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Some Ayurvedic herbs such as terminalia chebula or emblica officinalis, are indigenous only to India, and have no estern equivalent (Bushkin pp). Amlaki, Indian gooseberry, is the cornerstone of Chyavan-prash, the most famous Ayurvedic formulation, which is a potent anti-inflammatory, immune builder, and lower cholesterol (Bushkin pp). Ginger improves digestions and helps to ward of colds and coughs, while Gota kola improves cognitive function and increases collagen in veins and arteries (Bushkin pp). Shallaki, a sticky tree gum resin, is a "super strength anti-inflammatory that effectively treats both osteo and rheumatoid arthritis," and its pain relieving effects are considered comparable to morphine (Bushkin pp). Cloves is considered another pain reliever, while Shatavari, wild asparagus, is the female tonic used to treat symptoms of menopause and enhance the immune function, and garlic is used as an antibacterial and anti-parasitic (Bushkin pp).
Spices, used to enhance the flavor of a dish, are…… [Read More]
Indian Culture & the Dalit Class
The economic boom in India which is riding on a burgeoning technology and services sectors has not reached the deep recesses of Indian culture, particularly in rural areas of India where culture is entrenched and access to the new economy is constrained. Producer iobhan innerton and Ramita Navai from Unreported World expose the terrible circumstances of the 170 million Dalits -- the broken people or the untouchables -- to light. The most oppressed group of humans anywhere on earth, the Dalits inhabit the bottom of the Indian caste system -- a place as symbolic as it is real. This paper very briefly considers the Dalit's existence from a social conflict perspective, a structural-functional perspective, and from a symbolic interactions perspective.
tructural functional perspective. tructural violence is deeply embedded in the foundation of a society -- in their way of being over the long-term. When…… [Read More]
India's culture has been evolving for more than five thousand years. It began with the start of human civilization. It's a reflection of human history that carries with it a story of great people and amazing history. Indian culture uses rich and beautiful colors in all aspects of life, whether you see it through rugs and paintings, or through textiles and architecture.
"The Indian culture is rooted in colorful traditions that date back to ancient history."( Kohler, 2000-2011) A civilization known as Harappa, created a religion that is considered the oldest living religion. We know this religion as Hinduism. "India has traditionally been one of the most religiously tolerant in the world."( obinson, 2012) "However in 1998, a Hindu nationalistic political party the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) controlled the government of India. The linkage of religion, the national government, and nationalism led to a degeneration of the separation of church…… [Read More]
By seeing the determination of their fathers and mothers as they focused on acting for the benefit of the tribe, children learned that it was essential for them to behave similarly when they would become adults. Depending on their gender, children gradually developed characters that assisted them as warriors or as planter-gatherers.
Children were instructed in regard to religion and ethics by their parents and by the tribe in general. Most of their intellect was fueled by stories that they heard from the elders, and, even though they were entertained by them, they also learnt important cultural values and customs during the process of storytelling. Native Americans were particularly concerned about understanding changes in their lives. As a result, tribes performed various customs whenever one would experience transit from one stage in their life to another. While girls would be considered adults at the time of their first menstruation, boys…… [Read More]
Indian culture is clearly demonstrative of a postcolonial culture. The post- colonial nature of the country, as well as its intrinsic diversity drastically effect the expressions of culture and the arts. One foundational example is the movie industry within the country. Nicknamed "Bollywood" by the west it is both an essential part of the new India and a challenge to the traditional and neo-traditional standards of the diverse culture. One of the ways in which this industry has attempted to create a standard entirely Indian is through the content of its works.
Though Mira Nair's Monsoon Wedding is clearly a departure from mainstream Bollywood the production of the work boasts some very similar characteristics to traditional works in Indian theater, the traditional musical and entertainment value of the dance and musical scenes and of coarse the rich and colorful nature of the ceremonial scenes. The character development and colorful…… [Read More]
Asoka was the Indian royal leader of the Maurya dynasty founded by his grandfather, Chandragupta. He is considered as one of the greatest monarch of ancient India. It was under his reign that almost the whole India as well as Baluchistan and Afghanistan were brought together under one control for the very first time in Indian history. As legends state, Asoka was regretful and sorry for all the suffering he had imposed during his conquest of the state of Kalinga. Thus, to get back his peace of mind and spiritual satisfaction, he accepted Buddhism and abandoned all bloody wars and brutal conquests. His belief in ahimsa or nonviolence is declared in the inscriptions that provide knowledge of Asoka's rule. He was a firm advocate who clearly stated his credence in tolerance of all faiths. It was also under Asoka's period of influence that India prospered and art flourished.…… [Read More]
One of the oldest cultures in the world is the Indian culture as the society started experiencing civilization some 4500 years ago. As at today, India is an extremely diverse nation, boasting a population of over 1.2 billion, a number which makes it the second most populous country after China. Several dynasties, conquerors and religions have contributed to Indian history bringing about a fascinating culture blend as well as a wide variety of ethnicities present within the country. The British take-over and subsequent governance of India which came to an end in 1947 when the Indian Independence Act was signed into law equally added to the already rich culture. This Act separated Pakistan and India into separate countries with the Hindus settling in India while the Muslims settled in Pakistan (eCald, 2016).
India is South Asia's largest country. Indians speak over 17 major languages and about 200…… [Read More]
Historical Themes in Chhau dances
The themes behind the Chhau dances have very strong political ties. "Formerly there were 26 (twenty six) Feudatory states in Orissa Province, Sareikala a former 'A' class legendary princely State was one of them, now a District named Sareikala-Kharswan of Jharkhand state is situated to the north of Orissa on the bank of river Kharkai and surrounded by the big hills and rivers have given as much more protection to the former state barely 45 KM from the Iron and Steel city of Jamshedpur." (Chhaudance, 2004)
Singhbhumi, known as the land of the Lion was unconquered and therefore as close to a free state for many centuries. This is most likely the true origin for the principles of the classical style of tribal folk dances. "The Chhau Dance has been nurtured under an atmosphere of independence, undisturbed by outside influences. It represented a…… [Read More]
Indian Education/Boarding Schools
Indian boarding schools were designed to assimilate Native American children into the greater American (white) culture. Students at the schools suffered from poor diet, illness and harsh discipline. As a result of these deficiencies, and the high cost of running the boarding schools, they began to disappear from the American landscape in the 1930s.
Indian education from the 1880s to the 1920s was designed to assimilate the American Indian population into the greater American society. This was accomplished by placing Native American Indian children into institutions where the traditional ways of Indian society were replaced by government-sanctioned behaviors and beliefs. Native American children were removed from their families, and enrolled in government-run boarding schools.
Boarding schools first became vogue prior to the American Civil ar. During this time, idealistic reformers put forth the idea that Indians could become "civilized" with the proper education and treatment. Prior to…… [Read More]
"Fish becomes the leitmotif in the story. Mrs. Sen's existence as also her survival in an alien land revolves around and depends upon this food item. hen she gets it she is happy, and when it is absent from her kitchen for a long time, she sulks like a child. For Mrs. Sen fish becomes her home, her state, her neighborhood, her friend and her family. Fish gives her a sense of proximity to her people. The arrival of a tasty halibut gives her pleasure as nothing else does" (Choubey 2001). But when Mrs. Sen is rebuked for the smell of her prized fish, even this source of connection with home, however, tenuous, becomes perverted.
Some of the characters of the Interpreter of Maladies learn to negotiate their new identities and cultural terrains and bridge the cultural gaps that exist between themselves and their fellow Indians, as well as with…… [Read More]
The ge of Colonialism was drawing to a close, as the spirit of nationalism swept over the subcontinent. s similar political movements took place throughout Europe and other parts of sia, India found itself in a unique position. India had been a diverse, heterogeneous region for centuries; even millennia. The nationalist movement highlighted the differences between the various ethnic groups in the subcontinent, revealing their core differences in political and social philosophy. Initial nationalist movements were led by the Indian National Congress Party, as well as the Muslim League. The Indian National Congress Party did not start out as being a Hindu organization, and never officially declared itself as such. Yet over time, the Congress Party became associated with Hindu goals. The Congress Party was founded as early as 1885, when it was a umbrella group for a diverse constituency. Their only shared goal seemed to be the…… [Read More]
However, the Kolenda text is somewhat prescient in identifying some of the ways that Indian society has adjusted to change as modernization has become a matter of inevitability. Indeed, Kolenda denotes entering into the discussion that "the shape of India emerging will be different from the shape of modern estern societies. Caste in its new transformations will be an important contributing factor to determining that shape." (Kolenda, i) as Kolenda's is a text which was composed in 1985, this renders it a particularly insightful set of predictions on how the desire of traditionalists and the culturally elite to maintain ancient systems of class demarcation will find balance with the push of the global community to assume a more democratically driven strategy for socioeconomic organization.
Ultimately, one is left with the sense that a subject such as this would best be explored in a study with a more current context.…… [Read More]
In histoy, in most of the Indian families, the inheitance of the estates of the family is left to the lineage of males in the family. Though since the yea 1956, the law in India has always teated females and males as equals in mattes of inheitance whee thee is no legal will witten. Cuently, Indians have become wise and ae using legal wills fo the inheitance and succession of popety. The usage of legal wills at of the yea 2004 stands at about 20%.
The ate of divoce in India is extemely low. It stands at 1% as compaed to 40% which is expeienced in the U.S. These statistics of divoce do not, howeve, give a complete pictue of the divoce situation in India. This is because many maiages that end up being split do so without a fomal divoce. Thee is a eseach gap in the scientific studies…… [Read More]
The underlying beliefs from which their entire cultures were based on stemmed from the exact same teachings of religious hierarchy, explanations about an unfamiliar world, and beliefs that brought social order to their respective societies.
Family life was an aspect that both united and differentiated the Indians from the Europeans. Early on it was evident to the Europeans that family life was vastly essential to the Indians who valued their family more than anything. To the Indians, outsiders were just that: outsiders. As Kupperman stated, "whereas in England most children left home in early adolescence, Indian parents kept them at home until they were adults" (Kupperman a. 153). This notion was viewed as something novel to the English who saw their own family unit and respect as deteriorating (Kupperman b. 133). The Indians depended on one another for virtually everything. Indian parents cared for their children in such a way…… [Read More]
It is hard to conclude whether the solution to the "Indian problem" pursued by the U.S. government in the nineteenth century was successful or not because in this case the definition of "success" is problematic. The exterminationist camp would view killing all Indians as a "success," while for the other camp thoroughly Americanizing Indians was a sign of success. Both goals were problematic, the former calling for a physical genocide and the latter calling for a cultural genocide. The latter policy was adopted by the U.S. government but it was an assault on Native American identity, culture, and the way of life. It also involved violence, as children of American Indians were taken away and placed in the boarding schools by force. It is difficult to speak of a "success" within this context.
But if we accept the definition of "success" as understood by Americans at the time, the policy…… [Read More]
An Analysis of the History and Origins of "Belly Dancing"
Indian Dance is described in the est as "belly dancing," but the name "belly dancing" does not do justice to the style of dance which the title conveys. Indian and Middle Eastern dance actually has more of a history to it than what the est views merely as a kind of erotic show. Described as "danse du ventre" by the French in the Victorian Age, the English translation has come to signify the Indian dance, which in Arabic is known as raqs sharqi or raqs baladi -- the former meaning "Dance of the Near East" and the latter meaning "Folk dance." Essentially, what esterners have identified as "belly dancing" is actually the traditional folk dance of the Middle East and India. This paper will discuss the origins and history of Indian Dance, or "belly dancing," and show how…… [Read More]
As ai (2012) points out, just a generation ago, women had far fewer options in India. Even when they attended college, their job prospects were low and they were more frequently diverted to family life and domestic servitude. Now, increasing numbers of Indian women are empowering themselves through the IT services industry. As much flack as outsourcing receives in the United States, the truth is that Indian women are largely the beneficiaries, while Americans are being increasingly challenged to discover creative ways of contributing to the economy. Social norms in India for women differ greatly from those in the United States, where it is much easier for a woman to start a business and avoid marriage and childbirth. In India, a woman is steered in the direction of motherhood at an earlier age and could be socially shunned if her path seems more career-focused than family focused. In many…… [Read More]
Of course, Tecumseh's quest to unite the tribes and overcome the American government was a quxotic one.
Ultimately, the polices of the Jackson administration, after Tecumseh's murder in 1813 resulted in the genocide of virtually all of Native American tribes in the area. The remaining native populace was relocated to the estern Territories. But for a reader who does not know much about this period, other than the fact that such a removal occurred, this text provides a powerful introduction to the personalities of the era. It makes what seems a lost culture come to life. Also, it gives individual characteristics to the different personalities of the Indian leaders, and makes it clear that the tribes were not merely a faceless conglomerate of oppressed persons, but warring factions with intertribal conflicts, for which unity was a difficult and considerable achivement.
In contrast, historians who focus on Andrew Jackson and the…… [Read More]
Reflection activity: Ashoka
hy is the reign of the third Mauryan emperor, Ashoka, important to the study of early Indian and Buddhist art?
Ashoka was one of India's greatest emperors whose reign covered a vast region. He conquered Kallinga which had not been done by any of his predecessors. However, this conquest claimed massive numbers of casualties and was destructive. He later converted to Buddhism after some of his experiences in the war which introduced Buddhism and its art to a vast population in India.
Discussion activity: Stupas
To what extent do these examples share the core characteristics of all stupas, and in what ways do they differ from each other? Bodhnath, Nepal (example 1) and Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka (example 2)
The stupa generally has six parts that have symbolic meaning that the stupas share. The Bodhnath stupa appears to be more modern and contains cables that connect…… [Read More]
India / Theoretical / Foreign Policy Shyness (Pant, 2009, p. 251). Pant's latest scholarship on India's foreign policies (2009, p. 253) is far more forceful and impactful than the narrative in his 2008 book. He chides India for not letting go of its Cold ar foreign policy strategy. "The Cold ar officially ended almost two decades ago,"
Pant writes (p. 253), and yet India continues to debate "the relevance of the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM)." That attitude among India's elite foreign policy experts "…is merely the clearest sign of the intellectual sloth that has infected the foreign policy discourse," Pant states. "Intellectual sloth?" Nowhere in Pant's 2008 book are there phrases so vigorous and persuasive. He stresses that it is "irresponsible and dangerous" for India to "cling to ideas that served a different strategic context" (p. 253).
Theoretical Approach / India Foreign Policy (Robert Gilpin / John J. Mearsheimer):
Professors…… [Read More]
Indian Legal Environment Foreign Companies Introduction Today, International Businesses buy sell, India. It essential a foreign company planning enter India, understand culture, traditions peoples' mindset.
Conflict in Employment elations
The issue of conflict in employment relations presents great importance to companies because of the effects it has on the activity of employees and on the performance of the company. There are several types of organizational conflicts. The most important types of conflict are represented by individual, collective, overt, covert, and others. Based on the paradigms that these situations refer to, conflicts can be industrial, like strikes, breaches, misbehavior, sabotage, and resistance. The numerous causes of organizational conflicts lead to different types of conflicts and strategies used in these cases.
Job egulation Paradigm
Conflicts in job regulation are important because they help reach a level of stability and balance in the system. This objective can be reached by identifying different interests…… [Read More]
Culture & Religion
Roman Catholic: The Roman Catholic religion believes in the Holy Trinity of a creator God the Father; Jesus Christ, His Son; and the Holy Spirit. Other beliefs that characterize the religion are the original sin; the forgiveness of sin; the second coming of the Lord; and life after death (CIM, 49). Given its belief in sin, the religion offers the hope of salvation through its sacraments and baptism. Infant baptism is encouraged to erase the original sin and as a start to a spiritual life through the Church. In addition, the Roman Catholic Church holds that the mass is a continuation of the sacrifice made by Christ and thus teaches the doctrine of transubstantiation or that the bread and wine at communion actually become the body and blood of Christ (Biblical Discernment Ministries, 1997). Generally, the religion has no dietary restrictions. However, it advocates abstaining from meat…… [Read More]
Looking at one of Kulkarni's pieces, a Peasant in the City, oil on canvas done sometime in the 1960s, we see a trend in modern Indian art in which the protagonist is featured as a part of an abstract background. Literally, the piece is a snapshot of a man and a beast, at night in a large urban area. The man is downcast, downtrodden, with no discernible ethnicity or age. He is a mixture of gray, and his elongated facial features suggest that he is, or has been, weeping. The single animal by his side could be a dog, a cow, or a representation of simply an "animal." The animal's front leg is extended, ostensibly onto the fence in which the man is leaning. The houses are abstract, made up of geometric lines and some color, designed it seems to indicate that they are lit. The moon is full, but…… [Read More]
Silence too is an important part of communication in Singapore. It is customary to pause before answering a question, to indicate that the person has given the question the appropriate thought and consideration that is needed. Westerners habit of responding quickly to a question, to Singaporeans, often indicates thoughtlessness and rude behavior. Their demeanor is typically calm, and Westerners more aggressive style is often seen as off putting ("Singapore: Language," 2009). Authority is to be respected for both employees of an organization, in Singapore, and when dealing with other organizations (Tse, 2008), and communication content and tone should represent this respect. Business etiquette is also different in Singapore than in many Western countries.
Cultural Business Etiquette in Singapore:
Business is more formal in Singapore than non-Asian organizations are often used to. There are strict rules of protocol, with a clear chain of command, which is expected to be kept on…… [Read More]
This is due to the fact that death is not the actual end of a person's life, because they will come back in another life cycle. There are not many Indian graves with tombstones because the body is considered to be only the shell of a person's existence, and their soul is the real essence (Infoaboutsikhs.com, 2006). The ideas surrounding death are also reflected in the prayers before eating that Indians pray, as they ask for forgiveness by God prior to eating. This is because the animal or plant they are about to eat may have previously been a person in their past life, or will be a person in their next life.
The effects of Sikhism on Indian culture and society are profound, as the majority of this population strives to live their entire life under the rules laid out by Sikhism. Those that do not are frowned upon,…… [Read More]
Finally it also represented an important means of conducting the foreign policy from the point-of-view of the French occupation. In this sense, "the North America fur trade of the 17th and 18th centuries had usually been viewed, until recently, as merely another commercial enterprise governed by the premise "buy cheap, sell dear" in order to rip the maximum of profit. Of late the Canadian end of the trade has come to be regarded as having been more a means to a noncommercial end than a pursuit conducted solely for economic gain. As European penetration and dominance of the continent progressed, the trade, which had begun as an adjunct of the Atlantic shore fishery, became a commercial pursuit in its own right. After 1600 (...) it became a means to finance and further the tragic drive to convert the Indian nations to Christianity."
Aside from the Algonquin tribes, the Huron tribes…… [Read More]
Black Elk utilizes his visions to create understanding of nearly all things he is later exposed to. The discussion in closing will further illuminate his utilization of vision, to ask for help for his people in a time of crisis.
To discuss the vertical model of artistic communication it is difficult to narrow the filed to just one example, as Native American literature, and to a lesser degree film have become somewhat prolific as genres. Two authors who build upon this tradition are Scott Momaday and Alexie Sherman as they are significant and prolific writers of Indian tradition. Each has written and published several works, including a variety of genres, that all attempt to translate the oral traditions of their nations into a written form that contains the expression of the oral tradition.
In Alexie Sherman's collection of short stories, the Lone Ranger and Tonto Fistfight in Heaven he offers…… [Read More]
Heitage Assessment: Indian, Chinese and Ameican Cultues
In using the heitage assessment tool, thee (3) cultues wee consideed and compaed: Indian (autho's cultue), Chinese and Ameican.
The autho's cultue is highly influenced by ual Indian cultue, as s/he was aised in India until s/he was 25 yeas old. Because of this late influence of Ameican cultue, my Indian cultue has emained stonge within me. This is eflected in the autho's lifestyle, which stictly adheed to taditions and values held impotant by the Indians. Raised a Catholic, the autho is actively involved in the Chuch and paticipates in activities like Bible eading and celebating eligious holidays. The autho's stong Catholic Indian identity is also eflected in he social cicle, which pimaily consisted of Indians shaing the same cultual identity as he and pacticing Catholics.
Howeve, when talking about health maintenance, the autho mixes the influence of Indian cultue with the…… [Read More]
Indian traditions and culture are widely known worldwide for their uniqueness and diversity. However, we rarely stop to think about why Indians do certain interesting things in certain ways. The majority of these customs can be traced back to ancient Indian texts and scriptures that governed the Indian lifestyle for several centuries (Holidify).
In my opinion, the four most intriguing Indian customs, beliefs, and values are:
1. The 'Namaste'
The Namaste/Namaskar represents one among the most widely- recognized Indian customs, currently not limited only to India. Translating to 'I bow to you,' it is one among five traditional greetings described in the Vedas, the ancient scriptural text of Hinduism. The folding of the palms before one's chest that accompanies the words implies 'May our minds meet.' Further, the term 'Namaha' may adopt the following meaning: 'na ma,' implying not mine, for signifying a lowering of one's ego when meeting and…… [Read More]
There is a sense of common tribal identity but every succeeding generation has seen this identity grown more fragmented. Even the purists and the traditionalists who try to define an essential core of the Mesquaki identity are themselves a kind of a splinter faction, rather than representatives of the core of the tribe.
The unity of the tribe now comes through the common economic support provided by the gambling on the reservation rather than from a common sense of culture and identity that links generations. The Mesquaki will likely survive in the future in the sense that the tribe will profit off of the casino and many tribal members will still remain on the reservation to live. But the culture will inevitably fragment and change, pulled in different directions from a number of competing forces. The first force is that of the outside white society which for many young Indians…… [Read More]
The cultural practices are evolved and based on the financial, social and moral understanding and capabilities of the local population, and it has been observed that Americans, Asians and Africans share extremely different perspectives and understanding on these issues, therefore the cultural adoption has been intense in countries where the technological revolution has been of the same intensity as in North America (Zelli, 1993). In some of the cases, the Americans companies has attempted to nullify the concerns and shortcomings of the American culture, by incorporating the cultural values of the local region, and has therefore evolve a different taste for the customers to avail, this has further delighted and fascinated the local population of different regions towards the American culture, for example the American culture has major differences with the Islamic culture adopted in Arab countries, therefore to compensate for such difference the American companies introduced the concept of…… [Read More]
The sexually explicit imagery that they witnessed on TV led young Indians to express more need in sexuality. Eventually, whole regions in India had been reported of suffering as a result of young people watching TV and becoming sexually active at a much smaller age. The Kerala province in India is only one of the several areas that have had their people falling victims to the western culture depicted on satellite TV. (Lukose, Ritty 2005)
A characteristic that people fail from seeing when examining globalization is that it allows concepts to become known worldwide. Perhaps certain issues relating to globalization are actually good, and, perhaps people accept globalization because it presents new and helpful theories.
In spite of the fact that Indians generally communicate to the rest of the world through English, they communicate to their neighboring countries through Hindi. People in Bangladesh, Pakistan, and Nepal all need to know…… [Read More]
art from three different cultures. Specifically it will discuss pieces from the Classical Greek, Indian Civilizations, and Egyptian Civilizations, including the meaning of the work and an art analysis of the work. Each of these different cultures produced very different works of art that were meant to entertain, enlighten, and be viewed for enjoyment. They used different techniques, but there were commonalities, as well. They represent some of the best and most beautiful artwork the world has ever seen.
The Classic Greek work of art I have chosen is the marble sculpture the Venus of Arles, which now resides in the Musee du Louvre in Paris. It is made of Hymettus marble and is thought to be as old as the third century BC. It is thought that the Venus was created by the sculptor Praxiteles, in an attempt to recapture his sculpting career. It is often called the Aphrodite…… [Read More]
Mughal Empire and the Indian Identity
In a certain regard, the Mughal Empire was inherently foreign when it assumed the seat of power that would see India through several hundred years. Descendent from the same Mongolian seat of power which produced Genghis Kan and the Tartars, heavily influenced in its culture by the Persians and initiated by a royal descendent ruling in Afghanistan, the Mughal Empire is something of a hybrid. It is thus that its claims to 'Indian' heritage are called into question. However, a consideration of Indian culture today and in a retrospective regard suggests that our current understanding of the Indian identity is necessarily shaped at least in part by the Mughal influence. Therefore, as to the discussion of the Mughal Empire's claim to Indian identity, it is appropriate to suggest that it would be a prime determinant of the Indian identity as we know it today.…… [Read More]
Fiji is a multiethnic society, and unfortunately the ethnic mix has lead to conflict and political instability since the country won its independence from Great Britain. Open ethnic competition in Fiji has led to the two main sides viewing the nation and its resources effectively as a zero sum game. As a result, when Indian-majority governments have been formed, the native Fijian response has been military coup. This has had a predictably negative impact on investment in the country (Pramdas, 1995).
Fiji's majority population consists of the native Melanesian group, the Fijians, and these have some Polynesian blood as well. This group has inhabited the islands for centuries. Ethnic Fijians account for 57.3% of the country's population. The second main group is the Indians, who were brought as indentured labourers during the British era. They comprise 37.6% of the population. Most of the Indian minority are Hindu, but…… [Read More]
The Mayas sense of beauty was very different from other peoples in Mesoamerica (Hooker pp). They prized a long, backward sloping forehead, which was attained by bounding the skulls of infants with boards (Hooker pp). Moreover, crossed-eyes were also important, and this was achieved by dangling objects in front of the infants' eyes in order to permanently cross the eyes, a practice that is still used today (Hooker pp).
The Maya number system was a base 20 system (Mayan pp). Most likely the reason for base 20 came from ancient people who counted on both their fingers and their toes (Mayan pp). And although it was a base 20 system, called a vigesimal system, the number five also played a major role, probably again relating to five fingers and toes (Mayan pp). They used a system of bar and dot as a sort of "shorthand" for counting written from bottom…… [Read More]
globalization that diversified cultures and backgrounds have converged and are working together in collaboration. Considering the scenario of today's world, the rapidly changing demographics have played a critical role in the emergence of new styles of leadership. The definition of competitiveness and the qualities associated with a leader have also changed in the current times. And among all the qualities the two most prominent qualities that every leader must possess is related to the consideration of equity of gender, and equity of diversified cultures.
Different cultures suggest different roles for males and females based on their unique value system. The mindsets, couture, and eating habits of almost all the cultures are traditionally unique. Countries belonging to a particular geographical area behave in a certain way, so do the organizations and leaders belonging to those areas. Their attitude and approach is derived from their cultural values. Some countries have common cultures…… [Read More]
Generation Transmission of Culture
There are a number of ways that a culture may be transmitted to the next generation such as influences from family and parents, religion, and community. This works intends to explore the generation transmission of cultural elements through the methodology of informational research.
One of my earliest memories is the sound of the drums coming down Main Street while the smells of popcorn and coffee drifted through the summer air. That was the 4th of July many years ago as I sat atop my father's shoulders watching the Independence Day parade. Forever, red, white and blue will be associated with drums, popcorn and festivity. This is one example of cultural transmission.
Family & Parents
Cultural Transmission Starts at an Early Age:
In view of the fact that many Americans through generation after generation will ever relate lemonade to summer and hot chocolate naturally is only consumed…… [Read More]
Globalization and Its Effect on Irish Culture and Identity
Define the term globalization and explain why it is a controversial term.
Societies in the present world are interconnected and gain awareness regarding the events and situations happening on different parts of the world. Global awareness has become important and is also defined as the speeding, deepening and widening up of the inter-connections in context of life, culture, spirituality and even economically (Marconis, and Plummer, 2002). Globalization is also defined as the increasing connections between different societies in a way that they all have an effect of the event that is happening far from them (Marconis, and Plummer, 2002). Some of the main features of globalization are that economic transactions take place across borders, communication is increased, awareness regarding different cultures is increased, international governance is created, common problems and their solutions are shared etc. Although globalization is commonly seen in…… [Read More]
True British culture valorizes and celebrates football, unlike Sikh culture but both cultures are hostile to female participation in sports, and female physical prowess. Even British culture suggests that a girl cannot hope to be a soccer star like a boy, jut as according to Jess' Indian culture; a girl should not play soccer at all without losing her femininity.
Playing sports is seen as sexual in Jess' mother's eyes. The woman states that the game consists of "displaying your bare legs to complete strangers." Of course, British culture approves of such leg displays, but only for the approval of male desire, not for female empowerment through the medium of sports. British culture tends to see female sporting excellence not as dangerously sexual and immoral, like Sikh culture, but potentially rendering the female body more like the male body. For instance, Julliette, the girl who first motivates Jess to make…… [Read More]
viewer ship of Hindi Films with respect to the Non-Asian population in the UK
The Hindi film industry or the 'Bollywood' as it has been referred to have made a significant mark not only in the Indian society, but has had far reaching influence among Indians residing abroad. We shall concentrate on the Hindi films in the UK with respect to the resident Indian population. The United Kingdom alone accounts for about a sizeable Indian population. It is only natural that Bollywood movies find a thriving and a huge revenue generating market in there. Hindi films have made a long standing presence in the British cinema houses for close to about thirty years now. This in itself is a notable achievement. It not only indicates the huge 'desi' presence in the United Kingdom, but also highlights the huge market and enthusiasm for films 'manufactured in bollywood.'
In addition to the…… [Read More]
With all the resources of normal use for Indians in missionary control, Indians began to attack the missions and military forces to steal animal and take revenge of sexual assaults on Indian women. Continuous demand of laborers for the missions impacted the Indian tribes greatly and finally in 1836, the Mexican Republic who officially took over from Spain in 1823, took away the missions powers of obtaining forced labor from Indian and the missions collapsed.
One third of the California Indian population, over 100,000 Indians perished to deaths attributable to missions of California. The 1824 constitution of Mexican Republic promised Indians voting rights as citizens but they continued to be treated as slaves.
The discovery of Gold in California in 1848 subjected the Indians to the most horrible period of their history. California was seized by U.S. military from Mexico in 1846 and sufferings of the Indians multiplied by the…… [Read More]
The Yanomami are an indigenous tribe also called Yanomamo, Yanomam, and Sanuma who live in the tropical rain forest of Southern Venezuela and Northern razil. The society is composed of four subdivisions of Indians. (Yanomami Indians) Each subdivision has its own language. "They include the Sanema which live in the Northern Sector, the Ninam which live in the southeastern sector, the Yanomam which live in the southeastern part and the Yanomamo which live in the southwestern part of Yanomami area."
The Yanomamo are one of the largest unacculturated aboriginal groups left in South America, with a total population of around 12,000. Their subsistence is based on hunting and slash-and-burn agriculture. The predominant crops are plantains and bananas. Their diet includes yams, sweet potatoes and the fruit of the peach palm. (eierle, J.M.)
The social construction of the culture is composed of small groups numbering approximately 75 people in…… [Read More]
Windshield Survey of Diabetes in the Asian-Indian Community in Plainsboro, New Jersey: Planning, Implementation, and Evaluation
As the home to the second-largest population of Asian-Indians in the United States today (the first is another nearby small community, Edison, New Jersey) (Sahney, 2010). Out of a population of around 23,500, 16.97% of the residents of Plainsboro (or about 4,000) describe themselves as having Indian ancestry (Sahney, 2010). Although Plainsboro enjoys a high standard of living, a desirable community environment and state-of-the-art medical facilities, it is reasonable to suggest that some of the Asian-Indian population in this community remain marginalized due to an inability to afford these state-of-the-art health care services and the potential for cross-cultural differences in views about health care may further exacerbate this lack of access.
A growing body of evidence also indicates that Asian-Indians are among the highest-risk populations for developing diabetes, making this community an especially important…… [Read More]
history of the native American Indians is a long and colorful one. The first Indians arrived on the North American continent subsequent to the end of the Ice Age approximately 15,000 years ago. These early Indians arrived from Siberia as they passed through Alaska and gradually settled throughout what is now the United States. These early arriving Indians were hunter-gatherers and, as a result, they traveled freely across the vast North American continent and by 8,000 years ago had spread as far east as the eastern seaboard.
As indicated, the early Indians were hunter-gatherers and many of the tribes remained such until the early 1900's but a select few tribes began farming. The Indian tribes electing such life style were centered in present day Mexico City and by the time that this area began to be explored and settled by Europeans the farming life-style of these Indian tribes had been…… [Read More]
Probably the biggest cons about Indian gaming are the social aspects of casinos that can create many more social problems within the tribe and the surrounding community. First, casinos often offer free alcohol to gamblers, and this can lead to alcohol addiction and dependence. Gaming itself can become an addictive behavior, as well. These addictive behaviors require treatment, so treatment facilities and methods may have to be developed in the community, and the casinos can also draw corruption and crime to the area. The social problems surrounding casinos are many, and if they come to an area that is not used to them, they can wreak havoc in a community.
The future of Indian gaming seems almost limitless, because there are so many tribes who can still participate, and because the forward thinking tribes are investing in so many other endeavors, such as Internet service providers, cattle ranches, and just…… [Read More]
Indians'Old World: Native Americans and the Coming of Europeans, (Salisbury, 1996) details how many of the characterizations that have been presented about the Native American cultures in the United States have been incorrect. The author explains that historians have treated the coming of the Europeans to North America as the beginning of history about the people in North America, whereas, in realty, the arrival of Christopher Columbus in 1492 and the onslaught of other Europeans who followed was merely a blip in the history of North America. Native Americans and their complex cultures and nations had occupied the North American continent for centuries preceding Columbus' arrival and historians have done these cultures a major disservice by minimizing their existence.
The article also suggests that the fact that historians have either minimized or ignored the contributions of the Native Americans brings into question the accuracy and validity of these historians' assessment…… [Read More]
Such differences may lead us to question whether there are any universal moral principles or whether morality is merely a matter of "cultural taste" (Velasquez, Andre, Shanks and Meyer: 1).
If there is no transcendent ethical or moral standard, then cultural relativists argue that culture becomes the ethical norm for determining whether an action is right or wrong. This ethical system is known as cultural relativism. Cultural relativism is the view that all ethical truth is relative to a specific culture. hatever a cultural group approves is considered right within that culture. Conversely, whatever a cultural group condemns is wrong (Relativism: 2).
The key to the doctrine of "cultural relativism" is that right and wrong can only be judged relative to a specified society. There is no ultimate standard of right and wrong by which to judge culture. Proponents of cultural relativism believe this cultural diversity proves that culture alone…… [Read More]
ith time, Tango dancing had been recognized officially world wide, and people have even turned it into an art. Tango dancing is presumed to be one of the easiest dances in the world, but it would take a professional to really Tango.
The Indians are known for their extreme spirituality and the Indian traditional dance is full of it. Indians have taken the art of dancing to a whole new level by having associated it with meditation with the intention of sending a message through the dance to the spectators. The early Indian dancers had a strong bond with the church. Later on, the dancers would be seen dancing in order to bring to life the stories told by singers.
According to David Courtney, "Today the acknowledged classical styles are:
Bharatnatyam of Tamil Nadu,
Kathakali of Kerala,
Kuchipudi of Andhra Pradesh,
Manipuri of Northeast India,
Orissi from Orissa, and Kathak…… [Read More]
' Indians across the political spectrum, especially the country's powerful nuclear weapons establishment, are critical of the NPT, arguing that it unfairly warps international hierarchies to the disadvantage of the non-nuclear-weapon states" (1998:15). In its efforts to balance the pressures from the international community with its own self-interests in formulating foreign policies, the position adopted by India has been starkly different than other countries. In this regard, Karp concludes that, "Most states party to the NPT accept the unfairness of the treaty as a tradeoff that serves their own and global interests. India's leaders insist that fair and genuine nuclear disarmament must start with the nuclear-weapon states themselves, a demand formalized by former Prime Minister ajiv Gandhi in his 1990 global nuclear disarmament initiative" (Karp 1998:14).
As a result of these events, the 20th century witnessed the formation of various positions in Indian foreign policy that would endure throughout the…… [Read More]
he introduction of various kinds of technology for the railroad, cattle ranching and mining of gold and silver, and ecological disturbance resulting from agrarianism were among the major factors in the near-extinction of the buffalo. Permanent railroad tracks, the depletion of trees for railroad ties and bridges and the decrease in wild animal population marked the lasting foreign presence in the Native West. Recent estimates revealed that there were 15-60 million buffaloes before the Europeans settled in 1500s. he animal population was severely depleted by the construction of the transcontinental railroad to the Western homeland of Plain Indian tribes. he buffalo was said to have reach near-extinction by the end of the 1870s when it numbered less than 1,000. Rapid American expansion in less than 50 years was behind it and other dismal results to the Continent (Fixico).
IV. Cost: But more and more evidence has been coming up, which…… [Read More]
Following are Hofstede's four categories and what they measure:
Power Distance (PD) is the "extent to which the less powerful members of institutions and organizations within a country expect and accept that power is distributed unequally" (Hofstede 1998) with a small PD meaning more equality in the society, and a large PD meaning less.
Individualism (ID) defines whether the society expects people to look after themselves or not. Its opposite is Collectivism, which Hofstede (1998) defines as "the extent to which people in a society from birth onwards are integrated into strong, cohesive in-groups, which throughout people's lifetime continue to protect them in exchange for unquestioning loyalty."
Masculinity (MA) defines the degree of distinction of gender roles. High MA means men are supposed to be "assertive, tough, and focused on material success; women are supposed to be more modest, tender, and concerned with the quality of life" (Hofstede 1998). Its…… [Read More]
Review of Saudi Arabia
Muslim culture is one of the religions with the oldest and most extensive histories. It has its impacts on the world's greatest civilizations such as Sultanate of Usmania, Saudi Arabia, and Middle East and in different eras, Muslim rulers have extended their kingdoms to various parts of the world. Muslim culture even has its imprints on various fields of Science and Sociology. Despite all the richness of this culture, it is the one facing major criticism globally. One after another, events are taking place in a sequence which has highlighted the importance of Muslim countries in global Politics and economy.
These days, political decisions taken by the governments of Iran, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan and other Muslim countries have become part of daily news headlines. On the other hand, the incident of 9/11 has changed the global scenario of this world. Policies of many western…… [Read More]
If it isn't demons, idols, and black magic, it's sex -- the most repressed impulse in the estern-Christian tradition.
During and after his time in the court of Kubla Khan, one notices an increased tone of rationality in the narrative. Less exoticized details of the life of people in the Orient begin to emerge, such as food and clothing habit, but the earlier sensationalism is not lost entirely -- perhaps cannot be, as it is such an engrained part of the estern perspective when viewing the sights of Asia. He travels to a region he identifies as "Bengala," which according to Latham is likely Bengal but could possibly be Pegu, which was in the process of being conquered during the time of the Great Khan's court (Latham, 189). Though this passage also contains a brief and simple message about the main sources of sustenance for the people in this region,…… [Read More]
ceremonies of the Hopi tribe of the American Southwest, and the Assiniboine of the Northern Plains. The Assiniboine engage in the Sun Dance as one of their major ceremonies, while the Hopi engage in the Snake Dance as one of theirs. These dance ceremonies share many commonalities, but they contain major differences, as well. The Hopi were largely agricultural, living on mesas devoid of much moisture, while the Assiniboine were hunters, subsisting off the buffalo of the plains. These differences make up the disparity in their ceremonies, and they are important clues to their identity and way of life.
The Hopi Nation is one of the oldest Native American tribes in North America. They can trace their history in Northern Arizona, where their reservation is located, back to the 12th century, but they believe their history goes back much further than that. They are believed to have migrated to the…… [Read More]
Asian and Indian Approaches to Ethics and Theory
Business ethics is a form of applied ethics dealing with moral rights and wrong. (Thite, 2013). In the contemporary business environment, a firm orientation to corporate ethics is influenced by its organizational culture, and India has become one of the rising superpowers in the contemporary global economy where H (human resources) are very critical for organizational strategic advantages because effective management of employee is crucial for organizational innovative advantage. Moreover, H focuses on employee welfare and functions to develop their talents for a firm's growth. Despite the benefits of the H to organizational market advantages, organizations face real challenges in balancing ethical values and business with reference to H function. A firm ethical reputation determines the ability of a firm to attract and retain talent and competent employees.
Objective of this paper is to explore Asian and Indian approaches to ethics and…… [Read More]
Culture on Substance Use Among Adolescents
Cultural values do have a significant impact on most adolescents' attitudes towards drug abuse. It should be noted that what is regarded "illicit" varies from culture to culture. In that regard, therefore, one social group could be appreciative and encourage the use of a substance that is considered illicit in another cultural setting or social grouping. This text concerns itself with the influence culture has on substance use among adolescents. In so doing, it will, amongst other things, highlight the various dimensions of culture that have an impact on adolescent treatment and prevention of substance use disorders, and focus on the kinds of cultural groups that adolescents could belong to that have some influence on their behavior and attitudes towards substance abuse and attitudes.
The relevance of culture when it comes to the formation of an individual's expectations on the negative impact of…… [Read More]
ASIAN-AmericanS & SOCIOECONOMIC ISSUES OF POVETY, ACCESS TO QUALITY HEALTHCAE SEVICES, FAMILY PLANNING AND CONTACEPTION PACTICES
The objective of this study is to examine the socioeconomic issues of poverty, access to quality health care services, family planning and contraception devices among Asian-Americans.
Today's health care environment in the United States is a setting with a great diversity of patients of many race, ethnic and cultural groups and today's practitioners must be knowledgeable about providing health care services that are effective and that assist their patients.
Family Planning Disparities
The work of Dehlendorf, odriguez, Levy, Borrero and Stinauer (2010) reports in regards to family planning disparities, "Prominent racial/ethnic and socioeconomic disparities in rates of unintended pregnancy, abortion, and unintended births exist in the United States. These disparities can contribute to the cycle of disadvantage experienced by specific demographic groups when women are unable to control their fertility as desired. In this…… [Read More]
arts in the modern era in India. The discussion would revolve around the conditions and the situations that led to the so-called modernization of the Indian art form and the relation of the socio-economic changes in the Indian society and its impact on Indian art transformation or modernization. The discussions in the essay would revolve around this topic.
The India in the 21st century is a representation of a society which is modern and traditional at the same time, and yet religious and secular at the same time. The social make-up of the country consists of some of the richest in the world as well as home to some of the poorest. Democracy, the largest in the world, is another aspect of modern India (aghuramaraju, 2009). Hence modern India is varied and full of opposing perspectives put in a box. And the Indian art has developed within this environment and…… [Read More]
Indian Gaming in San Diego
The history of Native American tribes is a long, complicated, and more often than not, a sad one. Today, thanks to efforts to help tribes preserve their identity, culture and numbers by means of reservations, many Native Americans not only survive, but also thrive. Indian gaming is one means that has been a source of great income and prosperity for Native American tribes in the San Diego region. Although the economic impact of gaming has been very positive, critics of legalizing and regulating such casinos have expressed concerns regarding potentially negative impacts. While Indian gaming in San Diego has positive impacts for the economy and upliftment of Indian tribes, negative impacts could relate to industry monopolization.
According to the National Gambling Impact Study Commission eport (n.d.), large-scale Indian casino gambling had its origins in 1987. During this year, the Supreme Court found hat the state…… [Read More]