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"We dare not tempt them with weakness. For only when our arms are sufficient beyond doubt can we be certain beyond doubt that they will never be employed. But neither can two great and powerful groups of nations take comfort from our present course. Both sides overburdened by the cost of modern weapons, both rightly alarmed by the steady spread of the deadly atom, yet both racing to alter that uncertain balance of terror that stays the hand of mankind's final war. So let us begin anew, remembering on both sides that civility is not a sign of weakness, and sincerity is always subject to proof." Kennedy wished to suggest that it was in the national interest of both nations to talk and engage in diplomacy or official dialogue -- even while America was steadily building up its military arsenal and interventionist efforts in the name of anti-communism.
Great nations of Europe have fought their bloodiest wars." However, he implies that it is uncertain whether this new epoch is benevolent or malicious, asking Americans "Are we nearing the light -- a day of freedom and of peace for all mankind? Or are the shadows of another night closing in upon us?"
In explaining his plan, Eisenhower employed a conspicuously organized, almost military style containing nine strategic objectives, or what he called "rules of conduct." Eisenhower promised Americans protection from danger through the observance of "eternal moral and natural laws" and the refinement of what appear to be distinctly American virtues, the "love of truth, pride of work, devotion to country." Eisenhower thought the best outlet for American energies and the best defense against America's threats was to produce as if it was wartime. Perhaps Eisenhower believed that war brought out the best in people, as he seemed to…
He also wanted a special session of Congress to address the ideas he had for getting the country on its' feet again. He also said that if the separation of powers could not ensure a speedy end to the problems facing the country, that he would ask for broad executive powers to ensure the policies went into effect as quickly as possible to help heal the country and put people back to work.
The line, "we have nothing to fear but fear itself" has become one of the most memorable lines in the speech, and in history. oosevelt's optimism helped the nation get on with their lives and back to work by giving them faith and trust in the government. In addition, the speech is memorable because of its strength and power. It is clear the President plans to make sweeping changes in a hurry, and his powerful speech seems…
Roosevelt, Franklin D. "First Inaugural Address (1932)."
He disapproved the religion intolerance that largely shaped the past of humanity, stressing the fact that it had been very important for people to get actively engaged in supporting freedom through any means available.
Jefferson's discourse is somewhat philosophical in nature, given that it deals with concepts of morality and to the fact that people should refrain from putting across a biased behavior. He deals with problems that were contemporary to him, such as the difficult times the U.S. experienced and the wars Europe went through at the time. He highlighted the fact that in comparison to the rest of the world the U.S. was advantaged due to several factors, such as that relating to its position and that regarding the principles Americans lived by.
Considering the way he addresses the public in what was to be a simple and official inauguration address makes it obvious that he wanted to…
1. Jefferson, Thomas. "First Inaugural Address."
ashington and Obama's Inaugural Addresses
hen comparing George ashington's first inaugural address upon becoming President of the United States in 1789 with Barack Obama's inaugural address from 2009, a number of similarities and differences become apparent which help to inform the reader about the particular context of either speech, and to see how the country's expectations of the President and the President's expectations of his audience have changed over time. In particular, each speaker's view of the office he is about to hold as well as the explicit and implicit appeals to Christianity reveal how American politics has changed over time (seemingly for the worse).
In his inaugural address, ashington spends the entire first paragraph remarking at his inexperience and lack of confidence in his ability to perform the duties of his job. He describes himself as having inherited "inferior endowments from nature and unpractised in the duties of civil…
Obama, Barack. "First Inaugural Address." 20 Jan 2009. Address.
Washington, George. "First Inaugural Address." 30 Apr 1789. Address.
PESIDENTIAL SPEECH: KENNEDY'S INAUGUAL ADDESS
Presidential Speech: Kennedy
Presidential Speech: Kennedy's Inaugural Address
On January 20, 1961 newly elected president John F. Kennedy delivered his inaugural address to a nation in the midst of an ongoing "Cold War" with the Union of Soviet Socialist epublics (USS). In order to put this speech in context one must understand that the previous decades may be characterized as politically tense as the associated conflicts between the two super powers intensified. Anti- communist sentiment and fear was high in the wake of congressional hearings, the ed Scare, the McCarthy era, and the nation's reaction to the 1957 launch of Sputnik, a Soviet satellite which signaled a significant development in the Cold War (Dunar, 2006). In this address Kennedy touched on a number of issues that fed this fear and endeavored to bring about a dialog between the east and the west in order to…
Dunar, A.J. (2006) America in the 50s. Syracuse, New York: Syracuse University Press.
Kennedy, J.F. (1961, January 20). Inaugrural address. The American Prersidency Project, Online by Gerhard Peters & John T. Wooley. Retrieved April 18, 2013, from http://www.presidency. ucsb.edu/ws/?pid=8032
Jefferson Davis' Inaugural Address
Written shortly before the outbreak of the Civil War, Jefferson Davis' inaugural speech is his provisional acceptance of the office of president of the newly formed Confederacy. The speech addresses some of the key concerns of the Confederate states, outlines its goals, and severely criticizes the Union for not following the intentions of the nation's founders. Moreover, Davis points to the "folly and wickedness of our aggressors" should they decide to wage war over the secession.
Jefferson Davis states, "it is the right of the people to alter or abolish governments whenever they become destructive of the ends for which they were established." It his statement is true then any time the citizens of a nation were divided over a political issue, a group of people could form a new government and threaten secession from the union. Davis' speech therefore illustrates the rashness of the Confederacy.…
" Thus, the address stresses in its intentions, the political and economic reasons for secession, as Davis is concerned that the Confederacy is still able to trade with other nations and conduct diplomatic relations. "An agricultural people, whose chief interest is the export of a commodity required in every manufacturing country, our true policy is peace, and the freest trade which our necessities will permit."
The implications are as thus -- Davis clearly wished to create and maintain trade relations for the confederacy with the nations of the world, for vital economic reasons and also to create legitimacy for the new regime. He did not wish the Southern states' traditional trading powers to consider them mere upstart revolutionary powers in their new formations. Davis' was in the uncomfortable position, however, of justifying a regime based upon states rights, and yet having to govern this regime as a unifying, chief executive.…
Jefferson Davis' Inaugural Address." From CSA: Congressional Journal / 1:64-66. Reprinted by Lynda L. Crist and Mary S. Dix, Editors in the Papers of Jefferson Davis. Baton Rouge, Louisiana: LSU Press, 1992 / 7:46-50. Retrieved 28 November 2004 at http://sunsite.utk.edu/civil-war/jdinaug.html
3. Jefferson was one of the proponents of the notion that the most effective government is that which governs least. As such, the former president was definitely in favor of circumscribing the role of the federal government, particularly in the daily affairs of the people who elect its specific individuals to power. In this speech, Jefferson made certain to mention the fact that the government he was presiding over would be a "frugal" one, that would be limited in its effect on the type of work and industry that people performed, as well as on the earnings that people garnered for the application of their industry. He also advocated, within this document, a limited central government that would leave it to the discretion of the individual people to make changes and improvements in their lives -- both in an individual and in a collective sense. These are some common tenets…
Robespierre argues in a speech by turns logical and eloquent, that in order to establish democracy, the popular will must be enforced with a virtuous application of terror. He delivered the speech during the height of the French Revolution in an attempt to justify the political violence which the revolutionary tribunal had indulged in as it sought to implement its (ultimately) peaceful reforms. He argues that the very "sublimity" of the tribunal's aims had resulted in vicious royalist counter-revolutionary activities by men who hoped to protect their private interests by preventing the revolution, and that killing such men was justified. "Subdue by terror the enemies of liberty, and you will be right," he argues, hoping to speed the pace of the revolutionary throngs.
Churchill delivers his speech at a low moment in the midst of England's battle against the Nazis. In a very brief address, he declares in no uncertain…
There are no props per se, although the presence of his youthful wife in the background might be one 'prop' as a reminder that the torch had been passed to a younger generation, from the older generation embodied by the Eisenhowers. Kennedy's athletic physique dominates the podium. But he does not use aggressive body language, like stretching across lectern which might make him seem as if he were overreaching or too small for the space. Instead, Kennedy comfortably fills the space and commands attention through firm gestures, punching and pointing at the air with determination and a sense of calculation, not moving about for the sake of movement alone.
In terms of overall effectiveness, this may be one of the most effective inaugural speeches given by a president in memory. Few other speeches can be quoted, in terms of its key phrases, more easily than Kennedy's. His language and also…
Cold War." Microsoft® Encarta® Online Encyclopedia. 2007. http://encarta.msn.com© 1997-2007 Microsoft Corporation. All Rights Reserved.
JFK Inaugural Address: 2 of 2." Added 26 Oct 2006. Youtube.com. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3s6U8GActdQ .[2 Apr 2006].
John F. Kennedy's January 20, 1961 Inaugural Address." Inaugural Addresses of the Presidents of the United States. Washington, D.C.: U.S.G.P.O.: for sale by the Supt. Of Docs., U.S.G.P.O., 1989; Bartleby.com, 2001.
A www.bartleby.com/124/.[2 Apr 2006].
Second Inaugural Address: President Obama
Giving an inaugural address is a massive endeavor, and requires an extensive amount of preparation for the speaker. Public speaking requires more structure and detail than ordinary conversation: even a short speech given by a student to the classroom requires research, audience analysis, and above all practice. As a U.S. president entering his second term, it was incumbent upon President Obama to give a speech that would address the needs of a very diverse audience on January 21, 2013 and to satisfy a wide range of often-competing audience needs and concerns.
President Obama had to tread a delicate balance in his speech in terms of the issues he covered. On one hand, he was speaking to many people who had fought long and hard to elect him. They wanted him to celebrate his past, present, and future accomplishments. But President Obama was also speaking to…
Obama, Barack. "Second inaugural address." The Washington Post. 21 Jan 2013.
[9 Feb 2013]
President Obama's "Second Inaugural Address:" Rhetorical analysis
Knowing one's audience is a critical component of giving a good speech. hen President Obama gave his second inaugural address, although he had been reelected by a significant majority, he knew he was still facing a divided country. To show his respect for patriotic values, he began his speech invoking both God and country yet in a manner that stressed the need for concrete government actions to deal with the nation and the world's problems. "For history tells us that while these truths may be self-evident, they've never been self-executing. That while freedom is a gift from God, it must be secured by his people here on earth."
Obama addressed his speech to the American public at large, but he also had a clear eye upon his Republican critics, in his use of specific phrases and themes. His first term began with a…
Obama, Barack. 'Second Inaugural Address." Full text available 9 Feb 2013:
American Constitution: A living, evolving document -- from guaranteeing the right to enslavement in the 18th century to modifications in favor of freedom in the 19th century
Constitution today protects the rights of all in its language, but this was not always the case in its text and spirit. As a political tactic as well as out of personal conviction and experience, Frederick Douglass' characterization of the American Constitution as an anti-slavery document is certainly an admirable piece of rhetoric. Douglass stated that although the America he spoke to at the time of his autobiography My Bondage and My Freedom, was a nation divided between free and slave states and territories, fundamentally America was and "is in its letter and spirit, an anti-slavery instrument, demanding the abolition of slavery as a condition of its own existence" (396)
Slavery, Douglass stated, deprives an individual of his or her dignity, deprives an…
Douglass, Frederick. My Bondage and My Freedom. Available in full text online at http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/etcbin/toccer new2?id=DouMybo.sgm& images=images/modeng& data=/texts/english/modeng/parsed& tag=public& part=6& division=div2[29 Jan 2005].
Lincoln, Abraham. "First Inaugural Address: Monday, March 4, 1861." From Inaugural Addresses of the Presidents of the United States. Washington, D.C.: U.S.G.P.O.: for sale by the Supt. Of Docs, U.S.G.P.O., 1989. Bartleby.com, 2001. www.bartleby.com/124/. [29 Jan 2005].
Madison, James. "Federalist No. 10." The Federalist Papers. Available in full text online ( http://www.thisnation.com/library/books/federalist/10.html ) [29 Jan 2005].
"The United States Constitution." Available in full text online http://www.house.gov/Constitution/Constitution.html . [29 Jan 2005].
Mill believes that it is impossible to be a great scientist, without having some feeling and sensitivity about the human condition given by the humanities, and someone learning the classics must understand the functioning of the modern world, to give what he or she is learning some significance.
How do the ideas on education of Locke, Jefferson and Mill relate to one another and to the importance of education for a democratic society such as our own?
Mill's stress upon holistic knowledge is essential for a citizen in a democracy -- today, a citizen must vote an elected official into office who can deal with the scientific complexities of global warming and healthcare, and can comprehend the intricacies of foreign cultures. To judge the knowledge base of our elected officials, citizens must also have a well-rounded basis of knowledge. That is why Thomas Jefferson believed so fervently in the need…
Lincoln's Speech Compared
The Evolution of Lincoln's Thought in His Speeches
Abraham Lincoln is one of the most celebrated and popular Presidents in the history of the United States. Lincoln presided over the Presidency at a difficult time for the country, when the unity of the nation was at stake and the question of slavery deeply polarized the society into two. Lincoln was able to preserve the Union, but at a great cost which made him as controversial as he was popular. But it is uncontroversial among his contemporaries and the readers of his speeches today that the sixteenth President of the United States was a great orator, able to address a broad range of audience: rich and poor, literate and illiterate, freemen and slaves; and he possessed a rare skill of persuasion. Lincoln was able to address a divided nation with great care and measurement. He was reserved when…
All the references come from The Collected Works of Abraham Lincoln, edited by Roy P. Basler, and is available online at (Accessed: February 19, 2011).
Kennedy also specifically directed his words to the leaders of the Soviet Union, alternating between vowing that America would bear any burden to advance the cause of freedom, yet noting that both 'enemies' have a mutual interest in limiting the arms race and preserving peace. "e dare not tempt them with weakness…But neither can two great and powerful groups of nations take comfort from our present course."
Kennedy's address to unseen 'listeners' in other nations was an obvious reflection of the power of the United States -- he presumed the whole world is watching and listening to what an new American president was saying. However, addressing an unseen listener was also an indirect statement to those who were present, such as the Republican politicians like Kennedy's rival for the presidency, Richard Nixon. Nixon tried to seem strong on communism to get elected. Thus Kennedy hawkishly affirmed his Administration's anti-communist commitment,…
Inaugural Addresses of the Presidents of the United States. Washington, D.C.: U.S.G.P.O.: for sale by the Supt. Of Docs., U.S.G.P.O., 1989; Bartleby.com, 2001. http://www.bartleby.com/124/pres56.html [31 May 2011].
Government Changes post-Revolution ar vs. post-Civil ar
Close examination of the reasons for and the results of the Revolutionary ar and the Civil ar forces me to disagree with McPherson's position that more radical change in government occurred due to the Civil ar than the Revolutionary ar. In order to understand how this is true, one must look at several issues, such as the causes of each of the wars, the purposes and intentions, and the ultimate results.
The Revolutionary ar was based on the struggle to become independent from Great Britain and this struggle began due to a series of taxes forced upon the citizens. So "taxation without representation" was the initial call to arms however, it grew to include other freedoms as well.
The Civil ar was utterly a different process of situation. hile claims by the South of freedom it was always an economic issue tightly woven…
Abraham Lincoln, Cooper Union Address, New York City Presidential Campaign
Confederate States of America-Declaration of the Immediate Causes Which Induce and Justify the Secession of South Carolina from the Federal Union, December 1860, South Carolina
Lincoln, Abraham. "First Inaugural Address." Washington D.C. Mar. 1861. Address.
Ordinance of 1787
I have frequently felt her head, and found it nearly covered over with festering sores, caused by the lash of her cruel mistress. I do not know that her master ever whipped her, but I have often been an eye witness of the revolting and brutal inflictions by Mrs. Hamilton; and what lends a deeper shade to this woman's conduct, is the fact, that, almost in the very moments of her shocking outrages of humanity and decency, she would charm you by the sweetness of her voice and her seeming piety." (149) Slavery thus causes, what Douglass states are "THE BANEFUL EFFECTS OF SLAVEHOLDING ON MY DEAR AND GOOD MISTRESS," upon women in particular. omen are suggestible and such a bad institution as slavery corrupts even good hite females as well as harms the tender bodies of Black females -- again a very persuasive appeal to a hite Northern audience…
Amelia, a Lowell Factory Worker, on Wage Slavery." From Making Connections: Reading American Cultures. 2000 Edition.
Douglass, Frederick, My Bondage and My Freedom. With and Introduction by James M. Cune Smith. Retrieved at http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/etcbin/toccer -new2?id=DouMybo.sgm&images=images/modeng&data=/texts/english/modeng/parsed&tag=public&part=10&division=div2[2 Feb 2005]
Lincoln: First Inaugural." From Making Connections: Reading American Cultures. 2000 Edition.
Lincoln: Gettysburg Address." From Making Connections: Reading American Cultures. 2000 Edition.
Kennedy Doctrine and the Cold War
In his inaugural address as the President of the United States on January 1961, John F. Kennedy (popularly called "JFK") delivered a message that directly discussed the United States' official stance regarding its move to implement a foreign policy waging a "cold war" against Communist forces that have been gaining popularity in Asia, South America, and parts of the Middle East during this period. his U.S. foreign policy, popularly called the containment policy against Communism, was the pretext from which the eventual Cold War between Democratic and Communist forces escalated until the 1970s. During this period, JFK was assigned the task of continuing the American legacy of democracy and liberty by promoting a campaign of international alliance and cooperation against the Communist forces. At this point, Communist forces were gaining ground in South America, increasing the threat to both American soil and the country's…
These words communicate the message that the support poor nations might be receiving from the Communist forces such as Russia/Soviet Union (one of the stronger forces promoting Communism worldwide during this time), can be met and equaled by the United States, without sacrificing their liberties and human rights. JFK reiterated that human rights are given by the "hand of God," and not from the "generosity of the state," which characterized the complete control of the state/government under the Communist/Socialist society (Kennedy 1961). The doctrine ended with a reminder to United States allies to cooperate and join forces with the American government in its fight for democracy and freedom, as well as the containment of Communism worldwide. He presented a challenge to the American government's ally nations in "defending freedom in its hour of maximum danger," signaling the serious threat that Communism presented to the U.S. during JFK's term (Kennedy 1961). With its direct reference against Communism and its political and military forces in South America and neighboring countries of the United States, the doctrine had indeed solidified the country's fight against Communism -- albeit diplomatically and without the threat of weapons. It was hoped that the United States could prevent the Cold War with the U.S.S.R. from requiring military action and thankfully the war ended without either side having to fire a single shot.
Analysis of the U.S. government's containment policy during JFK's term as president was, in hindsight, shown to be geo-politically and economically-motivated. Leffler's (1984) explication of the United States' containment policy against Communist nations such as the Soviet Union was mainly a response to protecting U.S. interests in South American nations. During JFK's term, the U.S. had numerous interests in the region, which the author called the country's "strategic sphere," having established an "overseas base, air transit rights" that were beneficial to U.S. national security (Leffler 1984,-page 348). With Communism influencing nations in the South American region, the U.S. stood to lose all these strategic benefits, increasing the risk of its security from a geopolitical standpoint. A similar assessment was developed by Naji and Jawan (2011), who contended that what motivated the U.S. government to contain Communism in the Middle Eastern was not so much about the principles of democracy and freedom, but to protect its economic interests in the oil-rich region, as most of the oil companies are either owned, operated, or supported by U.S. companies (page 206-7). The imperative thing for the government was in keeping control of valuable resources and ensuring that these same resources remained out of the hands of the enemies of the American government.
Considering the effects that the containment policy contributed to international politics and the world order during JFK's time, it can be said that the policy made nations rethink about the world order and status quo as it stood
Human esource Development Initiatives for the Department of Veterans Affairs
As the nation's largest healthcare provider and second-largest federal agency, the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) is responsible for administering a multi-billion dollar budget in support of the nation's heroic veterans. The VA fulfills its mandate to care for veterans and their families through a nationwide network of medical centers, outpatient facilities, Vet Centers and domiciliaries that provide the entire spectrum of medical, surgical and rehabilitation healthcare services. Given the importance of its mandate and scope of its budget, the VA is well situated to take advantage of a wide range of human resource initiatives that can save money, improve organizational performance and the quality of healthcare provided to the country's veteran population. This study defines five such human resources initiatives and describes how they can be applied to achieve these goals. A summary of the recommendations and their potential…
Anderson, C.H. (1984). Job design: Employee satisfaction and performance in retail stores.
Journal of Small Business Management, 22, 9.
Benevides, A.D. & David, A.A. (2010). Local government wellness programs: A viable option to decrease healthcare costs and improve productivity. Public Personnel Management,
President: 1. The President's opening
The president's opening remarks functioned as a means of collectivizing his listeners, some of whom may not have voted for him or did not support particular policies or measures he has enacted. The best way of getting people who were not his supporters to listen to his address and to even consider taking him seriously was for him to emphasize the fact that he is an American just like they are. Hence, he cited a number of phrases that reflected the values which the country was founded upon, such as those existing in the Declaration of Independence and within the U.S. Constitution. Additionally, it appeared as though the president was framing his address and his own agenda as a continuation of these important historical American concepts.
The philosophy being suggested in some of the president's rhetoric in his inaugural address is that there needs to…
65). By controlling these two aspects of a scientific experiment, researchers are able to establish the specific causality of the phenomenon being studied. In this regard, Kahle and iley note that, "Traditionally, causality is established through strict control and randomization over all other factors while experimentally manipulating the variable or variables in question" (2004, p. 165). Finally, Gliner and Morgan (2000) report that the internal validity (discussed further below) and the ability to infer causality based on the results of a study can be enhanced through the random assignment of the participants to intervention vs. control groups.
What is meant by internal validity and external validity in leadership research and discuss three factors within each (internal and external) validity factor?
Internal validity. According to Chandler and Lyon, generally speaking, "Validity refers to the establishment of evidence that the measurement is actually measuring the intended construct. Measures can be reliable…
About VA. (2011). Department of Veterans Affairs. Retrieved from http://www.va.gov / landing2_about.htm.
Avolio, B.J., & Bass, B.M. (2002). Developing potential across a full range of leadership:
Cases on transactional and transformational leadership. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence
eports from medical center services and committees concerning patient incidents are used to develop appropriate interventions.
Trended data of patient incidents can point to shift and date where most incidents occur.
A 50% reduction in the number medication errors of all types over the next 12 months.
Goals and Objectives to Facilitate Outcome
The overarching goal of this program would be to reduce the number of medication errors in general and among those wards/shifts with the highest numbers of medication errors over the past 12 months. The objectives in support of this goal include:
1. Developing awareness campaign materials such as locally prepared newsletter articles, posters and brochures concerning the goal to reduce medication errors.
2. Conduct a medication error theme seminar that provides basic guidelines for avoiding medication errors (the "5 Ps").
Translation of Goals and Objectives into Policies and Procedures
The above-described goals and objectives would…
Jorm, C.M. & Dunbar, N. (2009, August). Should patient safety be more patient centered?
Australian Health Review, 33(3), 390-395.
Tillman, P. (2013, January 7). U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs. Retrieved from http://www.
Ethical Dilemma in a Department of Veterans Affairs Tertiary Healthcare Facility
Selection of the environment.
Selected environment. The environment for the proposed study will be a Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) medical center (hereinafter alternatively "VAMC") that provides the full complement of tertiary healthcare services. The pseudonym for the selected facility will be "Lincolnville VAMC" (because the VA's motto is derived from Lincoln's second inaugural address).
Description of environment and rationale for selection. The Lincolnville VAMC provides tertiary healthcare services for veterans living in a 25-county area in a midwestern state. Besides its operations in the main facility, the Lincolnville VAMC also operates two community-based outpatient clinics. Some of the primary services offered by the Lincolnville VAMC include:
Behavioral Health Service: This service provides consultation, evaluation, and treatment for a variety of issues that can impact emotional well-being.
2) Pharmacy: This service processes more than 80,000 prescriptions each month.
Gomulka, G.T. (2010). Saving military families. Military Review, 90(1), 111-112.
Hendin, H. & Foley, K. (2008). Physician-assisted suicide in Oregon: a medical perspective.
Issues in Law & Medicine, 24(2), 121-122.
Lighthall, A. (2010, November/December). The rules of engagement. Psychotherapy Networker,
4. Theodore Roosevelt
A lion of a president and a bulldog of a man, I see him as courageous, moral, upright, and staunch. Roosevelt is famed for his many achievements, but the oen that I consider most important is his fight against the economic corruption and greedy businessmen of his country. Few presidents dared to oppose powerful capitalists who, in many ways held the country in the palms of their hands. Roosevelt was not afraid to oppose them. His endeavors in this area included busting hugely competitive businesses that were engaging in corruption to further their ends and earnest regulation of businesses.
Roosevelt is also well-known for his leadership of the Progressive Movement and for his founding the conservation movement as well as for imbuing Americans with a love for sports and exercise in the American nation.
Roosevelt was a man of many talents: naturalist, hunter, explorer, author, and soldier…
Carpenter, J.J. Jefferson's Views on Education Implications for Today's Social Studies 95 (2004): 140-141.
Schwartz, B. George Washington and the Whig conception of heroic leadership American Sociological Review, 43, 1983
Neely, ME The Last Best Hope of Earth: Abraham Lincoln and the Promise of America, Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1993
Roosevelt, T. Citizenship in a republic Speech delivered at the Sorbonne, April 23, 1910
Arizona State University (ASU) is a leading metropolitan research international institution in the United States that is committed to excellence in teaching, research, and public service. Established in Tempe in 1885 by a legislative act, ASU was initially formed as a teachers college. The core of the Tempe campus was a 20-acre cow pasture donated by leading citizens who desired an institution to educate public school teachers and offer instruction to their children in agriculture and mechanical arts.
In 2002, Michael M. Crow became the University's sixteenth president. In his inaugural address, he outlined his vision for the transformation of the school into a prototype for a new American university. This future institution will be a comprehensive research university that continues its academic excellence as well as have a strong commitment to social, economic, cultural, and environmental issues to meet the needs of the growing Phoenix area. The city has…
As the leader of the free world, the United States remains in the limelight as the rest of the world keeps a keen eye on how they conduct their affairs. As it appertains to constitutional interpretation, the U.S. has a sound philosophy dubbed 'living constitutionalism.' In the American constitutional dispensation, as in other countries, the letter of the law is unequivocal. That notwithstanding, many agree that every society is dynamic in nature. As such, as society keeps changing, there is a growing need for the constitution to be equally as dynamic in view of various considerations. Implementing and enforcing the letter of the law as stated in constitutional clauses often has its shortcomings. The concept 'Living Constitutionalism' revolves around humanizing the law. By adding the element of humanity in the law, the constitution gains a dynamic element. This idea relates to the view of the society as contemporaneous,…
Alstyne, William Van. 2010. "Clashing Visions of a "Living" Constitution: Of Opportunists and Obligationists." Cato Supreme Court Review 13-26.
Balkin, Jack M. 2012. "Panelist Papers: The Roots of the Living Constitution." Boston University Law Review 92, 4:1129-1160.
Denning, Brannon P. 2011. "Common Law Constitutional Interpretation: A Critique." Constitutional Commentary 27, 3:621-645.
Dodson, Scott. 2008. "A Darwinist View of the Living Constitution." Vanderbilt Law Review 61, 5:1319-1347.
Conservatism in America
Intellectually, it is indeed correct that post-orld ar II can be divided into two periods of conservatism: the period which emerged directly after the war (1945-1990) and the period from 1990 onwards. Traditionally as Ball explained, conservatism in America were opposed to rapid development and industrialization in the early 20th century: "From their point-of-view, this new mass society posed the same threat that democracy had always posed -- the threat that the masses would throw society first into chaos and then in despotism. In arguments similar to those of Plato, Aristotle, and more recently Alexis de Tocqueville, traditional conservatives maintained that the common people were too weak and too ignorant to take charge of government" (Ball, 108). Essentially, this meant that conservatism in the twentieth century revolved around the notion of self-restraint and a core belief pervades that only a small majority are suitable to govern, while…
Ball, Terry and Richard Dagger. Political Ideologies and the Democratic Ideal. London: Pearson, 2014. Print. .
Boland, Joseph. U.S. Political Thought: Lecture 2. 28 September 1995. website. 2013.
Carey, George, W. "The American Founding and Limited Government." Retrieved from: The Imaginative Conservative. Web.
Crick, Bernard. "The Strange Quest for An American Conservatism." The Review of Politics (1955): 359-376. print. .
Not all people who own guns are criminals nor will they end up using their gun, but it does feel better to know that in a worst case scenario situation, one will be able to fight back on even grounds.
Gun regulation is not about banning guns, but about controlling who has access to them. As proposed by the President, background checks are essential when it comes to being able to own a gun (Simon 2013). This is no way violates any sense of privacy or freedom and right to bear arms. It just assures the public that those who do have access and ownership of these powerful weapons will not use them in a hurtful or harmful way, nor will they, most importantly, hurt our children. Although it is difficult enough to protect children at home, no longer do children have that security and safety that used to be…
LaFranchi, Howard. "Big Heels to Fill': What John Kerry Signaled to State Dept. On His First Day ( Video)." The Christian Science Monitor. The Christian Science Monitor, 04 Feb. 2013. Web. 12 Feb. 2013. .
Elementary School Rampage - CBS News. (n.d.). Breaking News Headlines: Business, Entertainment & World News - CBS News. Retrieved February 7, 2013, from http://www.cbsnews.com/2718-201_162-2046/elementary-school-rampage/
Simon, Mallory. "Gun Debate: Where Is the Middle Ground?" CNN. Cable News Network, 01 Feb. 2013. Web. 12 Feb. 2013. .
"Inaugural Address." Fifty-Seventh Inaugural Ceremonies to Swear-in the President of the United States. Joint Congressional Committee on Inaugural Ceremonies, 21 Jan. 2013. Web. 12 Feb. 2013. .
United States, at te beginning of 1855, seemed to be te strongest it ad ever been wit Western expansion, a flourising economic outlook, and tousands of new immigrants bringing teir ard work to America's newest factories and fields. However, te tension was mounting politically, tension tat would lead to an inevitable, long-suffering war tat killed tousands of Americans, and canged te landscape of our nation forever. Te climax came wen Abraam Lincoln was elected President in 1860, and te Civil War became unavoidable from tat moment on.
Before te election of 1860, many tumultuous appenings caused panic, depression, and conflicts between Americans. For example, 1855 saw wat was later pegged te "Bleeding at Kansas," during wic pro- and anti-slavery citizens clased (p. 428). Te figt tat ensued over Kansas in Congress as well as territorially brougt fort te notion tat slavery tensions would not be easily controlled.
1857 saw an…
http://azimuth.harcourtcollege.com/history/ayers/chapter13/13.4.battle.html. American Passages Website.
The News of Lincoln's Election," The Charleston Mercury, November 8, 1860. Online Version:
http://azimuth.harcourtcollege.com/history/ayers/chapter13/13.4.mercury.html. American Passages Website.
It was a poor policy at best, and the President's Cabinet approved the plan, even if he did not. In fact, Congress specifically denied the request to send money to the Contras, so it was done in secret, and this violated the law and the trust of the nation. It was dishonest, it was covert, and it cast a dark cloud over the presidency and eagan's own motives.
In comparison, oosevelt has his own legacy of poor judgement, too. oosevelt tried to pack the Supreme Court by proposing to add new justices, and many believe he pointed the country toward socialism.
oosevelt felt the Supreme Court was too conservative when they overthrew many of the social changes he had created in the New Deal. He felt they were not following the Constitution in their decisions, but were following their own feelings. He wanted to bring the number of Supreme Court…
Felzenberg, Alvin S. "There You Go Again:" Liberal Historians and the 'New York Times' Deny Ronald Reagan His Due." Policy Review, no. 82 (1997): 51+.
McKenna, Marian C. Franklin Roosevelt and the Great Constitutional War: The Court-Packing Crisis of 1937. New York: Fordham University Press, 2002.
Reagan, Ronald. 2008. Inaugural Address. [Online] available from the Internet at http://www.americanpresidents.org/inaugural/39a.aspaccessed 3 May 2008.
Siracusa, Joseph M., and David G. Coleman. Depression to Cold War: A History of America from Herbert Hoover to Ronald Reagan. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2002.
From God to Man
The ideas of power and responsibility changed dramatically between the inaugural addresses of Abraham Lincoln and John Fitzgerald Kennedy. An evaluation of each of these addresses proves that power and responsibility has shifted from centering on God with man essentially doing his behest, to centering on man with few limitations, including God.
Lincoln makes it clear early on in his inaugural address that the responsibility for the Civil War does not lie with man, but rather with God. He describes this war as some manifestation of the volition of Providence that “fervently do we pray” (Lincoln) to end. The pronoun “we” refers to the warring parties of men. This quotation demonstrates the Civil War is occurring because of God’s power and responsibility. Conversely, Kennedy (1961) makes it apparent that men, and those within the U.S. specifically, are responsible for waging war, and even threatens to engage…
Trump had a busy first day as President, with inaugural parties, oath of office and "big league" activities he planned under his first day's agenda, which would set his Presidency's tone. New presidents usually establish high goals for day 1, often with mixed outcomes ensuing (Shaw, 2017). Obama pledged, at his Presidency's commencement, to close the Guantanamo Bay detention facility down. However, it still survives, although its internees have diminished greatly in number. Similarly, Trump's promises may differ from his end accomplishments.
Amy Walter believes there was a consistent element in Trump's first day; his inaugural address corresponded to his message conveyed throughout his presidential campaign and convention. In her opinion, this is the reason behind his nomination, which no soul believed he could possibly achieve, and his presidential victory. Thus, Trump is bringing this very message to the presidential table (How did President Trump fare in his…
In fact, many turned to Toryism because they believed that the aim of government was "to place man out of the reach of his own power." Adams strongly disagreed as he believed that the purpose of government was to secure for the citizenry "the greatest quantity of happiness" for the greatest number of people. His strong conviction was that this 'general happiness' could be achieved if the citizenry not only made the laws, but if "an Empire of Laws and not of men" came into being. Furthermore, Adams believed that the American Revolution would enhance individual opportunity. His aim was to destroy the system of elite privileges which existed in both monarchical and aristocratic societies; this wish was based on his belief that power should never be an inherited right because the first objective of the governing elite would be to serve themselves.
Adams contended that private virtue was crucial…
Miroff, Bruce. "John Adams: Merit, Fame, and Political Leadership," the Journal of Politics, Vol. 48, No. 1 (Feb., 1986): pp. 116-132
Ferling, John. Setting the World Ablaze: Washington, Adams, Jefferson, and the American Revolution. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002.
Morse, Anson, "The Politics of John Adams," the American Historical Review Vol. 4, No. 2,
Morse, Jr., John T. John Adams. Read Books, 2007.
Plain speaking style
The plain oral speaking style: ecent presidential examples
Public speaking can serve a variety of functions: to persuade, to inform, or to entertain. There are various ways to achieve these objectives, including using a heightened style of prose, as exemplified in speeches like John F. Kennedy's 1961 "Inaugural address." But because of its extensive use of rhetorical constructions like parallelism, metaphors, and similes, although Kennedy's speech was powerful, not even the most eloquent person would speak like this on an everyday basis.
In contrast, a 'plain' speaking style tries to mirror everyday speech. ather than excite people with fancy rhetoric, a plain speaking style seeks to do the opposite: it convinces people because of the simple, matter-of-fact nature of its tone. It may use folksy or colloquial words to convince people of the speaker's honesty. A plain speaking style can be particularly effective when used…
Atkinson, Max. (2008). Rhetoric and imagery in Obama's victory speck. Retrieved:
Improviser in chief. (2012). Improviser in chief: Clinton text vs. audio.
Had the failure of the Cuban invasion not occurred, Kennedy would not have been able to appear so ascendant, and the positive reaction to his handling of the Cuban Missile Crisis might not have been as great in magnitude. Truly however, it was his social programs such as the Peace Corps and his focus on establishing peace with the Soviet Union that truly showed him to be the charismatic leader for which he is remembered today.
Freedom Doctrine Speech." (1961). WGBH Lectures. Accessed 21 January 2009. http://forum.wgbh.org/wgbh/forum.php?lecture_id=1164
John F. Kennedy." (2009) About the White House: Presidents. Accessed 21 January 2009. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/johnfkennedy/
John Fitzgerald Kennedy." Spartacus Educational. Accessed 21 January 2009. http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USAkennedyJ.htm
O'Brien, M. (2005) John F. Kennedy. New York: Macmillan. etrieved via Google Books 2 January 2009. http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&id=fxzd__gA_I4C&dq=john+f+kennedy&printsec=frontcover&source=web&ots=b090N20I3D&sig=vZHZ3U4jmj3sFVEx7CFDb7pE4s&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=9&ct=result#PPA494,M1
Parekh, N. (2005). "John F. Kennedy Biography." Accessed 21 January 2009. http://www.buzzle.com/editorials/1-23-2005-64647.asp
Freedom Doctrine Speech." (1961). WGBH Lectures. Accessed 21 January 2009. http://forum.wgbh.org/wgbh/forum.php?lecture_id=1164
John F. Kennedy." (2009) About the White House: Presidents. Accessed 21 January 2009. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/johnfkennedy/
John Fitzgerald Kennedy." Spartacus Educational. Accessed 21 January 2009. http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USAkennedyJ.htm
O'Brien, M. (2005) John F. Kennedy. New York: Macmillan. Retrieved via Google Books 2 January 2009. http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&id=fxzd__gA_I4C&dq=john+f+kennedy&printsec=frontcover&source=web&ots=b090N20I3D&sig=vZHZ3U4jmj3sFRVEx7CFDb7pE4s&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=9&ct=result#PPA494,M1
Should the United States Normalize elations with Cuba?
It has been more than forty years now since Fidel Castro and his communist insurgents captured control of the Island of Cuba. Originally supported by the American government, Castro quickly lost United States backing once the communistic nature of his government became clear. The evolution did its work, and thousands upon thousands of Cubans were deprived of their property, property that was taken over by the Cuban State, and in accordance with Marxist tenets, "redistributed" among the workers. In response, huge numbers of Cuban citizens fled the country. Many settled in the United States, especially in and around Miami, where they quickly came to constitute a powerful bloc with strong influence over American policy toward their homeland. Of course, over the years, attitudes have softened. Originally cut off from all except its fellow communist nations, and from the non-aligned states of…
Augustine, Jean P.C., M.P. Secretary of State. "Speaking Notes on the Occasion of The 7th Annual Toronto-Cuba Friendship Day," Toronto, Canada: 24 August 2002.
Buaza, Vanessa. "
Comedians and Levity Have Their Limits." The Sun Sentinel. 16 February 2003.
Feehan, Colleen E. "Prague in the '90's: The Paris of the '20s?" 1995. URL:
Great leadership, this is a trait most people do not have. Among the many leaders of the world present and past, only a few could be deemed great. That is why the literary world becomes a place to cultivate what an ideal leader is. From Robert the blind man in “Cathedral” by Raymond Carver, to “The Things They Carried” character, Lieutenant Jimmy Cross, these leaders harken back to real leaders of the past like Lincoln and Kennedy. It is with these shining examples in mind that an idea of what a great leader is, takes shape and even provides inspiration for new leaders that break the mold of what is typically expected like Daenerys Targaryen from Game of Thrones. These new leaders will perhaps inspire the greats of tomorrow.
Many consider John F. Kennedy and Abraham Lincoln amazing leaders because of their ability to stand up for what is right…
inaugural speech in 1981, his first term of being President of the United States, onald eagan famously stated with bold irony, "government is not the solution to our problem; government is the problem." While mismanaged government agencies and bloated bureaucracies are problematic, government itself is not a "problem," and should not be perceived as such by one who has been elected to its highest office. Dismantling government institutions that provide for the common defense and welfare of the people would defeat the real objectives of government, which is not to protect the wealthy from taxation but to promote happiness, freedom, and safety and maintain law and order.
eagan did go on to clarify what he meant in his statement, and noted, "it is not my intention to do away with government. It is, rather, to make it work-work with us, not over us; to stand by our side, not ride…
"The Federalist Party." PBS. Retrieved online: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/duel/peopleevents/pande05.html
Reagan, Ronald. "First Inaugural Address." 20 Jan, 1981. Avalon Project. Retrieved online: http://avalon.law.yale.edu/20th_century/reagan1.asp
"Thomas Jefferson Quotations." Retrieved online: http://westillholdthesetruths.org/quotes/author/thomas-jefferson
Jefferson's Principles and their Impact on Education
Jefferson's radical beliefs in the inherent moral and developmental capacities of humans, and in their capacities to take part to participatory democracy, in turn reinforced his enduring commitment to an education that would be accessible to all. Jefferson was well aware that democracy could only work properly when the people were both virtuous and enlightened.
From these notions that people were naturally virtuous but not naturally enlightened, but that enlightenment was necessary for democracy, it followed that the society had a vested interest in investing in education to provide enlightenment.
In a letter to the Welsh born philosopher Richard Price dated January 8, 1789, Jefferson observed that "wherever the people are well informed they can be trusted with their government."
uch well informed or enlightened people could be relied on, "whenever things get so far wrong as to attract their notice," to set…
Ford, W. Ed. Thomas Jefferson Correspondence. Boston, 1916.
Jefferson, T. The Life and Selected Writings of Thomas Jefferson. New York: Modern Library, 1993.
Public and Private Papers New York: Vintage Books/the Library of America, 1990.
Art can come in many shapes, sizes, and mediums, yet one thing that all art has in common is its ability to connect to individuals and enable them to experience catharsis, that is illicit an emotional response. Some of the most awe-inspiring works of art are architectural such as the Lincoln Memorial, which bookmarks the National Mall in Washington, D.C.
The Lincoln Memorial is impressive and its sheer magnitude and size was unexpected. Walking up to the memorial, I realized that it was much larger than I had anticipated and that much like a temple, the actual memorial is located at the top of a series of steps. It was nothing like looking at the back of a penny or a five-dollar bill. The Lincoln Memorial successfully combining the concepts of form and function through its structure (Pearson Publication, Inc., 2009, p. 164). The memorial itself was designed by Henry…
National Parks Service. (2012). Lincoln Memorial design individuals. Accessed 21 August 2012,
from http://www.nps.gov/linc/historyculture/lincoln-memorial-design-individuals.htm .
Pearson Publications Inc. (2009). Chapter 5: Art. The Art of Being Human: The Humanities As A
Technique For Living, pp. 114-169.
Atzerodt also made a statement claiming knowledge of a Confederate plot to bomb the White House. The Union's failed raid on Richmond was also approved by Lincoln, and it was later believed that he ordered the death of Jeff Davis in a strategy to end the war. Such speculations were extremely damaging for the strength of the government, and similar conspiracy theories fascinate historians to this day. In this, at least one part of ooth's ideal was realized: government weakness. This however did not result in a revival for the South, which was in fact the ultimate aim.
In conclusion, Lincoln's death meant that his attempts at countrywide reform were immediately nullified. Without his leadership, and in concomitance with the many conspiracy theories at the time, the government was unable to carry further such work. The country was not nearly strong enough to benefit from the good work done by…
Norton, R.J. 1996-2008. The Assassination of Abraham Lincoln. The Abraham Lincoln Research Site http://home.att.net/~rjnorton/Lincoln75.html
Norton, R.J. 1996-2008. Conspiracy Theories. The Abraham Lincoln Research Site http://home.att.net/~rjnorton/Lincoln74.html
The White House History. 2008. Abraham Lincoln. http://www.whitehouse.gov/history/presidents/al16.html
Lincoln's speech during the dedication ceremony of the military cemetery at Gettysburg (the White House History. 2008. Abraham Lincoln. (
And bee it also Enacted by the Authority and with the advise and assent aforesaid that whatsoever person or persons shall from henceforth use or utter any reproachfull words or Speeches concerning blessed Virgin Marv the Mother of Our Saviour or the holy Apostles or Evangelists or any of them shall in such case for the first offence forfeit to the said Lord Proprietary and his heirs Lords and Proprietaries of this Province the sume of five pound Sterling or the value thereof to be Levyed on the goods and chattells of every such person soe offending, but in case such Offender or Offenders, shall not then have goods and chattells sufficient for the satisfying of such forfeiture, or that the same bee not otherwise speedily satisfyed that then such Offender or Offenders Shall be publiquely whipt and bee imprisoned during the pleasure, of the Lord Proprietary or the Lieut.…
Works Cited www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=90445657
Bonomi, Patricia U. Under the Cope of Heaven: Religion, Society, and Politics in Colonial America. New York: Oxford University Press, 1988. Questia. 24 Sept. 2007 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=90445659 .
A www.geocities.com/lawandabrewer_uncp"Brewer, Jaques, Jones, and King. (2001). 23 Sept 2007 http://www.uncp.edu/home/canada/work/allam/16071783/religion.htm .
Crossing the Ocean to Keep the Faith: The Puritans. (2007) Library of Congress. 23 Sept 2007 http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/religion/rel01.html .
Friedrich Von Schlegel (1772-1829), German philosopher. Idea 14 in Selected Ideas (1799-1800), Franklin, Benjamin. His Autobiography. Vol. I, Part 1. The Harvard Classics. New York: P.F. Collier & Son, 1909-14; Bartleby.com, 2001. www.bartleby.com/1/1/.23 Sept 2007 http://www.bartleby.com/1/1/4.html .
As was the nature of the Cold ar, the United States responded by quashing new governments that were likely to lead to communism, even where this constituted an undemocratic or even brutal instituted government (Kort 80).
Democratically elected officials from Brazil, Guyana, and Uruguay were overthrown by internal revolutionaries who were funded and trained by American forces (Parenti 44). These and other leaders and governments in Latin America were targeted by American forced as having communist leanings. Foreign policy followed, with more than two decades of the Cold ar focusing not only on the major publicized events of Korea and the Soviet Union, but on many small, third world countries. These small nations were poised to become players in the larger Cold ar struggle depending on where their allegiance and governments ended up after declaring their independence. ith the Soviet Union attempting to exert force and pressure on the United…
Eisenhower, Dwight D. Inaugural Address. Washington, D.C. 20 Jan. 1953.
Geertz, Clifford. "What Was the Third World Revolution?" Dissent 52.1 (2005): 35-45.
Freidel, Frank. Roosevelt. New York: Little Brown and Company, 1990.
Kort, Michael G. The Cold War. Brookfield, CT: Millbrook Press, 1994.
Taney further ruled that constitution did not consider slave to be any different than other kinds of property. He also rejected the Missouri Compromise saying that it was unconstitutional. Taney offered no hope to Scott on the basis on his stay in Illinois and instead stated categorically that, "the status of slaves who had been taken to free States or territories and who had afterwards returned depended on the law of the State where they resided when they brought suit." efore the text of this decision could be made public, Republicans had gained access to dissenting arguments of Justice McLean and Justice Curtis and a heated debate began in the Congress and in the press.
However unfortunately for Dred Scott, he could never become a free man. ut his efforts did not go in vain as his case accelerated the debate on slavery. The Northern and Southern states had reached…
Stampp, Kenneth M. America in 1857: A Nation on the Brink (New York: Oxford University Press, 1990)
Don E. Fehrenbacher, The Dred Scott Case (New York: Oxford University Press, 1978)
Stanley I. Kutler, The Dred Scott Decision: Law or Politics? (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1967)
They goal for globalization is to increase material wealth and the distribution of goods and services through a more international division of labor and then, in turn, a process in which regional cultures integrate through communication, transportation and trade. The overall theory is that if countries are tied together cooperatively economically, they will not have needed to become political enemies (Smith 2007). Notice the continuum here -- globalization, like modernization, is a process, but a process that insists movement from A to B. is not only desirable, but necessary to become part of the Global Club. hile this is primarily an economic determinant, nothing exists in a vacuum. Therefore, economics drive technological, social, cultural, political, and even biological factors. And, with this exchange of paradigms, there is transnational circulation of ideas, languages, popular culture, and communication through acculturation. Typically, we see the movement of globalization moving into the developing world…
Achebe, C 2000, Home and Exile, Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.
Adams, W 2006, The Future of Sustainability: Re-THinking Environment and Development in the 21st Century, viewed December 2011, http://cmsdata.iucn.org/downloads/iucn_future_of_sustanability.pdf
Aristotle VII, 'Politics', pp. 1339a 29-30.
Bartlovich, C, Mannur, A (eds.) 2001, Marxism, Modernity and Post-Colonial Studies, Cambridge University Press, New York.
Kennedy and Brinkley
President John Fitzgerald Kennedy is an important figure in American history and was instrumental in shaping the American identity in the second half of the twentieth century. His personality and optimism, as well as his heroism in the Second orld ar helped the country to formulate a hope that the 1960s could be a time of renewal and rebirth in the United States of America. In recent years, the more scandalous aspects of his life have overtaken his historical significance, something that should be remedied and his importance restored. Most importantly, his actions during the Cold ar between the United States and the U.S.S.R. are credited with saving the world from descending into nuclear war. In Alan Brinkley's 2012 book John F. Kenney, the author attempts to explain the man in terms of his place in history and how his personal abilities and charisma were able to…
Brinkley, A. (2012). John F. Kennedy: The American Presidents Series: The 35th President,
1961-1963. Times: New York, NY.
Kennedy, J. (1961). Inaugural address. American Rhetoric.com
Kennedy, J. (1963). American University commencement address. American Rhetoric.com
President Kennedy also used Aristotle's logic or logos to convince people to fight against public enemy such as poverty. JFK also used metaphor and the most famous sentence delivered after metaphor was "asks not what your country can do for you, ask what you can do for your country." (Nicholas, 2001 P. 283). The phrase was to appeal and persuade American people to devote their energy to the building of their country as well as cherishing their country as a nation. While the speech was specifically focus on American public, it was also adapted to global people in general. His speech was rhetoric in nature because the speech was a unique for of public speech ever made by any U.S. president.
The paper explores relevance of rhetoric and rhetoric criticisms in public communication. The paper identifies the importance of rhetoric is politics, business and academic communities. To demonstrate importance…
Campbell, K.K. (2008). Rhetorical Criticism. The International Encyclopaedia of Communication.
Cyphert, D. (2010). The Rhetorical Analysis of Business Speech.Unresolved Questions Journal of Business Communication. 47 (3): 346-368.
McCroskey, J.C.(1997). King Martin Luther 'I have a Dream' in: An Introduction to Rhetorical Communication.7th Ed. Boston: Allyn and Bacon: 288-291.
Nicholas, C.(2001). 'Ask Not… a Critical Analysis of Kennedy Inaugural'. Great Speech for Criticisms and Analysis. Alistair Press.
In fact, during the 1787 Constitutional Convention, Slonim notes that the need for a bill of rights was not even a topic of discussion until Virginian delegate George Mason raised the issue just several days before the Convention was scheduled to rise on September 17; Mason suggested that a bill of rights "would give great quiet to the people." Following this assertion, Elbridge Gerry of Massachusetts moved that the Convention add a bill of rights to the Constitution and Mason seconded his motion to no avail: "The Convention unanimously rejected the proposal by a vote of 10 to 0, with one state absent. Failure to heed Mason's counsel was to plague the Federalists throughout the ratification campaign" (emphasis added).
The first major confrontation concerning the ratification of the Constitution involving the need for a bill of rights occurred in Pennsylvania several weeks after the close of the Constitutional Convention; at…
Banning, Lance. The Sacred Fire of Liberty: James Madison and the Founding of the Federal Republic. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1995.
Binkley, Wilfred E. And Malcolm C Moos. A Grammar of American Politics: The National Government. New York: A.A. Knopf, 1949.
Bernhard, Virginia, David Burner and Elizabeth Fox-Genovese. A College History of the United States, St. James: Brandywine Press, 1991.
Brant, Irving. The Bill of Rights: Its Origin and Meaning. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1965.
Increasingly, the majority of black outh Africans became disillusioned with the political system and those ruling it. In the opinion of many, they had simply traded one form of oppression for another - they are now exploited not only by white rulers, but also by those who are black (Clark, 2007). This is expressed in the current forms of outh African Hip Hop. Artists working against the apartheid of the past are now working against the exploitation of the poor.
In addition to being politically oriented, Hip Hop also focuses on the African enjoyment of dancing. The earliest forms of this, also advertised and accepted via the media, included break dancing. Currently, outh African Hip Hop has evolved to a form of house music called kwaito. This music is very popular among the black youth, whether oppressed or not. As such, it is a well established form of music in…
BBC News (2007, July 25). South African Hip Hop. http://www.theworld.org/?q=node/11662
Clark, Msia Kibona (2007, July 11). South Africa - Hip Hop Revolution. Global Envision
Wright, Steve (1999, June 9). Kwaito: South Africa's Hip-Hop? CNN. http://www.cnn.com/SHOWBIZ/Music/9906/09/kwaito.wb
One of the most dramatic consequences of the Civil ar and Reconstruction was that the South was effectively driven from national power for roughly six decades. Southerners no longer claimed the presidency, wielded much power on the Supreme Court, or made their influence strongly felt in Congress But beginning in the 1930s, the South was able to flex more and more political muscle, and by the 1970s some began to think that American politics and political culture were becoming 'southernized'.u How did this happen and what difference did it make to the development of the South and the United States?
Under segregation most blacks in the U.S. still lived in the South and were employed as sharecroppers, laborers and domestic servants, but the system of segregation and discrimination was also found everywhere in other sections of the country. Certainly virtually nothing was done for civil rights during the…
Brinkley, Allen. American History: A Survey, 14th Edition. McGraw-Hill, 2012.
Foner, Eric. Free Soil, Free Labor, Free Men: The Ideology of the Republican Party before the Civil War. Oxford University Press, 1995.
Foner, Eric. Forever Free: The Story of Emancipation and Reconstruction. NY: Knopf, 2005.
Gold, S.D. The Civil Rights Act of 1964. Marshall Cavendish, 2010.
Force 12: Image of Nursing. The VA recognizes the importance of individual care to the perception of quality healthcare in its facilities. Even if the entire organization operates in an effective and compassionate manner, if the nurse that cares for a patient fails to deliver on this level of care, the individual perception of nursing care will be diminished. To this end, the organization's nursing fact sheet proclaims, "VA Nursing Service is dedicated to promoting optimal health, patient safety, quality health care, and the highest professional standards, in order to ensure that our veterans receive the best possible care and that our staff work in the best possible health care system" (VA Nursing Service, 2005).
Force 13: Interdisciplinary elationships. The VA's Web page, "VA & Experienced Professionals" (2008) states, "Our doctors, physician assistants, nurses, therapists, pharmacists, and other professionals work together in an interdisciplinary care team structure" (p. 3).
About Office of Nursing Services. (2008). Department of Veterans Affairs. [Online]. Available: http://www1.va.gov/nursing/page.cfm?pg=111.
About VA. (2008). Department of Veterans Affairs. [Online]. Available: http://www.va.gov /' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
" Real Americans support the right of religious people to worship, and would never base legislation on a religious conviction rather than a conviction based on constitutional rights, constitutional law, and Enlightenment ethics.
American political identity is continually changing also because of the incredible ethnic and cultural diversity within the nation's borders. hen gender, sexual identity, socio-economic class, and other factors are also included in the mix, America's political philosophy is naturally heterogeneous. hen new immigrants enter the United States, they contribute to the common ideals of a nation founded on principles like universal liberty and justice. "Debates about immigration and national identity cut to the core of our national self-image as a nation of immigrants, and invariably includes allusions to the past -- real and idealized -- as a way of under- standing and coping with social and demographic changes today," (Segura 278). hite supremacist Americans are currently in…
Brooks, David "One Nation, Slightly Divisible." The Atlantic Monthly; Dec 2001; 288, 5; ABI/INFORM Global pg. 53
Hartz "The Concept of a Liberal Society"
Hooks, Bell. "Postmodern Blackness." 19 Apr 1994.
King, Martin Luther. "Letter from a Birmingham Jail." 16 April 1963.
The Democrats took over Congress in the 2006 mid-term elections, and while the party wished to have the administration adopt a policy to either "get out now" of Iraq, or "stabilize, then withdraw."
Those suggestions were met with patriotic, even nationalistic opposition from Bush and his very vocal vice president, Dick Cheney (Hartung, 44-45). "However reasonable the merits" were of Congress cutting off funding for the war in Iraq, Hartung continues, Cheney and others supporting the administration held a hammer over their heads in the form of jingoistic phrases like, if you vote to cut off funds you are "voting against the troops" (Hartung, 44). Leaving American troops hanging out there in Iraq would be unthinkable, it was argued from the Bush point-of-view.
Meanwhile, author Lewis B. Smith points out that arguing against the Bush invasion of Iraq was pointless for Congress, due to the sense of patriotism in the…
Bennet, Douglas J. (1978). Congress in Foreign Policy: Who Needs It? Foreign Affairs, 57(1),
Delaney, Kate. (2006). What's New? Don't Forget Capitol Hill. The Journal of American
History, 93(2), 437-440.
Freedom is the Foundation of Peace. Without freedom, there is no peace. America, by nature, stands for freedom, and we must always remember, we benefit when it expands. So we must stand by those nations moving toward freedom. We must stand up to those nations who deny freedom and threaten our neighbors or our vital interests. We must assert emphatically that the future will belong to the free. Today's world is different from the one we faced just several years ago. We are no longer divided into armed camps, locked in a careful balance of terror. Yet, freedom still has enemies. Our present dangers are less concentrated and more varied. They come from rogue nations, from terrorism, from missiles that threaten our forces, our friends, our allies and our homeland.
Since the signing of the Treaty of Ryswick between the kingdoms of Spain and France in 1697, the island…
"Beginning of Diplomatic Relations." Department of Foreign Affairs and International Relations. (January 2004) Retrieved June 3, 2005 from http://www.dfait-maeci.gc.ca /latinamerica/haitirelations-en.asp.
Graham, Andrew. "Canada bolsters support to Haiti." Media Relations Office
Canadian International Development Agency. (July 2004) Retrieved June 3, 2005 from
A section of commentators have taken issue with the manner in which the federal government denied suspected terrorist the due process of law as stipulated under the constitution. The government even commissioned the establishment of a torture chamber in Guantanamo Bay. This amounts to gross violation of human rights and civil liberties. There is another clause in the patriot act dubbed "enhanced surveillance procedures," which allows federal authorities to gather foreign intelligence by breaching firewalls of 'terrorist nations.' This controversial foreign policy clause damaged the relationship between America and the Middle East.
A section of scholars argues that key players in the oil industry manipulated the United States to wage war against Afghanistan. According to an article published on the BBC World Service in December 2007, the execution of Saddam Hussein was unwarranted. Political scientists reckon that a cartel of multinational oil companies wanted to control the oil in…
Van Bergen, J. (2003) "In the Absence of Democracy: The Designation and Material Support Provisions of the Anti-Terrorism Laws." Cardozo Pub. [?] Law Policy & Ethics Journal 2 (2003): 107.
Luca, B (2004). American foreign policy and global governance, in A. Gobbicchi (ed.), Globalization, armed conflicts and security (Rubbettino/CEMISS, Roma) 112-127
Fawcett, L. (2009) International Relations of the Middle East (2nd ed.) Oxford University Press
Even though the lines may be quite bold between democrats and republicans, the BBC found that 65% of Americans believe "churches should not endorse candidates," and 51% agree that "churches should express views on political matters" (Greene 2002-2008, graphics box).
The question of whether or not a candidate's personal religious beliefs should be used on the campaign trail is a problematic one, with two equally valid points-of-view. Those who say it should state that this is information that they need to know as voters, since religion is important to them. Those who say it should note state that this information increases fraudulent activities among campaigners and casts a frightening forecast for what the candidate may do in office. The data seems to support both sides, suggesting that voters think the candidate's religious ideas and the church should be involved in his or her bid for office. However, the…
American Atheists. (2009, Jan. 20). Atheists Thank President Obama for Mention at Inauguration. Retrieved Jan, 25, 2009, from Opposing Views. Web Site: ttp:/ / www.opposingviews.com/articles/opinion-atheists-thank-president-obama-for-mention-at-inauguration
Greene, R.A. (2004, Sept. 15). Religion and politics in America. Retrieved Feb. 24, 2009 from the BBC. Web Site: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/3658172.stm
Montanaro, D. (2007, Oct. 30). The Role of Religion in Politics. Retreived Jan. 24, 2009 from MSNBC. Web Site: http://firstread.msnbc.msn.com/archive/2007/10/30/438033.aspx
Chaava, M. (2002-2009). Should religion play an important role in choosing presidential candidates? Retrieved Jan. 24, 2009, from Helium. Web Site: http://www.helium.com/debates/132931-should-religion-important-choosing/side_by_side
In the 1980's, KDKA had another first, as they were the first station to broadcast in AM stereo ((Schecter, 5).
While there is dispute about the birth of radio, the first transmission, the first transcontinental broadcast, and the first morning show, there can be no question that KDKA was at least a pioneer within a small group of stations dedicated to making radio a world-wide phenomenon. Their commitment to news, listener preferences, technology, and the relaying of live information has allowed the station to remain on the air for over 80 years. Such an achievement shows clearly that KDKA is a landmark of radio broadcasting, and that from their first broadcast atop the Westinghouse building, the station has provided listeners with enjoyable programming that can stand the test of time.
Dunning, John M. On the Air: The Encyclopedia of Old-Time adio. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998.
Dunning, John M. On the Air: The Encyclopedia of Old-Time Radio. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998.
Finn, Bernard S. "Electronic Communications." Technology in Western Civilization. Ed. Melvin Kranzberg and Carroll Pursell. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1967. 293-310.
KDKA. "It All Started in Pittsburgh." KDKA Radio. 2005. 12 June 2007. http://www.kdkaradio.com/pages/15486.php .
Kittross, John M. Stay Tuned: A History of American Broadcasting. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2002.
Generally considered to be the greatest president of the United States, who freed four million slaves and saved the nation after leading the Union to victory in the Civil War of 1861-65, Abraham Lincoln was born in Kentucky in 1809 to a pioneer family on what was then the western frontier of the United States. His family then moved to southern Indiana in 1816 and southern Illinois three years later, although Lincoln by all accounts never intended to follow the same social and economic path as these poor white farmers. Even as a young man, though, he picked up their strongly antislavery views and the common belief that poor whites had little opportunity to better their social and economic circumstances in the slave states. Given the lack of schools and universities on the frontier, almost all of Lincoln's education was really self-education, and he learned his writing…
From that point onward, the abolition of slavery depended on the success of the Northern armies, and by the end of the war freed slaves made up 10% of these. Lincoln finally found two generals who had achieved great success against the Confederates in the West -- William Tecumseh Sherman and Ulysses S. Grant -- and formulated a successful strategy with them for winning the war (Thomas 306). Grant was sent to capture the Confederate capital at Richmond and defeat Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia while Sherman was sent through Georgia and the Carolinas to destroy Confederate railroads, industry and agriculture there. In 1864, Lincoln feared that he would be defeated for reelection by General George McClellan, a conservative Democrat who had opposed the Emancipation Proclamation and intended to offer peace terms to the Confederacy that would permit slavery to continue (Thomas 409). Sherman's capture of Atlanta, Georgia in 1864 ensured Lincoln's reelection, while Grant captured Richmond in April 1865 and accepted the surrender of Lee's forces at Appomattox Courthouse. Lincoln was assassinated on April 14, 1865, before he had really begun to deal with the problems of postwar Reconstruction, but at the end of his life he was moving toward the position of granting citizenship and voting rights to blacks for the first time in U.S. history (McPherson 63).