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Indentured Servitude With Slavery in the Colonies
Compared Indentured Servitude with Slavery in the Colonies
America is a country that was built upon the labor of those who were not in power. Much of the labor in the early days of the colonies and states came from indentured servants and slaves. Though both kinds of labor have similarities, the lives of indentured servants and of slaves differed distinctively. Eventually, over the course of early American history, the legally and socially, the country moved away from indentured servitude and became a slave-based economy. Slavery persisted throughout much of the country for hundreds of years. For a combination of reasons, including ethnic prejudice and economics, the United States of America did away with indentured servitude and used slaves as the primary labor force.
Indentured servants did not have easy lives in many cases. Indentured servants came from a variety of ethnic and…
Hill, J. (2008) Case Studies in Indentured Servitude in Colonial America. Constructing the Past, 9(1), 55 -- 62.
National Humanities Center Resource Toolbox. (2010) Slaves for life, and Servants for a time. Becoming American: The British Atlantic Colonies, 1690 -- 1763, Available from: nationalhumanitiescenter.org/pds/becomingamer/.../servitude.pdf. 2012 July 21.
In 1639, Virginia passed the first law that intended to exclude "Negroes" from any normal government protections. Furthermore, in 1664, Virginia passed the first anti-amalgamation law that prohibited anyone from procreating outside of their race; this law was followed up in 1691 with another law that would banish individuals from the colony if there were to marry outside of their race. In 1667, a law was passed that determined that Christian baptisms could no longer be used to free slaves. In 1682, Virginia passed legislation that officially determined that there was a racial distinction between servants and slaves.
Slavery was also aided through the passage of laws within the colonies and abroad in England. In 1641, Massachusetts became the first colony to recognize slavery, Virginia following suit shortly thereafter. In 1662, Virginia declared that any children born to slaves were to become slaves themselves, thus instituting the practice that slavery…
"Colonial Laws." PBS Online. 5 March 2011. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part1/1h315.html .
"From Indentured Servitude to Slavery." PBS Online. 5 March 2011.
"Virginia Recognizes Slavery." PBS Online. 5 March 2011.
American Indentured Servitude
Frethorne probably decided to come to Virginia for his servitude because it was the most advanced colony in the country. The town where he lived was ten miles outside of Jamestown, Virginia, which was like the big city of the time. It certainly was an exciting place because it had one of the biggest and most active ports of the country at the time. As he writes his family, Jamestown is where all the ships come in and there are numerous deliveries of all sorts of goods. Therefore, Jamestown seemed like an exciting new place with lots of promise for a new future and a fresh start. What Frethorne experienced upon arrival and stay in Virginia is not what he expected. He implores his family over and over to have pity for him. People who enjoy their work do not need the pity of others; therefore, readers…
Indentured Servant Analysis
Elizabeth Springs' letter to her father on September 22, 1756, is both a letter of apology due to her failure to communicate and a review of the horrendous conditions she was working under as an indentured servant. This paper reviews -- through historical context -- the situation that many indentured servants from England suffered through and puts Springs' letter into a perspective.
The Letter from Springs to John Spyer
Elizabeth Springs is clearly in distress. And to add to her distress over the terrible working conditions in the American colonies she is feeling guilty and sad that she left England under a cloud as to her relationship with her father. "My being forever banished from your sight…" she begins, hoping to touch her father's heart with her present pathos. It seems clear that it wasn't just a matter of Elizabeth leaving without her father's permission, but rather…
Baseler, Marilyn C. "Asylum for Mankind": America, 1607-1800. New York: Cornell
University Press, 1998.
Springs, Elizabeth. "Complaint of an Indentured Servant (1756)." Voices of Freedom /
Creating Anglo-America, 1660-1750. 57-58.
environment strictly controlled by its owning company, woman often found difficulty obtaining any kind of role outside of domestic duties. ork in company towns was generally reserved for males, which granted them the responsibility of providing for their families while restricting their wives to the duties at home. omen's lives within company towns, aside from placing them in a position of dependence on their husbands, were quite dull. In addition to leaving their previous positions in a life that revolved around an active family unit, they had also left their social lives behind. Because of the lack of freedom experienced within company town limits, women often found difficulty creating any new relationships. According to Jenny Higgins, "Unlike men, women were largely confined to the domestic sphere and had no coworkers who could help ease their entry into the community." (Higgins, 1)
If employment was obtained, it was often low-end work.…
When compared to life as an indentured servant, although still repressed and underprivileged, the life of a company town woman carried a larger amount of freedom. Although often bound to the company town because of marriage to a worker or due to financial reasons, woman did not risk legal penalties if they were to leave. In addition, especially with the coming of World War II, women saw their first opportunities to negotiate their working conditions with their employers, something that was unheard of for indentured servants.
Shaping of the Colonies in 1763
There have been few eras in human history possessed with more of the expectant optimism, and the grim pragmatism, than the century following first contact with the new world of North America. With an expansive landmass, the size of which more than doubled that known to citizens of any European country at the time, brimming with natural resources and lying open for exploration and settlement, many thinkers of the age shared Benjamin Franklin's fateful estimation, made in his tract America as a Land of Opportunity, which claimed "so vast is the Territory of North-America, that it will require many Ages to settle it fully." Penned and published in 1751, Franklin's treatise on the seemingly infinite riches to be reaped by the American colonies failed to fully anticipate man's overwhelming compulsion to compete for the control of land. While America's preeminent philosopher was prescient in…
"Coffee is King": The rise and fall of coffee in Colombia, economic growth and social change.
Colombia first became an exporting area in the sixteenth century, under the Spanish arrangement of mercantilism. Spanish imperial rule defined a great deal of Colombia's social and economic development. The colony became an exporter of raw materials, predominantly precious metals, to the mother country. ith its colonial position came a highly planned socioeconomic system founded on slavery, indentured servitude, and restricted foreign contact. Colombia's contemporary economy, based on coffee and other agricultural exports, did not materialize until well after its independence in 1810, when local entrepreneurs were free to take advantage of on world markets other than Spain. The late nineteenth century saw the development of tobacco and coffee export industries, which really enlarged the merchant class and led to population growth and the enlargement of cities. ealth was concentrated in agriculture and…
"Colombia -- Economy." Mongabay. Library of Congress, n.d. Web. 3 May 2012.
"Colombia History." Mongabay. Library of Congress, n.d. Web. 3 May 2012.
The limitation of slave movement, was an action in response to the growing threat related to fugitive slaves (Selected records relating to slavery in early Virginia, n.d.). The conditions at the time and the harsh regulations concerning black slaves made them go in search for a different life, especially in Northern states (Petition to Governor, Council, and House of epresentatives of Massachusetts, 1773). Therefore, the Southerners were reluctant to offer any liberty that would somehow enable black people to gather and possibly plan insurrections or escape attempts. In addition, the tensions between the slaver states and the free ones were constantly growing because Free states were accusing slave ones of trying to use the slave population to increase its influence in the federal legislative body. In this sense, Northern states were somewhat ready to assist runaway slaves from South states.
Yet another reason, which influenced the way in which slaves…
Africans in America. (n.d.) "From Indentured Servitude to Racial Slavery." The Terrible Transformation. Available at http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part1/1narr3.html
Galenson, David W. (1984). "The Rise and Fall of Indentured Servitude in the Americas: An Economic Analysis." The Journal of Economic History, Vol. 44, No. 1. pp. 1-26.
Jenkins, P. A history of the United States. New York: Palgrave, 1997.
Selected records relating to slavery in early Virginia. N.d. Available at http://www.fiu.edu/~woodk/vadocs.html
Further, while some upward mobility did exist, competition among small business entrepreneurs and economic instability caused by depression and financial panics created just as much downward mobility (Ibid. At 58).
Housing among the poor in the cities usually consisted of multiple families (as many as 8) living in homes designed for just one. The price of rent was disproportionately high because the numbers of immigrants in the teeming cities kept demand higher than supply (Ibid. At 132). As a result, slum housing developed and the risk of fire and disease became a daily risk for the urban lower class.
The middle class enjoyed much better conditions. hile downward mobility was always possible, the middle class could typically expect rising wages and could afford moderate consumerism, that is, purchasing magazines, clothing, books and some of the new manufactured goods becoming more and more available. A basic middle class characteristic was the…
Chudacoff, Howard P. And Judith E. Smith. The Evolution of American Urban Society. Prentice Hall, Inc.: Upper Saddle River, NJ (2000).
Goodfriend, Joyce D. Slavery in colonial New York City. Urban History, Vol. 35
(2008), pp. 485-496.
Tomlins, Christopher. Reconsidering Indentured Servitude: European Migration and the Early
Zinn's a People's History of the U.S.
Should the U.S. apologize for slavery and its legacy? ho benefits if the U.S. doesn't apologize?
It is difficult to determine the answer to such a polarizing question. Some argue that slavery has been a form of life since the beginning of mankind and that if the African-American community is apologized to, then the Jewish people who were slaves should get apologies too. They argue that the sins of our ancestors are not our own and that we are not responsible for their actions. Yet, the American form of slavery was especially heinous. According to the text, the American form of slavery was the cruelest. Zinn points to two reason that American slavery was the most horrible: "the frenzy for limitless profit that comes from capitalistic agriculture" and "the reduction of the slave to less than human status by the use of racial…
Zinn, Howard. A People's History of the United States. New York: Harper. 1999. Print.
college campus across the country, students are greeted with the familiar sight of individuals seated at folding tables, with the purpose of marketing credit cards to them. These salespeople are most frequently seen during the beginning of the college semester and are usually young and attractive and smiling, barely older than the students themselves. Quite often, if a student fills out an application for the credit card, he or she may receive a small toy or a gigantic in exchange for his or her pains. hat could be more harmless? hat's wrong with having a credit card on hand, 'just in case?'
However, this familiar sight is one of the many reasons that college students are becoming more and more deeply ensnared in debt. These smiling individuals prey upon students when they are at their most vulnerable. Most of these students have just had to pay hundreds of dollars for…
Indentured Servitude Contract in 17th Century Virginia. Stratford Hall History Resource of Historical Documents. http://www.history.pdx.edu/hst201/headrts.htm
Encarta Encyclopedia. "Sharecropping."
history slavery North Atlantic British colonies United States
Observations egarding Slavery
One of the primary methods of resistance for people of African descent who existed in servitude in the North Atlantic British colonies and in the United States was rebellion. Although far from occurring frequently, armed, violent revolt from chattel slaves helped to shape the history of their descendants in these locations. One of the most notorious of these uprisings was known as the Southampton Insurrection led by Nat Turner in Virginia's Southampton County in August of 1831. The effect of Turner's armed insurrection, and those of others in the Southern United States and in other North Atlantic British colonies can be evidenced in the amended legislature which ultimately influenced the future and perception of both slaves and former slaves for several years to come.
Turner's 1831 rebellion was just the latest in the lengthy list of historical uprisings slaves…
Dr. Thomas C., Parramore (1998). Trial Separation: Murfreesboro, North Carolina and the Civil War. Murfreesboro, North Carolina: Murfreesboro Historical Association, Inc.. p. 10
"Nat Turner's Rebellion," Africans in America, PBS.org. Retrieved from http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part3/3p1518.html
Aptheker, H. (1943). American Negro Slave Revolts. 5th edition. New York, NY: International Publishers.
Cullen, Joseph P. "Bacon's Rebellion," American History Illustrated, Dec 1968, Vol. 3 Issue 8, p.4
Northwest Passage- 1492-1600 when Europeans encountered the new world
After the Portuguese and Spanish took control of the South's sea pathways, the English and French began seeking a northwestern route to Asia. However, by the 17th century, they lost hope of ever making their way across North America's northern part after many generations of sailors failed to find a way. Nevertheless, early 15th and 16th century explorations and colonization increased knowledge regarding the world by a significant amount. Cornelius Wytfliet, the cartographer from Flanders created a world map that continued to depict the mythical "Straits of Anian" -- a province in China connecting the Atlantic and the legendary Northwest Passage, which finds mention in the edition of traveler, Marco Polo's work dated 1559. European powers' endeavors to make their homes in the Americas succeeded, ultimately, in the 17th century, when the English and the French successfully contested the…
Concepcion Saenz-Cambra. (2012). The Atlantic World, 1492 -- 1600. Concepcion.
David W. Galenson. (1984). The Rise and Fall of Indentured Servitude in the Americas: An Economic Analysis. Economic History Association, 1-26.
weli, R. v. (2008). Slave Trading and Slavery in the Dutch Colonial Empi. In Rik van weli. New West Indian Guide.
On October 23, 1783, Deborah was honorably discharged "as a great soldier, with endurance and courage, something much needed in the military at that time" but was only granted a veteran's pension at the end of her life ("Deborah Sampson Gannett: American Patriot," American Revolution, 2007). "Sampson's superiors all agreed that she was an excellent soldier...it was her reliability, intelligence, and bravery that made it possible for her to go undetected for so long" (Saxon, 2004). She risked her life to save her country and to fight for her country, and even risked her life to remain a soldier.
Sampson's life "bears out a theory that Margaret R. And Patrice L.R. Higonnet developed to describe the effects of war and peace on gender. They imagined a system in which men and women are positioned as if they were opposing ribbons of a double helix, which, no matter the circumstances, always…
Deborah Sampson Gannett: American Patriot." American Revolution. 2007. 24 Jun
Henretta, James a. "Unruly Women": Jemima Wilkinson and Deborah Sampson Gannett
Biographies from Early America." Published in America's History. Ed. By James a. Henretta, Elliot Brownlee, David Brody, Susan Ware, & Marilynn Johnson. 3rd Ed., Worth Publishers Inc., 1997. Reprinted in the Early American Review. Fall 1996.
in "Piaf," Pam Gems provides a view into the life of the great French singer and arguably the greatest singer of her generation -- Edith Piaf. (Fildier and Primack, 1981), the slices that the playwright provides, more than adequately trace her life. Edith was born a waif on the streets of Paris (literally under a lamp-post). Abandoned by her parents -- a drunken street singer for a mother and a circus acrobat father -- Edith learns to fend for herself from the very beginning. As a natural consequence of her surroundings, she makes the acquaintance of several ne'er do wells. She rises above the lifestyles of the girls she grows up with who prostitute themselves for a living in the hope that they will eventually meet a benefactor with whom they can settle. Edith has a talent for singing and she indulges this interest by singing loudly in the streets.…
Beauvoir, Simone de, and Parshley, H.M. The Second Sex. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1993.pp. lv, 786
Eisenstein, Zillah R. The Radical Future of Liberal Feminism. The Northeastern Series in Feminist Theory. Northeastern University Press ed. Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1986.pp. xi, 260
Engels, Fredrick. "The Development of Utopian Socialism." Trans. Lafargue, Paul. Marx/Engels Selected Works. Revue Socialiste. Ed. Basgen, Brian. Vol. 3. New York: Progress Publishers, 1880. 95-151.
Origins of the Family, Private Property, and the State. 1894. Retrieved April 10, 2003 from. http://csf.colorado.edu/psn/marx/Archive/1884-Family/
Therefore, they had to work within this system to develop ways to identify with their group and their way of life that recognized the realities of their enslavement.
One of the chief means of identification that slaves utilized was through music and language (Morgan, 1998). Having a shared cultural heritage which emphasized wordplay, story-telling, and narrative expressions, black slaves developed an ability to communicate communal identification and inculcate communal lessons through song, ritual, and other expressive displays. Field songs were used to tell the news to other slaves and to entertain, even as they served to regulate work through rhythmic repetition. Physical culture generally was used to promote health, cultivate values, and maintain identity. Linguistic devices were developed to allow the slaves to communicate with their fellow slaves even in the face of white oppression and suspicion, even given the fact that slave communities were often made up of different…
Davis, D. (1999). The Problem of Slavery in the Age of Revolution, 1770-1823 (Oxford UK: Oxford University Press).
Genovese, E. (1976). Roll, Jordan, Roll: The World the Slaves Made (New York: Vintage).
Horton, J., and Horton, L. (2005). Slavery and the Making of America (Oxford UK: Oxford University Press).
Johnson, C., and Smith, P. (1999). Africans in America: America's Journey Through Slavery (New York: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt).
Sociology of Youth
The Structural Arrangements
The class view using the Social-Psychological perspective precipitates a point-of-view in the context of society as the dictator to the actor, the environment perpetuating the role that young individuals play in contemporary society. The social interaction is engaged through the environmental variables that lead to the psychological parameters to which the youth operate within. This approach is ostensibly akin to Ethnomethodology that views humans as a rule ridden species predicated on acting within a given societal or moral framework.
The identity formation of bonded child laborers in India is an example of youth that have no control over their environment and to where their environment or social paradigm shapes their individual thought process. These youth become a function of their environment. Essentially, a product of their environment that is based on exploitation and abuse of the children of the society. The structural arrangements for…
Erikson, Erick H. "Adolescence and the life cycle stage. Identity, youth & crisis,(pp. 128-135). New York W.W. Norton & Co. 1968.
Hostetler, J. "A sectarian society. Amish society (pp. 6-17). Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press. 1980.
Kovasevic, Natasa. "Child Slavery." Harvard International Review 29.2 (2007): 36,36-39. ABI/INFORM Global.Web. 16 June 2011.
Milner Murray. "Freaks, Geeks and Cool Kids, American Teenagers, Schools, and the Culture of Consumption." (2004) Routledge
Employment -- the Morality of the Contract between Employee and Employer
Before entering into a contract for employment, an employees' first concern is usually to gain a living wage, then to gain experience in a particular profession, and perhaps finally to gain advancement within a particular corporate structure, industry, or trade. An employer's main concern in hiring an employee is usually if the employee can perform the job the employee is being hired to perform, if he or she will be deserving of the wage he or she is will be paid, and if he or she will stay for the necessary hours and period of time. However, once the employee has made a commitment to work and the employer has made a commitment to pay the employee for a period of time, the relationship and ratio of obligations invariably grows murkier. hat obligation does the employer have…
Franklin, Benjamin "From the Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin" Retrieved on April 5, 2005 at http://www.wwnorton.com/secure/tindall/ch3/resources/documents/franklin.htm .
Franklin, Benjamin. "Benjamin Franklin, How I became a printer in Philadelphia" http://www.ku.edu/carrie/docs/texts/franklin_how.html
Locke, John. "Two Treatises of Government" (1690) Retrieved on April 5, 2005 at http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1690locke-sel.html .
Winthrop, John "A Modell of Christian Charity" (1630) Retrieved on April 5, 2005 at http://history.hanover.edu/texts/winthmod.html .
In 1834, the British Empire abolished slavery (the Civil War Home Page, 2009). Great Britain had remained one of the United States' largest trading partners and was, at that time, still the most influential nation in the world. Moreover, Great Britain had retained slavery after many other countries ended the practice. The end of slavery in Great Britain also meant that those in the North who wanted the abolition of slavery could support their assertions that the world viewed the United States as backwards and barbarous because of the practice of slavery. Moreover, it certainly changed the potential for allies in the Civil War. Though not a monarchy, the South was an aristocracy and both Britain and France were then-ruled by monarchies. As long as the struggle was about a states-right government rebellion, the root cause of that rebellion, slavery, could be ignored and European countries could provide aid to…
Brotherly Love. (unk.). Historical document: Missouri Compromise. Retrieved February 22,
2011 from PBS.org website: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part3/3h511.html
The Civil War Home Page. (2009). Events leading to war- a Civil War timeline. Retrieved from http://www.civil-war.net/pages/timeline.asp
Dred Scott v. Sandford, 60 U.S. 393 (1857).
.....music is important for "processes of personal and social integration," (1). This statement seems strange until we consider how music does affect our emotions, and also the way music plays a role in social settings. Therefore, music is more than just an abstract sonic art form. Music can serve symbolic roles, as in national anthems. Likewise, music can be used as a personal tool as when people wear headphones on the subway to create a sense of personal space and isolation. Music is also a social event, as when friends get together to form a band or when friends go out dancing to a club. It is almost impossible to imagine social settings without any music.
As an art form, music also allows for personal and cultural expression. In this sense, music is something that is constructed by externalities such as which instruments happen to be available in one's society…
Barbados was once called the Little England due to its landscape of rolling terrain, as well as its customs of tea drinking and cricket, the Anglican Church, parliamentary democracy and the conservatism of its rural culture. It has a well-developed airport, electrical supply and road system, especially after independence in 1966 when the tourist industry became the most important sector of the economy. Of course, it also inherited a racial caste system from its three hundred years of slavery, and until very recent times, the white minority had almost all the political and economic power. Today, only about 5% of the population is white, 20% of mixed race background and the remaining 75% descended from African slaves. As with most of the Caribbean islands, the indigenous Arawak and Carib populations were devastated by disease in the fifty years after first contact with Europeans in 1492. Although there were…
Beckles, Hilary McD.. Natural Rebels: A Social History of Enslaved Black Women in Barbados. Rutgers University Press, 1989.
Beckles, Hilary McD. "The Slave-Drivers' War: Bussa and the 1816 Barbados Slave Rebellion" in Howe, Glenford H. And Don D. Marshall (Eds) The Empowering Impulse: The Nationalist Tradition of Barbados. Kingston, Jamaica: canoe Press, 2001: 1-33.
Breslaw, Elaine G. Tituba, Reluctant Witch of Salem: Devilish Indians and Puritan Fantasies. New York University Press, 1996.
Browne, David V.C. "The 1937 Disturbances and Barbadian Nationalism" in Howe and Marshall: 149-63.
Slave, Not Born a Slave
The Making of Slavery
The sense of proprietorship of slave traders, owners, and other propagators of chattel slavery that was prevalent in the United States until the middle of the 19th century would be absurdly laughable -- were it not steeped in a legacy of perversion, of anguish, of tragedy and of perniciousness. The notion that one had the right to actually own another, the latter of whose sole existence would be to serve the former in any way, shape or method which the "owner" deemed appropriate, has been disproved as largely imaginary, and not something based on any sense of right or morality (no matter how such a historically ambiguous term was defined) numerous times, both during the tenure of slavery in the United States and well afterwards. A casual examination of the wording of the Declaration of Independence confirms this fact (McAulifee, 2010,…
Bland, Sterling. (2001). African-American Salve Narratives: An Anthology, Volume 1. Westport: Greenwood.
Chesnutt, C. (1889). "The Sherriff's Children." The Independent. 41: 30-32.
Davis, A.Y. (1981). "Reflections on the Black Woman's Role in the Community of Slaves." Black Scholar. 12 (6) 2-15.
Douglass, F. (1845). Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, An American Slave. Retrieved from http://www.ibiblio.org/ebooks/Douglass/Narrative/Douglass_Narrative.pdf
The original inhabitants of Jamaica are long forgotten, their name barely a footnote in Caribbean history. The main legacy of the Arawak Indians has been the word "Xamayca," meaning "land of wood and water," ("A Brief History of Jamaica"). Xamayca gradually became rendered as Jamaica, an island nation with a tumultuous but vibrant history. The first non-native settlers on Jamaica were the Spaniards. Christopher Columbus included it in Spain's territorial acquisitions in 1494. Soon thereafter, a small Spanish settlement existed on the island until 1655. The Spaniards killed every last Arawak, either via use of force or exposure to disease. Moreover, the Spaniards bought African slaves and brought them to Jamaica to work on the budding sugar plantations. Growing interest in sugar was fueling the Age of Imperialism. Britain was poised to strike the Caribbean.
In May 1655, a convoy of British ships arrived and startled the Spanish settlement.…
"A Brief History of Jamaica." Retrieved online: http://www.mtholyoke.edu/~beckf20s/classweb/History.html
"Brief History of Jamaica." Retrieved online: http://www.nationsonline.org/oneworld/History/Jamaica-history.htm
Draper, N. The Price of Emancipation: Slave-ownership, compensation and British society at the end of slavery. Cambridge studies in economic history. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009.
Holt, Thomas C. The Problem of Freedom. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1992.
"Some also do grudge at the great increase of people in these days, thinking a necessary brood of cattle far better than a superfluous augmentation of mankind" (Harrison 1586). One way to ease the situation was to induce or force some to settle in the new territories. They would become the workforce in the colonies and reduce the problem back home at the same time. "These petty thieves might be condemned for certain years in the western parties" as indentured servants to provide hard labor and menial tasks (Hakluyt 1584). This was not only an attractive concept for the privileged classes but also for many of the poor or disadvantaged. In the society they left behind they had little hope of ever improving their circumstances. The hardships and threats they would face in the new world were worth the risk for the chance to improve their condition. Many, however, regretted…
Frethorne, John. "Letter to His Parents." Indentured Servitude. www.digitalhistory.uh.edu, 1623.
Fumas, J. The Americas: A Social History of the United States. New York: Putnam, 1969.
Hakluyt, R. "Reading 2." Motivations for English Colonization. www.digitalhistory.uh.edu, 1584.
Harrison, W. "Reading 1." Motivations for English Colonization. www.digitalhistory.uh.edu, 1586.
hough the color boundaries were frequently blurred and the circumstances for all were divergent and difficult, there was a clear sense of the morality of the eras not completely dictating the events and eventualities. In a sense the Jim Crow era sprang from this clouded moral code. Jim Crow was an attempt by whites, in both the south and the north to reassert the color lines. Even though years of intermarriages and variable legal and social statuses had proven much stronger than the original social demands of the men like Ballwell, who is said to have been simply jealous of John, because he got to Mocha before he had the chance, when they stated that colors didn't mix. here were in fact so many intertwining genetic paths that it is not a wonder that the concerns of "purists" did not get officiated much earlier in time. When early on in…
This story, has countless reminders of the varied degrees of morality that existed in the slave owning culture. Though the white wealthy made everyone aware of their opinions about blacks, slaves and people of other races the morality that dictated did not succeed to wholly keep the races from falling in love with one another, as individuals, marrying outside their race, either legally or illegally or having children together. This is evident in the entire history of the family, from the very first interracial marriage between John and Mocha to the later marriages of Celia to white men. Though the color boundaries were frequently blurred and the circumstances for all were divergent and difficult, there was a clear sense of the morality of the eras not completely dictating the events and eventualities. In a sense the Jim Crow era sprang from this clouded moral code. Jim Crow was an attempt by whites, in both the south and the north to reassert the color lines. Even though years of intermarriages and variable legal and social statuses had proven much stronger than the original social demands of the men like Ballwell, who is said to have been simply jealous of John, because he got to Mocha before he had the chance, when they stated that colors didn't mix. There were in fact so many intertwining genetic paths that it is not a wonder that the concerns of "purists" did not get officiated much earlier in time. When early on in the novel John tells Mr. Ballwell that he loves Mocha and, "That's most important and not the high morality that no one practices, Mr. Ballwell." (8) the reader is clear that color lines are blurred by opportunity and sometimes love, not pure self-righteous morality.
The book affirms that the rather black and white idea of race anywhere in the nation is a false sense of history. The story of this family, though often confusing is colorful and full of adventure, wealth, success, massive failures but especially blurred color lines. The work says more about the real system of slavery than any I have read, thus far and it is a joy to travel through the many generations of this family, a family probably not much like many others of southern origin, with all the secrets of the past coming back to call on the next generations, including our own.
Joseph E. Holloway, Neither Black nor White: The Saga of an American Family, the Complete Story New World African Press, 2006.
The ranch features an impressive array of wildlife, which can be observed by visitors to the ranch. These animals include bobcats, deer, coyotes, quail, turkey, and wild hogs. Students can learn about innovations that the King Ranch pioneered to help protect wildlife, including providing water to wildlife, providing shelter for quail and other wildlife, and promoting the growth of plant species necessary to sustain wildlife. n addition, an industrious teacher may be able to get students to speak with the scientists involved in two ongoing wildlife research projects, the South Texas Quail Project and the South Texas Buck Capture Project. f those scientists are unavailable, a teacher may be able to get his students involved in one of the King Ranch's ongoing projects, which are mainly game surveys. The ranch also provides students with the unique opportunity to learn about and possibly observe several endangered or threatened species, including the…
In addition, King's aggressive upbreeding led to tremendous improvements in equine stock. The King Ranch had upbreeding programs for both thoroughbreds and quarter horses. For example, Assault, the 1946 winner of the Triple Crown, was the result of the King Ranch's breeding programs. More widely known and recognized are the quarter horses on the King Ranch. Visitors to the Ranch can observe some of the best examples of quarter horses that exist today, and they can also learn about Wimpy and Mr. San Peppy, two of the early quarter horses that helped establish the superiority of King Ranch equines. Even more importantly, visitors to the ranch can watch modern cowboys work these quarter horses in the same way as their ancestors, and learn, first-hand, what makes a quarter horse a champion. Students should be asked to observe and report on five characteristics of quarter horses that make them ideally suited for ranch work.
Domestic stock forms only a portion of the animals on the ranch. One of the lessons that students can learn at the ranch is about wildlife. The ranch features an impressive array of wildlife, which can be observed by visitors to the ranch. These animals include bobcats, deer, coyotes, quail, turkey, and wild hogs. Students can learn about innovations that the King Ranch pioneered to help protect wildlife, including providing water to wildlife, providing shelter for quail and other wildlife, and promoting the growth of plant species necessary to sustain wildlife. In addition, an industrious teacher may be able to get students to speak with the scientists involved in two ongoing wildlife research projects, the South Texas Quail Project and the South Texas Buck Capture Project. If those scientists are unavailable, a teacher may be able to get his students involved in one of the King Ranch's ongoing projects, which are mainly game surveys. The ranch also provides students with the unique opportunity to learn about and possibly observe several endangered or threatened species, including the Texas indigo snake, aplomado falcon, Harris' hawk, and the ferruginous pygmy-owl.
Wildlife management is only one aspect of the environmental stewardship that students can learn upon visiting the ranch. One of the most important lessons one can learn at the ranch is that farmers and ranchers have an obligation to look after the land. Students can view the best practices used on the ranch, which are aimed at limiting the impact of the ranching on the land. These practices include soil conservation, minimum-impact grazing programs, water conservation, and the limited and controlled use of pesticides. Students can learn about and explain why each of these programs helps the environment.
This can be seen in the Catholics who were so tightly bound to the Vatican in Rome (17). The textbook points out that this wasn't just the case for Catholics, the Protestants in the New orld were also closely tied to their Protestant religion in England.
The relationship that the colonists had with the Native Americans was an important one because the European colonists needed the Native Americans to help them build their New orld; in short, the Europeans needed the Indian workforce (Ruckman 17). Sadly, Indians became slaves who were bought and sold, or they were forced (indentured) workers (17). Ruckman notes that the colonists needed major work done and the Indian workforce was not enough to meet the demands of a growing society, which is why slaves for Africa were being imported -- roughly beginning around the year 1502 (17).
Spain came to the New orld in 1492…
Ruckman, FIRST NAME. NAME of TEXTBOOK. PLACE, PUBLISHER, DATE.
It also illustrated the solidification of the definition of a true American as a white male. Andrew Jackson was a populist, and spoke out against the landed aristocracy, of which Jefferson was a member. Jackson wanted votes for all men, regardless of property-holding status, but he also wanted to expand property ownership to a larger proportion of the population. his would be accomplished by expansion westward.
he Indian Removal Act of 1830 confirmed the Jacksonian idea that America was not a race-neutral civilization, and depended upon the subjugation and eradication of some races, while it strove to build up its own status: "hey have neither the intelligence, the industry, the moral habits, nor the desire of improvement which are essential to any change in their condition. Established in the midst of another and superior race, they must necessarily yield to the force of circumstances and ere long disappear," said Jackson,…
The war with Mexico, which resulted in the establishment of Texas as one of the states of the union, was also characterized as a battle of civilizations, with Mexicans being characterized as 'inferior' and undeserving of a state that had been their territory, into which they had invited American settlers. Because the American settlers in Texas were white, ergo Texas was seen as a 'white' and 'American' nation in a way that transcended most legal conceptions of what constituted national ownership of a territory.
As expansion westward continued, so did the divisions in the nation over slavery. A variety of compromises were instated to balance the U.S. between slave and free, but a crisis was clearly building in terms of how the U.S. would finally identify itself -- could an American citizen be anything other than a white man? But not only southerners subscribed to the doctrine of racial inferiority: In a perfect ideological storm, a misinterpretation of Darwinian notions of the evolution of the races and anthropological study of 'primitive' societies and skull sizes were used to justify the inequitable status of black people and the right of Europeans to dominate all other races in the name of progress. Racism and domination of native peoples was cast in a moral light.
Finally, he inferiority of certain races became codified into law: the 1857 Dred Scott U.S. Supreme Court case declared that people of African ancestry, enslaved or free, could never become citizens of the United States. The Court's opinion stated that black people "had no rights which the white man was bound to respect," and in effect, one a slave, always a slave. Hopes that slavery would die out of its own accord were extinguished.
Slavery in the United Stated lasted as an endorsed organization until the passage of the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution in 1865. In 1619 twenty Africans were brought by a Dutch soldier and sold to the English colony of Jamestown, Virginia as indentured servants.
This would be the first of many visits up and down the American eastern seaboard. At this time, most slaves were being purchased by white men, though some Native Americans and free blacks were also detained. Slavery was spread to the areas where there was a high-quality soil for large plantations of important crops, such as cotton, sugar, coffee and most prominently tobacco. Even though the endorsed practice of enslaving blacks occurred in all of the original thirteen colonies, more than half of all African-Americans lived in Virginia and Maryland. The three highest-ranking North American zones of importation throughout most of the…
History of Discrimination in the United States
The Europeanization of North America
Greater than 99% of the population of the United States originated from another country, having immigrated here between the time of Christopher Columbus' arrival and the present day (Spickard, 2007, p. 4). Despite estimates that suggest close to five million Native Americans were living on land that would eventually become the United States in 1492, diseases such as smallpox, typhoid, and cholera wiped out an estimated 95% of this demographic at a relatively rapid pace, thus helping to pave the way for European immigration into North America (Spickard, 2007, pp. 36-37).
The earliest permanent (successful) white settlements included the Spanish in the southwestern territories that would become Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, and California, and on the east coast in Florida (Spickard, 2007, pp. 37-40). The primary goal of the Spanish settlements was economic, but this was not…
Hagy, J.W. (1991). Mosquitoes, leeches and medicine in Charleston, South Carolina (1670-1861). Blood Coagulation and Fibrinolysis, 2, 65-68.
Min, Pyong Gap. (2002). Mass migration to the United States: Classical and contemporary periods. New York: Altamira Press.
Spickard, Paul. (2007). Almost all aliens: Immigration, race, and colonialism in American history and identiy. New York: Routledge, Taylor & Fancis Group
U.S. Census Bureau. (2011). National Population by Race, United States: 2010. Retrieved August 30, 2011 from http://2010.census.gov/2010census/data/.
Nobel Prize laureate Derek Walcott begins his oration with an anecdote about the village of Felicity in Trinidad, which is predominantly East Indian. The story begins as the local towns prepare for a Saturday performance of the amleela, which is a stage version of the Hindu epic amayana. Walcott describes vividly with rich detail the cane fields, reminding listeners that the Indians are here because they were brought here during colonial times to be indentured laborers. Now a vibrant Indian community is entrenched, adding richness and color to the tropical landscapes of Trinidad and Tobago. As Walcott and his American friends arrive, the amleela cast and crew are setting up their multiplicity of deities, one of which is a huge effigy constructed of local materials like bamboo.
Briefly Walcott draws a parallel between the amleela and his own stage production, or reinvention and reconstruction, of Homer's Odyssey, the screenplay…
British and Commonwealth History Collections. Retrieved online: http://www-sul.stanford.edu/depts/hasrg/abhist/brithist/caribbean.html
"Caribbean Histories Revealed." The National Archives. Retrieved online: http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/caribbeanhistory/
Higman, B.W. A Concise History of the Caribbean. Cambridge University Press, 2010.
Palmie, Stephan. The Caribbean: A History of the Region and its Peoples. University of Chicago Press, 2011.
American life stories:
The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin and Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass
Although Benjamin Franklin and Fredrick Douglass began their lives on the opposite sides of the black-white divide in America, their personal narratives contain many parallel features. Both suffered a kind of slavery -- indentured servitude to his brother in the case of Franklin and actual slavery in the south in the case of Douglass -- and both later rose to prominent heights as authors and self-made men.
Both men held work in high esteem. Franklin saw his thrift and industry as the reason for his success. Douglass criticized slavery because it eroded the ability to work hard and to make a profit off of one's own labor. Both men are shown chafing at the restrictions placed upon them while they were young. Douglass longed to learn how to read and while literacy was not…
Of course, a separation of the races meant really the preservation of white superiority at the expense of those formerly enslaved. The law mandated distinct facilities for hites and Blacks. Everything from schools, to transportation, movie theaters, hotels, and even public restrooms were carefully segregated. Few Black only facilities approached white ones in quality or amount of money expended on their upkeep. Black public schools were notoriously inferior as were hospitals and other essential services. As arguments about the disparities became more apparent toward the mid-Twentieth Century, the South sought to defend its segregationist policies by - in the case of medical schools - expanding and consolidating its physician training facilities so as to avoid providing more facilities for Blacks. A plan was actually floated, not to increase Black enrollment at the South's twenty-six medical colleges, but rather to consolidate all training of Black medical personnel at a single facility.…
Boskin, Joseph. Into Slavery: Racial Decisions in the Virginia Colony. Philadelphia J.B. Lippincott, 1976.
Louw, Eric P. The Rise, Fall, and Legacy of Apartheid. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2004.
Augustine, Florida) in the America's was at Roanoke in 1585. The first settlement was a disaster and all returned to England. The second settlement in 1587 disappeared. (Taylor, 1998)
Religiously, the South remains dominated by English ways and hierarchies. There is no democratic debate about the faith, even to expunge sinners from the fold. Politically, only men with land dominate the legislatures. And in terms of Native relations, the disappearance of previous colonies speaks for itself. Disease also weakens the bodies of the colonists, making them more open to Native attacks.
The inequality of relations between fellow colonists is further underlined by the treatment of Black slaves in the colony. Since its inception, slave laws reflect the racism of the colony, stressing the deliberate separation of blacks and whites. Even Christian slaves are not called Christian, (another defamation of the religious attitudes of Virginia) as one 1680 law has a…
The Colonial Williamsburg Foundation. "Slavery and the Law in Virginia." 2005
http://www.history.org/history/teaching/slavelaw.cfm .[14 Feb 2005]
Logan, Samuel. "The Pilgrims and Puritans: Total Reformation for the Glory of God." Table talk magazine, vol. 20, no. 11, November 1996.
Norris Taylor, Jr. "The Massachusetts Bay Colony." 1998. Massachusetts Bay Colony Website. http://members.aol.com/ntgen/hrtg/mass.html
It seems to this reviewer that the practices of the white workers that Roediger describes are not far removed from this. Though they did not own the blacks, they worked to hold them down so that they themselves could be made to feel superior. Roediger may want to call such behavior prepolitical, apparently in the belief that only when class distinctions enter does the relationship become political. However, class and race here seem closely mixed as means of control. While it may be understandable that industrialized workers wanted to find means of escape from and control over the alienationof their situation, by appropriating false means of self-justification, they made it difficult to accept their reasoning.
Had the workers, instead of turning to racism for self-justification, turned to religion, one wonders whether Roediger would have been as sympathetic. The book presents a provocative argument and a structure that supports the purpose…
Allen Theodore. "On Roediger's Wages of Whiteness," Cultural Logic 4:2 (2001), http://clogic.eserver.org/4-2/allen.html#note1
Johnson Walter. Soul by Soul: Life Inside the Antebellum Slave Market (Cambridge: Harvard, 2001)
Blackness was not an unremittingly negative quality, as it would be seen later on, but the associations of blackness and other stereotypes that would be attached to 'Negroes' began fairly early.
The development of colonies based upon cash crops, including those in the Southern United States, necessitated a large enslaved labor force, larger than whites could provide. As the economic need for slave labor increased, so did negatively expressed views of Africans and blackness in general. Indentured servitude of whites grew more controversial, thus replacing then with Africans who were justified as being 'natural' slaves became an accepted solution. Even Thomas Jefferson would eventually see 'Negros' as existing at the end of a chain of being, the beginning phase of a kind of evolutionary 'erasure' of color, and erasure of the 'mark of Cain' of blackness, as Christian missionaries used to think the Africans possessed.
Jordan believes if there had…
Ashley, Assistant Director, Criminal Investigative Division of the FI relates that in 1991: "...the U.S. Attorney's office in Los Angeles charged 13 defendants in a $1 billion false medical billing scheme that was headed by two Russian emigre brothers. On September 20, 1994, the alleged ringleader was sentenced to 21 years in prison for fraud, conspiracy, racketeering, and money laundering. He was also ordered to forfeit $50 million in assets, pay more than $41 million in restitution to government agencies and insurance companies victimized by the scheme." (2003) Ashley relates that the first Eurasian organized crime investigation of a significant nature involved a major underworld figure in the United States and specifically, Vyacheslav Ivankov who is a powerful Eurasian organized crime boss. Ashley states that Ivankov "...led an international criminal organization that operated in numerous cities in Europe, Canada, and the United States, chiefly New York, London, Toronto, Vienna, udapest,…
Albini, Joseph L. And R.E. Rogers. "Proposed Solutions to the Organized Crime Problem in Russia." Demokratizatsiya Winter 1998: p. 103.
Crime Without Punishment." (1999) the Economist August 28, 1999 the Makings of a Molotov Cocktail. The Economist 344, no. 8025.
Edward H. Sutherland (nd) Differential Association Theory. Online Criminology FSU.EDU available at http://www.criminology.fsu.edu/crimtheory/sutherland.html
Eurasian, Italian and Balkan Organized Crime (2003) Testimony of Grant D. Ashley, Assistant Director, Criminal Investigative Division, FBI Before the Subcommittee on European Affairs, Committee on Foreign Relations, United States Senate. 30 Oct. 2003. Federal Bureau of Investigations. Online available at http://www.fbi.gov/congress/congress03/ashley103003.htm
S. President Theodore Roosevelt. Similarly, both leaders were also influenced by the parallel analyses published by the merican author James Bryce.
These influences also pervaded the Indian Continent, where restrictions against actually emulating the merican institution of outright slavery gave rise to the concept of indentured servitude instead. Compounding the moral depravity, the British Colonialists responded to the competition for labor and the resulting diminution of white wages by resorting to restrictive immigration policies. In this respect, the authors also detail the influence of institutionalized racist policies pioneered in the merican South in connection with the thinly veiled race-based restriction on voting rights of the newly-emancipated frican-merican black former slaves. In particular, the authors explain the influence of merican voting eligibility literacy tests in conjunction with "grandfather clauses" that exempted illiterate white voters whose parents and grandparents had voted while excluding emancipated black because virtually no frican-mericans (whose ancestors had…
A Forecast (1893) that had already been embraced by the newly-elected U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt. Similarly, both leaders were also influenced by the parallel analyses published by the American author James Bryce.
These influences also pervaded the Indian Continent, where restrictions against actually emulating the American institution of outright slavery gave rise to the concept of indentured servitude instead. Compounding the moral depravity, the British Colonialists responded to the competition for labor and the resulting diminution of white wages by resorting to restrictive immigration policies. In this respect, the authors also detail the influence of institutionalized racist policies pioneered in the American South in connection with the thinly veiled race-based restriction on voting rights of the newly-emancipated African-American black former slaves. In particular, the authors explain the influence of American voting eligibility literacy tests in conjunction with "grandfather clauses" that exempted illiterate white voters whose parents and grandparents had voted while excluding emancipated black because virtually no African-Americans (whose ancestors had all been slaves without voting rights) could possibly satisfy those exemptions. In the Commonwealth, these mechanisms manifested themselves in the infamous "dictation tests" within the White Australia Policy.
Ultimately, the book provides a retrospective account that illustrates that the overtly racist national policies and sentiments whose vestigial remains are still evident in the American Continent, South Africa, and in the Commonwealth of Australia today, are the product of a shared form of transnational racism and to the mutual influence of sovereign nations more than a century ago and not just to "natural" ethnic atavistic xenophobia that is also an unfortunate feature of human societies throughout recorded human history.
As for those who believe it is never all right to abort babies under any circumstances, these people are blinded by good intentions. It is true that killing innocent children without reason is immoral, but there are actually situations that call for abortion as the only moral choice there is. We, as an advanced society, have the power to guide the development of our world, and in order for us to provide the best world possible for our children and the next generations, we must ensure that it is populated with the most fit people, rather than those who are less fit and will be a burden on society. Not allowing any abortion will prevent those who willingly wish to improve the future of humankind from doing so. There is no reason for a healthy woman to have to sacrifice herself, be that through death or through a lifetime of…
America is in the Heart is Carlos Bulosan's autobiography, which he uses to reflect the living conditions of immigrant Filipino workers in mid-twentieth century America. By doing so, Bulosan's effectively highlights the Filipino experience with an American society where democratic values had yet to overcome racial and class prejudices. Bulosan achieves this by documenting his experiences in a manner that is calculated to reveal the gap between the American promise of opportunity and the reality of a country where racial discrimination comes in the way of achieving success.
Bulosan's work, however, should not be interpreted as an indictment of American society. On the contrary, he shows a touching faith in the promise of democracy and equality. Therefore, his objective appears to be more in the area of a plea to all Americans that true democracy lay in extending the promise of a land of opportunity to all social classes and…
Ellison, R. "Invisible Man." New York: Random House, 1995.
The Civil Rights era was witness to several organized movements that worked to dismantle the practice of segregation and to procure basic civil rights for the black community. These movements were largely distinguished by a difference in political ideology leading to a conflict, at times, between Black Integrationists and Black Nationalists.
The integrationist movement believed that a policy of co-operation with the majority culture was the route to achieving positive social goals for the blacks. However, it must be noted that the basis of this belief stemmed from a fundamental faith in the institution of democracy and democratic processes. The integrationist movement also pursued the political idea that black and white unity must be achieved if America was to fully realize the values of democracy and equality. Thus, this movement advocated that both communities should work towards achieving a closer understanding of the other's culture. Indeed, this is the reason why integrationist leaders believed strongly in empowering the black community through education and greater involvement in the affairs of mainstream America.
The Black Nationalist movement, on the other hand, subscribed to the view that development of a strong racial identity and solidarity was the only way to bring about social change. Therefore, black nationalists promoted the idea that blacks must withdraw from the majority culture and, instead, develop a distinct identity in all walks of life. This meant the creation of a new political consciousness, the development of Negro self-expression through the arts, and the establishing of a distinct culture. In other words, Black Nationalism was based on the idea that black consciousness would lead to a sense of pride, dignity, and self-esteem, which, in turn, would lead to the black community being given its rightful place under the sun. Unfortunately, the call for Black Nationalism was, at times, misinterpreted as a movement towards black militancy and, therefore, as a threat to white supremacy.
trespass, nuisance and a violation of zoning laws.
The first and perhaps most lucrative cause of action would be trespass. Trespass to land is an intentional tort to property. To establish a prima facie case for trespass to land, a plaintiff has to prove an act of physical invasion of the plaintiff's real property by the defendant; intent on the defendant's part to bring about a physical invasion of the plaintiff's real property; and causation. (arbri, Torts, 8) In trespass, the defendant need not himself enter onto the plaintiff's land: Trespass exists where the defendant floods the plaintiff's land, throws rocks onto it or chases third persons onto it, etc. (arbri, Torts, 9)
In this case, Jim caused the oil the run onto ob's property, but the question is: Was that intentional, or merely negligent? If negligent, trespass won't apply, but if ob can prove that Jim intentionally created a…
Barbri: Multistate Review. 2000. New York: Harcourt.
In the long run, Machan & Chesher's argument makes sense -- care for the health and safety of company employees and see the company grow more profitable! Care for one's own health and one will be a better employee! However, management does not always take the long-term vision that, 'if I allow my employee to take a day off for the flu, he or she will be more productive upon his or her return, and not infect other employees.' Employees may be told to come in to the office when they are sick or else they will be fired. Thus, they risk their own health or the health of others, to make a quick return on the corporation's investment in an employee. Also, an adolescent or even a twenty-year-old on his or her first job may have a sense of invincibility, and do imprudent things, like speed to deliver pizzas,…
Women and children are facing abuse all over the world, astonishingly, in countries where rights against abuse are more pronounced than in any other country. We are going to take the case of the abuse of immigrant women and children, mainly those who struggle to get into the United States of America through the Mexican border.
It's only in the 21st century that we have to come to notice the rapid increase of women and children immigrants moving out for job opportunities.
Men, usually get work as laborers in industries of some kind while the women or children have to do odd and low jobs just to make ends meet and earn enough money to send or take back to their family. They usually find work as hired help in places like Grande valley, El Paso, San Diego, and everly Hills. (Jane Juffer, 1988)
Furthermore, women face daily harassments by…
AP Worldstream. Female illegal immigrants reporting sexual assaults, abuse. TUCSON, Arizona; 2004
Jane Juffer. Abuse at the border: Women face a Perilous crossing. The progressive; 1988.
Tony Kennedy. Help for abused immigrants; The federal money will help women who are victims of domestic and sexual abuse. Star Tribune (Minneapolis, MN); 2003.
Jane Juffer. Indentured Servitude. The Progressive; 1988.
The lasting impact of colonial settlement
The colonialism is taken to be a political and economic experience which paved the way for the European to explore, conquer, settle and exploit large areas of the world. The era of modern colonialism started during 1400 A.D with the European discovery of sea route around Africa's southern coast during 1488 and that of America during 1492. They made provisions to transfer the sea power from that of the Mediterranean towards the Atlantic and to the emerging new nation-states at that time which were Portugal, Spain, Dutch epublic, France and that of England. The initiation for discovery, the desire to conquer and settlement led these nations to expand their territories and to colonize over the world, extending the European institutions and culture to other parts of the world. The competition continued among the European nations for colonization across the world. Such colonies…
Colonial Settlement, 1600s-1763. Retrieved from http://memory.loc.gov/learn/features/timeline/colonial/colonial.html
Accessed 21 September, 2005
Exploration. Retrieved from http://regentsprep.org/Regents/global/themes/movement/exp.cfm
Accessed 21 September, 2005
Fresia's contention that the United States failed to live up to its revolutionary democratic promise and instead was captured by the powerful plutocratic elite has appeal, it oversimplifies the process by which the elite take and retain control over resources and governmental power. In reality, at the time of the American evolution, there was little dispute that the outcome of the evolution would be to give greater power and freedom to those leading the evolution; the founding fathers. While the promise of democracy was offered to common men, it was members of the ruling elite of the colonial Americas that made the decisions to declare America independent from England and drafted both the Articles of Confederation and the United States Constitution. Therefore, it is unsurprising that the Constitution does not engage in the type of re-distribution of wealth that Fresia appears to believe is necessary in order to establish a…
Fresia, Jerry. 1988. Toward an American Revolution: Exposing the Constitution and other
Illusions. Boston: South End Press.
changes taking place within the area of juvenile justice are being implemented in sporadic and inconsistent ways. There seem to be two distinct directions within the realm of juvenile criminal justice. One view presents juvenile justice as necessitating rehabilitation, crime prevention, and psychological intervention; whereas the other view takes a "tough on crime" approach by treating juveniles as adults and applying punitive methods. Evidence related to juvenile justice is unfortunately as contradictory as the policies and practices used to respond to adolescent deviance. Therefore, it is important to take a more localized approach and also to treat each case individually.
Response 2: This post highlights the importance of developmental psychology to influencing juvenile justice policy, and criminal justice policy in general. For example, it is important to remember that before the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act of 1974, juveniles were not treated differently than adults. They were tried as…
Self-Made Man and the Recipient of Divine Grace:
Benjamin Franklin vs. Jonathan Edwards
Despite the fact that both Benjamin Franklin and Jonathan Edwards are honored as two of the greatest authors of colonial America, they could not be more different in their ideological orientations. Edwards (1703-1758) is perhaps most famous for penning the image of the human soul as a spider in the hand of a merciful God, suspended above the flames of hell in his sermon "Sinners in the Hand of an Angry God." All human beings, Edwards implied in his image, were essentially fallen beings. A true Puritan, Edwards believed there was no way for hard work to win divine favor; one could only hope to be the recipient of divine grace. In contrast, Franklin (1706-1790), despite living during roughly the same time period as Edwards, was the consummate self-made man. As well as being credited as one…
Edwards, Jonathan. "A divine and supernatural light." CCEL. Web. 16 Dec 2013. http://www.ccel.org/e/edwards/sermons/supernatural_light.html
Franklin, Benjamin. "From Chapter VIII of The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin." The
American Tradition in Literature. Perkins & Perkins (Ed). McGraw Hill.
"eak protections under U.S. law allow children as young as 12 to work unlimited hours outside of school on tobacco farms of any size, and there is no minimum age for children to work on small farms. Despite the known risks of nicotine poisoning, there are no special provisions in U.S. laws or regulations to protect children from the unique hazards of tobacco work."
I was aware that there were a few exceptions to child labor laws on family farms. This alone is a sensitive issue given the potential for injury with lifelong consequences, along with the conscription of children into farming labor that may detract from their ability to pursue other careers. Yet until reading this passage, I had no idea that child labor was still permitted in a larger context in the United States, especially in large farm contexts. hen it comes to exposure to pesticides, dangerous…
Dorsey, James. "Study asserts that controversial gulf labor regime reduces global inequality." The World Post. 2014. Retrieved online: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/james-dorsey/study-asserts-that-contro_b_6131756.html
Slavery in Africa
Throughout history, slavery in Africa has taken a variety of forms—from slavery stemming from the outcome of war, where enemies taken captive are sold into slavery, to debt slavery, plantation slavery and criminal slavery. For many African states, slavery offered an opportunity to boost their economies: Africans viewed slaves as commodities to buy and sell as well as free labor to work in the commerce industry (Austin, 2017). Today slavery still exists in parts of Africa, though the practice was officially abolished in the 19th and early 20th centuries as a result of the anti-slavery movement in Europe (Klein, 1978), with Niger and Mauritania being the last holdouts to criminalize slavery in 2003 and 2007 respectively. Nonetheless, it is widely reported that slavery as a practice is still alive in well, with an estimated 8% of Niger’s population being held in slavery (Andersson, 2005) and people…
However, the as does not mention any scars so the mutilation of her left hand could have been the result of an accident instead of intentional infliction of pain. Finally, since she was of mix blood, the ad mentioned that she may try to pass herself as a free woman, and therefore, she must have had many white features. Since she may have tried to get to friends for help, it can be assumed that escaping from slavery was a very difficult endeavor without aid from others.
Case #4 Virginia Gazette (Rind), Williamsburg, August 8, 1771
It was on April 1st 1771 that a slave named Jenny ran away from her master Edmund Bacon. Five months later Mr. Bacon took out an ad in the paper announcing that he would pay for her return. She was 23 years old, 5 feet 4 or 5 inches tall, and had at least…
Boycotting British goods meant that American women were going to have to make sacrifices, and stop consuming goods that were imported from Britain. The cartoon of the women of Edenton, NC signing a non-consumption agreement represent American women involving themselves in the political and economic boycott of Britain by the American colonies. ("A Society of Patriotic Ladies") However, it is actually a criticism of women's involvement in political affairs by representing the women who signed as silly women engaging in silly activities. The entire cartoon is designed to give the impression that women are not able to take on political issues seriously and deal with them effectively. Instead, the women in the cartoon are engaging in sex, playing, drinking, and are generally distracted from the important issue at hand.
"A Society of Patriotic Ladies- North Carolina Digital History." LEARN NC. eb. 14
Oct. 2011. http://www.learnnc.org/lp/editions/nchist-revolution/4305
"A Society of Patriotic Ladies- North Carolina Digital History." LEARN NC. Web. 14
Oct. 2011. http://www.learnnc.org/lp/editions/nchist-revolution/4305
"Laws on Indentured Servants." Virtual Jamestown. Web. 14 Oct. 2011.
Slavery, The Civil ar and the Preservation of the Union
In the face of oppression and harsh treatment, slaves formed communities as a coping mechanism and to resist the belief that they were simply property. Members of these slave communities came together often to sing, talk, and even plan covert plots to runaway or sabotage the system in which they were living. Slaves married, had children and worked to keep their families together. Families were often broken up as members were sold off to different masters, but when a family was kept together, nuclear families of two parents and their children working for the same master were common. It was in these communities that countless elements of African-American slave culture were passed on for generations, including skills such as medical care, hunting, and fishing as well as how to act in front of whites, hiding their feelings and escaping punishment.…
Buchanan, James." Columbia Encyclopedia. 6th ed. 2000. Encyclopedia.com. 14 December 2002. http://www.encyclopedia.com/html/B/BuchannJ1.asp .
Lincoln, Abraham," Columbia Encyclopedia. 6th ed. 2000. Encyclopedia.com. 14 December 2002. http://www.encyclopedia.com/html/L/LincolnA1.asp .
Missouri Compromise." Columbia Encyclopedia. 6th ed. 2000. Encyclopedia.com. 14 December 2002. http://www.encyclopedia.com/html/m/missrc1omp.asp .
The Terrible Transformation." Africans in America. PBS Online. 14 December 2002. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part1/title.html .
Uncle Tom characters were common in both white and black productions of the time, yet no director before Micheaux had so much as dared to shine a light on the psychology that ravages such characters. By essentially bowing to the two white men, Micheaux implied that Old Ned was less than a man; an individual whittled down to nothing more than yes-man and wholly deprived of self-worth. At this point in the history of black films, with some of the most flagrant sufferings of blacks exposed to the American public, the only logical path forward that African-Americans could take was to begin making cogent demands to improve their collective social situation.
Slowly, black characters in film took on greater and more significant roles in film. Sidney Poitier was one of the most powerful film stars of the mid twentieth century. In roles like the 1950 film by…
Finlayson, R. (2003). We Shall Overcome: The History of the American Civil Rights
Movement. Lerner Publications Company, Minneapolis, MN.
King, Jr., M. And Jackson, J. (1963). Why We Can't Wait. Signet Classic, New York,
But after a military threat from the side of Northern opponents in Canada (French colonies) English colonists had to revise their attitude towards Indians turning some Indian tribes into allies by presenting them gifts and developing trade relations. Ultimately colonists came to the conclusion that they needed temporary cooperation with Indians in order to strengthen their positions in North America: "many Indians became dependent on the manufactured goods the fur trade brought them, and hunted to meet the demands of European markets rather than the needs of their families." (from Calloway, C. New Worlds for All: Indians, Europeans, and the emaking of Early America, p.15)According to Colin Calloway Indian peoples quickly became involved into the system of colonial trade and ultimately they became an integral part of Atlantic colonial economy which worked only for colonists. European colonists wanted to change Indian culture and system of values which were considered to…
Morris, R. The Emergence of American Labor available on web resource: http://www.dol.gov/asp/programs/history/chapter1.htm
Convict Servants in the American Colonies, Artilce available on web resource: http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=3614090&place=home03
Calloway, C. New Worlds for All: Indians, Europeans, and the Remaking of Early America (Johns Hopkins University Press, 1998), 15.
Calloway, C. New Worlds for All: Indians, Europeans, and the Remaking of Early America (Johns Hopkins University Press,1998), 69.
Jonathan Edwards' "Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God" and Benjamin Franklin's "Advice to a Young Tradesman."
The writings of Jonathan Edwards and Benjamin Franklin represent two opposite extremes of Colonial thought. Edwards' "Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God" is an example of the "Hellfire" religious revivalism that exercised such strong appeal during the period. Thousands turned out to be converted and save at great mass meetings. These people place their absolute trust in God, believing that He alone could save them from the eternal torments of Hell. Only through trust in Him, could any of their endeavors be truly blessed. According to such beliefs, men and women were not masters of their own fate -- all lay in the Hands of God. In contrast, to the extent that Franklin's piece, "Advice to a Young Tradesman" does touch on religion at all, it is a very different…
Also, the land in New England did not allow for vast fields of crops, such as Virginia was blessed with. Small farms were the rule of the day in New England.
Another very different part of life for New England was that they had a better relationship with the Indians than the Chesapeake settlers did. The Pokanokets even signed a treaty with the Pilgrims, "and during the colony's first difficult years the Pokanokets supplied the English with essential foodstuffs" (31).
Further, when the Massachusetts Bay Company (MBC) was established in 1629, Congregationalist merchants "boldly decided to transfer the headquarters of the MBC [from England] to New England" (31). This allowed the settlers to handle their own affairs, "secular and religious, as they pleased." This dynamic was very different from the forced ties the Virginians had with the English crown.
Still another major difference (from Chesapeake) in the development of the…
Collier, Christopher. Decision in Philadelphia: The Constitutional Convention of 1787.
New York: Random House: Reader's Digest, 1986.
Meachem, Sarah Hand. "They Will be Adjudged by Their Drink, What Kinds of Housewives They Are." Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 111 (2002):
Nash, Gary B. Red, White, and Black: The Peoples of Early America. Englewood Cliffs,
By enacting the Black Codes, starting in 1865, following the 13th Amendment, however, and by giving birth, in 1866, to the Ku Klux Klan and its reign of terror over the freedmen, the southern states successfully circumvented the actual enjoyment by blacks of most of the freedoms granted them by the 13th Amendment.
The Constitution of the United tates of America [Article II]. A History of the American People.
Ed. Harry J. Carman et al. 2nd ed. Vol. 1. New York: Knopf, 1960. 776.
Hill, Elias. "Testimony before Congressional Committee Investigating the Ku Klux Klan, 1871." Reading the American Past: elected Historical Documents. Ed. Michael
Johnson. 2nd ed. Vol. 2. New York: Bedford, 2002. 9-13.
Jefferson, Thomas. The Declaration of Independence. A History of the American People.
Ed. Harry J. Carman et al. 2nd ed. Vol. 1. New York: Knopf, 1960. 759.
Mississippi Black Code, November 1865." Reading…
Black Codes in the Former Confederate States." December 15, 2004. http://www.civilwar home.com/blackcodes.htm>. 5 pages.
Brinkley, Douglas. History of the United States. New York: Viking, 2002. 237-8.
Carman, Harry J. et al., Ed. A History of the American People. 2nd ed. Vol. 1. New York:
Knopf, 1960. 738.
The Inextricable Correlation between Human Trafficking and Prostitution
Despite ongoing efforts by the international community, human trafficking remains a global problem today. Tens of thousands of men, women and children are routinely exploited by human traffickers each year, and the practice generates billions of dollars in criminal proceeds at home and abroad. In fact, after drugs and gun-running, sex trafficking is the largest source of money for criminal organizations in the United States. Given the enormity of the problem and the vast sums of money that are involved, it is not surprising that the international community has not been successful in eliminating this practice. To determine the facts, this paper provides an analysis of the relevant literature concerning the correlation between prostitution and human trafficking to demonstrate that the two have an inextricable but difficult to quantify effect on each other. A summary of the research and important findings…
Berlin is not the first to assert that slave life in the early history of the country was far from what it became before the Civil War. Another author notes, "In his study of the poor in early America, Philip D. Morgan notes that some slaves in the Chesapeake region might have had more material benefits than some destitute whites. Nonetheless, Morgan reiterates the famous observation of the scholar, Orlando Patterson, that slavery was 'social death'" (abe). Here is where Berlin and other authors differ. Berlin acknowledges the evils of slavery at times, but his book is more like an account of social and racial class formation, and it glosses over many of the harsh realities that have been often repeated in slavery. In this, he seems to do a disservice to the black community, and to those slaves who suffered during this time. He shows how slaves were free…
Berlin, Ira. Many Thousands Gone: The First Two Centuries of Slavery in North America. Cambridge, MA: The Belknap Press, 1998.
Bland, Sterling Lecater, ed. African-American Slave Narratives: An Anthology. Vol. 1. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2001.
Rabe, Stephen G. "Slavery in the Development of the Americas." The Historian 67.4 (2005): 749+.
hen a northern imposition of tariffs, ratified in Pennsylvania in 1828, began to damage southern income, the 'abomination,' as this legislation was labeled, became a flashpoint for Southern identification with anti-federalist principles. This spoke to one of the strengthening ideological holdings in the South as it pertained to maintaining a slave-labor system in spite of the nation's prevailing cultural, ethical and economical trends.
The South would generally hold that the Constitution was conflictive to the independence of states.
In the unfolding dispute between the regions, South Carolina would be a leader for the concept of nullification, which as explicated in a doctrine anonymously written by southern leader John C. Calhoun, would entitle states to undermine Federal laws that were inconsistent the individual states' constitutions. An act which elicited a military response against South Carolina from then president, Andrew Jackson, this underscored the extremity of distinction in economic interest which had…
APVA. (1997). History of Jamestown. The Association for Preservation of Virginia Antiquities. Ret. Online at http://www.apva.org/history/.
Morrison, Michael. (1997). Slavery and the American West: The Eclipse of Manifest Destiny and the Coming of the Civil War. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
Rosenberg, Daniel. (2005). Calculating the Value of the Union: Slavery, Property Rights and the Economic Origins of the Civil War. The Historian, Vol. 67.
Woodworth, Steven E. (2000). Cultures in Conflict: The American Civil War. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.