Use our essay title generator to get ideas and recommendations instantly
Another major cause of exodus was the decline of linen manufacturing from 1771 to 1773. Many thousands of people suddenly lost their jobs and joined the hundreds going to America. "The linen trade... had entered upon a period of stagnation, and the consequent distress gave an impetus to the emigration to the land of promise" (Dunaway, 1944, p. 30). eligious persecution suffered by the Ulster habitats was another reason for leaving.
Those who emigrated to America included both well-to-do individuals and the needy, with the great majority of them the latter. This situation was not particular to the Irish, however, since most immigrants to America, of whatever race or nationality, have always been the most poor. Most carried with them their provisions for the voyage, together with some of their household goods. Craftsmen also brought along the tools of their trade. Everyone brought whatever money they owned, but this was…
Emancipation in Pennsylvania. Slavery in the North. Website retrieved August 4, 2007. http://www.slavenorth.com/paemancip.htm
Geiser, K. (1901) Redemptioners and Indentured Servants in the Colony and Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Harrower, J. "Diary" (of Indentured Servant) in Amer. Hist. Rev., VI, 77.
Illick, J.E. (1976). Colonial Pennsylvania: A History. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons.
But, it was an evil system in which "armies of free men, guilty of no crimes and entitled by law to freedom," were contracted to provide labor "without compensation" (Blackmon).
In conclusion, while it is true that the Civil ar ended and the Emancipation Proclamation (and the 13th Amendment) supposedly freed the slaves, there was still a dark social policy of indentured servitude, as pointed out in this paper. There were also indentured servants like the two girls mentioned in this paper, who were signed over to a man until they reached the age of 18 -- and that, today, seems to be very close to slavery itself.
Blackmon, Douglas A. Slavery by Another Name: The re-enslavement of black Americans
From the Civil ar to orld ar Two. London, UK: Icon Books, 2013.
Campbell, James M., and Fraser, Rebecca J. Reconstruction, People and Perspectives. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO,…
Blackmon, Douglas A. Slavery by Another Name: The re-enslavement of black Americans
From the Civil War to World War Two. London, UK: Icon Books, 2013.
Campbell, James M., and Fraser, Rebecca J. Reconstruction, People and Perspectives. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, 2008.
Genealogy Adventures. "The indenture of former slaves in the Reconstruction Era." Retrieved
indentured servants and company towns. Specifically, it will research and discuss how sociological concepts apply to these topics. Sociologically, company towns and indentured servitude are two of the most complex topics of life in historic America. Indentured servants placed their trust in others to eventually gain their freedom and a better life, while company towns existed to better the company, rather than the residents. These two forms of controlled labor created new classes in America, and, sociologically, say much about a people who can keep others in bondage, no matter what the outcome.
Indentured servants were an important part of Colonial America (and many other developing countries). Basically, most indentured servants came to the New World seeking a better life. Settlers in the new world encouraged indentured servants to come to America to help them work their lands. The servants would sign up to work for their American masters for…
Garner, John S., ed. Architecture and Society in the Early Industrial Age. New York: Oxford University Press, 1992.
Jernegan, Marcus Wilson. Laboring and Dependent Classes in Colonial America, 1607-1783: Studies of the Economic, Educational, and Social Significance of Slaves, Servants, Apprentices and Poor Folk. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1931.
Steinfeld, Robert J. The Employment Relation in English and American Law and Culture, 1350-1870 The Employment Relation in English and American Law and Culture, 1350-1870. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1991.
Domestic Life as a oman in a Slave Family
I am a black female slave living in Virginia in the late 17th Century. I was born into slavery on a plantation and all I have ever known is slavery. My slavery was passed on to me by my mother, who was raped by the old plantation owner here in 1660 (DuBois & Dumenil, 2016, p. 55). I was married to another slave at 15. e had a marriage ceremony but it was not recognized as legal and our vows accurately were "Till death or distance do us part" rather than "Till death do us part," owing to the propensity of slaveholders to separate black families without regard for our family bonds (Burns, 1990). Before and after our marriage, I work in the fields, manuring and tilling tobacco, alongside my husband (DuBois & Dumenil, 2016, p. 54). e were also able…
Burns, K. (Director). (1990). The Civil War: The Cause [Motion Picture].
DuBois, E. C., & Dumenil, L. (2016). Through Women's Eyes: An American History with Documents, 4th Ed. New York: Bedford/St. Martin's.
Menard, R. R. (2001). Migrants, Servants and Slaves: Unfree Labor in Colonial British America. Farnham: Ashgate.
Tadman, M. (2005). The Interregional Slave Trade in the History and Myth-Making of the U.S. South. In W. Johnson, Chattel Principle: Internal Slave Trades in the Americas (pp. 117-142). New Haven: Yale University Press.
Indentured Servant Analysis
Elizabeth Springs' letter to her father on September 22, 1756, is both a letter of apology due to her failure to communicate and a review of the horrendous conditions she was working under as an indentured servant. This paper reviews -- through historical context -- the situation that many indentured servants from England suffered through and puts Springs' letter into a perspective.
The Letter from Springs to John Spyer
Elizabeth Springs is clearly in distress. And to add to her distress over the terrible working conditions in the American colonies she is feeling guilty and sad that she left England under a cloud as to her relationship with her father. "My being forever banished from your sight…" she begins, hoping to touch her father's heart with her present pathos. It seems clear that it wasn't just a matter of Elizabeth leaving without her father's permission, but rather…
Baseler, Marilyn C. "Asylum for Mankind": America, 1607-1800. New York: Cornell
University Press, 1998.
Springs, Elizabeth. "Complaint of an Indentured Servant (1756)." Voices of Freedom /
Creating Anglo-America, 1660-1750. 57-58.
environment strictly controlled by its owning company, woman often found difficulty obtaining any kind of role outside of domestic duties. ork in company towns was generally reserved for males, which granted them the responsibility of providing for their families while restricting their wives to the duties at home. omen's lives within company towns, aside from placing them in a position of dependence on their husbands, were quite dull. In addition to leaving their previous positions in a life that revolved around an active family unit, they had also left their social lives behind. Because of the lack of freedom experienced within company town limits, women often found difficulty creating any new relationships. According to Jenny Higgins, "Unlike men, women were largely confined to the domestic sphere and had no coworkers who could help ease their entry into the community." (Higgins, 1)
If employment was obtained, it was often low-end work.…
When compared to life as an indentured servant, although still repressed and underprivileged, the life of a company town woman carried a larger amount of freedom. Although often bound to the company town because of marriage to a worker or due to financial reasons, woman did not risk legal penalties if they were to leave. In addition, especially with the coming of World War II, women saw their first opportunities to negotiate their working conditions with their employers, something that was unheard of for indentured servants.
However, the as does not mention any scars so the mutilation of her left hand could have been the result of an accident instead of intentional infliction of pain. Finally, since she was of mix blood, the ad mentioned that she may try to pass herself as a free woman, and therefore, she must have had many white features. Since she may have tried to get to friends for help, it can be assumed that escaping from slavery was a very difficult endeavor without aid from others.
Case #4 Virginia Gazette (Rind), Williamsburg, August 8, 1771
It was on April 1st 1771 that a slave named Jenny ran away from her master Edmund Bacon. Five months later Mr. Bacon took out an ad in the paper announcing that he would pay for her return. She was 23 years old, 5 feet 4 or 5 inches tall, and had at least…
Further, while some upward mobility did exist, competition among small business entrepreneurs and economic instability caused by depression and financial panics created just as much downward mobility (Ibid. At 58).
Housing among the poor in the cities usually consisted of multiple families (as many as 8) living in homes designed for just one. The price of rent was disproportionately high because the numbers of immigrants in the teeming cities kept demand higher than supply (Ibid. At 132). As a result, slum housing developed and the risk of fire and disease became a daily risk for the urban lower class.
The middle class enjoyed much better conditions. hile downward mobility was always possible, the middle class could typically expect rising wages and could afford moderate consumerism, that is, purchasing magazines, clothing, books and some of the new manufactured goods becoming more and more available. A basic middle class characteristic was the…
Chudacoff, Howard P. And Judith E. Smith. The Evolution of American Urban Society. Prentice Hall, Inc.: Upper Saddle River, NJ (2000).
Goodfriend, Joyce D. Slavery in colonial New York City. Urban History, Vol. 35
(2008), pp. 485-496.
Tomlins, Christopher. Reconsidering Indentured Servitude: European Migration and the Early
He would not be allowed to leave during his contracted bondage, and would be treated like an escaped slave who committed a crime if he tried to escape a cruel master. Although, unlike a slave if his master was honest, he would be set freed and given a new start in life at the end of the contracted period.
20-year-old Puritan bride in the Massachusetts Bay Colony: This bride likely would have been subjected to tremendous religious prejudice and persecution back in her native England. After suffering a long and grueling passage to the colony, she would have faced conditions she had never experienced in England -- a rough life, difficult farming conditions, and the threat of Native Americans whose culture she little understood. If she survived and she was lucky enough to have a good relationship with her husband, she would have seen the beginnings of a new society…
But after a military threat from the side of Northern opponents in Canada (French colonies) English colonists had to revise their attitude towards Indians turning some Indian tribes into allies by presenting them gifts and developing trade relations. Ultimately colonists came to the conclusion that they needed temporary cooperation with Indians in order to strengthen their positions in North America: "many Indians became dependent on the manufactured goods the fur trade brought them, and hunted to meet the demands of European markets rather than the needs of their families." (from Calloway, C. New Worlds for All: Indians, Europeans, and the emaking of Early America, p.15)According to Colin Calloway Indian peoples quickly became involved into the system of colonial trade and ultimately they became an integral part of Atlantic colonial economy which worked only for colonists. European colonists wanted to change Indian culture and system of values which were considered to…
Morris, R. The Emergence of American Labor available on web resource: http://www.dol.gov/asp/programs/history/chapter1.htm
Convict Servants in the American Colonies, Artilce available on web resource: http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=3614090&place=home03
Calloway, C. New Worlds for All: Indians, Europeans, and the Remaking of Early America (Johns Hopkins University Press, 1998), 15.
Calloway, C. New Worlds for All: Indians, Europeans, and the Remaking of Early America (Johns Hopkins University Press,1998), 69.
Uncle Tom characters were common in both white and black productions of the time, yet no director before Micheaux had so much as dared to shine a light on the psychology that ravages such characters. By essentially bowing to the two white men, Micheaux implied that Old Ned was less than a man; an individual whittled down to nothing more than yes-man and wholly deprived of self-worth. At this point in the history of black films, with some of the most flagrant sufferings of blacks exposed to the American public, the only logical path forward that African-Americans could take was to begin making cogent demands to improve their collective social situation.
Slowly, black characters in film took on greater and more significant roles in film. Sidney Poitier was one of the most powerful film stars of the mid twentieth century. In roles like the 1950 film by…
Finlayson, R. (2003). We Shall Overcome: The History of the American Civil Rights
Movement. Lerner Publications Company, Minneapolis, MN.
King, Jr., M. And Jackson, J. (1963). Why We Can't Wait. Signet Classic, New York,
Case study There is no such thing
Q1.The origin of slavery can be traced back to late 1600's in Jamestown in Virginia. In early 1600's the Virginia Company came to America and established the colony of Virginia. In the process of establishing the colony the English settlers also brought with them Portuguese and Dutch traders to help in the establishment of the colony. The English settlers had previously failed in their several attempts to establish a colony but were persistent enough to sees their dream come true. The successful establishment of the colony was later followed by successful trading between the settlers and the locals. In one such incidence that may have most importance was when one trader traded his cargo of African slaves for food.The slaves were first taken in as indentured servants to work in return for freedom, food or land.
The African were given same considerations…
Alexander, R. (2005). Racism, African-Americans, and social justice. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.
Buell, T. (2004).Slavery in America: A primary source history of the intolerable practice of slavery. New York: Rosen Central Primary Source.
Oskamp, S. (2000).Reducing prejudice and discrimination. Mahwah, N.J: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Boycotting British goods meant that American women were going to have to make sacrifices, and stop consuming goods that were imported from Britain. The cartoon of the women of Edenton, NC signing a non-consumption agreement represent American women involving themselves in the political and economic boycott of Britain by the American colonies. ("A Society of Patriotic Ladies") However, it is actually a criticism of women's involvement in political affairs by representing the women who signed as silly women engaging in silly activities. The entire cartoon is designed to give the impression that women are not able to take on political issues seriously and deal with them effectively. Instead, the women in the cartoon are engaging in sex, playing, drinking, and are generally distracted from the important issue at hand.
"A Society of Patriotic Ladies- North Carolina Digital History." LEARN NC. eb. 14
Oct. 2011. http://www.learnnc.org/lp/editions/nchist-revolution/4305
"A Society of Patriotic Ladies- North Carolina Digital History." LEARN NC. Web. 14
Oct. 2011. http://www.learnnc.org/lp/editions/nchist-revolution/4305
"Laws on Indentured Servants." Virtual Jamestown. Web. 14 Oct. 2011.
Shaping of the Colonies in 1763
There have been few eras in human history possessed with more of the expectant optimism, and the grim pragmatism, than the century following first contact with the new world of North America. With an expansive landmass, the size of which more than doubled that known to citizens of any European country at the time, brimming with natural resources and lying open for exploration and settlement, many thinkers of the age shared Benjamin Franklin's fateful estimation, made in his tract America as a Land of Opportunity, which claimed "so vast is the Territory of North-America, that it will require many Ages to settle it fully." Penned and published in 1751, Franklin's treatise on the seemingly infinite riches to be reaped by the American colonies failed to fully anticipate man's overwhelming compulsion to compete for the control of land. While America's preeminent philosopher was prescient in…
Slavery, The Civil ar and the Preservation of the Union
In the face of oppression and harsh treatment, slaves formed communities as a coping mechanism and to resist the belief that they were simply property. Members of these slave communities came together often to sing, talk, and even plan covert plots to runaway or sabotage the system in which they were living. Slaves married, had children and worked to keep their families together. Families were often broken up as members were sold off to different masters, but when a family was kept together, nuclear families of two parents and their children working for the same master were common. It was in these communities that countless elements of African-American slave culture were passed on for generations, including skills such as medical care, hunting, and fishing as well as how to act in front of whites, hiding their feelings and escaping punishment.…
Buchanan, James." Columbia Encyclopedia. 6th ed. 2000. Encyclopedia.com. 14 December 2002. http://www.encyclopedia.com/html/B/BuchannJ1.asp .
Lincoln, Abraham," Columbia Encyclopedia. 6th ed. 2000. Encyclopedia.com. 14 December 2002. http://www.encyclopedia.com/html/L/LincolnA1.asp .
Missouri Compromise." Columbia Encyclopedia. 6th ed. 2000. Encyclopedia.com. 14 December 2002. http://www.encyclopedia.com/html/m/missrc1omp.asp .
The Terrible Transformation." Africans in America. PBS Online. 14 December 2002. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part1/title.html .
Their educational system was superior, as was their economic foundation, and their statuses were those of the privileged (Falola, 202).
There can be no question that apartheid came into being due to centuries of oppression of the non-white cultures in South Africa by the Dutch and British inhabitants and settlers. The wars and conflicts between races and political factions decimated the landscape, and resulted in thousands of lost lives on both sides of the racial line. hile the system of apartheid certainly destroyed the lives of nearly all black citizens of South Africa, it had an equally detrimental effect on the countless number of white opponents who dared to speak out against the oppression, and of those white citizens whose economic status was already low. In all cases, and for all citizens of South Africa, the time of apartheid was a time of conflict, loss, and struggle.
Eades, Lindsay Michie. The End of Apartheid in South Africa. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1999.
Falola, Toyin. Key Events in African History: A Reference Guide. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2002.
Lazerson, Joshua N. Against the Tide: Whites in the Struggle against Apartheid. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1994.
Leonard, Richard. Computers in South Africa: A Survey of U.S. Companies. New York: The African Fund, 1978.
American History: Rights and Freedoms of Women in the 1600's
In the early 1600's the ritish King made grants of charters were granted for settlements that were to become established colonies in the New World or America. y the 1700's 13 colonies had been established namely Massachusetts, Connecticut, Delaware, Georgia, Maryland, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina and Rhode Island. The Constitution was not yet and Freedom not yet won and the rights of women varied from area to area.
This paper intends to explore what rights women possessed in the different areas of settlement in the early America as well as the difference of women's rights in other race and cultural groups in that time period. Further to understand what freedom was held by "Free Colonial Women" as well as what motivated the white and black women of that time to either declare…
Reader's Companion: Encyclopedia of North-American Indians (nd) located [Online] available at: http://college.hmco.com/history/readerscomp/index/html/topic/colo.htm
"Colonial History of Maryland" (nd) excerpt from: Our Country Vol.1 1800's [Online] available at:
The limitation of slave movement, was an action in response to the growing threat related to fugitive slaves (Selected records relating to slavery in early Virginia, n.d.). The conditions at the time and the harsh regulations concerning black slaves made them go in search for a different life, especially in Northern states (Petition to Governor, Council, and House of epresentatives of Massachusetts, 1773). Therefore, the Southerners were reluctant to offer any liberty that would somehow enable black people to gather and possibly plan insurrections or escape attempts. In addition, the tensions between the slaver states and the free ones were constantly growing because Free states were accusing slave ones of trying to use the slave population to increase its influence in the federal legislative body. In this sense, Northern states were somewhat ready to assist runaway slaves from South states.
Yet another reason, which influenced the way in which slaves…
Africans in America. (n.d.) "From Indentured Servitude to Racial Slavery." The Terrible Transformation. Available at http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part1/1narr3.html
Galenson, David W. (1984). "The Rise and Fall of Indentured Servitude in the Americas: An Economic Analysis." The Journal of Economic History, Vol. 44, No. 1. pp. 1-26.
Jenkins, P. A history of the United States. New York: Palgrave, 1997.
Selected records relating to slavery in early Virginia. N.d. Available at http://www.fiu.edu/~woodk/vadocs.html
history slavery North Atlantic British colonies United States
Observations egarding Slavery
One of the primary methods of resistance for people of African descent who existed in servitude in the North Atlantic British colonies and in the United States was rebellion. Although far from occurring frequently, armed, violent revolt from chattel slaves helped to shape the history of their descendants in these locations. One of the most notorious of these uprisings was known as the Southampton Insurrection led by Nat Turner in Virginia's Southampton County in August of 1831. The effect of Turner's armed insurrection, and those of others in the Southern United States and in other North Atlantic British colonies can be evidenced in the amended legislature which ultimately influenced the future and perception of both slaves and former slaves for several years to come.
Turner's 1831 rebellion was just the latest in the lengthy list of historical uprisings slaves…
Dr. Thomas C., Parramore (1998). Trial Separation: Murfreesboro, North Carolina and the Civil War. Murfreesboro, North Carolina: Murfreesboro Historical Association, Inc.. p. 10
"Nat Turner's Rebellion," Africans in America, PBS.org. Retrieved from http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part3/3p1518.html
Aptheker, H. (1943). American Negro Slave Revolts. 5th edition. New York, NY: International Publishers.
Cullen, Joseph P. "Bacon's Rebellion," American History Illustrated, Dec 1968, Vol. 3 Issue 8, p.4
Jonathan Edwards' "Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God" and Benjamin Franklin's "Advice to a Young Tradesman."
The writings of Jonathan Edwards and Benjamin Franklin represent two opposite extremes of Colonial thought. Edwards' "Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God" is an example of the "Hellfire" religious revivalism that exercised such strong appeal during the period. Thousands turned out to be converted and save at great mass meetings. These people place their absolute trust in God, believing that He alone could save them from the eternal torments of Hell. Only through trust in Him, could any of their endeavors be truly blessed. According to such beliefs, men and women were not masters of their own fate -- all lay in the Hands of God. In contrast, to the extent that Franklin's piece, "Advice to a Young Tradesman" does touch on religion at all, it is a very different…
In 1834, the British Empire abolished slavery (the Civil War Home Page, 2009). Great Britain had remained one of the United States' largest trading partners and was, at that time, still the most influential nation in the world. Moreover, Great Britain had retained slavery after many other countries ended the practice. The end of slavery in Great Britain also meant that those in the North who wanted the abolition of slavery could support their assertions that the world viewed the United States as backwards and barbarous because of the practice of slavery. Moreover, it certainly changed the potential for allies in the Civil War. Though not a monarchy, the South was an aristocracy and both Britain and France were then-ruled by monarchies. As long as the struggle was about a states-right government rebellion, the root cause of that rebellion, slavery, could be ignored and European countries could provide aid to…
Brotherly Love. (unk.). Historical document: Missouri Compromise. Retrieved February 22,
2011 from PBS.org website: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part3/3h511.html
The Civil War Home Page. (2009). Events leading to war- a Civil War timeline. Retrieved from http://www.civil-war.net/pages/timeline.asp
Dred Scott v. Sandford, 60 U.S. 393 (1857).
.....music is important for "processes of personal and social integration," (1). This statement seems strange until we consider how music does affect our emotions, and also the way music plays a role in social settings. Therefore, music is more than just an abstract sonic art form. Music can serve symbolic roles, as in national anthems. Likewise, music can be used as a personal tool as when people wear headphones on the subway to create a sense of personal space and isolation. Music is also a social event, as when friends get together to form a band or when friends go out dancing to a club. It is almost impossible to imagine social settings without any music.
As an art form, music also allows for personal and cultural expression. In this sense, music is something that is constructed by externalities such as which instruments happen to be available in one's society…
Barbados was once called the Little England due to its landscape of rolling terrain, as well as its customs of tea drinking and cricket, the Anglican Church, parliamentary democracy and the conservatism of its rural culture. It has a well-developed airport, electrical supply and road system, especially after independence in 1966 when the tourist industry became the most important sector of the economy. Of course, it also inherited a racial caste system from its three hundred years of slavery, and until very recent times, the white minority had almost all the political and economic power. Today, only about 5% of the population is white, 20% of mixed race background and the remaining 75% descended from African slaves. As with most of the Caribbean islands, the indigenous Arawak and Carib populations were devastated by disease in the fifty years after first contact with Europeans in 1492. Although there were…
Beckles, Hilary McD.. Natural Rebels: A Social History of Enslaved Black Women in Barbados. Rutgers University Press, 1989.
Beckles, Hilary McD. "The Slave-Drivers' War: Bussa and the 1816 Barbados Slave Rebellion" in Howe, Glenford H. And Don D. Marshall (Eds) The Empowering Impulse: The Nationalist Tradition of Barbados. Kingston, Jamaica: canoe Press, 2001: 1-33.
Breslaw, Elaine G. Tituba, Reluctant Witch of Salem: Devilish Indians and Puritan Fantasies. New York University Press, 1996.
Browne, David V.C. "The 1937 Disturbances and Barbadian Nationalism" in Howe and Marshall: 149-63.
Northwest Passage- 1492-1600 when Europeans encountered the new world
After the Portuguese and Spanish took control of the South's sea pathways, the English and French began seeking a northwestern route to Asia. However, by the 17th century, they lost hope of ever making their way across North America's northern part after many generations of sailors failed to find a way. Nevertheless, early 15th and 16th century explorations and colonization increased knowledge regarding the world by a significant amount. Cornelius Wytfliet, the cartographer from Flanders created a world map that continued to depict the mythical "Straits of Anian" -- a province in China connecting the Atlantic and the legendary Northwest Passage, which finds mention in the edition of traveler, Marco Polo's work dated 1559. European powers' endeavors to make their homes in the Americas succeeded, ultimately, in the 17th century, when the English and the French successfully contested the…
Concepcion Saenz-Cambra. (2012). The Atlantic World, 1492 -- 1600. Concepcion.
David W. Galenson. (1984). The Rise and Fall of Indentured Servitude in the Americas: An Economic Analysis. Economic History Association, 1-26.
weli, R. v. (2008). Slave Trading and Slavery in the Dutch Colonial Empi. In Rik van weli. New West Indian Guide.
More importantly, the puritans had considered essential for the future of economic success the access to education and therefore established elementary schools throughout the state (Wright, 1947). Therefore, the degree of literacy was greater than in other parts of the country because there was a comprehensive access to education.
By comparison, the South was different in this area. The southern society had a particular system of private tutoring which allowed children to have access to education. However, for ordinary people, this was not an option and they most often appealed to the assistance of the minister. Still, the quality of education received in this way was limited and in many situations the young generation remained illiterate. It can be said therefore that the poor level of education was in part due to the lack of financial support and in part to the economic practices existing in the South which did…
Jenkins, P. A history of the United States. New York: Palgrave, 1997.
McAllister, J. "Colonial America, 1607-1776." The Economic History Review, New Series, Vol. 42, No. 2. (May, 1989), pp. 245-259.
Weinberg, Meyer. A Short History of American Capitalism. Gloucester: New History Press, 2002.
Wright, Louis B. The Atlantic Frontier: Colonial American Civilization, 1607-1763. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1947.
Colonial America: Questions
Unlike previous European settlers who came to the New World primarily to make a profit, the Puritans arrived with a commitment to create a new society and genuinely 'settle' on the land. They had no plans to return to England, given that they had been cast out of the Old World because of their religious beliefs. Unlike the settlers at Jamestown, they came prepared to work hard, and did not hope to simply make a quick profit and return to England rich, having done little labor. They believed in the value of hard work as part of their religious philosophy. They believed God had quite literally 'chosen' them to know the truth, which sustained them during times of suffering. During the first years, however, like previous colonists, they did struggle to stay alive. The winter was harsh, and they were forced to adapt their crops and…
"5b. Indentured servants." The Southern Colonies. U.S. History. 2012. [1 Feb 2013]
Pearson, Ellen Holmes. "The New World: A Stage for Cultural Interaction." Teaching History.
[1 Feb 2013.]
As the costs were considerably less, the profit margins were greater and they were adaptable to host of different weather conditions. ("A rief History of Slavery")
How did the ritish and American ways of viewing representative government differ? How did these differences lead to problems between ritain and America?
The ritish believed that Parliament should address the different issues affecting the colonies. However, the colonists were not given any kind of representation or a way of discussing their grievances. This is different from the American views, where people felt that everyone should be allowed to speak directly with their representatives, about a host of issues.
Over the course of time, this would lead to problems between ritain and America. As the colonists felt that Parliament was not willing to listen to their concerns or to discuss them, by ensuring that they had some form of representation. This is was problematic,…
Brewer, Lawanda. "Religion in Colonial America." UNCP, 2001. Web. 11 Feb. 2011
"A Brief History of Slavery." Religious Tolerance, 2006. Web. 11 Feb. 2011
Geise, Robert. American History to 1877. Hauppauge, NY: Baron's Educational Services, 1992. Print.
MLA Format. http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/747/01/
The ideology of race only came to justify the existence of slavery after all 'equal' men were said to have inherent rights. Until then, virtually all peoples of the world had been enslaved at one point or another, even before the existence of 'races,' and inferiority as a category could be applied to the poor, to despised ethnicities like the Irish, or even to despised members of other tribes in Africa.
Fields, Barbara. "Presentation." Race: The Power of an Illusion. PBS ebsite. 2001. February 9, 2009. http://www.pbs.org/race/000_About/002_04-background-02-02.htm
Africa: A Voyage of Discovery with Basil Davidson. RM Arts, 1984.
Horton, James O. "Origin of race, slavery." Race: The Power of an Illusion. PBS ebsite. 2003.
February 9, 2009. http://www.pbs.org/race/000_About/002_04-background-02-04.htm
Obadina, Tunde. "Role of African Slave Traders." Edofolks. February 9, 2009. http://www.edofolks.com/html/pub157.htm
Smedley, Audrey. "Origin of the idea of race." Anthropology Newsletter. November 1997.
Reprinted 2003 on Race:…
Fields, Barbara. "Presentation." Race: The Power of an Illusion. PBS Website. 2001. February 9, 2009. http://www.pbs.org/race/000_About/002_04-background-02-02.htm
Africa: A Voyage of Discovery with Basil Davidson. RM Arts, 1984.
Horton, James O. "Origin of race, slavery." Race: The Power of an Illusion. PBS Website. 2003.
Also, the land in New England did not allow for vast fields of crops, such as Virginia was blessed with. Small farms were the rule of the day in New England.
Another very different part of life for New England was that they had a better relationship with the Indians than the Chesapeake settlers did. The Pokanokets even signed a treaty with the Pilgrims, "and during the colony's first difficult years the Pokanokets supplied the English with essential foodstuffs" (31).
Further, when the Massachusetts Bay Company (MBC) was established in 1629, Congregationalist merchants "boldly decided to transfer the headquarters of the MBC [from England] to New England" (31). This allowed the settlers to handle their own affairs, "secular and religious, as they pleased." This dynamic was very different from the forced ties the Virginians had with the English crown.
Still another major difference (from Chesapeake) in the development of the…
Collier, Christopher. Decision in Philadelphia: The Constitutional Convention of 1787.
New York: Random House: Reader's Digest, 1986.
Meachem, Sarah Hand. "They Will be Adjudged by Their Drink, What Kinds of Housewives They Are." Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 111 (2002):
Nash, Gary B. Red, White, and Black: The Peoples of Early America. Englewood Cliffs,
college campus across the country, students are greeted with the familiar sight of individuals seated at folding tables, with the purpose of marketing credit cards to them. These salespeople are most frequently seen during the beginning of the college semester and are usually young and attractive and smiling, barely older than the students themselves. Quite often, if a student fills out an application for the credit card, he or she may receive a small toy or a gigantic in exchange for his or her pains. hat could be more harmless? hat's wrong with having a credit card on hand, 'just in case?'
However, this familiar sight is one of the many reasons that college students are becoming more and more deeply ensnared in debt. These smiling individuals prey upon students when they are at their most vulnerable. Most of these students have just had to pay hundreds of dollars for…
Indentured Servitude Contract in 17th Century Virginia. Stratford Hall History Resource of Historical Documents. http://www.history.pdx.edu/hst201/headrts.htm
Encarta Encyclopedia. "Sharecropping."
The original inhabitants of Jamaica are long forgotten, their name barely a footnote in Caribbean history. The main legacy of the Arawak Indians has been the word "Xamayca," meaning "land of wood and water," ("A Brief History of Jamaica"). Xamayca gradually became rendered as Jamaica, an island nation with a tumultuous but vibrant history. The first non-native settlers on Jamaica were the Spaniards. Christopher Columbus included it in Spain's territorial acquisitions in 1494. Soon thereafter, a small Spanish settlement existed on the island until 1655. The Spaniards killed every last Arawak, either via use of force or exposure to disease. Moreover, the Spaniards bought African slaves and brought them to Jamaica to work on the budding sugar plantations. Growing interest in sugar was fueling the Age of Imperialism. Britain was poised to strike the Caribbean.
In May 1655, a convoy of British ships arrived and startled the Spanish settlement.…
"A Brief History of Jamaica." Retrieved online: http://www.mtholyoke.edu/~beckf20s/classweb/History.html
"Brief History of Jamaica." Retrieved online: http://www.nationsonline.org/oneworld/History/Jamaica-history.htm
Draper, N. The Price of Emancipation: Slave-ownership, compensation and British society at the end of slavery. Cambridge studies in economic history. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009.
Holt, Thomas C. The Problem of Freedom. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1992.
Moreover, "corruption and inefficiency have exacerbated problems," ("Fidel Castro: Cuba's Communism Not Working" 2010). Because of the problems currently plaguing Cuba, communism is likely wane gradually by an opening of Cuba's markets even if American-style capitalism is not the replacement. The rise and fall of communism in Cuba has taken place over a relatively short period of time in human history: less than a century. Because of this, the example of Cuba is a world historical event that significantly illustrates the theme of power, governance, and authority.
Themes in history such as geography, historical systems of power, institutions as mechanisms of social change, and science and technology as engines of economic growth and development can be illustrated by specific historical examples. The British aj's infiltration of Fiji and the trafficking of Indian indentured servants is an example of how geography and environmental factors impact the development of human societies over…
Blodgett, E. (2011). Fijian Sugar Plantations and the Ethnic Battle to Govern an Island Nation. TED Case Studies, Number 621. Retrieved online: http://www1.american.edu/ted/fiji.htm
"Castro's Communist regime in Cuba" The First Post. August 7, 2006. Retrieved online: http://www.thefirstpost.co.uk/4984,news-comment , news-politics, pros-and-cons-of-communism-in-cuba
"Enron Scandal At-a-Glance," (2002). BBC. August 22, 2002. Retrieved online: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/1780075.stm
"Fidel Castro: Cuba's Communism Not Working" (2010). FoxNews. September 9, 2010. Retrieved online: http://www.foxnews.com/world/2010/09/09/castro-admits-cubas-communism-doesnt-work/
African-American Roles in the ar for Independence and the Civil ar
America was founded on the principle of freedom. ith this in mind, it comes as little surprise that both the ar for Independence and the Civil ar have the similarity that they both involved the struggle for freedom. Both wars sought to overcome oppression and both wars encompassed a vision of basic human rights connected with a sense of justice. The other similarity these two wars shared was the heroic efforts of African-Americans in their participation in the fight for freedom. This paper will seek to compare and contrast their involvement in these to similar, but different wars.
To understand African-American involvement in the Revolutionary ar, one must first paint a picture of what colonial life was like. Colonists faced the labor-intensive task of trying to carve out a life on a new continent. These were harsh conditions unlike…
Arnesen, E. "Fighting for Freedom." Footsteps 5(4) Sept./Oct. 2003: p. 12-15. MasterFILE Premier. EBSCOHost. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ. May 25, 2004 http://www.epnet.com .
Buffalo Soldier Feats No Longer Ignored." FDCH Regulatory Intelligence Database. 5 Feb. 2002. Business Source Premier. EBSCOHost. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ. May 25, 2004
"Some also do grudge at the great increase of people in these days, thinking a necessary brood of cattle far better than a superfluous augmentation of mankind" (Harrison 1586). One way to ease the situation was to induce or force some to settle in the new territories. They would become the workforce in the colonies and reduce the problem back home at the same time. "These petty thieves might be condemned for certain years in the western parties" as indentured servants to provide hard labor and menial tasks (Hakluyt 1584). This was not only an attractive concept for the privileged classes but also for many of the poor or disadvantaged. In the society they left behind they had little hope of ever improving their circumstances. The hardships and threats they would face in the new world were worth the risk for the chance to improve their condition. Many, however, regretted…
Frethorne, John. "Letter to His Parents." Indentured Servitude. www.digitalhistory.uh.edu, 1623.
Fumas, J. The Americas: A Social History of the United States. New York: Putnam, 1969.
Hakluyt, R. "Reading 2." Motivations for English Colonization. www.digitalhistory.uh.edu, 1584.
Harrison, W. "Reading 1." Motivations for English Colonization. www.digitalhistory.uh.edu, 1586.
" Indeed, in the "marriage bed of the beautiful Bertrande things now went well," presumably in sexual cohesion, but also, in reproduction as two daughters were born to them." key part of the Davis story was the trial, in which Arnaud was accused of being the imposter that indeed he was. This is in effect a sidebar to the story, and a sidebar to the issue of "different historians...using different types of evidence..." talk about the same things. On page 67, some 150 people had come to testify, but "forty-five people or more said that the prisoner was Arnaud...[and] about thirty to forty people said that the defendant was surely Martin Guerre." So, people who had seen history (the real Martin) had different views of whether this man on trial was him or not. Time casts shadows on the truth, just as it does on how the history of the…
Davis, Natalie Zemon. (1983). The Return of Martin Guerre. Cambridge: Harvard
Finlay, Robert. (1988). The Refashioning of Martin Guerre. The American Historical
Review, 93, 553-603.
Wood, Gordon S. (1991). The Radicalization of the American Revolution. New York:
forced labor and slavery develop in tropical colonies? How was slavery in the Americas different from slavery in earlier societies?
Forced labor in the tropical colonies was created to support the production of 'cash crops' such as sugar cane. The harvesting of these crops was hard, back-breaking work. "Sugar was far more difficult work than cultivating cotton, tobacco, or rice. So many slaves died within a few years of their arrival in the sugar islands, sometimes only months, that a steady fresh supply was always needed" (Davis 2012). Only slavery could provide an efficient means to render such crops profitable. "Before long, British and French plantations in the West Indies began to dominate. British west coast ports such as Bristol and Liverpool thrived on the sugar cane industry and refineries and packaging factories were set up" (Sugar cane and the slave trade, 2012, Plant Cultures). The slave trade was called…
Davis, Ronald. "Slavery in America." [8 Jun 2012]
Sugar cane and the slave trade. Plant Cultures. [8 Jun 2012]
On October 23, 1783, Deborah was honorably discharged "as a great soldier, with endurance and courage, something much needed in the military at that time" but was only granted a veteran's pension at the end of her life ("Deborah Sampson Gannett: American Patriot," American Revolution, 2007). "Sampson's superiors all agreed that she was an excellent soldier...it was her reliability, intelligence, and bravery that made it possible for her to go undetected for so long" (Saxon, 2004). She risked her life to save her country and to fight for her country, and even risked her life to remain a soldier.
Sampson's life "bears out a theory that Margaret R. And Patrice L.R. Higonnet developed to describe the effects of war and peace on gender. They imagined a system in which men and women are positioned as if they were opposing ribbons of a double helix, which, no matter the circumstances, always…
Deborah Sampson Gannett: American Patriot." American Revolution. 2007. 24 Jun
Henretta, James a. "Unruly Women": Jemima Wilkinson and Deborah Sampson Gannett
Biographies from Early America." Published in America's History. Ed. By James a. Henretta, Elliot Brownlee, David Brody, Susan Ware, & Marilynn Johnson. 3rd Ed., Worth Publishers Inc., 1997. Reprinted in the Early American Review. Fall 1996.
By 1861 the political and economic disagreement concerning the issue of slavery came to a head and the civil war began. During the civil war slaves fought in both the confederate and union armies.
In 1862 and 1863 respectively President Lincoln issued executive orders referred to as the emancipation proclamation. These proclamations basically set slaves in the southern states free.
By 1865 the civil war came to an end and by July of 1865 most slaves were freed.
As it relates to economics, it is important to understand that the establishment and perpetuation of slavery was always about monetary benefit. Slaves provided land owners with access to abundant and free labor. Not having to pay people for labor results in increased profitability. During the 1600's colonist first began to understand the economic benefits associated with slavery and slaves became more valuable than indentured servants (Boskin). The value of slaves increased…
Boskin J. Into Slavery: Racial Decisions in the Virginia Colony J.B. Lippincott Company Philadelphia: 1976.
Reconstruction and its Aftermath. 9 Dec. 2007. http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/aaohtml/exhibit/aopart5.html
Black Africans helped the Portuguese and the Spanish when they were on their exploration of the America. During the 16th century, some of the explorers who were of black origin went ahead to settle within the Valley of Mississippi as well as in areas that came to be known as New Mexico and South Carolina. However, Esteban was the most celebrated black explorer of the, who followed the Southwest route in the 1530s. Blacks in the United State and their uninterrupted history can be traced from 1619; this was after 20 Africans were landed within the English colony of Virginia. Though these blacks were by then not slaves, they served as servants who were bound to an employer for a limited number of years as it was to most of the white settlers. By 1660s bigger numbers of Africans were taken to the English colonies. By 1790, the…
Greene, Meg. Slave Young, Slave Long: The American Slave Experience. Minneapolis, Minn.: Lerner Publications Co., c1999.
Haskins, James. Bound for America: The Forced Migration of Africans to the New World. New York: Lothrop, Lee & Shepard Books, 1999.
Lisa Vox, (2012). The Start of Slavery in North America." Accessed April 29, 2012 from http://afroamhistory.about.com/od/slavery/a/The-Start-Of-Slavery-In-North-America.htm
Morgan Edmund, (2003). American Slavery, American Freedom: The Ordeal of Colonial Virginia W.W. Norton & Company, 2003.
OMEN'S ISSUES: PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE
The subjugation of women to men is a common theme in U.S. History. Our history is filled with illustrative examples, at least one of which continues to this day. The course has made me better informed, more appreciative and angrier, and I would convey my understanding of women's U.S. History through parallel timelines of domestic, political workplace and educational developments.
hat you would identify as a common theme in women's lives in U.S. History?
A common theme in women's lives in U.S. History is their subjugation to men. The fact that women have had to scrap for equal treatment in a nation claiming dedication to life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness is a stunning indictment of that nation's practices. The fact that Hillary Clinton is the first female nominee of a major political party in the nation's nearly 240-year history, particularly when compared…
Burns, K. (Director). (1990). The Civil War: The Cause [Motion Picture].
DuBois, E. C., & Dumenil, L. (2016). Through Women's Eyes: An American History with Documents, 4th Ed. New York: Bedford/St. Martin's.
Institute for Women's Policy Research. (2016). Pay equity & discrimination. Retrieved from www.iwpr.org: http://www.iwpr.org/initiatives/pay-equity-and-discrimination
Menard, R. R. (2001). Migrants, Servants and Slaves: Unfree Labor in Colonial British America. Farnham: Ashgate.
It is impossible in six short pages to fully comprehend the attitudes that hite Americans had to Native Indians and black Americans in the early centuries of our nation's founding. That was m not my intent. My goal rather, was to illustrate first that although we are often presented a dominant narrative as the narrative, the truth is that in surveying American attitudes towards American Indians and Blacks a single cohesive narrative does not exist. If such a narrative did exist the Native American Seminole tribe of Florida would not exist. The Seminoles were a tri-racial tribe composed of Creek Indians, remainders of smaller tribes, runaway slaves and whites who preferred to live in Indian society (Loewen). The First and Second Seminole wars (1816-18, 1835-42) in which the Seminoles fought against invading hites who demanded that they surrender their African-American members, were fought not for economic value but to eliminate…
Jordan, Winthrop D. White Over Black:American Attitudes Toward the Negro, 1550-1812. University of North Carolina Press., 1995.
Loewen, James. Lies My Teacher Told Me. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1995.
Miller, Eric. George Washington and the Indians. 1994. 25 March 2010 .
Root, Maria. Love's Revolution: Interracial Marriage. Temple University Press, 2001.
It is difficult to begin a critique of this book as it attempts to deal with issues that are specifically and explicitly not compatible with traditional views of American history; the scholarship that the authors engaged in was necessarily hampered by the lack of previous research and accurate record keeping. oth primary and secondary sources were in scant supply, and without these tools it would be difficult for a text on any subject and within any academic discipline to be created. In this regard, the authors have done a commendable job of attempting to piece together collective histories and individual narratives that need to be told in order to gain an accurate understanding of early America and Virginia.
That being said, the authors spend far too long in this reader's opinion discussing and analyzing the works of previous historians that these authors specifically point out as being inaccurate, incomplete,…
Breen, T.H. And Innes, Stephen. Myne Owne Ground. New York: Oxford University
It also illustrated the solidification of the definition of a true American as a white male. Andrew Jackson was a populist, and spoke out against the landed aristocracy, of which Jefferson was a member. Jackson wanted votes for all men, regardless of property-holding status, but he also wanted to expand property ownership to a larger proportion of the population. his would be accomplished by expansion westward.
he Indian Removal Act of 1830 confirmed the Jacksonian idea that America was not a race-neutral civilization, and depended upon the subjugation and eradication of some races, while it strove to build up its own status: "hey have neither the intelligence, the industry, the moral habits, nor the desire of improvement which are essential to any change in their condition. Established in the midst of another and superior race, they must necessarily yield to the force of circumstances and ere long disappear," said Jackson,…
The war with Mexico, which resulted in the establishment of Texas as one of the states of the union, was also characterized as a battle of civilizations, with Mexicans being characterized as 'inferior' and undeserving of a state that had been their territory, into which they had invited American settlers. Because the American settlers in Texas were white, ergo Texas was seen as a 'white' and 'American' nation in a way that transcended most legal conceptions of what constituted national ownership of a territory.
As expansion westward continued, so did the divisions in the nation over slavery. A variety of compromises were instated to balance the U.S. between slave and free, but a crisis was clearly building in terms of how the U.S. would finally identify itself -- could an American citizen be anything other than a white man? But not only southerners subscribed to the doctrine of racial inferiority: In a perfect ideological storm, a misinterpretation of Darwinian notions of the evolution of the races and anthropological study of 'primitive' societies and skull sizes were used to justify the inequitable status of black people and the right of Europeans to dominate all other races in the name of progress. Racism and domination of native peoples was cast in a moral light.
Finally, he inferiority of certain races became codified into law: the 1857 Dred Scott U.S. Supreme Court case declared that people of African ancestry, enslaved or free, could never become citizens of the United States. The Court's opinion stated that black people "had no rights which the white man was bound to respect," and in effect, one a slave, always a slave. Hopes that slavery would die out of its own accord were extinguished.
Slave, Not Born a Slave
The Making of Slavery
The sense of proprietorship of slave traders, owners, and other propagators of chattel slavery that was prevalent in the United States until the middle of the 19th century would be absurdly laughable -- were it not steeped in a legacy of perversion, of anguish, of tragedy and of perniciousness. The notion that one had the right to actually own another, the latter of whose sole existence would be to serve the former in any way, shape or method which the "owner" deemed appropriate, has been disproved as largely imaginary, and not something based on any sense of right or morality (no matter how such a historically ambiguous term was defined) numerous times, both during the tenure of slavery in the United States and well afterwards. A casual examination of the wording of the Declaration of Independence confirms this fact (McAulifee, 2010,…
Bland, Sterling. (2001). African-American Salve Narratives: An Anthology, Volume 1. Westport: Greenwood.
Chesnutt, C. (1889). "The Sherriff's Children." The Independent. 41: 30-32.
Davis, A.Y. (1981). "Reflections on the Black Woman's Role in the Community of Slaves." Black Scholar. 12 (6) 2-15.
Douglass, F. (1845). Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, An American Slave. Retrieved from http://www.ibiblio.org/ebooks/Douglass/Narrative/Douglass_Narrative.pdf
Randolph Smithers December 30, 1676
It is amazing how great a difference a single incident can make in the lives of so many different people from different places. Ever since acon's Rebellion was quelled here in Jamestown, there has been a significant increase in the amount of African and West Indian slaves who are being used as the preferred source of labor around these parts. This is just my personal opinion, but I think it is because of the fact that Nate was able to rally so many poor farmers and indentured servants to help him in his rampage against the Native Americans, that these chattel slaves have now become even more popular as a means of working in the fields. ut unlike indentured servants, who can eventually be freed and given land and tools with which to farm, African and West Indian slaves have very little hope of ever…
Famous American Trials. "Salem Witchcraft Trials, 1692." Last modified September 9, 2009. http://law2.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/salem/ASA_TIT.htm
Hubbard, Jr., Bill. American Boundaries: The Nation, The States, The Rectangular Survey. Illinois: University of Chicago Press 46-47.
Jamestown Settlement and Yorktown Victory Center. "The Evolution of the Slave Quarter in Tidewater Virginia." No date. http://www.historyisfun.org/slave-quarter.htm
The United States is known as the "nation of immigrants." The reason for this is not hard to find: the economic opportunities and the "American Dream" have attracted waves of immigrants from different parts of the world to make America a mosaic of diverse cultures. hile America has lived up to its reputation as the "land of opportunities" and provided new settlers with the freedom and means to achieve their dreams, people who have adopted U.S. As their country have also played their part in making America great. This essay focuses on why the immigrants from Europe wanted to come to America in the early 1600s and from the 1820s to 1914; what were their expectations and what did they achieve in their adopted country.
The Early European Settlers
The history of European settlement in America started with a group of 214 Englishmen, belonging to the Virginia Company, arrived…
Dinnerstein, Leonard. "Immigration." Article in Encyclopedia Encarta. CD ROM Version, 2003
"U.S. Immigration History." World Immigration. 2003. December 16, 2004.
Small groups of Spanish colonists had established European settlement in Saint Augustine, Florida, even earlier in 1565, but the English immigration is more relevant to the history of colonial America and the United States
The first Africans who were brought to America were not slaves -- slave trade started later.
In years before, America was a collection of Chinese, Germans, Italians, Scots, Croats, etc., all craving freedom. Today, even the simple concept of an English-speaking nation is fading off the continent. In the past, immigrants were taught in English in the public schools. In America today, children are taught in German, Italian, Polish, and 108 other languages and dialects. Most of these schools are funded by 139 million federal dollars. "The linguist's egalitarian attitude toward dialect has evolved into the multicultural notion that dialect as a cultural feature is part of one's identity as a member of that culture."
Due to their ethnic or cultural heterogeneity, multiethnic societies in general are more fragile and have a higher risk of conflicts. In the worst case such conflicts can cause the breakdown of these societies. Recent examples of this were the violent breakdown of Yugoslavia and the peaceful separation of Czechoslovakia. Forced…
Cruz, Barbara C. Multiethnic Teens and Cultural Identity: A Hot Issue. Berkeley Heights, NJ: Enslow Publishers, 2001.
Dawisha, Adeed. Arab Nationalism in the Twentieth Century: From Triumph to Despair. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2002.
Francis, Samuel. "The Other Face of Multiculturalism." Chronicles. April 1998.
Huggins, Nathan I. Revelations: American History, American Myths. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.
Historians discuss major themes dealing vast variety materials events encounter studying history.Three themes
Colonial Life Factors
Race, class and gender were highly important factors during colonial life in the country that would become the United States of America. In many ways, the very founding of this country was all about these three separate themes that became increasingly difficult to distinguish from one another once colonial life truly began in earnest. For instance, one can sufficiently argue that class was one of the primary reasons that colonists first came to America -- for the purposes of religious freedom (since religion can be considered a type of class) as well as for economic prosperity. Many colonists initially came to the country as indentured servants who were looking to find a better monetary existence for themselves.
This principle can be demonstrated most effectively by examining literature from and pertaining to Bacon's Rebellion. Essentially,…
ace: Power of an Illusion
This second episode of the PBS series, "The Story we Tell" discusses how race and racism developed in this country. Surprisingly, the series experts believe race has a history, and develops over time, and "that it is constructed by society to further certain political and economic goals" ("ace"). The episode begins with narration that leads into the controversial words of Thomas Jefferson, who wrote that he found blacks inferior to whites in "body and mind." The episode suggests that Thomas Jefferson was then the first American to theorize race in the country. The episode then goes on to discuss the juxtaposition of Jefferson's theory that "all men are created equal" with his own slaveholding and clear approval of slaveholding in the United States. Does this mean that the founding fathers felt those of color were "less than" men?
The episode then discusses early history in…
The Story we Tell." Race: The Power of an Illusion. Prd. Larry Adelman. California Newsreel, 2003.
hough the color boundaries were frequently blurred and the circumstances for all were divergent and difficult, there was a clear sense of the morality of the eras not completely dictating the events and eventualities. In a sense the Jim Crow era sprang from this clouded moral code. Jim Crow was an attempt by whites, in both the south and the north to reassert the color lines. Even though years of intermarriages and variable legal and social statuses had proven much stronger than the original social demands of the men like Ballwell, who is said to have been simply jealous of John, because he got to Mocha before he had the chance, when they stated that colors didn't mix. here were in fact so many intertwining genetic paths that it is not a wonder that the concerns of "purists" did not get officiated much earlier in time. When early on in…
This story, has countless reminders of the varied degrees of morality that existed in the slave owning culture. Though the white wealthy made everyone aware of their opinions about blacks, slaves and people of other races the morality that dictated did not succeed to wholly keep the races from falling in love with one another, as individuals, marrying outside their race, either legally or illegally or having children together. This is evident in the entire history of the family, from the very first interracial marriage between John and Mocha to the later marriages of Celia to white men. Though the color boundaries were frequently blurred and the circumstances for all were divergent and difficult, there was a clear sense of the morality of the eras not completely dictating the events and eventualities. In a sense the Jim Crow era sprang from this clouded moral code. Jim Crow was an attempt by whites, in both the south and the north to reassert the color lines. Even though years of intermarriages and variable legal and social statuses had proven much stronger than the original social demands of the men like Ballwell, who is said to have been simply jealous of John, because he got to Mocha before he had the chance, when they stated that colors didn't mix. There were in fact so many intertwining genetic paths that it is not a wonder that the concerns of "purists" did not get officiated much earlier in time. When early on in the novel John tells Mr. Ballwell that he loves Mocha and, "That's most important and not the high morality that no one practices, Mr. Ballwell." (8) the reader is clear that color lines are blurred by opportunity and sometimes love, not pure self-righteous morality.
The book affirms that the rather black and white idea of race anywhere in the nation is a false sense of history. The story of this family, though often confusing is colorful and full of adventure, wealth, success, massive failures but especially blurred color lines. The work says more about the real system of slavery than any I have read, thus far and it is a joy to travel through the many generations of this family, a family probably not much like many others of southern origin, with all the secrets of the past coming back to call on the next generations, including our own.
Joseph E. Holloway, Neither Black nor White: The Saga of an American Family, the Complete Story New World African Press, 2006.
The ranch features an impressive array of wildlife, which can be observed by visitors to the ranch. These animals include bobcats, deer, coyotes, quail, turkey, and wild hogs. Students can learn about innovations that the King Ranch pioneered to help protect wildlife, including providing water to wildlife, providing shelter for quail and other wildlife, and promoting the growth of plant species necessary to sustain wildlife. n addition, an industrious teacher may be able to get students to speak with the scientists involved in two ongoing wildlife research projects, the South Texas Quail Project and the South Texas Buck Capture Project. f those scientists are unavailable, a teacher may be able to get his students involved in one of the King Ranch's ongoing projects, which are mainly game surveys. The ranch also provides students with the unique opportunity to learn about and possibly observe several endangered or threatened species, including the…
In addition, King's aggressive upbreeding led to tremendous improvements in equine stock. The King Ranch had upbreeding programs for both thoroughbreds and quarter horses. For example, Assault, the 1946 winner of the Triple Crown, was the result of the King Ranch's breeding programs. More widely known and recognized are the quarter horses on the King Ranch. Visitors to the Ranch can observe some of the best examples of quarter horses that exist today, and they can also learn about Wimpy and Mr. San Peppy, two of the early quarter horses that helped establish the superiority of King Ranch equines. Even more importantly, visitors to the ranch can watch modern cowboys work these quarter horses in the same way as their ancestors, and learn, first-hand, what makes a quarter horse a champion. Students should be asked to observe and report on five characteristics of quarter horses that make them ideally suited for ranch work.
Domestic stock forms only a portion of the animals on the ranch. One of the lessons that students can learn at the ranch is about wildlife. The ranch features an impressive array of wildlife, which can be observed by visitors to the ranch. These animals include bobcats, deer, coyotes, quail, turkey, and wild hogs. Students can learn about innovations that the King Ranch pioneered to help protect wildlife, including providing water to wildlife, providing shelter for quail and other wildlife, and promoting the growth of plant species necessary to sustain wildlife. In addition, an industrious teacher may be able to get students to speak with the scientists involved in two ongoing wildlife research projects, the South Texas Quail Project and the South Texas Buck Capture Project. If those scientists are unavailable, a teacher may be able to get his students involved in one of the King Ranch's ongoing projects, which are mainly game surveys. The ranch also provides students with the unique opportunity to learn about and possibly observe several endangered or threatened species, including the Texas indigo snake, aplomado falcon, Harris' hawk, and the ferruginous pygmy-owl.
Wildlife management is only one aspect of the environmental stewardship that students can learn upon visiting the ranch. One of the most important lessons one can learn at the ranch is that farmers and ranchers have an obligation to look after the land. Students can view the best practices used on the ranch, which are aimed at limiting the impact of the ranching on the land. These practices include soil conservation, minimum-impact grazing programs, water conservation, and the limited and controlled use of pesticides. Students can learn about and explain why each of these programs helps the environment.
Slavery in the United Stated lasted as an endorsed organization until the passage of the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution in 1865. In 1619 twenty Africans were brought by a Dutch soldier and sold to the English colony of Jamestown, Virginia as indentured servants.
This would be the first of many visits up and down the American eastern seaboard. At this time, most slaves were being purchased by white men, though some Native Americans and free blacks were also detained. Slavery was spread to the areas where there was a high-quality soil for large plantations of important crops, such as cotton, sugar, coffee and most prominently tobacco. Even though the endorsed practice of enslaving blacks occurred in all of the original thirteen colonies, more than half of all African-Americans lived in Virginia and Maryland. The three highest-ranking North American zones of importation throughout most of the…
His plan to create a black regiment in the South failed, but black regiments were created during the war, and some of them were vital to certain battles and victories.
Perhaps the most notable black regiment formed during the war was the 1st hode Island egiment, which has become legendary in the fight for freedom. Colonel Christopher Greene commanded the egiment, and it was one of only three black regiments to fight during the war. In fact, many historians feel the war might have ended sooner if more regiments like the 1st hode Island had been formed and utilized. The Kaplans note, "Colonel Christopher Greene's First hode Island egiment distinguished itself for efficiency and gallantry throughout the war -- perhaps the war would have ended sooner if its example had been heeded" (Kaplan, and Kaplan 1989, 64). hode Island was unable to fill its quota of fighting men for the…
Bradley, Patricia. 1998. Slavery, Propaganda, and the American Revolution. Jackson, MS: University Press of Mississippi.
Dunmore, Lord. 1775. Lord Dunmore's Appeal to the Slaves of Virginia (1775).
Editors. 2005. Black Loyalists: Our History, Our People. Government of Canada's Digital Collections. http://collections.ic.gc.ca/blackloyalists/story/our_story.htm
Kaplan, Sidney, and Emma Nogrady Kaplan. 1989. The Black Presence in the Era of the American Revolution. Revised ed. Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts Press.
Graff Asserts that literacy played a less significant role in the industrialization of American than was one thought. He argues that training people to read and write was not enough. Literacy alone was not enough to advance the industrialized nation (Cattau).
Douglas did not need to know how to read to perform his job in the shipyard. He only needed to know how to write four letters. He did not need to how to read and write proficiently. The workforce may have needed little bits of knowledge to perform their jobs, but this is different from being able to read and write fluently, which supports Graff's ideas on the importance of reading and writing to the industrial age. It relied more on the availability of a workforce, rather than the need for a literate workforce. The only ones that needed to learn to read and write were the managers and…
Akinnaso, F. Linguistic Unification and Language Rights. Applied Linguistics. 1994. Vol. 15. No. 2, pp. 139-168.
Brandt, Deborah. "Remembering Writing, Remembering Reading." CCC 45.4 (1994): 459-479.
Cattau, D. Harvey Graff argues for a clearer view of our sentimental notions. June 13, 1995. The Dallas Morning News. http://people.cohums.ohio-state.edu/graff40/outgrowingmyths.html Accessed May 29, 2008.
Douglas, Frederick. Learning to Read and Write. Online. http://www.gibbsmagazine.com/learning%20to%20read.htm . Accessed May 29, 2008.
Human societies within the context of civilization most always are organized into deference periods. The Constitution is a product of worldviews developed within such a limited paradigm, as paradigms tend to be, whether individuals -- including the Founders -- were and are aware of it. This condition, in part, touches on what Heilbroner frames as "The Unresolved Problem of Economic Power." He accepts that the wonderful free market system of Adam Smith is tainted by "giant oligopoly." The logic positing the market economy "as the servant of the consumer," therefore, might as well be null-and-void, but, still, "the emergence of these new attributes," Heilbroner argues, "can be seen as new functional mechanisms for the support of that system." (Heilbroner 18)
To make natural the influence of "giant oligopolies" to the free-market economy, Heilbroner borrows examples from the world of advertising and the manipulation of consumer wants. He admits…
3. Chomsky, Noam. (3 March 1993) Notes of NAFTA: "The Masters of Man." The Nation.
4. Zinn, Howard. (1980) a People's History of the United States. Boston: HarperPerennial
5. ____. (1997) Britain and America: Studies in Comparative History 1760-1970. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Business Ethics in Precapitalist America
The American evolution was kindled by a growing dissatisfaction with the way colonial merchants were being treated by the English ruling class (Collins, 2011). In response to the Ottoman Empire's capture of Constantinople and the levying of onerous tariffs on trade goods coming from Western Europe, the Spanish Monarchy funded an exploratory venture that took Christopher Columbus west to map out a new trade route to Asia. The goal was gold at any cost, even at the expense of human life. One of the new markets that Columbus helped to establish was the Atlantic slave trade, with 'goods' moving east instead of west.
Over the next several centuries many of the Europeans arriving on the eastern shores of North America were indentured servants (Collins, 2011). When the number of European servants became insufficient to meet the demands of colonial merchants and farmers, more…
Collins, Denis. (2011). Business Ethics. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
Bassiry, G.R. And Jones, Marc. (1993). Adam Smith and the ethics of contemporary capitalism. Journal of Business Ethics, 12(8), 621-627.
Both what make up a race and how one recognizes a racial difference is culturally determined. Whether two individuals consider themselves as of the same or of different races depends not on the degree of similarity of their genetic make up but on whether history, tradition, and personal training and experiences have brought them to think of themselves as belonging to the same group or to different groups (Spickard, Fong and Ewalt, 1995).
Prejudices, stereotypes, insults, pejorative labels and other things are usually articulated in racist communications. Explicit racism helps to legitimize individual and collective action that creates and sustains inequality and oppression between social groups. The history of mankind provides thousands of examples of racist violence: genocide, colonialism, repressive immigration policies and all kinds of discriminatory behavior. This kind of racism is explicit and visible. Unfortunately, racism can also be invisible. acism is totally embedded in the social structures…
Hier, Sean E. And Walby, Kevin 2006. "Competing Analytical Paradigms in the Sociological Study of Racism in Canada." Canadian Ethnic Studies. 38(1), p83-104.
La Parra Casado, Daniel and Perez, Miguel Angel Mateo 2007, "Scientifically Correct Racism: Health Studies' Unintended Effects against Minority Groups. 2007." Language & Intercultural Communication. 7(2), p152-162.
Paradies, Yin 2005, "Anti-Racism and Indigenous Australians." Analyses of Social Issues & Public Policy. 5(1), p1-28.
"Racism." 2010. Viewed 1 April 2010,
James II. had pursued it from a very different point-of-view when he consolidated the northern and middle colonies under Sir Edmund Andros (Appleby, 1984). The high-handed proceedings of Andros and his master rendered the Americans averse from any future plans of federation imposed from without, and the social and religious differences between the various regions long prevented the rise of any motion to union from within. All had their disagreements with the home government, but none had sufficient sympathy with their neighbors to fight their battles in common. Nevertheless, the French peril from 1689 onwards rendered co-ordination at least of military effort desirable, and plans were discussed from time to time which, whilst themselves abortive, kept alive the idea of union which bore fruit at length in the Philadelphia Congress of 1774. In all these plans the initiative came from the British government or its representatives; the royal officials in…
Akenson, Donald Harman. 1985. Being Had: Historians, Evidence and the Irish in North America. Don Mills: P.D. Meany Publishers.
Appleby, Joyce. 1984. Capitalism and a New Social Order: The Republican Vision of the 1790s. New York: New York UP.
Appleby, Joyce. 1992. Liberalism and Republicanism in the Historical Imagination. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard UP.
Archibald, Peter. 1978. Social Psychology as Political Economy. Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson.
It also allowed unions to deny non-whites access to benefits of health care, job security and pensions. Housing was also affected. The revolutionary programs of the Federal Housing dministration were set up so that non-whites could not own homes. The system deemed integrated communities ineligible for home loans. Between 1934 and 1962 it was estimated that ninety eight percent of money for home loans went t whites. The government programs and policy caused the creation of segregated white suburbs around the country. To this day Black and Latinos have a smaller chance of successful mortgage applications.
s a result of this preferential treatment for whites over the generations, New York University economist Edward Wolf describes whites as having assets and net worth of eight times that of a typical frican-merican family. Even with equal incomes whites have double the wealth of blacks because of home ownership and inheritance from parents.…
As a result of this preferential treatment for whites over the generations, New York University economist Edward Wolf describes whites as having assets and net worth of eight times that of a typical African-American family. Even with equal incomes whites have double the wealth of blacks because of home ownership and inheritance from parents. The advantage is also passed on to the next generation. The whites are in a better position to put their children through college, assist them with their own home purchase and to help through hard times. This wealth can be passed down through generations and so this racial wealth gap seems to have increased since the civil rights days. This is demonstrated by the fact that in 1865 after Emancipation African-Americans owned 0.5% of the total worth of the U.S. One hundred and thirty five years later in 1990 they still only owned 1% of the national wealth.
Despite all this whites still believe that race does not affect their lives. Some attribute differences in achievement to differences in ability and motivation. But sociologist Dalton Conley showed that the difference in performance between whites and other racial groups had nothing to do with nature but was due to unequal circumstances.
The author concludes that attempts to treat everyone the same does not reverse the unfair advantages that allowed white Americans to accumulate so much in the past years.
This is why Lytle and Davidson use first-hand narratives as only one piece of evidence. They are always quick contextualize personal narratives with hard, cold facts, like the evident death toll of the early colony, which they attribute to a failure to plant crops like corn for food. Settlers were foolishly determined to leave land and time open to cultivate the cash crop of tobacco. Laws forcing men to plant food suggest, according to the historians, that the settlers lacked a sense of what was necessary to survive times of scarcity during the winter -- and 3,000 of them died as a result. Statistics and primary source documents such as laws, records of immigration and even botanical information about the labor-intensive nature of farming tobacco vs. corn are required to fully flesh out a picture of what life was like and to solve the mystery of why the death toll…
Davidson & Lytle. After the Fact. New York: McGraw/Hill, 1999.
Nash, Gary. American People. New York: Wesley: Addison, 2000.