Indian Culture Essays (Examples)

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Indian Dance Mask Dance in

Words: 1445 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86778529

(Kamat, 2004)

Historical Themes in Chhau dances

The themes behind the Chhau dances have very strong political ties. "Formerly there were 26 (twenty six) Feudatory states in Orissa Province, Sareikala a former 'A' class legendary princely State was one of them, now a District named Sareikala-Kharswan of Jharkhand state is situated to the north of Orissa on the bank of river Kharkai and surrounded by the big hills and rivers have given as much more protection to the former state barely 45 KM from the Iron and Steel city of Jamshedpur." (Chhaudance, 2004)

Singhbhumi, known as the land of the Lion was unconquered and therefore as close to a free state for many centuries. This is most likely the true origin for the principles of the classical style of tribal folk dances. "The Chhau Dance has been nurtured under an atmosphere of independence, undisturbed by outside influences. It represented a…… [Read More]

References

Chhaudance. (n.d.). History of Chhau Dance. Retrieved on November 30, 2004, at http://www.chhau.com/homehistory.htm

Kamat. (n.d.). Masked Chhau Folk Dancer from West Bengal. Retrieved on November 30, 2004, at  http://www.kamat.com/kalranga/dances/4595.htm 

Indian Dance
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Indian Education Boarding Schools Indian Boarding Schools Were

Words: 704 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83898286

Indian Education/Boarding Schools

Indian boarding schools were designed to assimilate Native American children into the greater American (white) culture. Students at the schools suffered from poor diet, illness and harsh discipline. As a result of these deficiencies, and the high cost of running the boarding schools, they began to disappear from the American landscape in the 1930s.

Indian education from the 1880s to the 1920s was designed to assimilate the American Indian population into the greater American society. This was accomplished by placing Native American Indian children into institutions where the traditional ways of Indian society were replaced by government-sanctioned behaviors and beliefs. Native American children were removed from their families, and enrolled in government-run boarding schools.

Boarding schools first became vogue prior to the American Civil ar. During this time, idealistic reformers put forth the idea that Indians could become "civilized" with the proper education and treatment. Prior to…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Marr, Carolyn J. Assimilation Through Education: Indian Boarding Schools in the Pacific Northwest. University of Washington Libraries. Digital Collections. 19 October 2002. http://content.lib.washington.edu/aipnw/marr/biblio.html

Kelley, Matt. The Associated Press. American Indian boarding schools: 'That hurt never goes away'. Wednesday, April 28, 1999. 19 October 2002. http://www.canoe.ca/CNEWSFeatures9904/28_indians.html
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Culture Clashes With a Culture

Words: 1738 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8513866

"Fish becomes the leitmotif in the story. Mrs. Sen's existence as also her survival in an alien land revolves around and depends upon this food item. hen she gets it she is happy, and when it is absent from her kitchen for a long time, she sulks like a child. For Mrs. Sen fish becomes her home, her state, her neighborhood, her friend and her family. Fish gives her a sense of proximity to her people. The arrival of a tasty halibut gives her pleasure as nothing else does" (Choubey 2001). But when Mrs. Sen is rebuked for the smell of her prized fish, even this source of connection with home, however, tenuous, becomes perverted.

Some of the characters of the Interpreter of Maladies learn to negotiate their new identities and cultural terrains and bridge the cultural gaps that exist between themselves and their fellow Indians, as well as with…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Choubey, Asha. "Food as Metaphor in Jhumpa Lahiri's Interpreter of Maladies."

The Literature and Culture of the Indian Subcontinent on the Postcolonial Web. Last modified 2001. [8 Dec 2007.]

http://www.usp.nus.edu.sg/post/india/literature/lahiri/choubey1.html

Lahiri, Jhumpa Interpreter of Maladies and other stories. Boston: Houghton Mifflin,
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Indian Nationalism

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42908632

Indian Nationalism

The ge of Colonialism was drawing to a close, as the spirit of nationalism swept over the subcontinent. s similar political movements took place throughout Europe and other parts of sia, India found itself in a unique position. India had been a diverse, heterogeneous region for centuries; even millennia. The nationalist movement highlighted the differences between the various ethnic groups in the subcontinent, revealing their core differences in political and social philosophy. Initial nationalist movements were led by the Indian National Congress Party, as well as the Muslim League. The Indian National Congress Party did not start out as being a Hindu organization, and never officially declared itself as such. Yet over time, the Congress Party became associated with Hindu goals. The Congress Party was founded as early as 1885, when it was a umbrella group for a diverse constituency. Their only shared goal seemed to be the…… [Read More]

Although most Muslims did support the Indian National Congress Party, a large number sought more robust representation in the nationalist movement and supported instead the All-India Muslim League. Conflicts between Hindu and Muslim Indians started brewing during the early 20th century. In 1905, the state of Bengal was divided -- partitioned along religious lines. Indians did not approve of the British interference with their nationalist movement, seeking instead of more holistic political rubric under which to form a new nation. The populist revolt forced the British to reunify Bengal. After British conscripted Indian soldiers to fight in World War One, the anger against the colonialist government grew. The British passed ever-stricter acts in an attempt to quell the civic unrest. Protests that began peacefully ended in violence on the part of the British government.

Gandhi's model was appealing to Indians on many levels and from many backgrounds. Satyagraha hearkened to the roots of Indian philosophy, which transcended sectarian beliefs. Non-violence and peaceful coexistence with neighbors had been part of the Indian culture for centuries prior to the Raj. The Raj seemed to exacerbate ethnic and religious differences, as if a "divide and conquer" methodology was used by the Crown in order to rule over the complex colony. The Indian Nationalist movement therefore became linked inextricably with Gandhi's nonviolence movement. Gandhi became a model for India's future: one that was free of colonial rule but which would also be poised to be a world leader.

Unfortunately, continued clashes between Hindu and Muslim citizens led to an imperfect solution in the subcontinent: partition. As early as the 1930s, the foundation for Pakistan was laid. There were many stones left unturned in the northern subcontinent, though: as Bangladesh later separated itself and the Kashmir issue has yet to be solved peacefully.
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Indian Caste an Ethnography of

Words: 1668 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43164694

However, the Kolenda text is somewhat prescient in identifying some of the ways that Indian society has adjusted to change as modernization has become a matter of inevitability. Indeed, Kolenda denotes entering into the discussion that "the shape of India emerging will be different from the shape of modern estern societies. Caste in its new transformations will be an important contributing factor to determining that shape." (Kolenda, i) as Kolenda's is a text which was composed in 1985, this renders it a particularly insightful set of predictions on how the desire of traditionalists and the culturally elite to maintain ancient systems of class demarcation will find balance with the push of the global community to assume a more democratically driven strategy for socioeconomic organization.

Conclusion:

Ultimately, one is left with the sense that a subject such as this would best be explored in a study with a more current context.…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Kolenda, P. (1985). Caste in Contemporary India. Waveland Press.
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Culture Refers to the Accumulated

Words: 4685 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87152746

In histoy, in most of the Indian families, the inheitance of the estates of the family is left to the lineage of males in the family. Though since the yea 1956, the law in India has always teated females and males as equals in mattes of inheitance whee thee is no legal will witten. Cuently, Indians have become wise and ae using legal wills fo the inheitance and succession of popety. The usage of legal wills at of the yea 2004 stands at about 20%.

The ate of divoce in India is extemely low. It stands at 1% as compaed to 40% which is expeienced in the U.S. These statistics of divoce do not, howeve, give a complete pictue of the divoce situation in India. This is because many maiages that end up being split do so without a fomal divoce. Thee is a eseach gap in the scientific studies…… [Read More]

references. [Article]. Journal of Food Science, 69(4), SNQ191-SNQ192. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2621.2004.tb06362.x

Johnson, H. (2007). 'Happy Diwali!' Performance, Multicultural Soundscapes and Intervention in Aotearoa/New Zealand. [Article]. Ethnomusicology Forum, 16(1), 71-94. doi: 10.1080/17411910701276526

Kurien, P.A. (2006). Multiculturalism and "American" Religion: The Case of Hindu Indian-Americans. Social Forces, 85(2), 723-741.

Mandair, a. (2007). Interdictions: Language, Religion & the (dis)Orders of Indian Identity. [Article]. Social Identities, 13(3), 337-361. doi: 10.1080/13504630701363978

Mintz, S.W., & Bois, C.M.D. (2002). The Anthropology of Food and Eating. Annual Review of Anthropology, 31(ArticleType: research-article / Full publication date: 2002 / Copyright © 2002 Annual Reviews), 99-119.
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Indians & Europeans Encounters Between

Words: 1489 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96555240

The underlying beliefs from which their entire cultures were based on stemmed from the exact same teachings of religious hierarchy, explanations about an unfamiliar world, and beliefs that brought social order to their respective societies.

Family life was an aspect that both united and differentiated the Indians from the Europeans. Early on it was evident to the Europeans that family life was vastly essential to the Indians who valued their family more than anything. To the Indians, outsiders were just that: outsiders. As Kupperman stated, "whereas in England most children left home in early adolescence, Indian parents kept them at home until they were adults" (Kupperman a. 153). This notion was viewed as something novel to the English who saw their own family unit and respect as deteriorating (Kupperman b. 133). The Indians depended on one another for virtually everything. Indian parents cared for their children in such a way…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

DuVal, Kathleen. The Native Ground: Indians and Colonists in the Heart of the Continent. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania, 2006. Print.

Kupperman, Karen Ordahl. Indians and English: Facing off in Early America. Ithaca, NY: Cornell UP, 2000. Print.

Kupperman, Karen Ordahl. Major Problems in American Colonial History: Documents and Essays. Mason, OH: Cengage Learning, 2011. Print.

Kupperman, Karen Ordahl. The Atlantic in World History. New York: Oxford UP, 2012. Print.
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Indian Problem What Was the

Words: 599 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18528944



It is hard to conclude whether the solution to the "Indian problem" pursued by the U.S. government in the nineteenth century was successful or not because in this case the definition of "success" is problematic. The exterminationist camp would view killing all Indians as a "success," while for the other camp thoroughly Americanizing Indians was a sign of success. Both goals were problematic, the former calling for a physical genocide and the latter calling for a cultural genocide. The latter policy was adopted by the U.S. government but it was an assault on Native American identity, culture, and the way of life. It also involved violence, as children of American Indians were taken away and placed in the boarding schools by force. It is difficult to speak of a "success" within this context.

But if we accept the definition of "success" as understood by Americans at the time, the policy…… [Read More]

References

"Tragedy of the Plains Indians: Kill the Indian and Save the Man" (n.d.) Digital History. Retrieved on 15 Dec. 2011 from http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/database/article_display.cfm?HHID=557>
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Indian Dance an Analysis of the History

Words: 1630 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4611497

Indian Dance

An Analysis of the History and Origins of "Belly Dancing"

Indian Dance is described in the est as "belly dancing," but the name "belly dancing" does not do justice to the style of dance which the title conveys. Indian and Middle Eastern dance actually has more of a history to it than what the est views merely as a kind of erotic show. Described as "danse du ventre" by the French in the Victorian Age, the English translation has come to signify the Indian dance, which in Arabic is known as raqs sharqi or raqs baladi -- the former meaning "Dance of the Near East" and the latter meaning "Folk dance." Essentially, what esterners have identified as "belly dancing" is actually the traditional folk dance of the Middle East and India. This paper will discuss the origins and history of Indian Dance, or "belly dancing," and show how…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"Belly Dancing." Eijkhout.net. 2000. Web. 12 Oct 2011.

Deagan, Andrea. "In Search of the Origins of Dance." UNCW. Web. 12 Oct 2011.

Jusserand, J.J. English Wayfaring Life in the Middle Ages. Chatham, UK: W&J Mackay & Co. Ltd., 1950. Print.

Wright, Marisa. "Origins of Belly Dance." HubPages. 2009. Web. 12 Oct 2011.
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Culture and the Environment

Words: 716 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64946693

Culture

As ai (2012) points out, just a generation ago, women had far fewer options in India. Even when they attended college, their job prospects were low and they were more frequently diverted to family life and domestic servitude. Now, increasing numbers of Indian women are empowering themselves through the IT services industry. As much flack as outsourcing receives in the United States, the truth is that Indian women are largely the beneficiaries, while Americans are being increasingly challenged to discover creative ways of contributing to the economy. Social norms in India for women differ greatly from those in the United States, where it is much easier for a woman to start a business and avoid marriage and childbirth. In India, a woman is steered in the direction of motherhood at an earlier age and could be socially shunned if her path seems more career-focused than family focused. In many…… [Read More]

References

Lewis, M. (2013). Population bomb? So wrong. Retrieved online:  http://thebreakthrough.org/index.php/programs/conservation-and-development/population-bomb-so-wrong/ 

Mukherjee, S. (2013). South India lags behind national fertility rate, slows population boom. The Times of India. Retrieved online:  http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/South-India-lags-behind-national-fertility-rate-slows-population-boom/articleshow/19249154.cms 

Rai, S. (2012). How outsourcing is boosting prospects for Indian women. CNET. Retrieved online: http://news.cnet.com/8301-10797_3-57428450-235/how-outsourcing-is-boosting-prospects-for-indian-women/

Yasmin, S. (2013). Outsourcing to India: How call centers improve local economies. Elan. Retrieved online:  http://www.elanthemag.com/outsourcing-to-india-how-call-centers-improve-local-economies/
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Indian the Historian R David

Words: 737 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27975402



Of course, Tecumseh's quest to unite the tribes and overcome the American government was a quxotic one.

Ultimately, the polices of the Jackson administration, after Tecumseh's murder in 1813 resulted in the genocide of virtually all of Native American tribes in the area. The remaining native populace was relocated to the estern Territories. But for a reader who does not know much about this period, other than the fact that such a removal occurred, this text provides a powerful introduction to the personalities of the era. It makes what seems a lost culture come to life. Also, it gives individual characteristics to the different personalities of the Indian leaders, and makes it clear that the tribes were not merely a faceless conglomerate of oppressed persons, but warring factions with intertribal conflicts, for which unity was a difficult and considerable achivement.

In contrast, historians who focus on Andrew Jackson and the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Edmunds, David. Tecumseh and the Quest for Indian Leadership. New York: Longman,

Love, Christopher." Andrew Jackson and His Indian Wars."

Air Force Law Review. Spring 2002. [11 Oct 2006]

http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m6007/is_2002_Spring/ai_103223914/pg_4
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Indian Art Reflection Activity Ashoka Why Is

Words: 744 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81387323

Indian Art

Reflection activity: Ashoka

hy is the reign of the third Mauryan emperor, Ashoka, important to the study of early Indian and Buddhist art?

Ashoka was one of India's greatest emperors whose reign covered a vast region. He conquered Kallinga which had not been done by any of his predecessors. However, this conquest claimed massive numbers of casualties and was destructive. He later converted to Buddhism after some of his experiences in the war which introduced Buddhism and its art to a vast population in India.

Discussion activity: Stupas

To what extent do these examples share the core characteristics of all stupas, and in what ways do they differ from each other? Bodhnath, Nepal (example 1) and Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka (example 2)

The stupa generally has six parts that have symbolic meaning that the stupas share. The Bodhnath stupa appears to be more modern and contains cables that connect…… [Read More]

Works Cited

British Museum. (N.d.). Sandstone figure of the seated Buddha. Retrieved from British Museum: http://www.britishmuseum.org/explore/highlights/highlight_objects/asia/s/sandstone_figure_of_the_seated.aspx

Dhejia, V. (1990). On Modes of Visual narration in Early Buddhist Art. The Art Bulletin, 374-392.

Smart History. (N.d.). The Stupa. Retrieved from Smart History: http://smarthistory.khanacademy.org/the-stupa.html
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Indian Foreign Policy -- When

Words: 2346 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 121852

77).

India / Theoretical / Foreign Policy Shyness (Pant, 2009, p. 251). Pant's latest scholarship on India's foreign policies (2009, p. 253) is far more forceful and impactful than the narrative in his 2008 book. He chides India for not letting go of its Cold ar foreign policy strategy. "The Cold ar officially ended almost two decades ago,"

Pant writes (p. 253), and yet India continues to debate "the relevance of the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM)." That attitude among India's elite foreign policy experts "…is merely the clearest sign of the intellectual sloth that has infected the foreign policy discourse," Pant states. "Intellectual sloth?" Nowhere in Pant's 2008 book are there phrases so vigorous and persuasive. He stresses that it is "irresponsible and dangerous" for India to "cling to ideas that served a different strategic context" (p. 253).

Theoretical Approach / India Foreign Policy (Robert Gilpin / John J. Mearsheimer):

Professors…… [Read More]

Works Cited / Bibliography

Gilpin, Robert, 1983, War and Change in World Politics, Cambridge University Press: New York.

Mearsheimer, John J. 2003, the Tragedy of Great Power Politics, W.W. Norton & Company: New York.

Pant, Harsh V., 2008, Contemporary Debates in Indian Foreign and Security Policy: India Negotiates Its Rise in the International System. Palgrave / Macmillan: New York.

Pant, Harsh V. 2009, 'A Rising India's Search for a Foreign Policy', Orbis, vol. 53, no. 2, pp. 250-265.
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Indian Legal Environment Foreign Companies Introduction Today

Words: 1309 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36667269

Indian Legal Environment Foreign Companies Introduction Today, International Businesses buy sell, India. It essential a foreign company planning enter India, understand culture, traditions peoples' mindset.

Conflict in Employment elations

The issue of conflict in employment relations presents great importance to companies because of the effects it has on the activity of employees and on the performance of the company. There are several types of organizational conflicts. The most important types of conflict are represented by individual, collective, overt, covert, and others. Based on the paradigms that these situations refer to, conflicts can be industrial, like strikes, breaches, misbehavior, sabotage, and resistance. The numerous causes of organizational conflicts lead to different types of conflicts and strategies used in these cases.

Job egulation Paradigm

Conflicts in job regulation are important because they help reach a level of stability and balance in the system. This objective can be reached by identifying different interests…… [Read More]

Reference list:

1. Gardner, M. & Palmer, G. (1997). Employment Relations. Retrieved June 24, 2012 from http://books.google.ro/books?id=3ol8ZFDn5esC&printsec=frontcover&dq=employment+relations&hl=ro&sa=X&ei=v0nnT93DBo6SswaW0IzgAQ&ved=0CDkQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=employment%20relations&f=false.

2. Cappelli, P. (2008). Employment Relationships: New Models of White Collar Work. Cambridge University Press. Retrieved June 24, 2012 from http://books.google.ro/books?id=Kz8O9cEcFU8C&printsec=frontcover&dq=employment+relations&hl=ro&sa=X&ei=v0nnT93DBo6SswaW0IzgAQ&ved=0CFMQ6AEwBQ#v=onepage&q=employment%20relations&f=false.

3. Gennard, J. & Judge, G. (2005). Employee Relations. Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development. Retrieved June 24, 2012 from http://books.google.ro/books?id=FuUmIixUldwC&printsec=frontcover&dq=employment+relations&hl=ro&sa=X&ei=v0nnT93DBo6SswaW0IzgAQ&ved=0CFkQ6AEwBg#v=onepage&q=employment%20relations&f=false.

4. Pot, F. (2000). Employment Relations and National Culture. Edward Elgar Publishing Ltd. Retrieved June 24, 2012 from http://books.google.ro/books?id=-acyy7yNYgUC&printsec=frontcover&dq=employment+relations&hl=ro&sa=X&ei=107nT5_LIIPUtAbG1dyQAQ&ved=0CD8Q6AEwAjgU#v=onepage&q=employment%20relations&f=false.
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Culture and Religion

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22211111

Culture & Religion

Roman Catholic: The Roman Catholic religion believes in the Holy Trinity of a creator God the Father; Jesus Christ, His Son; and the Holy Spirit. Other beliefs that characterize the religion are the original sin; the forgiveness of sin; the second coming of the Lord; and life after death (CIM, 49). Given its belief in sin, the religion offers the hope of salvation through its sacraments and baptism. Infant baptism is encouraged to erase the original sin and as a start to a spiritual life through the Church. In addition, the Roman Catholic Church holds that the mass is a continuation of the sacrifice made by Christ and thus teaches the doctrine of transubstantiation or that the bread and wine at communion actually become the body and blood of Christ (Biblical Discernment Ministries, 1997). Generally, the religion has no dietary restrictions. However, it advocates abstaining from meat…… [Read More]

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Culture Realms of Southeast Asia

Words: 3053 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22250029



The population in Indonesia is 202,110,000, with people speaking the Javenese language. The religion of Indonesia is unni Muslim, and the majority of people there live to be 63 years old, with 1 out of 100 people owning cars. Indonesia is a mixed economy with many socialist institutions and central planning but with a recent emphasis on deregulation and private enterprise. Indonesia has extensive natural wealth, yet, with a large and rapidly increasing population, it remains a poor country. In Indonesia, underemployment is widespread, a result of about 2.3 million workers annually entering the labor force. Once the world's largest rice importer, Indonesia is now nearly self-sufficient.

The oil sector dominates the external economy, generating more than 20% of the government's revenues and 40% of export earnings, however, the economy's growth is highly dependent on the continuing expansion of non-oil exports. The Indonesian form of currency is called the rupiah,…… [Read More]

Scholastic Inc. Atlas of the World. (United Kingdom: Miles Kelly Publishing Ltd., 2001), 157.

Scholastic Inc. Atlas of the World. (United Kingdom: Miles Kelly Publishing Ltd., 2001), 156.

Sunsite.nus, "South-East Asia Information"; Available at http://sunsite.nus.edu. Accessed 21 Sept. 2007.
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Indian Art for Centuries Philosophers

Words: 1254 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96511754



Looking at one of Kulkarni's pieces, a Peasant in the City, oil on canvas done sometime in the 1960s, we see a trend in modern Indian art in which the protagonist is featured as a part of an abstract background. Literally, the piece is a snapshot of a man and a beast, at night in a large urban area. The man is downcast, downtrodden, with no discernible ethnicity or age. He is a mixture of gray, and his elongated facial features suggest that he is, or has been, weeping. The single animal by his side could be a dog, a cow, or a representation of simply an "animal." The animal's front leg is extended, ostensibly onto the fence in which the man is leaning. The houses are abstract, made up of geometric lines and some color, designed it seems to indicate that they are lit. The moon is full, but…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Datta, S. (2006). K.S. Kulkarni: Life of Form in Art. Kumargallery. Retrieved from:  http://www.kumargallery.com/forthcomingexhibitions/kskulkarni/kskulkarnireview.htm 

Krishna Shamrao Kulkarni -- Profile. (2012). Saffronart. Retrieved from: http://www.saffronart.com/artist/artistprofile.aspx?artistid=260&a=Krishna%20Shamrao%20Kulkarni
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Culture and Diversity Issues in

Words: 2845 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13936527

Silence too is an important part of communication in Singapore. It is customary to pause before answering a question, to indicate that the person has given the question the appropriate thought and consideration that is needed. Westerners habit of responding quickly to a question, to Singaporeans, often indicates thoughtlessness and rude behavior. Their demeanor is typically calm, and Westerners more aggressive style is often seen as off putting ("Singapore: Language," 2009). Authority is to be respected for both employees of an organization, in Singapore, and when dealing with other organizations (Tse, 2008), and communication content and tone should represent this respect. Business etiquette is also different in Singapore than in many Western countries.

Cultural Business Etiquette in Singapore:

Business is more formal in Singapore than non-Asian organizations are often used to. There are strict rules of protocol, with a clear chain of command, which is expected to be kept on…… [Read More]

References

Choy, W. 1 Jul 2007, "Globalisation and workforce diversity: HRM implications for multinational corporations in Singapore," Singapore Management Review, http://www.allbusiness.com/public-administration/national-security-international/4509815-1.html.

Edewor, P. & Aluko, P. May 2007, "Diversity management, challenges and opportunities in multicultural organizations," International Journal of Diversity in Organisation, Communities & Nations vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 189-195.

Hofstede, G. Feb 1993, "Cultural constraints in management theories," Executive, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 81-94.

Ismail, R. & Shaw, B. Feb 2006, "Singapore's Malay-Muslim minority: Social identification in a post 9/11 world," Asian Ethnicity vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 37-51.
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Sikhism The Effect on Indian

Words: 1579 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3056123

This is due to the fact that death is not the actual end of a person's life, because they will come back in another life cycle. There are not many Indian graves with tombstones because the body is considered to be only the shell of a person's existence, and their soul is the real essence (Infoaboutsikhs.com, 2006). The ideas surrounding death are also reflected in the prayers before eating that Indians pray, as they ask for forgiveness by God prior to eating. This is because the animal or plant they are about to eat may have previously been a person in their past life, or will be a person in their next life.

The effects of Sikhism on Indian culture and society are profound, as the majority of this population strives to live their entire life under the rules laid out by Sikhism. Those that do not are frowned upon,…… [Read More]

Bibliography

BBC Team. (2006). Sikh Beliefs. Retrieved November 26, 2006 at http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/sikhism/belief/belieifs_print.html.

Bhungalia, S. Kelly, T., Van De Keift, S. & Young, M. (2006). Indians, Retrieved November 27, 2006 at http://www3.baylor.edu/Charles_Kemp/Indian_health.htm.

Duggal, K. (1988). Philosophy and Faith of Sikhism. Himalayan Institute Press.

Inforaboutsikhs.com. (2006). Sikhs: The Most Visible yet Most Misunderstood
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Agonquin Indian Tribes of Michigan

Words: 7164 Length: 23 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10710962

Finally it also represented an important means of conducting the foreign policy from the point-of-view of the French occupation. In this sense, "the North America fur trade of the 17th and 18th centuries had usually been viewed, until recently, as merely another commercial enterprise governed by the premise "buy cheap, sell dear" in order to rip the maximum of profit. Of late the Canadian end of the trade has come to be regarded as having been more a means to a noncommercial end than a pursuit conducted solely for economic gain. As European penetration and dominance of the continent progressed, the trade, which had begun as an adjunct of the Atlantic shore fishery, became a commercial pursuit in its own right. After 1600 (...) it became a means to finance and further the tragic drive to convert the Indian nations to Christianity."

Aside from the Algonquin tribes, the Huron tribes…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Eccles, W.J. "The fur trade and eighteenth- century imperialism." William and Mary Quarterly.

3rd Ser., Vol. 40, No. 3. pp. 341-362.

Jenkins, P. A history of the United States. New York: Palgrave, 1997.

Michigan Pioneer and Historical Collections vol. XXXIV.
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Native American Expressive Culture the

Words: 4153 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77872456

Black Elk utilizes his visions to create understanding of nearly all things he is later exposed to. The discussion in closing will further illuminate his utilization of vision, to ask for help for his people in a time of crisis.

To discuss the vertical model of artistic communication it is difficult to narrow the filed to just one example, as Native American literature, and to a lesser degree film have become somewhat prolific as genres. Two authors who build upon this tradition are Scott Momaday and Alexie Sherman as they are significant and prolific writers of Indian tradition. Each has written and published several works, including a variety of genres, that all attempt to translate the oral traditions of their nations into a written form that contains the expression of the oral tradition.

In Alexie Sherman's collection of short stories, the Lone Ranger and Tonto Fistfight in Heaven he offers…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Allison, Sherry R., and Christine Begay Vining. "Native American Culture and Language." Bilingual Review (1999): 193.

Bluestein, Gene. Poplore: Folk and Pop in American Culture. Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts Press, 1994.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=104248317

Churchill, Ward. Acts of Rebellion: The Ward Churchill Reader. New York: Routledge, 2003.
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Heritage Assessment Indian Chinese and American Cultures

Words: 1045 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29423217

Heitage Assessment: Indian, Chinese and Ameican Cultues

In using the heitage assessment tool, thee (3) cultues wee consideed and compaed: Indian (autho's cultue), Chinese and Ameican.

Indian

The autho's cultue is highly influenced by ual Indian cultue, as s/he was aised in India until s/he was 25 yeas old. Because of this late influence of Ameican cultue, my Indian cultue has emained stonge within me. This is eflected in the autho's lifestyle, which stictly adheed to taditions and values held impotant by the Indians. Raised a Catholic, the autho is actively involved in the Chuch and paticipates in activities like Bible eading and celebating eligious holidays. The autho's stong Catholic Indian identity is also eflected in he social cicle, which pimaily consisted of Indians shaing the same cultual identity as he and pacticing Catholics.

Howeve, when talking about health maintenance, the autho mixes the influence of Indian cultue with the…… [Read More]

references to documents in history." ICCROM Working Group 'Heritage and Society.' Available at:  http://cif.icomos.org/pdf_docs/Documents%20on%20line/Heritage%20definitions.pdf
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Will the Mesquaki Culture Survive

Words: 827 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20348343

There is a sense of common tribal identity but every succeeding generation has seen this identity grown more fragmented. Even the purists and the traditionalists who try to define an essential core of the Mesquaki identity are themselves a kind of a splinter faction, rather than representatives of the core of the tribe.

The unity of the tribe now comes through the common economic support provided by the gambling on the reservation rather than from a common sense of culture and identity that links generations. The Mesquaki will likely survive in the future in the sense that the tribe will profit off of the casino and many tribal members will still remain on the reservation to live. But the culture will inevitably fragment and change, pulled in different directions from a number of competing forces. The first force is that of the outside white society which for many young Indians…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Foley, Douglas. The Heartland Chronicles. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press,
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American Popular Culture Impact Overseas

Words: 4214 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94179363

The cultural practices are evolved and based on the financial, social and moral understanding and capabilities of the local population, and it has been observed that Americans, Asians and Africans share extremely different perspectives and understanding on these issues, therefore the cultural adoption has been intense in countries where the technological revolution has been of the same intensity as in North America (Zelli, 1993). In some of the cases, the Americans companies has attempted to nullify the concerns and shortcomings of the American culture, by incorporating the cultural values of the local region, and has therefore evolve a different taste for the customers to avail, this has further delighted and fascinated the local population of different regions towards the American culture, for example the American culture has major differences with the Islamic culture adopted in Arab countries, therefore to compensate for such difference the American companies introduced the concept of…… [Read More]

References

David W. Noble. Death of a Nation: American Culture and the End of Exceptional-ism. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. 2002

Tafarodi R., Swann W. Individualism-collectivism and global self-esteem: Evidence for a cultural trade-off. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology. 1996

Trubisky P, Ting Toomey S, Lin S. The influence of individualism collectivism and self-monitoring on conflict styles. International Journal of Intercultural Relations. 1991

Huesmann, Zelli, Fraczek, Upmeyer. Normative attitudes about aggression in American, German and Polish college students. Presented at Third European Congress of Psychology. Tampere, Finland. 1993
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Globalizing Cultures Globalization Is One

Words: 2453 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45777362



The sexually explicit imagery that they witnessed on TV led young Indians to express more need in sexuality. Eventually, whole regions in India had been reported of suffering as a result of young people watching TV and becoming sexually active at a much smaller age. The Kerala province in India is only one of the several areas that have had their people falling victims to the western culture depicted on satellite TV. (Lukose, Ritty 2005)

A characteristic that people fail from seeing when examining globalization is that it allows concepts to become known worldwide. Perhaps certain issues relating to globalization are actually good, and, perhaps people accept globalization because it presents new and helpful theories.

In spite of the fact that Indians generally communicate to the rest of the world through English, they communicate to their neighboring countries through Hindi. People in Bangladesh, Pakistan, and Nepal all need to know…… [Read More]

Works cited:

1. Fursich Elfriede, Shrikhande Seema. "Development Broadcasting in India and Beyond: Redefining an Old Mandate in an Age of Media Globalization." Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, Vol. 51, 2007.

2. Ganguly-Scrase, Ruchira. "Paradoxes of Globalization, Liberalization, and Gender Equality: The Worldviews of the Lower Middle Class in West Bengal, India." Gender and Society, Vol. 17, No. 4 (Aug., 2003).

3. Hopper, Paul. (2007). "Understanding cultural globalization." Polity.

4. Lukose, Ritty. "Consuming Globalization: Youth and Gender in Kerala, India." Journal of Social History, Vol. 38, 2005.
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Classical Greek Indian Civilizations Egyptian Civilization

Words: 2201 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63746864

art from three different cultures. Specifically it will discuss pieces from the Classical Greek, Indian Civilizations, and Egyptian Civilizations, including the meaning of the work and an art analysis of the work. Each of these different cultures produced very different works of art that were meant to entertain, enlighten, and be viewed for enjoyment. They used different techniques, but there were commonalities, as well. They represent some of the best and most beautiful artwork the world has ever seen.

The Classic Greek work of art I have chosen is the marble sculpture the Venus of Arles, which now resides in the Musee du Louvre in Paris. It is made of Hymettus marble and is thought to be as old as the third century BC. It is thought that the Venus was created by the sculptor Praxiteles, in an attempt to recapture his sculpting career. It is often called the Aphrodite…… [Read More]

References

Bens, K. (2009). Aphrodite of Arles. Retrieved 16 Oct. 2009 from the Museum of Antiques Web site: http://www.usask.ca/antiquities/collection/classicalgreek/aphroditearles.html.

Editors. (2009). Kishangarh miniatures - In quest of divine love. Retrieved 16 Oct. 2009 from the India Profile Web site:  http://www.indiaprofile.com/art-crafts/kishangarhminiatures.htm .

Nalubwama, E. (2009). Ancient Egyptian papyrus. Retrieved 16 Oct. 2009 from the University of Minnesota Web site: http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/prehistory/egypt/dailylife/papyrus.html.

Sikander, N. (2009). Bani Thani paintings. Retrieved 16 Oct. 2009 from the Ethnic Paintings Web site:  http://www.ethnicpaintings.com/indian_painting_styles/miniature/rajput/bani_thani/ .
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Mughal Empire and the Indian Identity in

Words: 1419 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59401074

Mughal Empire and the Indian Identity

In a certain regard, the Mughal Empire was inherently foreign when it assumed the seat of power that would see India through several hundred years. Descendent from the same Mongolian seat of power which produced Genghis Kan and the Tartars, heavily influenced in its culture by the Persians and initiated by a royal descendent ruling in Afghanistan, the Mughal Empire is something of a hybrid. It is thus that its claims to 'Indian' heritage are called into question. However, a consideration of Indian culture today and in a retrospective regard suggests that our current understanding of the Indian identity is necessarily shaped at least in part by the Mughal influence. Therefore, as to the discussion of the Mughal Empire's claim to Indian identity, it is appropriate to suggest that it would be a prime determinant of the Indian identity as we know it today.…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Abrams, H.N. & Welch, S.C. (1963). The Art of Mughal India. New York City: The Asia Society, Inc.

Bowle, J. (1962). Man Through the Ages. Boston: Little, Brown and Company.

Lane-Poole, S. (1970). Mediaeval India Under Mohammedan Rule (A.D. 712-1764). Haskell House Publishers, Ltd.

Malik, H. (1963). Moslem Nationalism in India and Pakistan. Public Affairs Press.
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Fiji Culture Fiji Is a Multiethnic Society

Words: 648 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6605619

Fiji Culture

Fiji is a multiethnic society, and unfortunately the ethnic mix has lead to conflict and political instability since the country won its independence from Great Britain. Open ethnic competition in Fiji has led to the two main sides viewing the nation and its resources effectively as a zero sum game. As a result, when Indian-majority governments have been formed, the native Fijian response has been military coup. This has had a predictably negative impact on investment in the country (Pramdas, 1995).

Fiji's majority population consists of the native Melanesian group, the Fijians, and these have some Polynesian blood as well. This group has inhabited the islands for centuries. Ethnic Fijians account for 57.3% of the country's population. The second main group is the Indians, who were brought as indentured labourers during the British era. They comprise 37.6% of the population. Most of the Indian minority are Hindu, but…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Everyculture.com. (2011). Fiji. Everyculture.com. Retrieved April 25, 2011 from  http://www.everyculture.com/Cr-Ga/Fiji.html 

Geert Hofstede's Cultural Dimensions. (2009). India. Retrieved April 25, 2011 from http://www.geert-hofstede.com/hofstede_india.shtml

IndexMundi. (2010). Fiji demographics profile 2011. Index Mundi. Retrieved April 25, 2011 from  http://www.indexmundi.com/fiji/demographics_profile.html 

Pramdas, R. (1995). Ethnic conflict and development: The case of Fiji. Research in Ethnic Relations, Ashgate Publishing. Abstract from http://ashgate.com/pdf/tis/9781856289795_ROW.pdf
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Mayan History and Culture the

Words: 2723 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60029674



The Mayas sense of beauty was very different from other peoples in Mesoamerica (Hooker pp). They prized a long, backward sloping forehead, which was attained by bounding the skulls of infants with boards (Hooker pp). Moreover, crossed-eyes were also important, and this was achieved by dangling objects in front of the infants' eyes in order to permanently cross the eyes, a practice that is still used today (Hooker pp).

The Maya number system was a base 20 system (Mayan pp). Most likely the reason for base 20 came from ancient people who counted on both their fingers and their toes (Mayan pp). And although it was a base 20 system, called a vigesimal system, the number five also played a major role, probably again relating to five fingers and toes (Mayan pp). They used a system of bar and dot as a sort of "shorthand" for counting written from bottom…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Mayan1 Arts Today. http://www.yucatantoday.com/culture/eng-mayan-arts-today.htm

Maya3. http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/cultural/mesoamerica/maya.html

Our Living Maya Culture.  http://www.quetzalnet.com/MayaCulture.html 

Maya2 Astronomy.  http://www.michielb.nl/maya/astronom.html
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Influence of National Culture and Gender in Leadership Style

Words: 3441 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10625377

globalization that diversified cultures and backgrounds have converged and are working together in collaboration. Considering the scenario of today's world, the rapidly changing demographics have played a critical role in the emergence of new styles of leadership. The definition of competitiveness and the qualities associated with a leader have also changed in the current times. And among all the qualities the two most prominent qualities that every leader must possess is related to the consideration of equity of gender, and equity of diversified cultures.

Different cultures suggest different roles for males and females based on their unique value system. The mindsets, couture, and eating habits of almost all the cultures are traditionally unique. Countries belonging to a particular geographical area behave in a certain way, so do the organizations and leaders belonging to those areas. Their attitude and approach is derived from their cultural values. Some countries have common cultures…… [Read More]

References

Fiedler, F. (1972). Predicting the effects of leadership training and experience from the contingency model., Journal of Applied Psychology, retrieved April 27, 2011 from http://psycnet.apa.org/journals/apl/56/2/114/

Fiedler, F. (1972). The effects of leadership training and experience: A contingency model interpretation, Administrative Science Quarterly, retrieved April 27, 2011 from  http://www.jstor.org/stable/2393826 

Fiedler, F. (2005). CONTINGENCY THEORY OF LEADERSHIP, Essential theories of motivation and leadership, retrieved April 25, 2011 from http://books.google.com.pk/books?hl=en&lr=&id=8yo2Fp6UAEMC&oi=fnd&pg=PA232&dq=fiedler%27s+leadership&ots=2YX-FkEKy0&sig=WEtmbDIw5HZywNFFIi5Z1zYYkTw

Harris, P. & Moran, R. (1996). Managing cultural differences, retrieved April 27, 2011 from http://www.angelfire.com/nj4/ambass148/Harris_ch7.doc
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How Culture Is Transmitted From Generation to Generation

Words: 1368 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63920356

Generation Transmission of Culture

There are a number of ways that a culture may be transmitted to the next generation such as influences from family and parents, religion, and community. This works intends to explore the generation transmission of cultural elements through the methodology of informational research.

One of my earliest memories is the sound of the drums coming down Main Street while the smells of popcorn and coffee drifted through the summer air. That was the 4th of July many years ago as I sat atop my father's shoulders watching the Independence Day parade. Forever, red, white and blue will be associated with drums, popcorn and festivity. This is one example of cultural transmission.

Family & Parents

Cultural Transmission Starts at an Early Age:

In view of the fact that many Americans through generation after generation will ever relate lemonade to summer and hot chocolate naturally is only consumed…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Understanding Racism" {nd} Racism No Way Web site [Online] available at http://www.racismnoway.com.au/library/understanding/index-The.html

Multiculturalism {nd} Webster's Online Dictionary [Online] available at: http://www.m-w.com/cgi-bin/dictionary?book=Dictionary&va=multiculturalism

Human Society: Ecological Evolutionary Theory [Online] available at http://falcon.tamucc.edu/~iaraiza/EETbasicassumptions.html

Ah Ket, William {nd} "Reconciling Occident and Orient in Australia during the early years of Federation" [Online] available at http://www.chaf.lib.latrobe.edu.au/abstracts.shtml
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Effects of Globalization on the Irish Culture

Words: 2076 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11311348

Globalization and Its Effect on Irish Culture and Identity

Define the term globalization and explain why it is a controversial term.

Societies in the present world are interconnected and gain awareness regarding the events and situations happening on different parts of the world. Global awareness has become important and is also defined as the speeding, deepening and widening up of the inter-connections in context of life, culture, spirituality and even economically (Marconis, and Plummer, 2002). Globalization is also defined as the increasing connections between different societies in a way that they all have an effect of the event that is happening far from them (Marconis, and Plummer, 2002). Some of the main features of globalization are that economic transactions take place across borders, communication is increased, awareness regarding different cultures is increased, international governance is created, common problems and their solutions are shared etc. Although globalization is commonly seen in…… [Read More]

References

Giddens, A., & Sutton, P.W. (2013). Sociology (7th ed.). Wiley.pp.127-148. Chapter 1.

Inglis, T. (2008). Global Ireland?: same difference. New York, London: Routledge.

Macionis, J.J., & Plummer, K. (2008). Sociology: A Global Introduction. Pearson Prentice Hall.pp.661-662, pp. 33-36.

Ritzer, G. (2012). Introduction to Sociology. London, SAGE Publications. pp 136-141.
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Beckham Dress and Culture --

Words: 758 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38875756

True British culture valorizes and celebrates football, unlike Sikh culture but both cultures are hostile to female participation in sports, and female physical prowess. Even British culture suggests that a girl cannot hope to be a soccer star like a boy, jut as according to Jess' Indian culture; a girl should not play soccer at all without losing her femininity.

Playing sports is seen as sexual in Jess' mother's eyes. The woman states that the game consists of "displaying your bare legs to complete strangers." Of course, British culture approves of such leg displays, but only for the approval of male desire, not for female empowerment through the medium of sports. British culture tends to see female sporting excellence not as dangerously sexual and immoral, like Sikh culture, but potentially rendering the female body more like the male body. For instance, Julliette, the girl who first motivates Jess to make…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bend it Like Beckham." Written and Directed by Gurinder Chadra. 2002.
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Marketing Hindi Films in the UK With Respect to the Indian Population There

Words: 7817 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19874446

viewer ship of Hindi Films with respect to the Non-Asian population in the UK

The Hindi film industry or the 'Bollywood' as it has been referred to have made a significant mark not only in the Indian society, but has had far reaching influence among Indians residing abroad. We shall concentrate on the Hindi films in the UK with respect to the resident Indian population. The United Kingdom alone accounts for about a sizeable Indian population. It is only natural that Bollywood movies find a thriving and a huge revenue generating market in there. Hindi films have made a long standing presence in the British cinema houses for close to about thirty years now. This in itself is a notable achievement. It not only indicates the huge 'desi' presence in the United Kingdom, but also highlights the huge market and enthusiasm for films 'manufactured in bollywood.'

In addition to the…… [Read More]

References

Bollywood Ending' Retrieved at http://www.bfi.org.uk/sightandsound/2003_06/bollywood_ending.php. Accessed on March 18, 2004

The Indian Media and Entertainment Industry: UK Film Council' Retrieved at http://www.ukfilmcouncil.org.uk/filmindustry/india/. Accessed on March 18, 2004

Bollywood: Wikipedia - The Free Encyclopedia' Retrieved at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BollywoodAccessed on March 18, 2004

Bollywood beyond Indian shores' Retrieved at  http://www.indiantelevision.com/headlines/y2k4/mar/mar136.htm . Accessed on March 18, 2004
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California History- Indians the History

Words: 2417 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59420784

With all the resources of normal use for Indians in missionary control, Indians began to attack the missions and military forces to steal animal and take revenge of sexual assaults on Indian women. Continuous demand of laborers for the missions impacted the Indian tribes greatly and finally in 1836, the Mexican Republic who officially took over from Spain in 1823, took away the missions powers of obtaining forced labor from Indian and the missions collapsed.

One third of the California Indian population, over 100,000 Indians perished to deaths attributable to missions of California. The 1824 constitution of Mexican Republic promised Indians voting rights as citizens but they continued to be treated as slaves.

The discovery of Gold in California in 1848 subjected the Indians to the most horrible period of their history. California was seized by U.S. military from Mexico in 1846 and sufferings of the Indians multiplied by the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

California Indians Past and Present, [Online] retrieved from Internet on 21st April 2008, http://www.allianceofcatribes.org/californiaindians.htm

Census 2000, [Online] retrieved from Internet on 21st April 2008, http://www.nahc.ca.gov/California'sNativeAmerican, Eskimo and Alute populations.htm

Five Views: An Ethnic Site Survey for California, Nov. 2004, [Online] retrieved from Internet on 21st April 2008, http://www.cr.nps.gov/history/online_books/5views/5views1.htm

Heizer, R.F. The Destruction of California Indians: A Collection of Documents from the Period 1847 to 1865 in Which Are Described Some of the Things That Happened to Some of the Indians of California, University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, NE, 1993.
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Yanomamo Indian Tribe

Words: 2995 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63348102

Yanomamo

The Yanomami are an indigenous tribe also called Yanomamo, Yanomam, and Sanuma who live in the tropical rain forest of Southern Venezuela and Northern razil. The society is composed of four subdivisions of Indians. (Yanomami Indians) Each subdivision has its own language. "They include the Sanema which live in the Northern Sector, the Ninam which live in the southeastern sector, the Yanomam which live in the southeastern part and the Yanomamo which live in the southwestern part of Yanomami area."

(ibid)

The Yanomamo are one of the largest unacculturated aboriginal groups left in South America, with a total population of around 12,000. Their subsistence is based on hunting and slash-and-burn agriculture. The predominant crops are plantains and bananas. Their diet includes yams, sweet potatoes and the fruit of the peach palm. (eierle, J.M.)

The social construction of the culture is composed of small groups numbering approximately 75 people in…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Barnes, M.H. (2000). Stages of Thought: The Co-Evolution of Religious Thought and Science. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Beierle, J.M. Society-YANOAMA. Retrieved February 22, 2005 from CSAC's Ethnographics Gallery. Web site: http://lucy.ukc.ac.uk/EthnoAtlas/Hmar/Cult_dir/Culture.7884

Boehm, C. (1999). Hierarchy in the Forest: The Evolution of Egalitarian Behavior. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Buss, D.M. (1994). The Evolution of Desire: Strategies of Human Mating. New York: Basic Books.
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Diabetes in the Asian Indian Population of Plainsboro New Jersey

Words: 3247 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82674485

Windshield Survey of Diabetes in the Asian-Indian Community in Plainsboro, New Jersey: Planning, Implementation, and Evaluation

As the home to the second-largest population of Asian-Indians in the United States today (the first is another nearby small community, Edison, New Jersey) (Sahney, 2010). Out of a population of around 23,500, 16.97% of the residents of Plainsboro (or about 4,000) describe themselves as having Indian ancestry (Sahney, 2010). Although Plainsboro enjoys a high standard of living, a desirable community environment and state-of-the-art medical facilities, it is reasonable to suggest that some of the Asian-Indian population in this community remain marginalized due to an inability to afford these state-of-the-art health care services and the potential for cross-cultural differences in views about health care may further exacerbate this lack of access.

A growing body of evidence also indicates that Asian-Indians are among the highest-risk populations for developing diabetes, making this community an especially important…… [Read More]

References

About Plainsboro. (2015). Township of Plainsboro. Retrieved from http://www.plains boronj.com/content/about-plainsboro.

Anderson, E. N. (2014). Everyone eats: Understanding food and culture. New York: New York University Press.

Brooks, J. (2004, July 26). NLC membership offers many benefits to cities, towns. Nation's Cities Weekly, 27(30), 8.

Chandras, K. V. & Eddy, J. P. (1999, Winter). Counseling Asian-Americans: Implications for training. Education, 120(2), 239.
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History of the Native American Indians Is

Words: 4219 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67047316

history of the native American Indians is a long and colorful one. The first Indians arrived on the North American continent subsequent to the end of the Ice Age approximately 15,000 years ago. These early Indians arrived from Siberia as they passed through Alaska and gradually settled throughout what is now the United States. These early arriving Indians were hunter-gatherers and, as a result, they traveled freely across the vast North American continent and by 8,000 years ago had spread as far east as the eastern seaboard.

As indicated, the early Indians were hunter-gatherers and many of the tribes remained such until the early 1900's but a select few tribes began farming. The Indian tribes electing such life style were centered in present day Mexico City and by the time that this area began to be explored and settled by Europeans the farming life-style of these Indian tribes had been…… [Read More]

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Indian Gaming in the United

Words: 616 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16559246

Probably the biggest cons about Indian gaming are the social aspects of casinos that can create many more social problems within the tribe and the surrounding community. First, casinos often offer free alcohol to gamblers, and this can lead to alcohol addiction and dependence. Gaming itself can become an addictive behavior, as well. These addictive behaviors require treatment, so treatment facilities and methods may have to be developed in the community, and the casinos can also draw corruption and crime to the area. The social problems surrounding casinos are many, and if they come to an area that is not used to them, they can wreak havoc in a community.

The future of Indian gaming seems almost limitless, because there are so many tribes who can still participate, and because the forward thinking tribes are investing in so many other endeavors, such as Internet service providers, cattle ranches, and just…… [Read More]

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Indians'old World Native Americans and the Coming

Words: 631 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34070628

Indians'Old World: Native Americans and the Coming of Europeans, (Salisbury, 1996) details how many of the characterizations that have been presented about the Native American cultures in the United States have been incorrect. The author explains that historians have treated the coming of the Europeans to North America as the beginning of history about the people in North America, whereas, in realty, the arrival of Christopher Columbus in 1492 and the onslaught of other Europeans who followed was merely a blip in the history of North America. Native Americans and their complex cultures and nations had occupied the North American continent for centuries preceding Columbus' arrival and historians have done these cultures a major disservice by minimizing their existence.

The article also suggests that the fact that historians have either minimized or ignored the contributions of the Native Americans brings into question the accuracy and validity of these historians' assessment…… [Read More]

References

Salisbury, N. (1996). The Indians' Old World: Native Americans and the Coming of Europeans. William and Mary Quarterly, 435-458.

Native Americans
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Culture and Morality In Other

Words: 5560 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92689784

Such differences may lead us to question whether there are any universal moral principles or whether morality is merely a matter of "cultural taste" (Velasquez, Andre, Shanks and Meyer: 1).

If there is no transcendent ethical or moral standard, then cultural relativists argue that culture becomes the ethical norm for determining whether an action is right or wrong. This ethical system is known as cultural relativism. Cultural relativism is the view that all ethical truth is relative to a specific culture. hatever a cultural group approves is considered right within that culture. Conversely, whatever a cultural group condemns is wrong (Relativism: 2).

The key to the doctrine of "cultural relativism" is that right and wrong can only be judged relative to a specified society. There is no ultimate standard of right and wrong by which to judge culture. Proponents of cultural relativism believe this cultural diversity proves that culture alone…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Anderson, Kerby. "Cultural Relativism." (2004):1-5.

Accessed 1 April 2012.

www.probe.org

"Argument by Morality: Axiological Argument." 2002. Accessed 7 April 2012.
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Culture Dance Globalization Is Showing

Words: 657 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16811931



ith time, Tango dancing had been recognized officially world wide, and people have even turned it into an art. Tango dancing is presumed to be one of the easiest dances in the world, but it would take a professional to really Tango.

The Indians are known for their extreme spirituality and the Indian traditional dance is full of it. Indians have taken the art of dancing to a whole new level by having associated it with meditation with the intention of sending a message through the dance to the spectators. The early Indian dancers had a strong bond with the church. Later on, the dancers would be seen dancing in order to bring to life the stories told by singers.

According to David Courtney, "Today the acknowledged classical styles are:

Bharatnatyam of Tamil Nadu,

Kathakali of Kerala,

Kuchipudi of Andhra Pradesh,

Manipuri of Northeast India,

Orissi from Orissa, and Kathak…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Courtney, David. "NRITYA - INDIAN CLASSICAL DANCE." Chandrakantha. 2008. 24 November, 2008.  http://chandrakantha.com/articles/indian_music//nritya.html 

Heikkila, Lori. "Tango History." Central Home. 24 November, 2008.  http://www.centralhome.com/ballroomcountry/tango.htm 

Leonidou, Anne. "Portrait of the Greek Dance." Nostos Hellenic Cyber Centre. 24 November, 2008. http://www.nostos.com/dance/

Stith, Kevin. "Hip Hop Dancing." Ezine Articles. 24 November, 2008. http://ezinearticles.com/?Hip-Hop-Dancing&id=407540
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Indian-Israeli Relations Valuable to India's

Words: 9235 Length: 26 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99898853

' Indians across the political spectrum, especially the country's powerful nuclear weapons establishment, are critical of the NPT, arguing that it unfairly warps international hierarchies to the disadvantage of the non-nuclear-weapon states" (1998:15). In its efforts to balance the pressures from the international community with its own self-interests in formulating foreign policies, the position adopted by India has been starkly different than other countries. In this regard, Karp concludes that, "Most states party to the NPT accept the unfairness of the treaty as a tradeoff that serves their own and global interests. India's leaders insist that fair and genuine nuclear disarmament must start with the nuclear-weapon states themselves, a demand formalized by former Prime Minister ajiv Gandhi in his 1990 global nuclear disarmament initiative" (Karp 1998:14).

As a result of these events, the 20th century witnessed the formation of various positions in Indian foreign policy that would endure throughout the…… [Read More]

References

Berlin, D.L. 2006 "India in the Indian Ocean." Naval War College Review 59(2): 58-59.

Chollett, D. & Lindberg, T. 2007 "A Moral Core for U.S. Foreign Policy." Policy Review 146: 3-

4.

Davis, C.B. & Rill, L.A. 2008 "Testing the Second Level of Agenda Setting: Effects of News
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Indian-American Technology Stasis It Is

Words: 1450 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53132194

he introduction of various kinds of technology for the railroad, cattle ranching and mining of gold and silver, and ecological disturbance resulting from agrarianism were among the major factors in the near-extinction of the buffalo. Permanent railroad tracks, the depletion of trees for railroad ties and bridges and the decrease in wild animal population marked the lasting foreign presence in the Native West. Recent estimates revealed that there were 15-60 million buffaloes before the Europeans settled in 1500s. he animal population was severely depleted by the construction of the transcontinental railroad to the Western homeland of Plain Indian tribes. he buffalo was said to have reach near-extinction by the end of the 1870s when it numbered less than 1,000. Rapid American expansion in less than 50 years was behind it and other dismal results to the Continent (Fixico).

IV. Cost: But more and more evidence has been coming up, which…… [Read More]

The Aztecs had a well-structured and highly codified government, led by a very powerful emperor (Birklid 2010). He strictly required taxes from those he conquered. Then distributed land to his people, especially the warriors. The Aztecs became the largest empire in Mexico by 1473 through conquest of neighboring tribes. The capital, Tehnochtitlan, was described as a beautiful city, consisting of pyramids, long floating roads, aqueducts, brisk marketplaces and about a hundred thousand residents (Birklid).

The Aztecs used a 365-day calendar, similar to the one used by the Mayans (Birklid 2010). They used symbols to write and create sentences. Their most important god was white-faced Quetzacuatl, the god of intelligence and creation (Birklid).

They engaged in regional politics and entered into alliances with neighboring tribes, who were also expanding (Birklid 2010). These allies were the Tepanecs of Azcapotzalco, northwest of Tenochtitlan. They had skilled warriors and skilled diplomats. In 1428, they
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Culture on Learning Styles Multiculturalism

Words: 5049 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 583446

Following are Hofstede's four categories and what they measure:

Power Distance (PD) is the "extent to which the less powerful members of institutions and organizations within a country expect and accept that power is distributed unequally" (Hofstede 1998) with a small PD meaning more equality in the society, and a large PD meaning less.

Individualism (ID) defines whether the society expects people to look after themselves or not. Its opposite is Collectivism, which Hofstede (1998) defines as "the extent to which people in a society from birth onwards are integrated into strong, cohesive in-groups, which throughout people's lifetime continue to protect them in exchange for unquestioning loyalty."

Masculinity (MA) defines the degree of distinction of gender roles. High MA means men are supposed to be "assertive, tough, and focused on material success; women are supposed to be more modest, tender, and concerned with the quality of life" (Hofstede 1998). Its…… [Read More]

References

Al-Mekhalfi, A.G. (2001). Instructional media for teachers' preparation. International Journal of Instructional Media, 28(2), 191. Retrieved January 31, 2005, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com.

Arab World (2005). Geert Hofstede Cultural Dimensions. Retrieved January 29, 2005 at http://www.geert-hofstede.com/hofstede_arab_world.shtml

Australia. (2005) Geert Hofstede Cultural Dimensions. Retrieved January 29, 2005 at http://www.geert-hofstede.com/hofstede_australia.shtml

Bilimoria, P. (1995). Introduction to the Special Issue: Comparative and Asian philosophy in Australia and New Zealand. Philosophy East & West, 45(3), 151-169.
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Culture Psychology

Words: 1950 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15291211

Cultural Psychology

Review of Saudi Arabia

Muslim culture is one of the religions with the oldest and most extensive histories. It has its impacts on the world's greatest civilizations such as Sultanate of Usmania, Saudi Arabia, and Middle East and in different eras, Muslim rulers have extended their kingdoms to various parts of the world. Muslim culture even has its imprints on various fields of Science and Sociology. Despite all the richness of this culture, it is the one facing major criticism globally. One after another, events are taking place in a sequence which has highlighted the importance of Muslim countries in global Politics and economy.

These days, political decisions taken by the governments of Iran, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan and other Muslim countries have become part of daily news headlines. On the other hand, the incident of 9/11 has changed the global scenario of this world. Policies of many western…… [Read More]

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Culture Bias in the Travels

Words: 2128 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79971927

If it isn't demons, idols, and black magic, it's sex -- the most repressed impulse in the estern-Christian tradition.

During and after his time in the court of Kubla Khan, one notices an increased tone of rationality in the narrative. Less exoticized details of the life of people in the Orient begin to emerge, such as food and clothing habit, but the earlier sensationalism is not lost entirely -- perhaps cannot be, as it is such an engrained part of the estern perspective when viewing the sights of Asia. He travels to a region he identifies as "Bengala," which according to Latham is likely Bengal but could possibly be Pegu, which was in the process of being conquered during the time of the Great Khan's court (Latham, 189). Though this passage also contains a brief and simple message about the main sources of sustenance for the people in this region,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Polo, Marco (attributed). The Travels of Marco Polo, Ronald Latham. New York: Penguin, 1958.
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Indians of North America

Words: 3455 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21552393

ceremonies of the Hopi tribe of the American Southwest, and the Assiniboine of the Northern Plains. The Assiniboine engage in the Sun Dance as one of their major ceremonies, while the Hopi engage in the Snake Dance as one of theirs. These dance ceremonies share many commonalities, but they contain major differences, as well. The Hopi were largely agricultural, living on mesas devoid of much moisture, while the Assiniboine were hunters, subsisting off the buffalo of the plains. These differences make up the disparity in their ceremonies, and they are important clues to their identity and way of life.

The Hopi Nation is one of the oldest Native American tribes in North America. They can trace their history in Northern Arizona, where their reservation is located, back to the 12th century, but they believe their history goes back much further than that. They are believed to have migrated to the…… [Read More]

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Indian and Asian Approaches to Theory and Ethics

Words: 1015 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31510460

Asian and Indian Approaches to Ethics and Theory

Business ethics is a form of applied ethics dealing with moral rights and wrong. (Thite, 2013). In the contemporary business environment, a firm orientation to corporate ethics is influenced by its organizational culture, and India has become one of the rising superpowers in the contemporary global economy where H (human resources) are very critical for organizational strategic advantages because effective management of employee is crucial for organizational innovative advantage. Moreover, H focuses on employee welfare and functions to develop their talents for a firm's growth. Despite the benefits of the H to organizational market advantages, organizations face real challenges in balancing ethical values and business with reference to H function. A firm ethical reputation determines the ability of a firm to attract and retain talent and competent employees.

Objective of this paper is to explore Asian and Indian approaches to ethics and…… [Read More]

Reference

Danon-Leva, E., Cavico, F.J., & Mujtaba, B.D. (2010). Business Ethics: A Cross-Cultural Comparison between Hong Kong and the United States. Journal of Business Studies Quarterly. 1( 4): 1-20.

Marta, J.K.M. Singhapakdi, A. Lee, D. et al. (2013). Perceptions about ethics institutionalization and quality of work life: Thai vs. American Marketing Managers. Journal of Business Research. 66. 381-389.

Thite, M. (2013). Ethics and human resource management and development in a global context: a case study of an Indian multinational. Human Resource Development International, 16 (1): 106-115,
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Culture and Substance Use Among Adolescents

Words: 1040 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47288156

Culture on Substance Use Among Adolescents

Cultural values do have a significant impact on most adolescents' attitudes towards drug abuse. It should be noted that what is regarded "illicit" varies from culture to culture. In that regard, therefore, one social group could be appreciative and encourage the use of a substance that is considered illicit in another cultural setting or social grouping. This text concerns itself with the influence culture has on substance use among adolescents. In so doing, it will, amongst other things, highlight the various dimensions of culture that have an impact on adolescent treatment and prevention of substance use disorders, and focus on the kinds of cultural groups that adolescents could belong to that have some influence on their behavior and attitudes towards substance abuse and attitudes.

Discussion

The relevance of culture when it comes to the formation of an individual's expectations on the negative impact of…… [Read More]

References

Abbott P.J. & Trujillo M. (1996). Alcohol and drug abuse among Hispanics. In: Kinney J, ed. Clinical Manual of Substance Abuse. 2:197- 207.

Marin G. & Marin B. (1991). Research with Hispanic populations. Newbury Park, CA: Sage

Robin R.W., Saremi A., Albaugh B., et al. (2004). Validity of the SMAST in two American Indian tribal populations. Subst Use Misuse. 39:601-624.
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Culture of Native Americans

Words: 775 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55856837

ASIAN-AmericanS & SOCIOECONOMIC ISSUES OF POVETY, ACCESS TO QUALITY HEALTHCAE SEVICES, FAMILY PLANNING AND CONTACEPTION PACTICES

The objective of this study is to examine the socioeconomic issues of poverty, access to quality health care services, family planning and contraception devices among Asian-Americans.

Today's health care environment in the United States is a setting with a great diversity of patients of many race, ethnic and cultural groups and today's practitioners must be knowledgeable about providing health care services that are effective and that assist their patients.

Family Planning Disparities

The work of Dehlendorf, odriguez, Levy, Borrero and Stinauer (2010) reports in regards to family planning disparities, "Prominent racial/ethnic and socioeconomic disparities in rates of unintended pregnancy, abortion, and unintended births exist in the United States. These disparities can contribute to the cycle of disadvantage experienced by specific demographic groups when women are unable to control their fertility as desired. In this…… [Read More]

References

Farrid H), Siddique SM, Bachmann G, Janevic T, Pichika A. (2013). Practice of and attitudes towards family planning among South Asian-American immigrants. Contraception. 2013 Oct;88(4):518-22. doi: 10.1016/j.contraception.2013.03.011.Epub 2013 Apr 1.

Mitchell JO Sr. (1974). Minority attitudes toward contraception. J Reprod Med. 1974 Dec;13(6):212-5.

Rodriguez MI1, Edelman A, Wallace N, Jensen JT. (2012) Denying postpartum sterilization to women with Emergency Medicaid does not reduce hospital charges. Contraception. 2008 Sep;78(3):232-6. doi: 10.1016/j.contraception.2008.04.006. Epub 2008 Jun 12.

Womens Health Issues. 2014 May-Jun;24(3):e281-9. doi: 10.1016/j.whi.2014.02.003. Epub 2014 Apr 13.
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Indian Art and Contributions

Words: 1634 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41361382

arts in the modern era in India. The discussion would revolve around the conditions and the situations that led to the so-called modernization of the Indian art form and the relation of the socio-economic changes in the Indian society and its impact on Indian art transformation or modernization. The discussions in the essay would revolve around this topic.

The India in the 21st century is a representation of a society which is modern and traditional at the same time, and yet religious and secular at the same time. The social make-up of the country consists of some of the richest in the world as well as home to some of the poorest. Democracy, the largest in the world, is another aspect of modern India (aghuramaraju, 2009). Hence modern India is varied and full of opposing perspectives put in a box. And the Indian art has developed within this environment and…… [Read More]

References

Mitter, P. (2007). The triumph of modernism. London: Reaktion Books.

National Gallery of Modern Art, New Delhi. (2016). Ngmaindia.gov.in. Retrieved 25 July 2016, from  http://www.ngmaindia.gov.in/history.asp 

Raghuramaraju, A. (2009). Pre-of Art in Modern India. Third Text, 23(5), 617-623. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09528820903184872

Sinha, G. (2009). Introduction to Art and Visual Culture in India, (pp. 22-23). Mumbai: Marg Publications.
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Rapid Proliferation Indian Gaming a Positive Negative Effect San Diego Region

Words: 720 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81014790

Indian Gaming in San Diego

The history of Native American tribes is a long, complicated, and more often than not, a sad one. Today, thanks to efforts to help tribes preserve their identity, culture and numbers by means of reservations, many Native Americans not only survive, but also thrive. Indian gaming is one means that has been a source of great income and prosperity for Native American tribes in the San Diego region. Although the economic impact of gaming has been very positive, critics of legalizing and regulating such casinos have expressed concerns regarding potentially negative impacts. While Indian gaming in San Diego has positive impacts for the economy and upliftment of Indian tribes, negative impacts could relate to industry monopolization.

According to the National Gambling Impact Study Commission eport (n.d.), large-scale Indian casino gambling had its origins in 1987. During this year, the Supreme Court found hat the state…… [Read More]

References

Barona Band of Mission Indians (2013). Barona Community. Retrieved from:  http://www.barona-nsn.gov/?q=node/8 

National Gambling Impact Study Commission Report. (n.d.) Chapter 6: Native American Tribal Gambling. Retrieved from:  http://govinfo.library.unt.edu/ngisc/reports/6.pdf 

PR Newswire (2004, Jun 28). Massive Destabilization of Gaming will Result from New Indian Gaming Compacts. Retrieved from:  http://www.thefreelibrary.com/Massive+Destabilization+of+Gaming+Will+Result+From+New+Indian+Gaming...-a0118689396