79+ documents containing “in vitro fertilization”.
One of the most remarkable medical discoveries of the 20th century is in-vitro fertilization, a technique developed and used to conceive a human embryo outside of the mother's body. In-vitro fertilization was originally devised for use in cases of infertility, i.e., where the woman's fallopian tubes were damaged or the man's sperm count was low. However, in recent years, the use of in-vitro fertilization has been expanded to include pre-implantation genetic diagnosis, a process which is designed to create an embryo which is a close genetic match to a sibling who suffers from a rare genetic disorder. In this process, the blood from the umbilical cord of the baby created via in-vitro fertilization may be used to attempt to save the sibling's life. This process was first used in the case of Molly Nash from Colorado, where cord blood from her brother Adam was transplanted into the little girl,….
in Vitro Fertilization: A Question of Ethical and Spiritual Morality
In vitro fertilization is a common reproductive procedure that generally falls under the scope of biotechnology.
It is a process that is condemned by the Catholic church and often criticized by lawyers and ethicist despite the number of live births that result from the procedure
Despite this condemnation, there are hundreds of thousands of individuals that partake in IVF procedures every year, in the hope of bringing 'new life' into the world. Even members of spiritual communities have gone against tradition and the recommendation of church elders to participate in IVF. The increase in use and potential for abuse is alarming.
I will argue in this paper that in vitro fertilization is morally wrong because it results in the meaningless reproduction and may potentially result in the misuse or abuse of life and even death. I will support this thesis by arguing that in….
Andrews, Lori B. (1999). The Clone Age: Adventures in the New World of Reproductive Technology,
Henry Holt; from Schaeffer, P. (1999). "In Vitro Fertilization Widely Used." NCR Online.
"Instruction on respect for human life." Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith. Available:
In Vitro Fertilization
This is a paper that outlines the morality issue behind in vitro fertilization. It has 12 sources.
As scientific progress advances more rapidly than the ability of mankind to assimilate and comprehend its influence on life concerns, fields such as Assisted eproductive Technology (AT) are turning heretofore basic issues like procreation into complex ethical and moral dilemmas.
In 1978, with the birth of Louise Brown, the first child conceived through in vitro fertilization (IVF), man finally realized his power to create, not passively through instinctual processes but consciously and actively. [Daar 1999] The desire to have children is strong in the human heart and infertility is a serious and painful issue. There are however more aspects to having a child than mere desire and the means by which the child is created is amongst the most important. Over the past few decades science has allowed individuals biologically otherwise incapable of….
Mission, Human Life, In-Vitro Fertilization, Cloning, The Human Genome Project & Gene Therapy and Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research, American Bioethics Advisory Commission. 2003. Available at http://www.all.org/abac/mission2.htm
Author not available. Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research. Operation Rescue West. 2003. At http://www.operationrescue.org/embryo/biotech/stemcell.asp
Brinsden PR. Treatment by in vitro fertilisation with surrogacy: experience of one British centre. (Statistical Data Included). British Medical Journal, 2000.320:924-9.
Daar JF. Assisted reproductive technologies and the pregnancy process: developing an equality model to protect reproductive liberties. American Journal of Law & Medicine. 1999.
Secondary risk factors are high E2 serum levels or rising levels, more than 20-25 follicles in both ovaries, the number of eggs retrieved, stimulation agents used, hCG administration, and pregnancy. Younger women are more prone to the syndrome as they are more responsive to gonadotropins and have more follicles than older women. Findings suggested that a lower body mass index carries a risk. Women with PCOS are more sensitive to infused follicle-stimulating hormone and produce more follicles with gonadotropin stimulation. They are more susceptible to developing the syndrome. Those who only have an isolated characteristic of the syndrome develop a comparable exaggerated response to gonadotropins. They are thus also at a higher risk for developing OHSS (Zivi et al.).
Parental Infertility and Cerebral Palsy in Children
A recent Danish National irth Cohort found that children born through IVF sperm injection have a higher risk of cerebral palsy than children born spontaneously….
Kashyap, S. And Davis, O.K. (2003). Ovarian cancer and fertility medications: a critical appraisal. 21 (1) Seminars in Reproductive Medicine: Thieme Medical Publishers.
Retrieved on November 24, 2011 from http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/56560
A review of all available literature was spurred by the question of a 35-year-old woman about the risk of ovarian cancer following IVF therapy. The question has been frequently asked. The association between ovulation induction and the occurrence of ovarian cancer cannot be established by randomized controlled clinical trials. The search for answers was made using four relevant cohort studies, turning up the article "The Risk of Cancer After Use of Fertility Drugs with in-vitro Fertilization." The article drew much controversy and criticism from reproductive medicine and epidemiology groups.
Koivurova, S. et al. (2007). Post-neonatal hospitalization and health care costs among
This might be the case for an idnivdual that suffers from severe mental retardation or some type of brain injury that prohibits the person from making common sense and logical decisions. Why should this person/couple not be allowed IVF? If they don't have the mental capability to care for themselves or make good decisions, they will not be able to make good decisions and care for a baby. Caring for a baby requires that a person have at least a relatively normal cognitive ability and sense of what is safe vs. not safe, good vs. bad etc. etc.
Being disabled in and of itself should never automatically disqualify someone for a procedure like IVF. However it is important that the individual at least be able to make accommodations so that they can provide for a child's basic needs, and they must have the mental capacity to understand the developing needs….
in Vitro Fertilization (IVF)
In the 1960s, the use of in vitro fertilization (IVF) to help couples conceive children was mired in controversy. Once media events, the birth of test tube babies no longer cause any surprise. For many people, the concept of IVF had become routine. However, recent developments in IVF technology have raised more ethical quandaries. Is it ethical for parents to use IVF technology to conceive and give birth to a child to provide donor marrow for an ill sibling? Could people ethically use IVF technology to screen for diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and breast cancer? Is it ethical for parents to "design" their baby's genes, to ensure not only health, but physical appearance, as well?
IVF could have tremendous potential in both preventing and curing disease. It could also cause a dangerous trend towards eugenics, where people screen out any factors that could be seen as defects….
Jonietz, Erika. "Choosing our children's genetic futures." Technology Review. 106(1) February 2003. Proquest Database.
Schaefer, Pamela. "In vitro fertilization widely used." National Catholic Reporter. 36(1). October 1999. Proquest Database.
Trafford, Abigail. "Second Opinion." The Washington Post, November 14, 2000. Proquest Database.
Sherwin starts her look at IVF from a feminist perspective by stating that capitalism, racism, sexism and elitism of the culture today have united to generate a set of outlooks which sees kids as property. Children are valued as privatized commodities, reflecting the virility and heredity of their parents. The argument goes on to say that women are convinced that their most significant purpose in life is to bear and raise children. They are told repetitively that their life is deficient and that they are missing fulfillment if they do not have kids.
According to Sherwin feminist theory helps one of focus on different dimensions of the problem. But with the issue of IVF, it is still difficult to decide whether to encourage, tolerate, modify or restrict reproductive technology. The author states that in her opinion feminist theory is a moral theory that centers on relations among people as well as….
Sherwin, Susan. Feminist Ethics and In Vitro Fertilization. Biomedical Ethics. By Degrazia,
David, Mappes, Thomas A. And Brand-Ballard, Jeffrey. 2010. 7th ed. Columbus:
McGraw-Hill. 2010. 548-552. Print.
Singer, Peter. IVF: The Simple Case. Biomedical Ethics. By Degrazia, David, Mappes,
Vitro' fertilization is one of the applications of advanced technology that provides a solution to infertility among couples. The practice has long been in existence, and many referred to offspring of couples who have undergone this process, 'test tube babies.' In vitro ('in glass') fertilization is only one of the many treatments for infertility. The general term by which in vitro can be identified is through artificial insemination, wherein semen taken from the woman's partner or male donor is "injected" into a woman's uterus. In the technique of in vitro fertilization, however, "eggs are removed from a woman's ovaries and fertilized in a laboratory dish with her partner's sperm" (Dmowski 1991 265).
There are several reasons why infertility happens, and indications that show that a couple needs to undergo an in vitro treatment. Infertility may be due to either the man or the woman's infertility. A man becomes infertile when laboratory….
Dmowski, Paul. "Infertility." World Book Encyclopedia Vol 10. USA: World Book Inc. 1991.
In Vitro Fertilization (IVF): "Test Tube Babies." 2001. Fertility Confidential Webpage. 10 June 2002 http://www.fertilityconfidential.com/fertilityconfidential/infertility/conventional/ivf.cfm.
IVF Program. 2000. South Jersey Fertility Center Webpage. 10 June 2002 http://www.sjfert.com/assisted_reproductive_Programs.html .
Williamson, Miryam. "Waiting Longer to Get Pregnant: The Advantages and Disadvantages for Women." 6 November 2000. Rockhill Communications. Laurus Health News Feature. 10 June 2002 http://www.laurushealth.com/HealthNews/HealthNewsFeature/hnf1110600.htm.
Additionally, the utilitarian position presents the advantage of objectively quantifying the interests of everyone affected by the decision, for the sole purpose of promoting common welfare. Thus, harvesting, fertilizing, genetically screening, implanting and researching human embryos at the risk of damaging or destroying them - is entirely justified from this perspective, and any progressive endeavor is encouraged.
Nevertheless, this approach might involuntarily discourage many IVF clients as it appears to be too rigid and provides them with little autonomy in making decisions regarding their own embryos. Interestingly, a utilitarian might not even support IVF treatment, due to the risks involved in the whole process - namely a large financial loss if the process should fail -, an therefore it is uncertain whether or not this infertility treatment would meet the Utilitarian requirements of avoiding pain and creating the most amount of happiness; there might be a lot of future un-happiness….
Balasubramanian, J. And Narayanan, N. "Assisted Reproductive Technology: life cycle of reproduction." Discovery Life Journal, Vol. 3 No. 9, March 2013:13-16.
Beauchamp T.L. And Childress, J.F. Principles of Biomedical Ethics (5th ed.). New York: Oxford University Press, 2001.
Botkin, J.R. "Ethical Issues and Practical Problems in Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis." In Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics, 16 (1998): 17-28.
Kolata, G. "Robert G. Edwards Dies at 87; Changed Rules of Conception With First 'Test Tube Baby'." The New York Times. The New York Times Company, 10 Apr. 2013. Web. 4 June 2013. Available: http://www.nytimes.com/2013/04/11/us/robert-g-edwards-nobel-winner-for-in-vitro-fertilization-dies-at-87.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0 .
The majority of women can return to their normal routine the next day ("In Vitro Fertilization"). In most cases total bed rest is not required unless there is some risk associated with the development of OHSS ("In Vitro Fertilization").
The NIH further explains that women who utilize IVF must take the hormone progesterone for at least two months following the embryo transfer ("In Vitro Fertilization"). The hormone is taken through daily shots or pills. Progesterone is a naturaly produced hormone produced that assists in thickenign the lining of the uterus ("In Vitro Fertilization"). This thickening makes it easier for the embryo to implant to the wall of the uterus. If there is ot enough progesterone the woman will miscarry ("In Vitro Fertilization").
In additon to the risks associated with this type of reproductive technology, IVF is very expensive ("In Vitro Fertilization"). The NIH explains that many states require that insurance companies….
Becker, G. (2000). The Elusive Embryo: How Women and Men Approach New Reproductive Technologies. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Bleiklie, I., Goggin, M.L., & Rothmayr, C. (Eds.). (2003). Comparative Biomedical Policy: Governing Assisted Reproductive Technologies. London: Routledge. Retrieved Burfoot, a. (Ed.). (1999). Encyclopedia of Reproductive Technologies. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
In Vitro Fertilization. National Institutes of Health. Retrieved March 18 at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/007279.htm
Sloan, G.A. (1993). Postponing Parenthood: The Effect of Age on Reproductive Potential. New York: Insight Books.
But if you want a baby badly enough, you will do it" (The Women's Health Council). Women are subjected to a wide range of drugs which have harmful side effects. Some drugs induced to facilitate ovulation have also caused infertility in the male child. When women are put through the consumption of such drugs, the chances of multiple births increases, thus the woman gives birth to twins, triplets or even more.
In 2000, 53% of infants born through AT were multiple births, compared to 3% of births in the general population. The twin rate was 22 times higher than the general population; the triplet and higher multiples rate was 50 times higher. Their higher risk for birth defects and low birth weight add to already over-burdened health care costs." (Marie Anderson and John Bruchalski)
Many couples cannot afford to bring up more than one child at a time and hence in….
1) Tomorrow's Child - Plot Synopsis [online website] Available at http://www.vh1.com/movies/movie/35838/plot.jhtml[Accessed on: 07/09/2005]
2) Magisterium of the Catholic Church. Instruction on respect for human life in its origin and on the dignity of procreation: replies to certain questions of the day (22 February 1987), Vatican City.
3) Steinbock B. Life before birth: the moral and legal status of embryos and fetuses. New York, Oxford University Press, 1992. Pages: 59-71.
4) Claudia Kalb with Karen Springen - "Brave New Babies" [online website] Available at http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/3990134/site/newsweek/ [Accessed on 07/09/2005]
Parents be Allowed to Choose their aby's Gender?
THE TWO SIDES
Should Parents be Allowed to Choose their aby's Gender?
A revolutionary lab technique, called sperm sorting, can now establish the gender of an offspring (Mail Online, 2013). The sperm carries the sex chromosome of a future child and sorting involves choosing the desired sex chromosome and then inseminating a woman with it. Gender can also be selected by abortion and before the embryonic stage through IVF or in vitro fertilization. Gender selection has been the subject of much debate because of its many consequences (Mail Online).
Artificial insemination consists of inserting concentrated sperm into the uterus to achieve a greater chance of fertilization (Stephens, 2011). Other methods are used to choose the gender of the baby. One is by using a dye on the desired gender from the sperm and then returning the dyed cell into womb. The Ericsson method identifies the….
Dahl, E. (2003). Ethical issues in new uses of pre-implantation genetic diagnosis:
should parents be allowed to use pre-implantation genetic diagnosis to choose the sexual orientation of their children? Vol. 18 # 7, Human Reproduction. Retrieved on November 11, 2013 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12832358
Knoppers, B.M. et al. (2006). Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis: an overview of socio-
ethical and legal considerations. Vol. 7, Annual Review of Genomic and Human
3. Embryonic stem cells can be used to help human beings who suffer from debilitating diseases for which no other solution offers hope. For this reason alone, the research should be legal, considering that the embryos from which the stem cells are derived cannot be shown to possess any type of noticeable consciousness. There is no moral reason to favor the use of animals in medical research over the use of embryonic stem cells, considering that the former are fully developed creatures who clearly have the potential to feel pain, whereas the latter demonstrate little more than potentiality. Furthermore, most embryonic stem cells are culled from discarded tissues used for in vitro fertilization. If in vitro fertilization is legal then so too should be the proper use of the leftover cell mass.
Human Reproduction and Development. (2004). Retrieved 22 Sept 2005, from the Ipui Department of Biology eb Site: http://www.biology.iupui.edu/biocourses/N100/2k4ch39repronotes.html
Human Reproduction and Development. (2004). Retrieved 22 Sept 2005, from the Ipui Department of Biology Web Site: http://www.biology.iupui.edu/biocourses/N100/2k4ch39repronotes.html
Irving, Dianne N. (2005). Framing the Debates on Human Cloning and Human Embryonic Stem Cells: Pluripotent vs. TOTIPOTENT. Retrieved 22 Sept 2005 at http://www.lifeissues.net/writers/irv/irv_100debatecloning1.html
Kischer, C. Ward. (2004). Human Development and Reconsideration of Ensoulment. Retrieved 22 Sept 2005 at http://www.lifeissues.net/writers/kisc/kisc_10humandevelopment.html
Moral and Medical Dilemma
As the progression of medical technology has expanded humanity's ability to heal one another directly -- through the process of organ transplants, blood transfusions, and bone marrow exchanges -- several ethical dilemmas have surfaced which impact physicians, patients, and politicians alike. An individual's voluntary decision to donate his or her organs in the event of an unexpected death, and the government's methods for devising an equitable system of distribution for blood and organ transplants are just a few of the increasingly rancorous debates to become associated with cutting-edge medical techniques. Today, with the concept of stem-cell research offering a vast array of seemingly miraculous medical advances, the moral discussion has shifted to cases like that experienced by the Whitaker family, which has been forced to confront an agonizing choice involving their seriously ill son Charlie. In the end, although the Whitakers were able to develop a viable….
childhood any less safe and enjoyable now than in the past?
Childhood is a period that initiates a change in the perspective of the family or the parents involved. It entails the aspect of responsibilities and commitments for the parent to ensure safe and secure parenting for the child. However, concerns continue to arise due to the dynamic nature of the society. The society keeps on evolving, changing various aspects and practices within the community. Through these developments, the child does not escape the eventual outcomes from these changes. Social construction consists of incorporation of new practices, which develop into the norm of the society while the old are replaced through these procedures and changes. The child faces challenges in their adaptive mechanisms as these changes come with risks, anxieties, worries and fear from the eminent social changes.
The social changes led to the evolution of a generalized world, in which….
In-Vitro Fertilization One of the most remarkable medical discoveries of the 20th century is in-vitro fertilization, a technique developed and used to conceive a human embryo outside of the mother's…Read Full Paper ❯
in Vitro Fertilization: A Question of Ethical and Spiritual Morality In vitro fertilization is a common reproductive procedure that generally falls under the scope of biotechnology. It is a process that…Read Full Paper ❯
In Vitro Fertilization This is a paper that outlines the morality issue behind in vitro fertilization. It has 12 sources. As scientific progress advances more rapidly than the ability of mankind…Read Full Paper ❯
Sports - Women
Secondary risk factors are high E2 serum levels or rising levels, more than 20-25 follicles in both ovaries, the number of eggs retrieved, stimulation agents used, hCG administration,…Read Full Paper ❯
This might be the case for an idnivdual that suffers from severe mental retardation or some type of brain injury that prohibits the person from making common sense…Read Full Paper ❯
in Vitro Fertilization (IVF) In the 1960s, the use of in vitro fertilization (IVF) to help couples conceive children was mired in controversy. Once media events, the birth of test…Read Full Paper ❯
Sports - Women
Sherwin starts her look at IVF from a feminist perspective by stating that capitalism, racism, sexism and elitism of the culture today have united to generate a set of…Read Full Paper ❯
Vitro' fertilization is one of the applications of advanced technology that provides a solution to infertility among couples. The practice has long been in existence, and many referred to…Read Full Paper ❯
Business - Ethics
Additionally, the utilitarian position presents the advantage of objectively quantifying the interests of everyone affected by the decision, for the sole purpose of promoting common welfare. Thus, harvesting,…Read Full Paper ❯
Sports - Women
The majority of women can return to their normal routine the next day ("In Vitro Fertilization"). In most cases total bed rest is not required unless there is…Read Full Paper ❯
But if you want a baby badly enough, you will do it" (The Women's Health Council). Women are subjected to a wide range of drugs which have harmful…Read Full Paper ❯
Women's Issues - Sexuality
Parents be Allowed to Choose their aby's Gender? THE TWO SIDES Should Parents be Allowed to Choose their aby's Gender? A revolutionary lab technique, called sperm sorting, can now establish the…Read Full Paper ❯
3. Embryonic stem cells can be used to help human beings who suffer from debilitating diseases for which no other solution offers hope. For this reason alone, the research…Read Full Paper ❯
Moral and Medical Dilemma As the progression of medical technology has expanded humanity's ability to heal one another directly -- through the process of organ transplants, blood transfusions, and bone…Read Full Paper ❯
Women's Issues - Sexuality
childhood any less safe and enjoyable now than in the past? Childhood is a period that initiates a change in the perspective of the family or the parents involved.…Read Full Paper ❯