association. "Prison Overcrowding and reintegration of Offenders: A Discussion Paper. http://www.ccja-acjp.ca/en/overc.html
Paul's Early Life (birth, Upbringing, And Early Education)
Paul's early life can be dated back from 1-33 A.D. His upbringing comprised of being born in Tarsus of Cilicia, where he was raised under another name, Saul. He was raised in a Jewish, strict household. Because Paul was Jewish, he received abbinic training in Jerusalem from abbi Gamaliel. As he received his training, he also learned the traditions of the Pharisees. Later on in this period, Paul worked with the Sanhedrin in Jerusalem as well as adopting the Sanhedrin policies. The Sanhedrin were in opposition of the church and so was Paul. Including Jewish culture, Paul received immersion into Hellenistic culture of the era, which meant he went to the gymnasium, attended Greek dramas at the Amphitheatre, and was knowledge on the various schools of Greek Philosophy. Gamaliel taught Paul the Scriptures including the traditional lessons of the Pharisees. This meant…
GCU Media,. (2014). Paul Timeline. Retrieved 16 December 2014, from http://lc.gcumedia.com/bib380/documents/paul-timeline-map-v1.1.pdf
Greg, P. (2014). Paul through Mediterranean eyes: cultural studies in 1 Corinthians. International Bulletin of Missionary Research, 38(3), 163-164.
Parable,. (2014). Life Application Study Bible. Retrieved 15 December 2014, from http://cdn-parable.com/content/preview/9780310434481.pdf
Polhill, J. (1999). Paul and his letters. Nashville, TN: Broadman & Holman.
role of prisons in the society. I have included the theories of deterrence, rehabilitation, retribution, incapacitation, non-interventionism and restoration to support my discussion along with their positive and negative aspects. In the conclusion, I have given my preferred theory of imprisonment as the most effective and important ones.
A prison can be defined as a protected and locked institution where juvenile and grown-up offenders are housed with punishments that vary from a year to life. Such facilities hold the objective of accomplishing the verdict that the courts impose on the offenders and also of protecting the community and civil society by taking measures to prevent escapes. These facilities are also liable to provide programs and services that are important for taking care of the convicted population under their custody (Sumter 2007).
The issue of imprisonment has constantly been an intense experience for every individual found guilty of committing offenses. Sometimes…
Banks, C. (2004). The Purpose of Criminal Punishment. In: Criminal Justice Ethics: Theory and Practice. Thousand Oaks, Calif: Sage Publicaton, pp 103-126.
Mauer, M. (2004). Thinking About Prison and its Impact in the Twenty-First Century. Ohio State Journal of Criminal Law [online].2, p.607-618. Available from: . [Accessed February 17, 2013].
Macionis, J.J. & Plummer, K. (2008). Control, Crime and Deviance. In Sociology: A Global Introduction (5th edition), New York: Pearson Prentice Hall, pp591-592.
MacKenzie, D.L. (1996). Criminal Justice and Crime Prevention. Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice University of Maryland, Maryland. Available from: . [Accessed February 17, 2013].
Claudio did not have to let them in since they lacked the proper warrants State Immigration Department acted without warrants Without obtaining the requisite warrants, they had come into the restaurant, stationed an official at each door, barred exit from exiting and began interrogating Ricardo in the kitchen. Ricardo in the kitchen. In fact, Ricardo was on a valid working holiday visa. Ricardo would likely have a possible recourse for suit against the State Immigration Department for nuisance, especially if he would not lose his job over the incident since special damage to the plaintiff is not required. Rather, in an action for false imprisonment the detention and the "directness" of the cause must be proven. Then, it is for the defendant to demonstrate the lawfulness in justification. There is no onus on the plaintiff in establishing unlawfulness as one of the elements of the tort as the liberty of…
Brisbane Authority v Taylor (1996) 70 ALJR 866 at 871-2.
Wright, Brian. Limitation of Actions Act, http://www.lawhandbook.org.au/handbook/ch18s01s05.php#
New South Wales v Lepore; Samin v Queensland; Rich v Queensland, Melbourne University Law Review,  MULR 22 http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/journals/MULR/2003/22.html
Robinson, Mark A. Damages in False Imprisonment Matters. 22 February 2008.
Socio-Historical Background: Book Of Philemon
The epistle of Paul to Philemon has often been called a captivity epistle because it was written when Paul was imprisoned because of his Christian faith. The frequent references to the Church and to Philemon's house underline the fact that Paul likely intended this to be a public, instructive letter, not simply a private document conveying information (Witherington 54). Philemon is usually studied in conjunction with Philippians, Colossians, and Ephesians (Witherington 1). Although the authorship of Ephesians is in doubt, the majority of Biblical scholars believe that Paul is likely the author of Philemon.
Unlike the so-called Pastoral Epistles, Philemon can thus be viewed as relatively likely to be an account of Paul's own views. What we know of Paul is that he was originally a Pharisee, allegedly once persecuted Jesus (according to Acts, a less reliable account not by Paul himself) and that "Paul…
ace Discrimination Justice
ACE DISCIMINATION CIMINAL JUSTICE
ace and Discrimination in the Criminal Justice System
acial inequality has long been an issue in the American society. Despite making substantial progress in creating a more racially equal society, there are still many issues involving race and discrimination that can be found today. The criminal justice system was designed to treat all individuals equally under the law. However, covert racism and discrimination still plague the system and many minorities are adversely impacted and are not treated equally under the law. While most judges and public officials profess a strong dedication to remaining racially impartial, the evidence suggests otherwise. This literature review will focus on various points that indicate that there is a substantial amount of inequality to found within the criminal justice system in our modern society.
acial differences in the criminal justice system have been important topics since the…
Crutchfield, R., Fernandes, A., & Martinez, J. (2010). Racil and Ethnic Disparity and Criminal Justice: How Much is Too Much? The Journal of Criminal Law & Criminology, 903-932.
Green, E. (1991). Judicial Attitudes in Sentencing - A Study of the Factors Underlying the Sentencing Practice of the Criminal Court of Philidelphia. National Criminal Justice Reference Service, 157.
Gross, S. (1997). Crime, Politics, and Race. Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy, 405-416.
Staples, R. (2009). White Power, Black Crime, and Racial Politics. The Black Scholar, 31-41.
Miranda Rule -- Prohibits the introduction of any testimonial evidence elicited from criminal suspects while under arrest or in police custody unless police first advise them of their constitutional rights to remain silent, refuse to answer questions, and to be represented by an attorney before beginning any custodial interrogation. I have heard this term used frequently in television crime programs.
Prosecutor -- Is an attorney employed by the state whose responsibility it is to file criminal charges against individuals arrested by police and charge with crimes; typically, prosecutors represent the state at the criminal trial. The context in which I am most familiar with prosecutors is in their portrayal in television programs about criminal justice and news reports about criminal trials.
Pretrial Release Program -- Is a system of releasing criminal defendants from custody until their trials to reduce jail overcrowding; in principle, bond is one form of…
Jail Time and Death Penalty: Finding New Ways to Deter Criminal Behavior
Jail Time and Death Penalty: A Deterrent?
For years many law enforcement agencies have relied on the assumption that jail time or the death penalty serve as adequate deterrents to crime or criminal activity. However multiple studies confirm that jail time and the death penalty are not effective methods alone for deterring criminals. Because of this it is important that law enforcement agents, government officials and community members work together to uncover effective tools for deterring crime and discouraging criminals from repeating crimes after release.
Jail time and the death penalty do not deter crime. Early Gallup Polls conducted in the 1980s and 1990s show that while roughly two thirds of Americans and law enforcement agents support the death penalty, there is inadequate evidence supporting its use as an effective deterrent to crime (Akers & adelet, 1996). Many…
Abraham, E., Boyle, J., Mullen, R. & ratelle, J. (1996). "California program reduces recidivism and saves tax dollars." Corrections Today, 58(5): 118.
Akers, R.L. & Radelet, M.L. (1996). "Deterrence and the death penalty: The views of the experts." Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 87(1): 15.
Clayton, S.L. (2005 -- Apri). "Jail inmates bake their way to successful reentry."
Corrections Today, 67(2):78.
hotel sent the security guard on duty to check on Gonzalez in his hotel room. The defendant rebuffed to open the door. The security guard heard the sound of breaking glasses and the high television volume. This prompted the hotel to summon Laredo Police Department to assist in carrying out investigations. The hotel staff did not appeal the police to take Gonzalez into custody. In the other case, Michael Evans arrived at the club with his companions; he unknowingly groped Ms. Niland who later instructed the security officer to arrest him.
Nonetheless, in the second case, Michael Evans had number of associates including, Chad Sorrell, Bernard Lynch, and Dan Lechner. They witnessed the event at the club as opposed to the first case where Gonzalez was alone studying in his hotel room in preparation for the forth-coming Texas Import/Export examination.
In the first case, due to lack of sufficient evidence…
Civil Liberties and Temporary Security: Billy Budd and Guardians
"People willing to trade their freedom for temporary security deserve neither." Benjamin Franklin's statement is often invoked in times of warfare, when civil liberties tend to be most at risk of curtailment, yet it crucially fails to describe the one sector of the American population that is most involved in warfare: the military. Historically military service has not exactly been the voluntary affair it currently is. During the U.S. Civil War cities like New York and Philadelphia would have riots over Lincoln's imposition of a military draft; the First and Second World wars would see the invention of "conscientious objector" status, and Vietnam made "dodging the draft" a generational meme among baby boomers. But leaving aside the question of whether or not military conscription is a gross violation of civil liberties -- to some extent, this depends upon the culture, as…
What does this have to do with the rest of paragraph 27?
The individual and the institution of the state cannot flourish when their interests are in competition: one of the 'seeds' must die.
33. In this paragraph, Thoreau talks about how he sees his neighbors in a new light after his night in jail.
After suffering the loss of his liberty, he sees how little his neighbors are willing to risk of their own security to see justice done.
Paraphrase each of these observations:
a. "I saw to what extent the people among whom I lived could be trusted as good neighbors and friends;"
I saw that the people amongst whom I lived were good in name only -- they spoke about the value of justice, but would not lift a finger to do promote justice.
b. "that their friendship was for summer weather only;"
They did good deeds…
Megan's law was formed in order to make information accessible to the people concerning registered sex crooks. This law was formed after the murder of Megan Kanka. Various countries decided their own way to access information and how to disperse the information among the public. The information, which is commonly collected, is the crook's name, address, photograph, imprisonment date, and the level of crime. This information can be easily accessible by the public on public websites that can be accessed free of cost. This information can also be available in newspapers, or pamphlets can be distributed which contain this information, or several other ways can be used to disperse the information about sex crooks (Fodor, 2001).
Megan's law is also known as the Sexual offender (Jacob Wetterling), which is 1994 Act, and needs the individuals which are found guilty for sex crimes done with children to inform local law bodies…
Carlan, P., Nored, L., & Downey, R.A. (2011). An Introduction to Criminal Law. Sudbury, Mass.: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.
Fodor, M.D. (2001). Megan's Law: Protection Or Privacy. Berkeley Heights, NJ: Enslow Publishers.
ead the Encyclopedia of Ethical Failure. Select three of the violations discussed in the document. Explain the violation, including its U.S. Code, use examples from your own career or the document, and discuss the possible fines / imprisonment for the violation.
Three possible violations of the Encyclopedia of Ethical Failure include: bribery, fraud and gambling / other contest guidelines. In the case of bribery, the guide forbids anyone from taking kickbacks or money for special favors. In general, this can cost the government between $400 thousand and $1 million for every $115 thousand that is earned illegally. Under Section 18 U.S.C. § 201(c)(1)(B) (2003) it says that these practices, "Forbids any public official from accepting anything of value in exchange for an official act to be performed, or because of any official act already performed. Violations of this law can merit fines, imprisonment for up to 2 years,…
Encyclopedia of Unethical Failure. (2007). Department of Defense.
Bruce, A. (1998). Motivating Employees. New York, NY: McGraw Hill.
Nemeth, C. (2011). Private Security and the Law. Boston, MA: Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann
Rhetoric of Slavery
The term "slavery" evokes forced labor where people are captured and made to work without being paid, where people are given barely any clothing and barely enough to eat, where families are broken apart and where those labeled as slaves are denied any rights that they should have as human beings. Specifically, the idea of slavery is applied to pre-Civil ar American or to the Jewish people when they were enslaved by the Egyptian pharaohs. However, the same ideas described can also be applied to those incarcerated in the penal system, at least according to those who are seeking to improve the lives and opportunities for those who are currently behind bars. This reevaluation of incarceration as "modern slavery" is a rhetorical device used by those with an agenda interested in promoting and improving conditions within the prison system but does not take into consideration the feelings…
The Farm: Angola, USA. Dir. Liz Garbus, Wilbert Rideau, and Jonathan Stack. 1998. DVD.
Ford, Glen. "Private Prison Corporations are Modern Day Slave Traders." Black Agenda Report.
Black Agenda Report. Apr. 25, 2012. Print.
Criminal Justice System Today
Most Significant Problem Facing the Criminal Justice System
What is the most significant problem facing the criminal justice system today?
The urgency needed in addressing crime issues is a factor that is widely acceptable, the public view crime and fear of crime as among the most vital issues. A number of communities have been converted into war zones with a ring of gunshots being the order of the day and night. The society struggle everyday to bring order but, this is challenged by criminal behaviors that do not adhere to traditional standards. On the other hand are the policy makers and administrators in the criminal justice systems trying to unravel the complex nature of crime. There have been significant changes in how policing, adjudication, sentencing, imprisonment, and community corrections are approached. The existence of pressure from the public and ever changing policies creates the need understand…
Green, B. (2011). "Criminal Justice - What's Ahead? Roadblocks and New Directions."
Criminal Justice, Volume 25, Number 4.
Leipold, A.D. (1995). Why grand juries do not (and cannot) protect the accused, 80 Cornell.
The victims of crimes are very important in the operation of the criminal justice system; this is because they are the ones who can lead the police to the offender. However, after the victim reports incidents to the police, provide vital information for the investigation and cooperate with the persecution of the offender and appearing in court when required, the criminal serves his time and the victim goes on with his life. Most may question the justice in this. According to the Victims of Crime Act 1994, the victims of crime are given better treatment during proceedings and are more informed and involved. Victims are treated with sympathy in a constructive and reassuring manner, and the victim (if the crime is violent) should be protected at all times. This may seem that the victim is well taken care of, and that the victim is in no way neglected, however it…
Carrabine, E., Iganski, P., Lee, M., Plummer, K., & South, N. (2004). Criminology: a social introduction. New York: Routledge.
Lanier, M.M, & Henry, S. (1998). Essential criminology. Bould Cohn, E.G., Farrington, D.P., & Wright, R.A. (1998). Evaluating criminology and criminal justice. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
er, CO: Westview Press.
Turner, M. (2008). Juvenile delinquency: causes and control, 2nd ed. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Criminology, 39(3).
Society answer is to throw them back behind bars for even the smallest infraction of the law. This is why examining the policies for drug crimes needs to be carefully examined. There is no one size fits all in these situations and each needs to be judge separately.
Some say that the mandatory minimum sentences for illegal drug offences is fair while critics say that these sentences are too harsh, especially for first time offenders whose crimes are of low severity. Proponents say that if the sentences are too lenient it has the effect of increasing the crime rate (Thompson, 1998). Again, each case needs to be looked at on an individual basis. The severity of the crime as well as the perpetrators past record should play a large factor in the punishment handed down. Also, rehabilitation efforts should play a factor in the sentencing. Instead of putting these individuals…
Bobo, L. And Thompson, V. (2006). Unfair by design: The war on drugs, race and the legitimacy of the criminal justice system. Social Research, 73(2), 445-472.
Hemmens, C., & Walsh, a. (2010). The Law and Social Control. Law, Justice, and Society: A Sociolegal Introduction (2 ed., pp. 211-240). New York: Oxford University Press, USA.
Pettit, B. And Western, B. (2004). Mass imprisonment and the life course: Race and class inequality in U.S. incarceration. American Sociological Review, 69(2), 151-169.
Thompson, S.P. (1998). Which policies are working in the war on drugs? The war on drugs: Opposing viewpoints (pp. 102-141). San Diego, Calif.: Greenhaven Press.
validity of the two official U.S. government reasons: 1) military necessity and 2) protection of the Japanese-Americans, for the imprisonment of Japanese-American and Japanese Issei during orld ar II. Be specific in your reasoning and examples.
One of the most shocking decisions in the history of American injustices is the official, legalized internment of Japanese-Americans and Japanese Issei during orld ar II. hile Americans fought a war abroad for democracy, against the racist tyrant Adolph Hitler of Germany, back home Japanese-Americans and legal Japanese resident aliens were deprived of their liberty and property, simply because of their racial and ethnic heritage. The official reasons given for the internment were military necessity and the protection of the Japanese-Americans. The first statement of 'military necessity,' or national security, as a justification for internment, implied that Japanese-American and Japanese Issei was more 'suspect' than other Americans. It was assumed these Asian-Americans had divided…
Jones, Jacqueline Peter Wood, Thomas Borstelmann, Elaine May, and Vicky Ruiz. (2005) Created Equal: A Social and Political History of the United States. New York: Pearson Education.
Martis, Nancy H. (1994) "Illegal Aliens. Ineligibility for public services." California Journal#187. Retrieved 29 May 2005 at http://www.calvoter.org/archive/94general/props/187.html
Takaki, Robert. (1998) Strangers From a Distant Shore: A History of Asian-Americans. Boston: Little & Brown.
In summary, claims about benefits of conjugal visits. In short, support from both prison administration and inmates was based on opinion.
There are some significant flaws to conjugal visit programs. Mississippi, the state with the longest history for such a program, allows it only to a minority of inmates. Such visits can only serve only the minority of inmates who are married, who are housed in a minimum or medium security facility, and who are not discipline problems within the prison. Moreover, Mississippi has felt it necessary for special facilities to support their conjugal program, a significant expense. The argument that family visits will create jealousy among non-eligible prisoners seems less strong, especially as it is done in Mississippi, discreetly and away from the general prison population. Likewise, the argument that spouses may feel embarrasses does not hold up to scrutiny, as spouses have no reason to feel embarrassed for…
Gray-Ray, Phyllis. 2000. "The Effects of Conjugal Visits on Mississippi Inmates." Corrections Compendium, April.
Hensley, Christopher; Tewksbury, Richard; and Wright, Jeremy. 2001. "Exploring the Dynamics of Masturbation and Consensual Same-Sex Activity within a Male Maximum Security Prison." The Journal of Men's Studies, Vol. 10.
" However, osch's writings were by no means one-dimensional, for he addressed many universal aspects of life. Indeed, osch's versatility as a writer is reflected in his ability to write works of fantasy, political thought, biographies, history, social realism, and cultural commentaries. He also published several poems and short stories in Cuban and Dominican newspapers and magazines, and worked for a period of time as literary editor for the influential newspaper, Listin Diario.
The fact that Juan osch was, first and foremost, a humanist who was interested in all aspects of human interest and welfare is clearly reflected in his writings. for, osch did not merely dwell on the miserable plight of the rural poor, but also reflected on the materialism and hypocrisy of the upper classes. For instance, in La bella alma de don Damian (the eautiful Soul of Don Damian), osch depicts Don Damian's soul examining itself with…
Alexander, R.J. Presidents of Central America, Mexico, Cuba, and Hispaniola:
Conversations and Correspondence. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1995.
Cambeira, a. Quisqueya La Bella: The Dominican Republic in Historical and Cultural
Perspective. Armonk, NY M.E. Sharpe, Inc., 1997.
The question arising from this claim is whether evidence exists to prove that there exists an infinitely good, powerful, and wise God where morality naturally emerges. Humes argues that is hard to imagine that an all-good, powerful God exists in this world full of pain and misery. From these claims, one can argue that this insight, or God, has both evil and good, as is present in man if man is in God's image and likeliness.
Immanuel Kant: from the Critique of Pure Reason, the Good Will and the Categorical Imperative, the Postulates of Practical Reason
Kant believes that the vigorous application of same methods of reasoning can yield to an equal development in dealing with the issues of moral philosophy. Kant proposes a list of categories of Freedom in Relation to the concept of good vs. evil. Kant uses logical distinction as the basis for the catalog. Even though…
As with the general cultural perspective permeating academics and the life sciences in the early 20th century, theories on female criminality are pointedly sexist in nature and descend from an aggressively patriarchal view point. As we find in biologically driven models proposed by figures such as Lombroso, there is a proclivity to view female criminals through a completely different lens specifically informed by abnormalities or variations in femininity. According to Hamilton (1999), Lombroso "described criminal women as biologically dysfunctional. He believed that female deviants lacked maternal instincts, exhibited atavistic characteristics, and bore more masculine physical features, such as an excess of body hair." (Hamilton, p. 1) Taking this notion yet a step further, Freud argues that women prone to crime are abnormal not just in their deviation from femininity but in their penis envy. The view that female mental disorder descends from the desire to be male is,…
Hamilton, M. (1999). Theorist: Freda Adler. FSU.edu.
Harris, M.K. (1998). Women's Imprisonment in the United States. Corrections Today.
Hedeen, M. (2012). Bail Hearing for Woman Accused of Threatening Obama Adjoured. YNN.
Euthanasia Is Illegal
Euthanasia otherwise known as assisted suicide refers to the painless extermination of a patient suffering from terminal illnesses or painful or incurable disease. According to Cavan & Dolan, euthanasia is the practice or act of permitting the death of hopelessly injured or sick individuals in a painless means for the purpose of mercy (Cavan & Dolan 12). The techniques used in euthanasia induce numerous artifacts such as shifts in regional brain chemistry, liver metabolism and epinephrine levels causing death. Advocates of euthanasia trust that sparing a patient needless suffering or pain is a good thing. If an individual is hopelessly hurt or ill with no hope of ever getting well, if such a person is in an unending and unbearable pain and cannot experience the things that make life meaningful, the best option for such patients is euthanasia. Euthanasia raises questions on morals, legal and essence of…
Baird, R. Caring for the Dying: critical issues at the edge of life. New York: Prometeus Books 2003, pp.117
Cavan, Seasmus, Dolan, Sean. Euthanasia: The Debate over the right to die. New York: The Rosen Publishing Group, Oct 1, 2000.
Cohen-Almagor, R. Euthanasia in the Netherlands: The policy and practice of mercy killing. Netherlands: Springer, Aug 3, 2004.
Devettere, Raymond. Practical decision making in health care ethics: Cases and concepts. Georgetown: Georgetown University Press, 2009.
In the United States during the 1960s, the nation was in a period of social turmoil. The post-orld ar II suburban culture was giving way to rebellion and revolution and a total upset of the status quo. Particularly in the school and universities, educated members of the youth population began to question the rules and morays established by their predecessors and became determined to change things. This did not sit well with the older Americans, those who had fought in the world wars or Korea and who had taken over the guardianship of the country, this included holding positions of political power in the United States government. Those in power did not trust the youth movement and were highly suspicious of their activities. To understand them and determine if the youth were a threat to the government, a program was designed to covertly spy on the activities of members…
FBI document. (1969). Director FBI to SAC San Francisco. FBI Reading Room.
Glick, B. (1989). The War at Home: Covert Action against U.S. Activists and What We Can Do
About It. South End: Boston.
Haak, N. (2011). Preying on the panther: the FBI's covert war against the Black Panther Party
Life and Death in Shanghai
Nien Cheng, a lady of wealth, culture, and social refinement, was unused to the treatment she would ultimately receive at the hands of Mao Zedung's Red Guards. Viewed as a natural enemy to a Communistic regime - based on a measure of wealth and education - the mostly teenaged "Red Guards" invaded homes and workplaces in search of people disloyal to Zedung and the political environment of the day.
Considered "too aggressive and too independent in mind and spirit for a Chinese woman," Ms. Cheng would be humiliated in "town meetings" where false and unfounded accusations were used to force a confession of subterfuge and espionage, tortured, imprisoned for over 6 years without news of her only daughter, Meiping, who had been murdered by Maoists revolutionaries for refusing to denounce her mother as a spy, and placed under house arrest.
The Red Guard…
PADILLA V. UMSFELD & HAMDI V. UMSFELD
Summary of Padilla v. umsfeld
Facts of Padilla v. umsfeld
Summary of Facts
Supreme Court easoning
Lower Court easoning
Summary of Hamdi v. umsfeld
History of Hamdi v. umsfeld
easoning for the Supreme Court
Individuals' Civil rights of Hamdi and Padilla
Contrast and Comparison
Padilla v. umsfeld & Hamdi v. umsfeld
Summary of Padilla v. umsfeld
One of the first and interesting things about the case is to know that the espondent, Jose Padilla, is a citizen from the United States citizen who made up his mind to become an "enemy fighter." This decision was helped made by the famous President George W. Bush and was held in military custody in South Carolina by the Department of Defense. Also, President George W. Bush discovered that Padilla was working alongside with the terrorist named al Qaeda. Both of…
Padilla, R. v. (2004, June 25). Retrieved from Supreme Court: http://www.law.cornell.edu/supct/html/03-1027.ZS.html
Rumsfeld, H. v. (2012, November 12). Hard National Security Choices. Retrieved from Lawfare: http://www.lawfareblog.com/wiki/the-lawfare-wiki-document-library/post-911-era-materials/post-911-era-materials-court-cases/hamdi-v-rumsfeld-542-u-s-507-2004/
United States has the highest rate of confinement of prisoners per 100,000 population than any other Western country. Analyze this phenomena and discuss actions that you feel are necessary to combat this problem.
The United States currently has the highest incarceration rate of any nation worldwide. For example, greater than 60% of nations have incarceration rates below 150 per 100,000 people (Walmsley, 2003). The United States makes up just about five percent of the world's population and yet it houses 25% of the world's prison population (Walmsley, 2009). In 2008 there were more than 2.3 million people held in United States prisons and jails, a rate of approximately 754 inmates per 100,000 people (Sabol, West, & Cooper, 2009). So if we only count adults in the population that translates into a one in 100 American adults is locked up. ussia is the only other major industrialized nation that comes close…
American Psychiatric Association (APA, 2002). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th Ed.). Arlington, VA: Author.
Breggin, P.A. (2008). Brian disabling treatments in psychiatry: Drugs, electroshock, and the psychopharmaceutical complex. (2nd Edition) New York: Springer University
Burton, R. (2002). The Irish institute of nutrition and health. In Diet and criminality.
Capital punishment: Is it a deterrent to Cop Killings?
Capital punishment is the imposition of death penalty on persons condemned of a crime. (Americana, 596) Killing condemned criminals has been one of the most extensively practiced types of criminal punishment in the United States. Capital punishment has been enforced as a punishment for brutal offenses from the initial stages of documented history. The first evidence of death penalty in the United States dates back to the colonial period in 1608 in Jamestown. Possibly there do is no existence of any public policy matter connected to management of crime which has been explored and evaluated so long as the death penalty; in much diverse means than the death penalty; or in higher degree than the death penalty.
Expressed in an easy manner, the predicament is this: no crime control concern known by us more about than the death penalty and also…
Against Capital Punishment: A Summary of Arguments Presented at a Meeting of the Men's International Theosophical League of Humanity: March 31, 1914" (April/May 1998) Sunrise magazine, Theosophical University Press
Andrews, Chris. "Death penalty gets new push" (February 19, 2004)
Retrieved at http://www.lsj.com/news/local/020419_deathpenalty_1a-4adtxt.html . Accessed on 19 May, 2004
Bedau, Hugo Adam. (1988) "Recidivism, Parole, and Deterrence," in Bedau, (ed) "Death Penalty in America" Chicago University Press. p.308
The new law has prosecuted 426 traffickers in 203 cases. These traffickers had 844 victims in that year alone. This law imposes penalties from 10 years imprisonment to life imprisonment (Kyodo).
Myanmar: Effective or Not?
The capacity of the national government in fighting the problem of human trafficking has been limited (UNODC 2007). It is particularly limited in implementing policy changes in remote areas where traffickers operate. Anti-trafficking groups are looking into the situation. The UNODC addresses the issue by implementing projects and participating in partnership initiatives in the country. These projects and initiatives include increasing public awareness of the problem, provision of technical assistance for the law enforcement sector and the judiciary, greater and easier access to service providers and enhancing their capabilities (UNODC).
Reports say that Cambodia is a source, transit and destination country for human trafficking (HumanTrafficking.org 2009). Human traffickers consist of organized crime syndicates, parents,…
CIA. Russia. The World Fact Book: Central Intelligence Agency, 2009. Retrieved on April 23, 2009 from http://www.cia.gov/library/publications/2732.htm
Gekht, Anna. Shared but Differentiated Responsibility Integration of International
Obligations in Fight against Trafficking in Human Beings. Denver Journal
International Law and Policy: University of Denver, 2008. Retrieved on April
The mechanisms that have been put forth to handle issues of day amercement are rudimentary to the knowledge of many people in the U.S. For instance, day Fines is subject to the capabilities of the offenders. It is not a subject imposed to all offenders no with no consideration of their financial stabilities. Nonetheless, offenders who are judged to be within the bracket of paying day charge make it an obligation. The U.S. has state and federal strategies on imprisonment of offenders have received an enormous boost with involvement of the day Fines services.
The federal government of the U.S. has found a more equitable and distributive way of punishing offenders with day fines. Traffic offenders are rampant and active most of the day times. Since they are individuals who operate most of their activities during the daytime, the federal state perceives day fines as a more eloquent way of…
Alarid, L.F., & Del, C.R.V. (2011). Community-based corrections. Belmont, CA:
Born, G. (1996). International civil litigation in United States courts: Commentary and materials. The Hague: Kluwer Law International.
Cole, G.F., & Smith, C.E. (2006). The American system of criminal justice. Belmont, CA:
A major portion of an inmate's helplessness, deprivation, depression and self-loathing etc. arises due to physical and psychological victimization that he or she has to face. Physical victimization includes homicide, assault and rape. These arise due to poor staff supervision and keeping defenseless prisoners with the violent ones. On the other hand, psychological victimization involves verbal manipulation and harsh psychological attacks of personal nature.
The stronger inmates attempt to create their own subcultures that show their dominance, rule and assertion on all prisoners (Heilpern, 1998). To fulfill the maintenance of these subcultures, they resort to rape, riots or even homicide spreading mental illnesses like stress, phobias, enhanced criminal activity, shame, guilt, etc. among the weaker prisoners.
Imprisonment: Eliminating or aggravating crime?
It is not a hidden matter that jails, even after intensive care and security, are not free of brutality, stress and violence among the inmates. The safety of each…
Cragg, W. (2002). The practice of punishment: Towards a theory of restorative justice. Routledge.
Foucault, M. (2008). Discipline and punish: The birth of the prison.
Gendreau, P., Cullen, F.T., & Goggin, C. (1999). The effects of prison sentences on recidivism. Ottawa: Solicitor General Canada.
Gudrais, E. (2013, March). The Prison Problem. Harvard Magazine.
It is the premeditated and cold-blooded killing of a human being by the state. This cruel, inhuman and degrading punishment is done in the name of justice. It violates the right to life as proclaimed in the Universal Declaration of Human ights. Amnesty International opposes the death penalty in all cases without exception regardless of the nature of the crime, the characteristics of the offender, or the method used by the state to kill the prisoner. (Abolish the death penalty, 2008, p. 2).
Despite these increasingly vocal protestations from at home and abroad, a majority of the states in America continue to retain the death penalty as a lawful punishment for capital offenses today. While the trend toward abolishing capital punishment was apparent in recent years, it would seem reasonable to assert that the death penalty will continue to be practiced in the United States for the foreseeable future and…
Abolish the death penalty. (2008). Amnesty International. [Online]. Available: http://www.amnesty.org/en/death-penalty .
Bird, D.G. (2003). Life on the line: Pondering the fate of a substantive due process challenge to the death penalty. American Criminal Law Review, 40(3), 1329.
Black's law dictionary. (1991). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.
Burke, A.S. (2006). Improving prosecutorial decision making: Some lessons of cognitive science. William and Mary Law Review, 47(5), 1587-1588.
ole and Evolution of the American Prison System
Explain the Primary ole and Evolution of the American Prison System and Determine if Incarceration educes Crime
The United States constitution is the fundamental foundation of the American criminal justice system. Given that the document is now over two hundred years old, it constantly experiences numerous amendments and interpretations. As a result, the criminal justice system over the years experienced alterations in order to reflect the needs and beliefs of each subsequent generation. The configuration of the modern prison system has its basis in the late 1700's and early 1800s. The development of the modern prison system aims at protecting innocent members of the society from criminals. The prison systems also deter criminals from committing more crimes through detaining and rehabilitating them. However, more and more deluge of white-collar crimes and other crimes, burdens the American criminal justice system and the prison…
Barnes E. Harry. (1921). The Historical of the Prison System in America. Journal of the American Institute of Criminal Law and Criminology. Vol. 12, No. 1, May, 1921
Craig Haney. (1998). The Past & Future of U.S. Prison Policy Twenty-Five Years after the Stanford Prison Experiment. American Psychological Association July 1998 Vol. 53, No. 7, 709-727
Dina R. Rose & Todd R. Clear (2006). Incarceration, Social, Capital, & Crime: Implications for Social Disorganization Theory. Volume 36, Issue 3, pages 441-480.
Escresa - Guillermo, Laarni (2011) Reexamining the Role of Incarceration and Stigma in Criminal Law. Law and economics, criminal law, stigma, social norms, behavioral economics.
Punishment in the U.S. Correctional System
IN ITS RIGHTFUL PLACE AND FORM
Punishment in the U.S. Corrections System
Objectives of Punishment
These are to punish the offender, to protect the population from him or her, and to rehabilitate him or her (eNotes, 2013; Law Link, 2003). The first goal of punishment is theoretically intended to discourage or deter a repeat of the offense and a demonstration of why it should be avoided. The most common example of punishment is incarceration. Others are the death penalty and lesser penalties, such as probation. The second goal of the correctional system next to punishing the offender is to insure the protection of society from criminals. This is carried out by policing the streets and separating criminals through imprisonment to prevent them from repeating or performing more crimes. And the third objective is the rehabilitation of the offender so that he or she can…
ENotes (2013). Sentencing and sentencing guidelines. Encyclopedia of Everyday Law.
eNotes.com. Retrieved on January 25, 2013 from http://www.enotes.com/criminal-law-reference/sentencing-and-sentencing-guidelines
Law Link (2003). Sentencing. Law Reform Commission Report 102. Retrieved on January 25, 2013 from http://www.lawlink.nsw.gov.au/lcr.nsf/pages/r102chp03
Rank, J. (2012). Determinate sentence. Net Industries and Its Licensors: JRank.org
Survival of Racist Customs and Mores Into the 21st Century: Analysis of the American Correction and Sentencing Trends
Increasing awareness of the US's unsuccessful mass imprisonment experimentation has effected federal and state level modifications aimed at decreasing the nation's detention scale. Experts and policymakers have been suggesting "smart on crime" public safety strategies which support alternatives to imprisonment and decrease re-offense chances[footnoteRef:1]. Despite simultaneous fruitful bipartite dialogues on the subject of decreasing jail populations and bringing improvements to crime justice policies, the nation still struggles with disturbing racial frictions. The latest concern concentrates on frequent reports of law enforcement violence inflicted on non-Whites, some cases ending in fatalities of African-American males at the hands of law enforcers, with scant to no evident provocation. In this paper, the many fields in which racist values and traditions continue in the current era will be examined, with particular emphasis to the American corrective…
The Home Office website was also a good source of informstion in this regard. A very good article that shed light on the more negative view of Holloway prison as well as units in other prisons was Getting it right? Services for pregnant women, new mothers, and babies in prison. An extremely useful report that deals specifically with Holloway prison was REPORT ON AN UNANNOUNCED FOLLOW-UP INSPECTION OF HM PRISON HOLLOWAY 11 -- 15 December 2000
Y HM INSPECTORATE OF PRISONS. This report provide some telling and insightful data that invaluable in terms of assessing the value and function of the mother and baby units in this prison.
4. Theoretical aspects
There are many theoretical aspects that pertain to the issue of mother and child units at a prison such as Holloway. In general terms, and from a criminological perspective, there is the view that units of this kind are…
Burrell I. Jail baby units reviewed 1998 [Online] Available at: By
http://www.independent.co.uk/news/jail-baby-units-reviewed-1189057.html [Accessed 2 April, 2010].
Female Prisoners [Online] Available at: http://www.hmprisonservice.gov.uk/adviceandsupport/prison_life/femaleprisoners / [Accessed 3 April, 2010].
Holloway [Online] Available at: http://www.hmprisonservice.gov.uk/prisoninformation/locateaprison/prison.asp?id=454,15,2,15,454,0 [Accessed 3 April, 2010].
Criminal Justice System
After heavy bombardment on London by fighter plans of Germany in Second World War, someone asked Winston Churchill that would ritain live long! Churchill replied immediately that if our courts are providing justice then there is no question about existence of ritain, which they are. Similarly, in World War 1 and World War 2 where Jews were brutally killed by Nazis then some of the Jews got refuge in America. Americans do not have discrimination for any community at that time and famous scientist Einstein was one of them, which proved its worth. Provision of justice for every community is very important for any society, so it is for ritain. From last few years' lot of questions have been raised on criminal Judiciary system in ritain.
Shami chakrabarti (Director of liberty) says
efore you decide whether the system is fit for purpose, you have to decide what…
BBC. (2001, MAY 7). BBCNEWS VOTE 2001. Retrieved from BBC NEWS|VOTE 2001|FACTS: http://news.bbc.co.uk/news/vote2001/hi/e
CNN. (2012, Feb 22). Cameron hosts talks on football racism. Retrieved from CNN: http://edition.cnn.com/2012/02/22/sport/football/uk-football-racism/index.html
Community Correction Punishments. (1996, May). California Research Bureau. Retrieved from Community Correction Punishments: http://www.library.ca.gov/crb/96/08/
Press TV. (2012, May 07). UK police racism complaints doubled. Retrieved from Press TV_UK police racism complaints doubled: http://www.presstv.ir/detail/239932.html
delineation of the research hypotheses. The chapter will conclude with an outline of the remaining chapters.
Relevant Background Information
Increasingly, female offenders and issues associated with their incarceration have been identified as a problem of concern. Evidence suggests that female offenders represent a growing population within the U.S. penal system. Between 1986 and 1991, the number of female inmates in state prisons increased 75% (Bureau of Justice Statistics, 1994). Between 1981 and 1991, the number of females incarcerated in federal penal institutions also increased by 24%. Since 1980 the population of women inmates has increased by more than 200% (Gabel & Johnston, 1995). Women inmates currently account for 9% of the entire prison population and of this group, 57% are women of color.
The majority of women are arrested for nonviolent crimes. Typical offenses include fraud, use of illegal drugs, and prostitution (Singer, Bussey, Song, & Lunghofer, 1995). Evidence also…
Facts about the Cheshire Murders
The Cheshire murders were the Connecticut home invasion that occurred on July 23, 2007. Jennifer Hawke-Petit, wife of Dr. William Petit and her two daughters were brutally killed. Her daughter was raped and killed while Dr. William managed to escape, although, he was injured during the home invasion. (Daily Mail). Typically, the case was the most widely publicized case in the history of Connecticut because of the nature of the killings. The two daughters of the couple were Hayes aged 17 and Michael 11, were tied to the bed, suffocated and the house was set on fire. The Haye's confession proved that the two criminals had planned to rob the house in the dark. However, the police were able to arrest the penetrator named Steven J. Hayes and Joshua A. Komisarjevsky.
Sentence Defendants Receive
During the trial, the jury deliberated on the evidence against them.…
4). They contend that most people on death row know they will not face execution, but will draw the legal fight out with appeals for as long as possible, and so, the death penalty is not a deterrent for them or others, because of the unlikelihood it will ever actually be carried out.
In addition, researchers argue that it is impossible to determine true deterrence with using time or similar defendants and punishment, there is no scientific way to conduct these tests effectively. Another researcher writes, "We have not been and never will be able to verify the deterrent effect of executions by conducting a 'controlled' scientific experiment, which would randomly assign either execution or some term of years to similarly situated defendants in similarly situated jurisdictions" (Steiker, 2005). In short, there is no real, reliable model to determine how many lives might be saved by executing prisoners, because each…
Youthful offenders especially, are subjected to negative influences and damaging treatment while in prison. Rehabilitation can be arranged so as to meet the needs of individual women and men, allowing them to come to terms with the reality of their transgressions, and to see and understand how they affect those around them. Mandatory participation in rehabilitation programs as an alternative to prison can give these insights to offenders even if they do not, at first, or even a second or a third time, accomplish their desired goals. Mandatory prison sentences for relatively minor or consensual drug and alcohol offenses have swelled the nation's prison system. Vast numbers of otherwise productive persons are kept locked away from society, doomed for perhaps making ill-advised decisions, denied proper treatment and consideration. The system should be changed to emphasize the inclusiveness of society. Individuals who offend should be helped with their problems and welcomed…
Berman, Douglas a. "Distinguishing Offense Conduct and Offender Characteristics in Modern Sentencing Reforms." Stanford Law Review 58.1 (2005): 277+.
Delgado, Melvin. Where Are All the Young Men and Women of Color?: Capacity Enhancement Practice in the Criminal Justice System. New York: Columbia University Press, 2001.
This solution is applied, expressly or tacitly all over the world. The usual alternative for extremely serious crimes remain life imprisonment. However, "although nearly all member states [of the EU] provide for this type of punishment in their respective penal codes either as a possibility or mandatory, it is understood rather as a principle than as common knowledge" (Use of the Death Penalty Worldwide)
What would it take to work?
There is a big a step ahead that needs to be taken in order to abolish the death penalty, and it involves the mentality of the people. Many Americans are avid for larger and more powerful guns. How would such people accept that the dead penalty is inhumane? Perhaps social campaigns could prove useful in such a case.
What is the history of the death penalty in the U.S.
The United States have a long history of applying the death…
1. Joynt, Jen, Shuchart, Carrie "Moral Justice," Atlantic Monthly, 10727825, Mar2003, Vol. 291, Issue 2 ("Moral Justice")
2. Dority, Barbara "Not In My Name," Humanist, 00187399, Mar/Apr93, Vol. 53, Issue 2 ("Not in My Name")
3. "Death Penalty Vigil" Christian Science Monitor, 08827729, 11/17/99, Vol. 91, Issue 246 ("Death Penalty Vigll")
4. "Use of the Death Penalty Worldwide," International Debates; Feb2004, Vol. 2 Issue 2, p34, ("Use of the Death Penalty Worldwide")
This researcher rejects the existence of online communities because computer mediated group discussions cannot possibly meet this definition. Weinreich's view is that anyone with even a basic knowledge of sociology understands that information exchange in no way constitutes a community.
For a cyber-place with an associated computer mediated group to be labeled as a virtual settlement it is necessary for it to meet a minimum set of conditions. These are: (1) a minimum level of interactivity; (2) a variety of communicators; (3) a minimum level of sustained membership; and (4) a virtual common-public-space where a significant portion of interactive computer mediated groups occur (Weinreich, 1997). The notion of interactivity will be shown to be central to virtual settlements. Further, it will be shown that virtual settlements can be defined as a cyber-place that is symbolically delineated by topic of interest and within which a significant proportion of interrelated interactive computer…
Al-Saggaf, Y. & Williamson, K. Online Communities in Saudi Arabia: Evaluating the Impact on Culture Through Online Semi-Structured Interviews. Volume 5,
No. 3, Art. 24 - September 2004
AnchorDesk Staff. (2000). Sign of Trouble: The Problem with E-Signatures.
Retrieved April 9, 2005, from ZDNet AnchorDesk Web site: http://reivews- zdnet.com.com/AnchorDesk/4630-6033_4204767.html?tag=print
The stigmatization of African-Americans has caused terrible harm in many areas, and only exacerbates the perceived "problem."
T]hirty years of forced removal to prison of 150,000 young males from particular communities of New York represents collective losses similar in scale to the losses due to epidemics, wars, and terrorist attacks -- with the potential for comparable effects on the survivors and the social structure of their families and communities. (oberts, 2004)
By destroying African-American communities and social networks on a massive scale, law enforcement officials are contributing to the very problems they purport to be fighting.
The mass imprisonment of African-Americans further spreads and entrenches the notion that African-Americans are somehow incapable of conforming to the larger society's rules and regulations. The more common the prison experience becomes in African-American life, the more normative it becomes in both African-American and majority White culture. oberts underlines the terrible effects of this…
Coker, D. (2003). Foreword: Addressing the Real World of Racial Injustice in the Criminal Justice System. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 93(4), 827+.
Harcourt, B.E. (2003). From the Ne'er-Do-Well to the Criminal History Category: The Refinement of the Actuarial Model in Criminal Law. Law and Contemporary Problems, 66(3), 99+.
New viewpoints in regards to supporting the future development of corrections are being established because of past and present inclinations. The matters and concerns that have something to do with the corrections part of the criminal justice system are having prisons that are clearly overcrowded and not having enough in the budget to make some adjustments. If these concerns and issues are not talked about or even looked into, it is a strong possibility that they will continue to have some kind of an effect on operations in the near future of corrections. Community and restorative justice programs are options being looked at when it comes to the future of corrections as legislators, activists and administrators, debate philosophies to speak about these concerns and issues brought about from past and present trends.
The "get tough" approach against crime, long ago, was once preferred by the national political climate. It was…
Appelbaum, P.S. (2011). Law & psychiatry: Lost in the crowd: Prison mental health care, overcrowding, and the courts. Psychiatric Services, 62(10), 1121-3.
Pearl, N. (2009). A task force to reduce prison overcrowding: Implications for criminal justice policy, planning and research methods courses. Journal of Criminal Justice Education, 11(1), 111-121.
Pontell, H.N. (2004). Incarceration as a deviant form of social control: Jail overcrowding in california. Crime and Delinquency, 40(1), 18.
Specter, D. (2010). Everything revolves around overcrowding: The state of california's prisons. Federal Sentencing Reporter, 22(3), 194-199.
Criminal Procedure Law
This document outlines the proposed criminal justice system. Its aim is to prevent and control crime and criminal acts through punitive measures and penalties to those who violate the set laws. The paper is a suggested criminal justice system for a national jurisdiction, at the federal level. The jurisdiction has a population of about one million people who are equally dispersed in the urban cities and rural areas of the nation. The social and economic status of the residents in this jurisdiction ranges from the very poor to the very rich. The country has its fair share of illegal immigrants and the criminal acts perpetrated in the country do compare throughout all the regions of the country.
Murder is the termination of the life of a human being. The life of a human being starts at the point of conception. Murder is an act committed…
Adlerstein, Jo Anne C. "Felony-Murder in the New Criminal Codes." Am. J. Crim. L. 4 (1975): 249. Web.
Bubany, Charles P. "Texas Penal Code of 1974, The." Sw. LJ 28 (1974): 292. Web.
HEALTH AND SAFETY CODE, § CHAPTER 481-Sec. 481.001.-Sec. 481.354. (2013). Web.
Miller, Emily L. "(Wo) manslaughter: Voluntary Manslaughter, Gender, and the Model Penal Code." Emory LJ 50 (2001): 665. Web.
The cost for processing a drug court case through the court system is only a fraction of the cost for processing criminal drug cases through the court system. Furthermore, the cost of drug court and other drug treatment for drug offenders is only a fraction of the cost for imprisonment of these individuals. Drug offenders finishing alterative drug court or other treatment programs have been found less likely to have repeated charges and convictions of drug offenses and to have longer abstinences from use of drugs. Finally, in terms of costs to society that cannot be measured in monetary terms, the alternative sentencing of drug offenders to drug courts and other treatment programs will end the breakdown of society that has been witnessed due to imposition of prison sentences on drug offenders. The research conducted in order to prepare for the debate and in order to complete the research within…
The Federal Prison Population: A Statistical Analysis (2004) the Sentencing Project. Online available at http://www.sentencingproject.org/Admin/Documents/publications/inc_federalprisonpop.pdf
Clay, Rebecca (2006) Incarceration vs. Treatment: Drug Courts Help Substance Abusing Offenders. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration News March/April Vol. 14. No.2. Online available at http://www.samhsa.gov/samhsa_news/VolumeXIV_2/index.htm
Shaffer, Deborah; Bechtel, Kristin; and Latessa, Edward J. (2005) Evaluation of Ohio's Drug Courts: A Cost Benefit Analysis. Center for Criminal Justice Research Dec 2005. Online available at http://www.uc.edu/criminaljustice/ProjectReports/Ohio_Drug_Courts_Cost_Benefit_Analysis_2005.pdf
Drug Court Benefits (nd) Online NCDI.org available at http://www.ndci.org/courtfacts_benefits.html
The Trafficking Victims Protection eauthorization Act
Final Project / Dissertation
Degree: Juris Doctorate Specialized
Specialization: Constitutional Law
The Trafficking Victims Protection eauthorization Act
This paper reviews the rights and protection that a state and federal government official provides to citizens that have been the subject of human trafficking crimes. Citizens need the protection of the police and other law enforcement officials to report human trafficking crimes and to protect and assist those that need their assistance. This paper will seek to explain the definition of human trafficking, how it works, victim support, issues with upholding and implementing legislature and the solutions which can be used to satisfy the public.
Table of Contents
Elements of Human Trafficking
Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act of 2000
Alien Smuggling, Harboring and Transportation
New York State's Human Trafficking Law…
1. The Crime of Human Trafficking: A Law Enforcement Guide to Identification and Investigation. (n.d.). http://www.vaw.umn.edu/documents/completehtguide/completehtguide.pdf
2. Trafficking in Persons Report. (2006). Washington, DC.: U.S. Department of State.
3. United States Constitution Bill of Rights. (n, d.). http://topics.law.cornell.edu/constitution/billofrights
4. 13th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution: Abolition of Slavery (1865). (n.d.)
The Sociological Implications of Plato's Allegory of the Cave
Social enlightenment is an abstract concept indeed, and one that is tied closely to collective ways of understanding and perceiving complex cultural dimensions such are hierarchies, forms of governance and variances of individual economic burden. However, our understanding of this abstract concept may be enhanced by Plato's well-known "Allegory of the Cave." Comprising Chapter VII of Plato's critically important The Republic, the allegory examines the experience of socially-imposed ignorance and the consequences of enlightenment. In doing so, it offers an extremely compelling discussion on the human condition that is remarkable in its relevance to our lives today. Namely, the allegory forces us to examine our conceptions of awareness and to reflect on that which we truly know as opposed to that which we believe we know. Indeed, the most compelling aspect of the Plato allegory is the degree to…
Plato. (360 BCE). The Republic trans. By Benjamin Jowett. The Internet Classics Archive.
One is most deterred by what one fears most. From which it follows that whatever statistics fail, or do not fail, to show, the death penalty is likely to be more deterrent than any other.
If it is difficult, perhaps impossible, to prove statistically, and just as hard to disprove, that the death penalty deters more from capital crimes than available alternative punishments do (such as life imprisonment), why do so many people believe so firmly that the death penalty is a more effective deterrent?
Some are persuaded by irrelevant arguments. They insist that the death penalty at least makes sure that the person who suffered it will not commit other crimes. True. Yet this confuses incapacitation with a specific way to bring it about: death. Death is the surest way to bring about the most total incapacitation, and it is irrevocable. ut does incapacitation need to…
1. Bedau, Hugo and Radelet, Michael., Miscarriages of Justice in Potentially Capital Cases, 40 Stan. L. Rev. 21., 1987.
2. Gregg v. Georgia, 428 U.S. 153. 1976.
3. Louis Pojman, The Death Penalty: For and Against, Lanham, Md., Rowman and Littlefield, 1998.
4. Nathanson, Stephen., An Eye for an Eye, 2d ed., Lanham, Md., Rowman and Littlefield, 2001
In the American Disease: Origins of Narcotic Control, David Musto notes that throughout the twentieth century, America's drug wars have regularly scape-goated minority groups, like the Chinese with opium, marijuana among the Mexicans, and cocaine among the African-Americans (McCormick 2000).
The National Advisory Commission on Criminal Justice Standards and Goals reported in 1973 that "the prison, the reformatory and the jail have achieved only a shocking record a failure. There is overwhelming evidence that these institutions create crime rather than prevent it," yet during the next two decades both state and federal legislatures implemented increasingly stiffer penalties and mandatory minimums claiming that prisons were an effective tool for crime control, and longer prison terms would reduce crime by deterring or incapacitating criminals (McCormick 2000). However, at the end of this period, after the average prison sentence had tripled and the prison population at more than quadrupled, a National Academy of…
Demleitner, Nora V. (2005 October 01). Smart public policy: replacing imprisonment with targeted nonprison sentences and collateral sanctions. Stanford Law Review. Retrieved September 18, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
Dickenson, Rachel. (1996 February 01). The prison population bomb.
American Demographics. Retrieved September 18, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
Incarceration. (2005). The Sentencing Project. Retrieved September 18, 2006 at http://www.sentencingproject.org/issues_01.cfm
The current designation of the major categories of crime in the U.S. can be traced to England following the Norman Conquest in 1066. Prior to this period the Church was the primary regulator of morality, but over time the Church began to lose control over the lives of people and the local governments began making regulations (Dworkin, 1978). After 1066 Henry II institutionalized law throughout England in order that it would be "common" to the country and he reinstated the jury system. Judges went from London across Great Britain to see cases and they would discuss cases with one another upon returning. This developed "case" law and judges used case law to decide future cases allowing the law to be "common" throughout England. Statutory law did not occur for several hundred years later. There were three basic crimes under the common law: treason (high and petty), felonies (with and…
Dworkin, R.M. (1978). Taking rights seriously. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Gaines, L.K. & Miller, R.L. (2006). Criminal justice in action: The core. Belmont, CA:
Robinson, P.H. & Dubber, M.D. (2010). An introduction to the Model Penal
Death Penalty in Michigan
There are, at present, 38 states with the death penalty and 12 without (deathpenaltyinfo.org 2004). Michigan is one of the 12. From 1976, there have been 906 executions in the U.S.: 517 were white, 310 blacks; 57 hispanic; and 22, other races. More than 80% of these cases involved white victims, although only 50% of murder victims were white. Case studies on race showed that 96% had racial undertones, whereby 98% of the chief district attorneys were white and only 1% were black. Another study conducted in Philadelphia revealed that more blacks were given the death penalty than white and other races at 38%. Still another study conducted in North Carolina said that the death sentence went up by 3.5 times when the victims were white (deathpenaltyinfo.org). Records show that 37 states with the death penalty used lethal injection method in 739 executions, 151 by electrocution,…
Prison Life for Inmates
Sending offenders to prison has been used as a way of dealing with prisoners for a long time. It was not always seen as a way of punishment; rather, it was used as detention pending the actual punishment of these offenders. The application of imprisonment has been around, perhaps, for as long as humanity has existed. In Old Testament times, prisons were used in Jerusalem. Some prominent personalities have been reported to have been born in prison environments. Others have been imprisoned. It is reported that Lord Krishna was born in prison at a place called Mathura. Shahjahan was imprisoned by his son at Agra. The ritish constructed the historic cell at Port lair for detaining for life those who revolted against their rule. Prisons have not always been viewed as a way of punishing offenders; rather they have been used to detain offenders before the…
Bradford, Andrew Ryan. "An Examination of The Prison Environment: An Analysis of Inmate Concerns Eight Environmental Dimensions." School of Graduate Studies (2006).
Burlington County. "Prison Museum." A National Historic Landmark Located in The Heart of Holly 2013.
Covert, H. "Ministry to The Incarcerated." Chicago: Loyopla Books, 1995.
Department of Corrections. Victims Services Programs. 2015. .
Resistance, Imprisonment & Forced Labor: a Slovene Student in World War II by Metod M. Milac is a memoir and primary source of his experience as a non-Jewish person during the Holocaust. Told through the perspective of Metod, his experiences between 1934 to 1950 allowed readers a glimpse of what it was like for non-Jewish victims experiencing Nazi occupation and encroachment in their homeland. Like another notable Holocaust figure, Anne Frank, both had to deal with incredible hardships brought on by an army that disregarded human rights, yet for someone like Metod, who was a student at the time, he had to deal with such difficulties in the open and with little hope for solace or comfort. The Jewish victims of the Holocaust had to hide or perform illegal actions to evade capture and imprisonment. Non-Jewish victims had to deal with the armies and the brutal treatment they would often…