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According to urge, if ert would speak of arthritis in the thigh he would, in this case, express a true belief, because the term itself would be used in his society to express inflammations in the thigh and in the joints.
The social interpretation described by urge is meant to explain terms that have a certain perception in a certain society. We would be inclined to believe that a tribal organization in Africa may refer to arthritis as a disease describing pains in the chest and that the term would have this connotation in that respective society. A member of that society would refer to his chest pains as arthritis and would express a true belief, according to the social theory.
On the other hand, it seems legitimate to ask ourselves whether the social and societal explanation may turn away from an absolute truth, in the sense of an absolute…… [Read More]
Her husband ignores her and as she becomes increasingly aware of the wallpaper, she is slowly losing herself. Her worst obstacle is not her illness but her husband and this is the reality that Perkins-Gilman establishes. The conclusion of the story brings us to the realization that the narrator will suffer because she is a women and she finally loses the battle when she confesses that she has "got out at last" (773). This story encapsulates the fundamentals of Realism and Naturalism because the narrator's experience represents a true account of what American women endured in the nineteenth century.
In "The Luck of Roaring Camp," we see realistic character sketches emerge. Harte also provides readers with a realistic vision of the local community of Roaring Camp. e can literally see the gold-seekers. The men of the camp are described as "One or two of these were actual fugitives from justice,…… [Read More]
Bellah sees this as dangerous and particularly dangerous is the faith of 'Shelia-ism,' the idea that a society can survive so long as everyone has his or her own personal moral code. Social commitment is portrayed as the lifeblood of society, yet all too often the pressures to 'make it' in America mean that people must take time away from volunteerism and spend more time at work. Despite high levels of church attendance, individual responsibilities and intimate relationships define American's sense of identity (Bellah et al. 250). The self is orchestrated as a personal, rather than a social matter.
However, while it is difficult to argue that America, as a young nation, has had to work harder to construct binding ties of communal self-interest, the authors do not really provide a clear definition as to what that commonality should be. In the new, diverse America, religion as a social 'glue'…… [Read More]
In her discourse, "The Treasure of the City of Ladies," De Pizan contemplated how human society had developed the psyche and perception that females are inherently inferior to males. This issue was borne out of the author's observation how literary and scholarly works portray a common stereotype of women as subversive to men, depicted as uneducated and not able to create decisions for themselves. In the words of Pizan, "learned men" tend depict women through 'wicked insults" about their behavior. This drove her to investigate and know the origin of this perception and wrong portrayal of women in Western societies.
Through the help of the different "Ladies" in her discourse, Pizan was able to trace the wrongful creation and institutionalization of women as less incapable of creating and expressing sensible thoughts about relevant and significant issues and concerns in their society. One of the early arguments presented in her analysis…… [Read More]
Thomas More wrote Utopia in 1515 and in the story this place of "utopia" is told to him by a friend who encounters it upon his travels. Utopia is described by Giles, More's friend, as a place where there isn't any social unrest and suffering is nowhere to be found. More seems to have written Utopia with the idea of individual freedom in mind; however, there are some problems with the Utopia that More deemed as perfect. First of all, if More wrote Utopia with individual freedom in mind, then why are individual activities actually discouraged and in its place is favored the communal life? Individualism doesn't seem to be encouraged in More's utopian society as what is held as virtuous is supporting society as a whole and not straying from the values and mores that have been laid out for that society.
In Fahrenheit 451 by Ray radbury,…… [Read More]
Alternative to Methodological Individualism
In this report, I shall attempt to identify, compare and contrast the comprehensive models of the economic systems focusing on the Methodological Individualism and the Classical Economists approaches. The objective will be to identifying how these two philosophies have basic assumptions about human nature, technology and social institutions. In addition, the report will point out that these philosophies may have some inherent problems. The assumptions made by the Methodological Individualism thinking and the Classical Economists will provide an excellent opportunity to distinguish if how our economy literally works and how it theoretically works and if those are technically one and the same.
Methodological Individualism is a philosophical system that privileges the Individual as sovereign." (Methodological Individualist) Methodological Individualism economists like Friedrich August von Hayek, feel that our economy can be explained by demonstrating that it is simply an outcome the society's combined individual's behaviors. The Methodological…… [Read More]
During that time, the American middle class was threatened, and the reality is that many Americans lost their status as middle class during the economic crises. People literally died of starvation, and the economic markets that had helped create the middle class, once destabilized, helped usher in a greater divide between rich and poor, since only those with the most assets were able to weather the Depression with economic wherewithal. However, context remains important, because the fact is that America did recover from the Depression, and the living standards of the middle class continued to rise after its recovery, and have consistently done so, notwithstanding less substantial economic recessions. As a result, America has become a country associated with vast wealth, not because of the tremendous wealth held by the top 1% of its inhabitants, but because of the incredible wealth held by all but its poorest inhabitants, which dwarves…… [Read More]
Apart from literary arts, individualism is also most evident in the field of education. The development of educational institutions, spearheaded by the Florentine Academy, an informal organization of humanists, helped celebrate human reason in combination of mathematical and moral truths. The conceptualization of an educational institution as the formal venue for human reasoning and thought to be cultivated began with Plato's concept of the Academy. As Renaissance thinkers and humanist began using Greek studies as the foundation for European culture and society's rebirth, informal educational institutions such as Florentine Platonic Academy and religious schools have been established to harness the humanists' skills in critical thinking and further explore ways in which people can best express their individuality (363).
Objectivity is the result of the birth of individualism during the Renaissance period. As European society learned to cultivate and give importance to their ability to reason and think critically, objectivity began…… [Read More]
Ernest Hemingway on individualism and self-realization. Specifically, it will discuss several sources, and incorporate information from at least one Roberts and Jacobs short story, poem, or play. Ernest Hemingway embodies his characters with some of his own rugged individualism and search for meaning in life. Many other authors incorporate this theme in their works, because it seems to touch a cord in many readers, who also hope to learn more about themselves as they read and evaluate great fiction.
INDIVIDUALISM AND SELF-REALIZATION
Ernest Hemingway often portrayed a bit of himself in his works, because many of his protagonists were rugged individualists who searched for meaning in their lives and in the world around them, just as Krebs does in "Soldier's Home." Unfortunately, many of Hemingway's characters never find the comfort of self-realization, and so they are empty characters that never really find themselves. This self-realization process is also a common…… [Read More]
Democracy in America by Tocqueville
Tocqueville provides various reasons from despots as to why citizens must embrace individualism. In his arguments, Tocqueville shows that democracy breeds selfish individualism. According to Tocqueville, individualism is a feeling that is calm that makes every citizen be disposed from one another, or isolates citizens, from the rest of the masses, and is withdrawn from a circle of family and friends. This makes individualism be a stepping-stone that leads to egoism. Individualism is invaluable to people living in a democratic society. These people tend to be disjointed from their larger families and the communities. This is unlike in aristocratic societies where people are living together, with the families and communities taken to be critically important and of immense concern. In fact, despots do not like such societies or people. They like people who portray signs of caring for nothing or no one as long as…… [Read More]
Communication Accommodation Theory holds that we will adjust our communication styles when dealing with people of different cultures. We will use different language and different speaking styles depending on the audience of our speech. One particular example is with authority figures. Most people will speak to authority figures in a more formal way that they would to friends and even family members. The same is true in the workplace -- the setting embeds something formal in the setting, and that formality is then reflected in the speech the individual uses.
This phenomenon can also be viewed in a social setting. When an individual socializes with people of different groups, accommodation in speech is common. A good example the differences between conversation styles between social groups of people of one gender vs. interactions between members of groups from different genders. Single-gender groups will not use accommodating language, but mixed-gender groups…… [Read More]
Rather than limit themselves to what has always been done, individualism encourages people to explore different personas throughout their life, trying on different identities in school and at work.
The idea that the individual is valuable also underlines our modern political system in a progressive fashion. Every person has the right to freedom of expression, even if the majority disagrees with his or her viewpoint -- the minority view may still have something to contribute to the majority's point-of-view. Even our modern medical system, holds every life is seen as potentially and equally valuable. Thus, the idea of individualism is thus yoked to a kind of philosophical pluralism -- every individual is equally valuable, and is entitled to the same opportunities in life.… [Read More]
If the risks that were taken in the past worked out well, individuals would be more likely to take risks in the future. It is clear from those findings that it is important to differentiate between the different types of risks when it comes to the study of risk theory. Sociological contexts must also be more clearly examined and drawn out in order to be able to completely grasp the nature of the risks that are prevalent in today's modern society. The article showcases this information very well, and it is important in that it shows the need for further study into this issue and a better understanding of what must be learned in order to properly address risk.
Cebulla, a. (2007). Class or individual? A test of the nature of risk perceptions and the individualization thesis of risk society theory. Journal of…… [Read More]
Individualism in the Eyes of Thoreau and Emerson
Literary works and philosophical ideologies in the early 19th century is characteristically individualistic, where belief in humanity's natural freedom (that is, affinity with nature) was given importance. The ideology of individualism is evident in the works of Henry Thoreau and Ralph Waldo Emerson, 19th century philosophers and literary writers who composed the works Walden and Self-reliance, respectively. These works from both philosophers advocate the need for an individual to assert his/her identity in a society intolerant of differences and changes. In Walden, Thoreau narrates and documents his attempt in establishing a new life in the woods, primarily to deviate from the comforts that he and the society has learned to depend on. In his discourse, Thoreau states that, "many of the so-called comforts of life, are not only not indispensable, but positive hindrances to the elevation of mankind... To be a philosopher…… [Read More]
Although within capitalism Marx understands that an individual seeks a
better situation for himself, his choices and the reasons for making his
choices are based upon the capitalist system that society has instituted.
Furthermore, Marx's view of history and the motivations of history
are much different than Hobbes and Locke. To Marx, all of history is a
class struggle. In the capitalist system laborers give their labor to the
capitalists. Locke writes about the body and labor that, "nobody has any
right to but himself. The labour of his body and the work of his hands, we
may say, are properly his" (Chap 5). This means, to Locke, that a laborer
is working with his own property, his own body, as an individual. Marx
differs in this assumption as not only does the laborer have very little
choice in the system, but also that while laboring "a crowd of people…… [Read More]
600). What Cushman means with this is that the self has become empty resulting from the loss of the community, tradition, and shared experience connected to specific cultures or communities (Cushman, 1990, p. 600). This empty self then needs emotional fulfillment, which individuals have sought in consuming products and ideas offered by the media and by shops. Indeed, the author claims that the current psychological phenomena of narcissism and borderline states are the direct product of the emptiness created by the post-World War II loss of connection to humanity via common culture and belief systems.
Twenge (2006, p. 2), on the other hand, believes that individualism has reached an ultimate high with today's young generation, or what the author refers to as the "Generation Me." This is a generation for whom morality and human connection are exclusively focused upon the individual as well as individual desires or ideals. Even love…… [Read More]
Here we see that the staff and the students had their own responsibilities and those responsibilities are quite different from the traditional ones we find in traditional schools. Horton thought that a significant aspect of the teacher's role was to empower students to "think and act for themselves" (Thayer-Bacon). We can see that Horton placed responsibility on both the students and the staff. They were to learn from one another but the staff was to be aware of the student's plight as well as help them be the best that they could be.
Is what Highlander does "really" adult education? Why or why not?
Highlander does educate but it is not typical in comparison to traditional learning. When we think of adult education, we think of textbooks, professors giving lectures, students taking notes, and a most definite dividing line between the two. Students and professors do not generally have to…… [Read More]
The trainer will then focus on the steps to be taken to develop new skills. For example, if the trainer wants to talk about motivating, leading, negotiating, selling or speaking, it is best to start with what the learners do well before showing some chart on Maslow's theory, Posner's leadership practices, or selling skills from some standard package that has been develop elsewhere. Many foreign trainers make grave errors because they do not consider the values and beliefs of the trainee's culture. Training must make a fit with the culture of those being trained, including the material being taught, as well as the methods being used (Schermerhorn, 1994).
Abu-Doleh (1996) reports that Al-Faleh (1987), in his study of the culture influences on management development, asserts that "a country's culture has a great influence on the individual and managerial climate, on organizational behaviour, and ultimately on the types of management development…… [Read More]
American National Character (history)
The Ongoing Search for an "American National Character"
This assignment asks the following pertinent and challenging questions: Is it possible to find trends amongst so much diversity? What characteristics are distinctly American, regardless of class, race, and background? What is problematic about making these generalizations and inheriting the culture? What have we inherited exactly? What problems arise with our ideals - and are we being honest with ourselves? Discuss individualism and the "American Dream." Are these goals realized and are they realistic? This paper seeks solid answers to these often elusive questions.
The search for a national character should be never-ending, and the pivotal part of the search that should be enlightening and enriching for the seeker of that knowledge may just be the inspiration from the books and authors springing into the seeker's mind along the way to discovery.
Who is presently engaged in a…… [Read More]
" (Shiele, 2006) All of these are important yet they do not address the use of "the worldviews and cultural values of people of color as theoretical bases for new social work practice models" (Shiele, 2006) but instead hold the beliefs that: (1) that only White people - especially White men - have the ability and skill to develop theories and social work practice models; (2) that people of color, specifically African-Americans, lack the ability and skill to develop theories and social work practice models; (3) that the precepts of European-American culture are the primary, if not the only, precepts through which social problems can be analyzed and solved; and/or (4) that culture, and the internalization of culture by the theorist, has little or no effect on theory - that theory or theorizing is mostly or completely an objective activity." (Shiele, 2006)
Sohng, S. (2004). A brief overview of…… [Read More]
conservative intellectual movement, but also the role of William uckley and William Rusher in the blossoming of the youth conservative movement
Talk about structure of paper, who not strictly chronologically placed (ie hayek before the rest) - in this order for thematic purposes, to enhance the genuiness of the paper (branches of the movement brought up in order of importance to youth conservative revolt) For instance, Hayek had perhaps the greatest impact on the effects of the movement - uckley and Rusher. These individuals, their beliefs, their principles were extremely influential in better understanding the origins, history, and leaders of American conservatism.
Momentous events shape the psyche of an individual as the person matures. A child grows up in poverty vows to never be like his parents, and keeps this inner vow to become a millionaire. A young woman experiences sexual trauma as a teen, and chooses a career that…… [Read More]
Managing Cultural Diversity: Hofstede's Five Cultural Dimensions Applied to the U.S. And Cuba
Cuba Relations Background
Hofstede's Cultural Dimensions - U.S.
Hofstede's Cultural Dimensions - Cuba
Implications for Rescue orkers
This paper analyzes the history and cultural differences between the United States and Cuba using Hostede's cultural scale. Cuba and the U.S. have a long history of political tension which manifested in a trade embargo being issued against Cuba. This not only a source of tension between the Americans and Cubans but nearly every nation that is a member of the United Nations has consistently voted to lift the embargo except Israel and some island called Palau which has accepted the U.S. position. Not only are there staunch political differences, the cultural differences are estimated to be nearly polar opposites; especially on the criteria of the individualism cultural dimension. It was concluded that if these two cultures had…… [Read More]
individual is a product of society, rather than its cause.' Discuss.
The relationship between the individual and the society are recurrent themes and profoundly linked concepts in the fields of anthropology and sociology. While the individual is defined as a human being who is considered isolated from and separate from the broader community, the society is thought of as the aggregate of these individuals or a more holistic structure that extends beyond the individuals themselves. However, both concepts are problematic since their significance varies according to whether the approach is holistic, focusing on society, or individualistic, focusing on the individual. Therefore, the causal relationship between the individual and society is of the utmost importance in the related academic fields. Since this subject is evidently central to the study of humans, many social theorists have taken a focused interest in these relationships. A classical debate brings into conflict, advocates of society's…… [Read More]
Columbus reveled in making distinctions between his own culture and 'the other,' in a way that prioritized his own culture, even though ironically he went in search of a non-estern civilization's Indian bounty of spices.
Columbus' eradication of another civilization is the most extreme form of estern civilization's prioritization of distinction, in contrast to Buddhism's stress upon the collapse of such distinction. The most obvious negative legacy of Columbus, for all of his striving and inquiry, is the current racial divisions of our own society and the damaged material and cultural state of Native Americans. Although a change of attitude cannot heal these distinctions alone, adopting at least some of the Buddhist spirit of the acceptance of the 'Other' as one with the self or 'non-self' might be an important first step in creating common ground in our nation. Our nation was founded not simply in democracy, but upon European…… [Read More]
Huckleberry Finn and What Makes an American
What Makes Twain's Huckleberry Finn American?
"Those canonic ideals -- self-government, equal opportunity, freedom of speech and association, a belief in progress, were first proclaimed during the era of the evolution and the early republic and have developed more expansive meanings since then," these are the basic core ideals which make something truly American (Kazin & McCartin 1). The freedom to live as we want, say what we want, and govern ourselves -- these are what make us Americans in culture and ideology. In literature, these core elements are also often what define a book or character as truly American. Mark Twain's Huckleberry Finn adheres to the very ideals of what it is to be an American, which is what makes the work and its author truly Americanized in style and content.
One of the most important ideals in the concept of Americanism…… [Read More]
At the same time, however, citizens use this belief to attempt to get as much as they can from the "system," exhibiting the same qualities that lead them to distrust the government.
There is also a deeper element to the problem, however, in what can most succinctly be described as the bastardization of the system of government and society envisioned by the revolutionaries like Madison, Washington, Jefferson, and Hamilton (Bellah, 250-6). The notion of democracy has come to be equated with individual freedom and truly rampant individualism, where the ability for each individual in society to protect their own interests is seen as the paramount effect of democracy. The framers of the Constitution and of American government and society as a whole, however, established a republic wherein the individual good was tied to the common good, and this was supposed to remain an explicit and conscious part of society (Bellah,…… [Read More]
Collectivism and individualism do exist concurrently in many countries throughout the world. The U.S. is a prime example of a society where they cohabitate. There are radical religious sects that strongly oppose morale issues such as abortion, gay marriage, or traditional beliefs that stand side-by-side with the very individuals that their beliefs are intended to suppress. However, despite their coexistence, the two sides are often subjects for heavy controversy and significant reasons for much of the political debate, and near rioting uproar throughout societies across the map. It is apparent that these two orientations are able to exist in one culture at the same time, but not without great consequence.
The history of the United States has had a great impact on the way that cultural values have been developed and kept. Citizens of the United States agree that each individual has the right to their own beliefs and the…… [Read More]
rickshaw -- Lao She
LAO SHE'S RCKSHAW:
AN ALLEGORY FOR THE PLGHT OF CHNA
N THE 1930'S
n the introduction to Lao She's novel Lo-t'o Hsiang Tzu, first published in serial form between September of 1936 and May of 1937, the translator relates that Lao She's message in his previous works had explored "the conservatism of the traditionally educated. . . (and) their blindness to the necessity to modernize China. . . (with) the Chinese as the obstacle to progress," yet in Rickshaw, Lao She focuses on "the self-centeredness of the Chinese which he calls ndividualism. . . (being) their crucial failing" (viii). The main character in the novel, Hsiang Tzu, a rickshaw puller, appears to be the "personification of this great flaw," namely individualism. Thus, Hsiang Tzu "is not a victim of a sick society but one of its representatives, a specimen of a malady that must be cured"…… [Read More]
29, p > 0.5).
This study set out to test the hypotheses that people from Eastern cultural backgrounds compared to those from Western backgrounds would make fewer dispositional attributions about the behavior of fictitious characters that the read about and would also demonstrate a more collective attitude towards themselves.
With respect to the first hypothesis, that Western participants would make a greater number of dispositional attributions that would participants with Eastern cultural heritages, that hypothesis was supported. However, there are a few caveats that need to be mentioned with regards to this. First, the scenarios that were presented to the participants only provided two alternatives to explain the behavior of the person. One alternative was a negative dispositional explanation, the other was a situational explanation could have been interpreted as far-fetched in some cases. Miller (1984) found that the tendency for Westerners to make internal attributions was higher for…… [Read More]
Aristotle, Hobbes, Machiavelli and Bellah
hat are the different conceptions of knowledge that inform Hobbes's and Aristotle's respective accounts of politics? Be specific about questions of individualism, virtue, and justice. In Bellah's terms, what kind of politics would they support? How are they related to Bellah's views on the relationship between social science and social life?
Aristotle stated repeatedly that the needs of the state and society overrode individual pleasures, desires and happiness, while Hobbes regarded unchecked individualism as a menace to public peace and good order. Public virtue and justice for Aristotle were not based on purely individual feelings, desires or personal happiness, for "which it is satisfactory to acquire and preserve the good even for an individual, it is finer and more divine to acquire and preserve it for a people and for cities" (Aristotle 2). Virtue is the chief end of political life, but only the vulgar…… [Read More]
Moreover, because of the high levels of tourism, no one would be out of place in Miami. acism exists in North America, in the United States and in Miami; however, it is determined to be as pronounced in some other more conservative cities.
With race and ethnicity it is important to mindful of the history of America in relation to how immigrants have been treated in general, and to Latin immigrants specifically. There are a number of ethnic groups represented within the Latin immigrant population and there should not be blanket generalizations applied to the group as though they represent one culture or ethnic group.
Ofttimes, nonverbal communication can be as significant as verbal communication. For those individuals of Latin descent, some of the more general associations with nonverbal communication are the importance of shaking hands in the introduction process. Culturally, there is purportedly the view that…… [Read More]
Taking Jeanine Basinger at her word would leave us with far fewer war films than we think we have. Basinger is a 'strict constructionist,' accepting as war films only those that have actual scenes of warfare (Curley and etta, 1992. p. 8; Kinney, 2001, p. 21). That means that the four films that will be considered here, and especially the two orld ar II films, are not war films. By Basinger's yardstick, neither Casablanca nor Notorious, neither Born on the Fourth of July nor Coming Home would qualify as war films.
On the other hand, films such as hite Christmas, a lightweight Bing Crosby-Danny Kaye-Rosemary Clooney-Vera Ellen comedy about the aftermath of war for an old soldier might well be a 'war' movie. The opening scene is one in which the old soldier, Dean Jagger, is reviewing his troops when, somewhere in Italy during the Christmas lull, bombs…… [Read More]
Business in Czech epublic
Doing business in a foreign country is never easy. It is not so much about the tax regulations, import/export duties or getting a license. The main challenges accrue from the differences in cultural values and social or religious beliefs. For Steve, it may prove easier to at least communicate with the people and establish a bond with them. It is also important to know that Czech epublic is very keen on attracting foreign investment and a strong U.S. presence is desired. For this reason, Steve doesn't need to worry about whether he will be welcome in that country or not. As for cultural differences, it must be borne in mind that both Czech epublic and the U.S. have some similarities and some differences but these differences can act as a major hurdle if not properly understood. Business is often taken seriously in the Czech epublic and…… [Read More]
classroom instruction and are these ideas/strategies feasible for a particular classroom, can they be adapted, alter, or incorporated to benefit students with disabilities?
A Critique of the Journal Article 'Cultural Models of Transition: Latina Mothers of Young Adults with Developmental Disabilities' and Implications for Classroom Instruction
The journal article Cultural models of transition: Latina mothers of young adults with developmental disabilities was a qualitative examination of attitudes of Latina mothers of young adults with disabilities, toward approaches to the transitions of those young adults from school-age activities to more independent living. According to the authors: "Sixteen Latina mothers of young adults with disabilities participated in the study, recruited from an agency
serving low-income, predominantly Spanish-speaking communities" (Rueda,
Monzo, Shapiro, Gomez, & Blacher, Summer 2005). The qualitative study emphasized five themes: life skills and social adaptation; importance of family and home vs. individualism and independence; mothers' roles and decision-making expertise; information…… [Read More]
environment host country chose study. Discuss briefly political, economic, legal environment focus culture. Make present deeper levels culture, artifacts. HOFSTEDE'S DIMENSIONS .ID
Germany: Country analysis
Germany is a parliamentary democracy. It is a multi-party system, which means that political parties must often share power to govern. It is currently led by Chancellor Angela Merkel, who became Germany's first female chancellor in 2009. Merkel is the leader of the center-right Christian Democrats (CDU). Merkel won a close election and serves as "chancellor in a 'grand coalition' involving the CDU, its Christian Social Union (CSU) allies and the centre-left Social Democratic Party (SPD)" ("Germany," BBC, 2012). Merkel has faced recent resistance from the Germany populace, who are growing increasingly discontented with the feeling that Germany is being forced to 'bail out' financially undisciplined members of the European Community, to preserve the EC in the wake of the meltdown of the…… [Read More]
Azure Sky Tea needs to determine the best choice of a home base.
A number of factors must be taken into consideration including the cultural dimensions of the different potential host nations.
There are a number of countries that Azure Sky Tea can consider. The company can take into consideration when making this decision. Hofstede identified a number of different cultural dimensions that can be examined for each potential host country. These are individualism, uncertainty avoidance, power distance and masculinity/femininity (Hofstede, 2013). Individualism reflects the importance of the individual in the culture, compared with collectivism which emphasizes a collective group. Uncertainty avoidance reflects "the degree to which the members of a society feel uncomfortable with uncertainty." Power distance reflects power roles in a society, manifested mainly in the interactions between people in different positions within the company. Masculinity emphasizes competition, assertiveness and achievement, while femininity is seen…… [Read More]
Asian women. There are three references used for this paper.
Asian women face a number of challenges in the workplace. It is important to look at how individualism-collectivism is a barrier to these women, and determine possible resolutions which can help them overcome this barrier.
Of the "psychological dimensions that differentiate between individuals from different cultures, it is argued that the individualism-collectivism dimension is most relevant to vocational psychology (Leung, 2002)." Compared to the work values of individualism and self-direction which are seen in the United States, Asian communities exhibited work values that are "more collectivistic in orientation, such as altruism, tradition, and conformity. Parental and family expectations have always been salient factors in the career choice process for Asian women (Leung, 2002)."
Employees of Japanese businesses were asked to "rate their experiences of conflicts with their supervisors in terms of goals, tactics, and outcomes. The findings indicated…… [Read More]
In many ways, the literary movements and philosophies of determinism and individualism are opposites of one another. Determinism is one of the facets of Naturalism, and is based on the idea that things happen due to causes and effects largely out of the control of people and that choice is ultimately an illusion. Individualism, however, is widely based on the idea of free will and the fact that people can take action to control their surroundings and their fates in life. Theodore Dreiser's Sister Carrie provides an excellent example of determinist literature and is based on the critical ideas of amorality and environmental factors controlling a person's fate, while Mark Twain's The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn is an example of individualism and illustrates the idea that a person can take action to make his or her own fate.
Dreiser's work chronicles the rise to wealth and social prominence of…… [Read More]
Geert Hofstede: Cultural Dimensions
Please define Power Distance in one sentence and summarize the differences (if any) in Power Distance among France, Italy, Arab World and Indonesia.
People in societies exhibiting a large degree of power distance accept a hierarchical order in which everybody has a place and which needs no further justification, but in societies with low power distance, people strive to equalize the distribution of power and demand justification for inequalities of power. France, Indonesia and the Arab World all score high on the Power Distance scale compared to Italy, which makes them more authoritarian societies.
With a score of 68, France scores high on the scale of the PDI, compared to Italy which has a score of 53. It is therefore a society in which inequalities are accepted. Hierarchy is needed if not existential; the superiors may have privileges and are often inaccessible. Power is highly centralized…… [Read More]
As our nation becomes increasingly more diverse we will be presented with the challenge of understanding our cultural differences. The purpose of this paper is to develop and design a learning project that compares cultural differences of two ethnic/cultural groups. For the purposes of this project we will compare the differences between Asian and Western cultures. The project will be based on the cultural impact of performance in workforce, production, sales, customer services, etc.
efore we can create a learning project we must first understand the cultural backgrounds of both groups.
The economic boom seen in various Asian countries during the 90's called into question the work ethic and cultural values that made these nations successful. One of the most definitive explanations for the work values that are prevalent in Asia, especially China, has been attributed to the concept of Confucianism. Confucianism is the…… [Read More]
"Lady Gaga in part because she keeps us guessing about who she, as a woman, really is. She has been praised for using her music and videos to raise this question and to confound the usual exploitative answers provided by 'the media'… Gaga's gonzo wigs, her outrageous costumes, and her fondness for dousing herself in what looks like blood, are supposed to complicate what are otherwise conventionally sexualized performances" but this complication does not necessarily lead to a feminist liberation (Bauer 2010).
Still, Gaga has been embraced by a generation of women, some who shun and some who embrace the feminist label. "Lady Gaga idealizes this way of being in the world. But real young women, who, as has been well documented, are pressured to make themselves into boy toys at younger and younger ages, feel torn. They tell themselves a Gaga-esque story about what they're doing. hen they're on…… [Read More]
Based on the competitive nature of the business environment, strict formalities had to be kept up in order not to go beyond the boundaries of good business ethics and practices.
The final dimension was created after the first initial four and later adopted by Holfstede into his dimensional structure of cultural organizations. This dimension is associated with the group being more associated with long or short-term orientation. Companies with more long-term associations have employees and group members who have been a part of the particular organization for an extended period of time. Typically, these types of organizations present a collected look to the future on behalf of all of the members. This is based on the idea that the members expect to still be a part of the group in any particular point in the future. Therefore, long-term strategies can become fruitful, with several group members working hard for a…… [Read More]
We went in assuming we would be rather homogenous and then found that the dynamic of the group could have broken down as a virtue of differences. Once those differences were noted by myself, the group leader the task became essentially easier, as more time working in the collective was sought by the group and as an individualist, simply had to adapt to this idea and allow for this time.
Within the works of Charles Handy there is also a message that influenced my thinking on this project and its dynamic and communication strategies. Handy stresses that the application of political ideas to company management is inevitable and in particular he stresses that federalism is the concept most likely to be utilized to demonstrate company structure and change. Not only did find this to be true regarding the materials gathered in the project context, HP, but also in the collective…… [Read More]
Success cannot be genealized; too often the wod is used as a tem efeing to financial independence o owning one's own company. Yet the sanitation woke who goes to bed each night with a smile on he face also connotes success in the moden wold. I suppot a multiplicity of success, a divesity of deams fulfilled.
My success, howeve, definitely includes financial independence and caee ecognition, but it also includes the clea conscience that comes fom knowing that I did it all by and fo myself, with confidence and conviction. Like Roak in Rand's book, I got whee I am today due to my had wok and not hand-outs. Thus fa I have not compomised my beliefs o goals to fit with pevailing noms, just as Roak would not deign to design that which disgusted him o sell out. Like Roak I listen to intenal cues and heed not the…… [Read More]
They are therefore not determined or restricted by factors such as norms, morals or external principles. A concise definition of this view is as follows:
Constructivism views all of our knowledge as "constructed," because it does not reflect any external "transcendent" realities; it is contingent on convention, human perception, and social experience. It is believed by constructivists that representations of physical and biological reality, including race, sexuality, and gender are socially constructed
Another theoretical and philosophical stance that is pertinent to the understanding of the status of the family in modern society is the post-structural or deconstructive view. This is allied to a certain extent with the constructivist viewpoint, which sees society as a social construction and denies the reality of transcendent factors. This view therefore sees the family as a structure which is not fixed or static but is relative in terms of the norms and values…… [Read More]
Empress Luxury Lines Case Study
The situation faced by Antonio definitely is a difficult one. On the one hand, Kevin could be jeopardizing the health and well being of the company if he chooses to approach the insurance company and tell them about the incident. Yet, on the other, Antonio would essentially be condoning criminal behavior I he simply sweeps the situation under the rug to avoid potential consequences. With everything taken into consideration, Antonio should take an individualistic approach and allow Kevin to make the choice he is going to make, thus protecting the ethical and moral sanctity of the company despite any consequences that may arise.
There are two main approaches that would govern potential decisions to be made by Antonio. First, there is the utilitarian approach that aims to produce the best result for all members in the organization. This ethical approach looks at the overall utility…… [Read More]
In the instance of America's shameful racial history, the self-interest of southern whites combined with the violent coercion of black slavery would produce a highly objectionable variance on the 'social contract.' It is therefore a decidedly important reality that certain individuals refused this contract, One is especially inclined in such instances to recognize the importance of non-conformity in helping to drive improvements in human rights, equality and other dimensions of positive civil order. For instance, we consider luminaries such as Martin Luther King, Jr. Or the earliest participants in the American feminist movement, whose willful decision to resist the forces of authoritarianism as self-defined individuals would be essential to moving our society in a more progressive direction. In the case of Martin Luther King in particular, we recognize the considerable risk to his own person that the Civil Rights leaders undertook in spite of the prevailing cultural mores of…… [Read More]
Hope Leslie Strong Female Characters of the 17th Century
Strong Female Characters in Sedgwick's Hope Leslie
The United States has not always been a free space for strong female characters. In fact, in its earliest stages, most women were confined to very strict gender rules and restrictions. That is definitely true in the case of the Puritan culture that settled in the North East in the 17th century. Catharine Maria Sedgwick's Hope Leslie presents a surprisingly strong and independent female protagonist who fights for what she believes in and against the constraining gender norms of the very conservative Puritan culture in the early days of the Massachusetts colony. This represents a connection between the American idea of independence and individualism and women's role in American history. Sedgwick is also standing up against the gender norms face d in her own era with such a strong female lead.
The novel itself…… [Read More]
Prayer is the contemplation of the facts of life from the highest point-of-view. It is the soliloquy of a beholding and jubilant soul." (36)
Travel is too often used as an escape and reflects deep spiritual discontent. "The soul is no traveller; the wise man stays at home, and when his necessities, his duties, on any occasion call him from his house, or into foreign lands, he is at home still." (39)
Acting independently requires a great degree of courage, as individualism is not rewarded in a society that champions conformity. "It is easy in the world to live after the world's opinion; it is easy in solitude to live after our own; but the great man is he who in the midst of the crowd keeps with perfect sweetness the independence of solitude." (9)
Society never changes, only individuals have the power to…… [Read More]
Until the 19th century, nature in art was usually, if present at all, merely the in background of portraits. History and human beings were considered the true, fitting subjects of art. However, as nature began to retreat from everyday life with the rise of technology, artists began to look on nature as a source of inspiration. As nature became rarer, artists gave nature more significance and importance -- nature became more symbolically significant, even as 'real' nature was being overrun by factories, cities, and railroads. Rather than something to be tamed, nature was now something precious. But although human beings may not be present in all Romantic depictions of nature, human thoughts about nature clearly are -- an artist always paints his or her own point-of-view, not a literal representation of nature. Even in the most realistic depictions of nature, the artist is always selective in what…… [Read More]
The exoticism and escapism of Romantic Art is manifest by the focus in the features of Napoleon on the bright or the wider scenes of the battlefield. However, it is the works of Francisco Goya that perhaps most perfectly epitomizes the intense individualism and emotion of Romantic art. Even the titles of Goya's works like "Yo lo Vi (This I saw)" and "Para Eso Yo Nacido (for this I was born) places the artist's individual consciousness squarely in the center of the meaning of the painting. There is no attempt at objectivity, and no apology for the subjective nature of the representation.
The Third of May" although a political work, is not of a noble or significant figure, or a beautiful human body like "Marat." Most of the painting has a hazy quality, as if seen through the night, except for the illumination of the victims. It shows the ugliness…… [Read More]
A McDonald's hamburger in the United tates and in the United Kingdom for example is to be sold within the same price range when the exchange rate is calculated. McDonald's has had a large amount of success in its global expansion. The reasons for this comprise a number of factors, one of which is the perceived value to the purchaser. In all countries where McDonald's is sold, the customer perceives the value of food purchased for a certain price as economically viable. The food is of the same quality and portion size globally. This kind of stability is valued by the customer.
Possible short-term problems for McDonald's relate to the daily changes in foreign exchange rates. It is hardly practicable to change prices on a daily basis. Customers have come to expect stability from the company, especially in terms of price, which makes maintaining PPP a challenge. This problem is…… [Read More]
recurring dream in which I am standing at a podium in front of a large audience. I am the head of an organization, although my exact title and the nature of the organization are vague. In the dream, I deliver a speech, detailing some aspect of company policy. I am sure of myself; I speak with authority and conviction but for some reason I stand alone. Not one member of the crowd agrees with me, likes me, or supports me. When I wake up I feel a strange mixture of pride and humiliation. Yet like Howard Roark, hero of Ayn Rand's novel The Fountainhead, I realize that my unpopularity does not preclude my success. Roark succeeds not according to an external scale of measurement, based on societal values or norms and fueled by conformity. Rather, Roark is a hero and a success because of his unflinching individualism and his willingness…… [Read More]
This report aims to present my views on the fact that wage work during the late 19th and early 20th centuries have more or less reinforced women's roles within their families or more accurately, have provided an extension to their familial roles. The objective of this work is to therefore present an argument that contradicts a belief held by many historians that wage work actually enabled women to develop a new sense of individualism as well as economic independence. These liberations are supposed to have liberated women from their roles in the traditional home. The report also attempts to incorporate how the effects of race and/or ethnicity come into play in this situation.
First and foremost, the idea of wage work and non-wage work must be explored to give credence to the topic at hand. Women have traditionally been unpaid for the bulk of their work while they…… [Read More]
Manning (1993) undertook one of the early researches on the question of whether cohabitating and non-cohabitating single women have equal tendencies towards marriage prior to childbirth. In addition, Manning also looks for differences between black and white women, as well as socioeconomic status. Her research finds that for Caucasian women in their twenties, those who cohabitate with their mates are more likely to get married prior to childbirth. This statistical relationship was not observed among African-American women in the same age group.
This research therefore suggests that cohabitation carries different meanings for the two groups, an issue which may be of interest to symbolic interactionists. For African-Americans, cohabitation and childrearing were deemed more acceptable. In contrast, Caucasian women were more likely to consider cohabitation a stage in the marriage process.
esearch is still being conducted regarding the effects of cohabitation unions on children, especially since statistics show that at least…… [Read More]
This viewpoint was the justification for global colonization, the enslavement of numerous groups of indigenous people, and the massive enforcement of certain religions (such as Christianity) on different peoples throughout the world. There are a couple of interesting facts in denoting the contemporary view of this subject among the Western world. The U.S. was the only country surveyed in which more people still adhered to the belief that their culture was better than that of other civilizations and countries. All of the European countries have apparently abandoned this notion, or at the very least have more people who disbelieve the fact that they are culturally superior to others than those who do. Germany is nearly evenly divided on this subject (No author, 2011).
The category in which the U.S.'s views on autonomy are most prevalent is that in which compares the values of individualism vs. The importance of a state…… [Read More]
Cultural Comparisons and Management Functions
This paper examines cultural comparisons and discusses how an American manager carries out management functions in the process of supervising German employees. With respect to individualism vs. collectivism, both Germany and the U.S. score high in individualism, that is, the degree to which individuals further their own interests. However, according to Hofstede's model of cultural dimensions, Germany's score of 67 ranks far enough below the U.S. score of 91 that the manager should expect differences in their approaches to working together in teams for instance. German employees would have only a moderate amount of group cohesion, with only a moderate amount of interpersonal connection and sharing of responsibility.
For the American manager, the two country's respective scores indicate that the manager should expect his or her German employees to be less individualistic than their manager. The manager should place a relatively high value on people's…… [Read More]
Self-Reliance and the Road Not Taken
American Transcendentalism: Emerson and Frost
There are several qualities that are inherent in American literature that help to set it apart from English literature. Among the earliest themes explored in American literature was the concept of self-reliance and individuality. These concepts are prevalent of writers and advocates of Transcendentalism, a subset of American Romanticism. Ralph aldo Emerson explored the concept of individuality in his essay, "Self-Reliance," and also aimed to define how self-worth is measured. Likewise, Robert Frost embraces the concepts of individuality and self-worth as defined by Emerson. Emerson's influence on Frost can be seen in the theme and narrative of Frost's poem "The Road Not Taken." Both Emerson and Frost comment on the importance of the self and the impact that individuality has on a person.
Transcendentalism is an American literary, political, and philosophical movement that aimed to bring an individual to…… [Read More]
Global Business Cultural Analysis
Synopsis of Nigerian government
Nigerian monarchy to presidential system
The evolution of Nigeria from British control to a civilian democratic government
Nigerian major commodities
The major elements and dimensions of culture in Nigeria
Model of culture
Universalism or Particularize
How is the integration of elements and dimensions that Nigerians doing business in the country?
The effects of governments on the prospects for its business around the world
How the elements and dimensions compared with the United States, culture, and business?
The role of women in the workplace
Business visitors must be dressed in an elegant and tie (for men!)
Cross-cultural business transactions between the United States and Nigeria
Thurstan Shaw and Steve Daniels, who are the founder for archaeological research proved in their research that Nigeria has been developed since 9,000…… [Read More]
Health and Fitness Survey
Hour Fitness, a global leader in fitness, is committed to making fitness accessible and affordable to people of all fitness levels. The company is the largest privately owned fitness chain in the world, with clubs in the United States, Europe and Asia. In the United States, 24-Hour Fitness and its Q. Sports Clubs division are the industry leaders in fitness. In Asia clubs operate as California Fitness. In Europe clubs operate as S.A.T.S. Sports Clubs. In Norway, Sweden and Denmark, clubs operates as Form and Fitness.
Convenient locations, the latest equipment, affordable prices, knowledgeable staff and outstanding service, as well as facilities that are open up to 24 hours a day, seven days a week, are all factors that have contributed to the company's tremendous growth and success.
For this project, Steve Gordon, Personal Training Director of 24-Hour Fitness, Northern California Division, was interviewed on November…… [Read More]