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Kenichi Ohmae is a business consultant and the author of various books including The Borderless World- Power and Strategy in the interlinked economy, which appeared in 1990, and deals with nature of business and economy in this era of rapid globalization. The main purpose of the book according to Ohmae is to illustrate the benefits of globalization by highlighting the role played by multi-nationals in creating and distributing choices. This purpose should make the book interesting enough for readers to read beyond the preface. Who doesn't want to know if globalization indeed has something positive to offer? With so much negative press, globalization truly deserves some positive comments and Ohmae undertakes this task but whether he succeeds or not is solely a matter of individual interpretation and perception. For some Ohmae is an expert whose views should be valued, but for others including myself, Ohmae often adopts the…
1) Ohmae, Kenichi, The Borderless World: power and strategy in the interlinked economy
London: William Collins, 1990
QUESTION THREE: "Is inequality of social classes inevitable?" The conflict theory put forward by Ralf Dahrendorf begins with a discussion of Marxism and the fact that in industry, the conflict between classes - the capitalist and proletariat (worker) - the worker had a natural inclination to be in conflict with the capitalists who were the authority, the bosses. The same kind of conflict carried over into the political realm as well, sometimes violent. The problem was that there was no system whereby conflicts could be resolved. But Marx's analysis, Dahrendorf goes on, was tainted because of his obsession with proletarian revolution.
At this point in his essay, Dahrendorf, though rejecting Marx in that context, asserts that since there are "interest groups" and "quasi-groups" those must then be considered "classes." And if there are classes, it is then logical to assume there will be groups, and quasi-groups that will always have…
Berger, Peter; & Luckmann, Thomas. (1966). The Social Construction of Reality: A Treatise
In the Sociology of Knowledge. Garden City NY: Anchor Books, pp. 51-55, 59-61.
Collins, Particia Hill. (1990). Black Feminist Thought: Knowledge, Consciousness, and the Politics of Empowerment. Boston: UnwinHyman, pp. 221-238.
Dahrendorf, Ralf. (1959). Class and Class Conflict in Industrial Society. Stanford: Stanford
Take as an example McDonald's venture to extend its business operations in countries within the Asian region. Through globalization, the company has learned to adapt to the culture of the country it invests in. Examples of such adjustments are the introduction of rice in most of the meal offerings of McDonald's in the Philippines, inclusion of spicy foods in McDonald's menus in India, and the establishment of large McDonald's buildings in China in order to accommodate the large number of consumers that patronize the fast food chain. These are examples of companies' conscious effort to recognize globalization and its principles.
Consensus." Available at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Consensus.
Feminist Utopia." Available at http://www.amazoncastle.com/feminism/ecocult.shtml.
Introduction to globalization." Available at http://www.globalization.com/intro.cfm?page_id=1321.
Positivism." Available at http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/help/mach1.htm.
Postmodernism and its critics." Available at http://www.as.ua.edu/ant/Faculty/murphy/436/pomo.htm.
Socialization." Available at http://anthro.palomar.edu/social/soc_1.htm.
Consensus." Available at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Consensus .
Feminist Utopia." Available at http://www.amazoncastle.com/feminism/ecocult.shtml .
Introduction to globalization." Available at http://www.globalization.com/intro.cfm?page_id=1321 .
Positivism." Available at http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/help/mach1.htm .
Thorstein Veblen's The Theory of the Leisure Class: An Economic Study of Institutions is a sociological discourse that centers on the phenomenon of new technology, popularly termed as the technological revolution of human civilization. Veblen discusses the relationship between new technologies (particularly technologies in communication) and how these (technologies) affect the degree of social interaction and shaping society and its culture. He introduces the technological theory of history, where he posits that "the "state of the industrial arts," that is, the technology available to a society, determines the character of its culture... A new technology erodes vested ideas, overcomes vested interests, and reshapes institutions in accord with its own needs" (Coser, 1977:273). Of particular interest to the study of technological and information technology revolutions are found in the fourth chapter of his discourse, entitled, "Conspicuous Consumption." orrowing from his ideas that technology will eventually determine the culture of a…
Coser, L. (1977). Introduction to Sociology. New York: Harcourt-Brace.
Veblen, T. (1902). The Theory of the Leisure Class: An Economic Study of Institutions. Available at http://xroads.virginia.edu/~HYPER/VEBLEN/chap04.html .
Accordingly, the significance of the application of the conflict perspective to American food is that its accuracy is so blatantly valid that it has progressed almost unnoticed through our nation's history. Out of the philosophical roots of Marx, conflict theory has evolved and broadened its scope; today, it is most commonly used to evaluate the legal system, but the core conflict remains that between the proletariats and the owners of the means of production. In this way, the conflicts surrounding the exponentially expanding fast food industry reach between the working class and the social elite. McDonalds's, in particular, represents one of the most glaring examples of how the social elite in society have managed to package, sell, and justify their prominent position in American society to the masses.
The central premise of social conflict theory is that individuals and groups within society generally use their power -- as much of…
Amaladoss, Michael. "Global Homogenization: Can Local Cultures Survive?" 2006. Available:
Berger, Peter L. Invitation to Sociology. New York: Anchor Books, 1963.
Diamond, Jared. Guns, Germs, and Steel. New York: W.W. Norton and Company, 1999.
Finally, the rise of science and technology due to industrialization militated against institutionalized religion (Bruce, 2002, p. 18). As people became more educated and reliant on science and technology in their everyday lives and work lives, religious disagreements with science and led people to abandon institutional religions as unscientific and backward. People knew that science and technology worked; therefore, religious arguments against science and technology tended to be rejected. In sum, the religious and secular teachings of the Protestant Reformation caused people to move toward greater secularization for religious, economic, social and intellectual reasons.
The Protestant Reformation significantly contributed to both Capitalism and Secularization in the est. By eliminating or reducing the Roman Catholic Church's underpinnings, including the Sacraments and obedience to Church authorities for salvation, the Reformation caused individuals to search here on earth for signs that they were saved and to rely on themselves rather than…
Bruce, S. (2002). God is dead: Secularization in the west - (Religion and spirituality in the modern world). Malden, MA: Blackstone Publishing, Ltd.
Stepan, a.C. (October 2000). Religion, democracy, and the "twin tolerations." Journal of Democracy, 11(4), 37-57.
Weber, M.A. (2003). The Protestant ethic and the spirit of capitalism. Mineola, NY: Dover Publications, Inc.
Sociology of Youth
The Structural Arrangements
The class view using the Social-Psychological perspective precipitates a point-of-view in the context of society as the dictator to the actor, the environment perpetuating the role that young individuals play in contemporary society. The social interaction is engaged through the environmental variables that lead to the psychological parameters to which the youth operate within. This approach is ostensibly akin to Ethnomethodology that views humans as a rule ridden species predicated on acting within a given societal or moral framework.
The identity formation of bonded child laborers in India is an example of youth that have no control over their environment and to where their environment or social paradigm shapes their individual thought process. These youth become a function of their environment. Essentially, a product of their environment that is based on exploitation and abuse of the children of the society. The structural arrangements for…
Erikson, Erick H. "Adolescence and the life cycle stage. Identity, youth & crisis,(pp. 128-135). New York W.W. Norton & Co. 1968.
Hostetler, J. "A sectarian society. Amish society (pp. 6-17). Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press. 1980.
Kovasevic, Natasa. "Child Slavery." Harvard International Review 29.2 (2007): 36,36-39. ABI/INFORM Global.Web. 16 June 2011.
Milner Murray. "Freaks, Geeks and Cool Kids, American Teenagers, Schools, and the Culture of Consumption." (2004) Routledge
Industrial and Organizational Psychology shares much in common with several related fields, and there are multiple professional partnership opportunities. The field most closely linked to industrial and organizational psychology, and one that is important to my personal career development, is going to be human resources. As Cascio & Silbey (1979) point out, assessment centers have transformed the nature of human resources and the candidate selection process, helping organizations make more educated decisions about crafting the ideal organizational culture. Likewise, Murphy, Dzieweczynski & Yang (2009) show how the field of psychology, and organizational psychology in particular, has contributed to the evolution of assessment measures used at every stage of the human resources process from initial intakes and screening for candidates to ongoing assessments and evaluations. In this sense, human resources depend on organizational and industrial psychology.
The field of industrial and organizational psychology adds complexity to the human resources selection process,…
Cascio, W. & Silbey, V. (1979). Utility of the assessment center as a selection device. Journal of Applied Psychology, 64(2), 107-118. (EBSCOhost Accession
Number: AN 5112753).
Murphy, K., Dzieweczynski, J., & Yang, Z. (2009). Positive manifold limits the relevance of content-matching strategies for validating selection test batteries. Journal of Applied Psychology, 94(4), 1018-1031. (EBSCOhost Accession Number: AN apl-94-4-1018).
Prins, S. (2006). The psychodynamic perspective in organizational research: Making sense of the dynamics of direction setting in emergent collaborative processes. Journal of Occupational & Organizational Psychology, 79(3), 335-355. (EBSCOhost Accession Number: AN 22557999).
Sociology of Work
Max Weber advocated a management system, which would replace the influence of tradition and personal connection with clearly defined roles independent of those who occupied them. It was the need of his time when he and fellow theorists sought ways of increasing efficiency in production. Machines were then taking over the workload of many industries and people's lives, necessitating an immortal organization. He believed that a hierarchy had to be established to get things done. With the help of his contemporary Henry Ford, the concept of specialization was incorporated into system. Weber firmly believed it would increase efficiency of production. Strong rules and regulations must be set to keep tight control by management ranks. The bureaucratic organizational structure has been handed down to the present time with mixed effects. It has enabled governments and corporations to assert and exert power and to project power in…
Altay, A. (1999). The efficiency of bureaucracy on the public sector. DEUIIBF Dergisi:
Dokuz Eylul Universitesi. Retrieved on November 27, 2012 from http://www.libf.deu.edu.tr/dergi/1999_2_4.pdf
Carnis, L.A.H. (2009). The economic theory of bureaucracy: insights from the Niskanian model and the Miserian approach. The Quarterly Journal of Austrian's
Economics. Retrieved on November 27, 2012 from http://mises.org/journals/qjae/pdf/qjae12_3_4.pdf
They are therefore not determined or restricted by factors such as norms, morals or external principles. A concise definition of this view is as follows:
Constructivism views all of our knowledge as "constructed," because it does not reflect any external "transcendent" realities; it is contingent on convention, human perception, and social experience. It is believed by constructivists that representations of physical and biological reality, including race, sexuality, and gender are socially constructed
Another theoretical and philosophical stance that is pertinent to the understanding of the status of the family in modern society is the post-structural or deconstructive view. This is allied to a certain extent with the constructivist viewpoint, which sees society as a social construction and denies the reality of transcendent factors. This view therefore sees the family as a structure which is not fixed or static but is relative in terms of the norms and values…
Anderson, G.L. (Ed.).1997, the Family in Global Transition. St. Paul, MN: Professors World Peace Academy.
Baker, M. 2003, 'Reinventing the Family: In Search of New Lifestyles', Journal of Sociology, Vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 178+.
Constructivist epistemology. [Online] Available at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_constructivism
Coulter, G. 2001, 'Cohabitation: An Alternative Form of Family Living', Canadian Journal of Sociology, Vol.26, no. 2. p. 245.
Introducing Alexa Madison
Basic facts from her childhood
Basic facts from her adolescence
Basic facts from her young adult life
Issues related to race
Detailed analysis of race-related issues in Alexa's life
acial identity in a multicultural society: the factors that help create an individual's racial identity and membership in a specific social group based on race or ethnicity.
Implications for social status; in particular, the self-perception of African-Americans vs. The expectations placed on African-Americans
Link to external sources to present Alexa's life in the broader context of African-American culture, life, and history.
The 2008 film Crips and Bloods: Made in America is about gang warfare and violence in Los Angeles, but the underlying message is that problems impacting black communities in the 21st century have their roots in institutionalized racism.
(a) Alexa might not have had any interaction with gang members, but her experiences reflect…
Anderson, E. (1994). The code of the streets. The Atlantic. May 1994. Retrieved online: http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/1994/05/the-code-of-the-streets/306601/
Crips & Bloods: Made in America (2008) (excerpt, 41 min.)
Epstein, C.F. (2007). "The Global Subordination of Women." Pp. 283-302 in The Spirit of Sociology: A Reader, 3rd ed., edited by Ron Matson. Boston: Pearson.
Lareau, A. 2010 . "Invisible Inequality: Social Class and Childrearing in Black Families and White Families." Pp. 611-626 in Mapping the Social Landscape: Readings in Sociology, 6th ed., edited by Susan J. Ferguson. New York: McGraw Hill.
Sociology Take Home Final
Unequal Power Relationships and Laborers
The unequal power relationship that characterizes many employment relationships is characteristic of industrialized capitalism. Capitalism itself is defined by the manufacturing division of labor, which systematically divides the work of economic production into limited operations. The result is that no one man in the Capitalist system would know how to produce a good from start to finish, destroying the traditional notion of occupations, e.g. artisans or craftsmen.
ecause each worker is only qualified to perform a particular, often narrow, task which creates no value in itself but must be combined with the fruits of other tasks by the Capitalist, the worker is at the mercy of the Capitalist who owns the means of production. The dominant mode of employment arising from the manufacturing division of labor is wage labor. In wage labor, a worker does not work to improve his own…
Adler, William M. Mollie's Job: A Story of Life and Work on the Global Assembly Line. New York: Scribner, 2000. Print.
Appiah, Anthony. Cosmopolitanism: Ethics in a World of Strangers. New York: W.W. Norton & Co, 2006. Print.
Bowe, John. Nobodies: Modern American Slave Labor and the Dark Side of the New Global Economy. New York: Random House, 2007. Print.
Ehrenreich, Barbara. Nickel and Dimed: On (not) Getting by in America. New York: Metropolitan Books, 2001. Print.
In this view, the fact that underprivileged subcultures already promoted a different set of social values emphasizing "street smarts" and toughness instead of socially productive attributes and goals combined with the substitution of deviant role models for father figures is a significant source of criminal conduct, particularly in poor communities (Adler, Mueller & Laufer, 2008).
Other modern sociological perspectives began reconsidering crime and other forms of socially deviant behavior as primarily a function of individual psychology.
However, whereas earlier theories of individual responsibility focused on the role of rational choice, the modern approach viewed crime much more as a function of the cumulative psychological effects on the individual of the consequences of social labeling.
Furthermore, it has been suggested that much of the difference in crime rates in underprivileged communities also relates directly to the different types of characterizations and institutional responses to different types of crime in American society.…
John Adler, John Mueller, and John Laufer. Criminology (6th Edition). City, State:
McGraw-Hill, 2008. MLA
Adler J, Mueller J, and Laufer J. (2008). Criminology (6th Edition). City, State: McGraw-Hill. APA
Sociology: Labor Studies
This particular excerpt from The Oxford Companion to merican Politics provides a fairly attenuated summary of the history and the efficacy of merican labor unions. It traces the chronology of union involvement within labor practices dating from the founding of the merican Federation of Labor in 1886, to the present day splintering of union solidarity that accounts for virtually all-time low participation rates. Furthermore, this excerpt provides a readily accessible synopsis of the benefits that membership in unions yields to its employees, which are readily contrasted with the benefits and wage information of non-union employees. The government's involvement in both the incline and decline of unions in the United States is recounted as well, while certain key facets of union membership (such as stratifications including the public and private sectors of labor) are also detailed in relation to economic, political, and technological changes throughout the years.…
According to this excerpt, the U.S. government played a profound role in the development and eventual decline of union prowess and density. The goal of unions, of course, is to unite workers throughout a particular industry and allow for more rights and a better quality of life for such employees. The government's involvement was crucial to initial union success during the Great Depression, by enabling the passing of legislation, most notably the National Labor Relations Act (which is also called the Wagner Act), that allowed for unionization and collective bargaining. One of the most prominent of unions, the Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO) was founded soon after in 1937. Union involvement would flourish the most during the 1950s, when 35% of all eligible workers were members of labor unions.
However, the government would also prove to be influential in the reduction of union authority and involvement with the nation's workers. Legislation was passed to circumscribe some of the positive effects of the NLRA, including the Taft-Hartley Act of 1947 and the Landrum-Griffith Act of 1957. Other noteworthy governmental actions that helped contribute to the decline of labor unions included Ronald Reagan's firing of air controllers in 1981, as well as the large amounts of "right to work" legislation that outlawed beneficiaries of collective bargaining contracts to pay dues to unions. Other factors responsible for the decline of union involvement include globalization and the outsourcing of traditional industries and sources of labor to overseas countries where there are no unions. Additionally, the splintering of the traditional AFL-CIO into other factions significantly detracted from the solidarity of unions.
The information provided within this excerpt appears to be poignantly true, particularly when it details the wage advantages that union membership offers vs. employees who are not part of labor unions. Furthermore, the awareness that such unions raise in their employees of non-wage related benefits, such as health coverage, increased vacation time, and lower premiums for health and life benefits, is certainly productive and may partially explain why the government was largely responsible for decreasing the effectiveness and the authority of unions in the past several decades. Yet what is suggested throughout the duration of this excerpt is that the true strength in unions lies in their membership. If enough people join them and become involved in them, it appears as if there potency can be elevated again to enable working class people to attain middle class status.
Sociology -- Social Work
Poverty is the condition of one who lacks a definite amount of material possessions or money. Absolute poverty or destitution refers to the one who lacks basic human needs, which normally includes clean and fresh water, nutrition, health care, education, clothing and shelter. Nearly two billion people are anticipated to live in absolute poverty today. elative poverty refers to lacking a normal or communally acceptable level of resources or income as compared with others within a society or nation. For most of history poverty had been typically accepted as foreseeable as conventional modes of production were inadequate to give an entire population a comfortable standard of living. After the industrial revolution, mass production in factories made wealth increasingly more economical and accessible. Of more importance is the transformation of agriculture, such as fertilizers, in order to provide sufficient yields to feed the population (Poverty, 2012).…
Areas with Concentrated Poverty: 2006 -- 2010. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.census.gov/prod/2011pubs/acsbr10-17.pdf
Bartle, P. (2011). Factors of Poverty The Big Five. Retrieved from http://cec.vcn.bc.ca/cmp/modules/emp-pov.htm
Poverty. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/473136/poverty
eber made appoint of recognizing that, even something so seemingly objective and abstract as the law, was, in reality, a substantive tool in the hands of judges and politicians. Judges are not "automata of paragraphs' (eber) because they are of necessity implicated in the values they are compelled to adjudicate. Substantive judgments and discretionary, extra-juristic evaluations are smuggled in under the camouflage of formal legal rationality." (Baehr 2002) the law, as it was printed on the page, was objective - it always said the same thing. However, it was the various judges, each of whom brought to the bench a unique collection of experiences, who necessarily interpreted those words in different ways. All of this was thus, a completely natural and "scientific" process. Each part of the machine performed as it was supposed to - it just depended on how you assembled the machine.
One sign that is frequently taken…
Baehr, Peter. 2002. In the Grip of Freedom: Law and Modernity in Max Weber. Canadian Journal of Sociology 27, no. 4: 587+. Database online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/.Internet. Accessed 4 June 2005. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=49065068
1990. The Forms of Power: From Domination to Transformation. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=94050575
Grusky, David B., ed. 1994. Social Stratification: Class, Race, and Gender in Sociological Perspective. Boulder, CO: Westview Press. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5007673311
In terms of the plainness of gendered inequalities in the health and longevity of women, compared with men, the majority world demands our notice. The world-wide toll in terms of women's raised levels of mortality and morbidity corroborates that limited or negligible access to political power, land-ownership, education, sexual self-determination and earning ability has detrimental bodily effects (Bradby, 2009).
While sociologists have long studied the aspect of illness, it has only been recently that they have turned their attention to the development of sociology of health. Sociologists' interest in health emerged in part in reaction to the biomedical mode, which focused primarily on disease. A more holistic approach to health and healing, sociologists argued, must also encompass the idea of positive health and well-being. The concept of health itself needs to be explored, and such exploration must take lay perspectives into account. A holistic, or socio-environmental, model of health also…
Albrecht, Gary L., Fitzpatrick, Ray and Scrimshaw, Susan. 2003. "Handbook of Social Studies
in Health and Medicine." Sage Publications: California.
Bradby, Hannah. 2009. "Virtual Special Issue on feminism and the sociology of gender, health and illness." Sociology of Health and Wellness. Available at:
For example, there is evidence to suggest that federal housing funds, such as FHA and others, were denied of economically challenged African-Americans because the areas where they were seeking to purchase housing were made all but worthless when available properties, abandoned by the afore mentioned "white flight," depressed real estate prices to the point where financing was difficult, being seen by lenders as risky at best (Solnit, 2007). Therefore, what is seen, despite efforts to reverse the tailspin, was a rapid decline of the urban areas like Detroit, with plentiful jobs and housing giving way to poverty, homelessness and crime-enter the urban crisis.
Political Consequences of the Urban Crisis
Politically, cities like Detroit did not take the urban crisis in stride; rather, it ignited positive and negative activism within cities across the northern U.S.. For Detroit, urban crisis led to a mobilization of African-American politicians, many of whom were elected…
Solnit, Rebecca (July, 2007). Detroit Arcadia: Exploring the Post-American Landscape. Harper's Magazine.
Sugrue, Thomas (1996). The Origins of the Urban Crisis: Race and Inequality in Postwar Detroit. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Meanwhile, it is the high-earning but consumption-oriented under accumulators of wealth (UAWs) who patronize luxury car dealerships, high-end country clubs, and so- called "high fashion" clothing manufacturers. In this regard, one of the most powerful influences motivating such irresponsible consumption is the concentration of media attention on relatively few wealthy celebrities whose model of ostentatious consumption is simply not representative of the habits of most Americans with equally high net worth (Stanley & Danko 1996).
Whereas many PAWs earn substantially less than some of their UAW counterparts, they invest a substantial portion of their salaries into long-term stable investments that translate into a secure financial future. Conversely, the typical UAW, many of whom are so-called "successful professionals" earning very high salaries, increases spending to match any increase in income. As a result of continually "trading up" to the most expensive car, home, and clothing they can afford at any given…
Branden, N. (1985) Honoring the Self: The Psychology of Confidence and Respect. New York: Bantam
Einstein, a. (1954) Ideas and Opinions. New York: Crown
Lowenstein, R. (2007) Subprime Time: How Did Home Ownership Become So Rickety? New York Times Magazine; Sept. 2/07
Mills, C. (1953) White Collar: The American Middle Class. New York: Oxford University Press.
Youthful offenders especially, are subjected to negative influences and damaging treatment while in prison. Rehabilitation can be arranged so as to meet the needs of individual women and men, allowing them to come to terms with the reality of their transgressions, and to see and understand how they affect those around them. Mandatory participation in rehabilitation programs as an alternative to prison can give these insights to offenders even if they do not, at first, or even a second or a third time, accomplish their desired goals. Mandatory prison sentences for relatively minor or consensual drug and alcohol offenses have swelled the nation's prison system. Vast numbers of otherwise productive persons are kept locked away from society, doomed for perhaps making ill-advised decisions, denied proper treatment and consideration. The system should be changed to emphasize the inclusiveness of society. Individuals who offend should be helped with their problems and welcomed…
Berman, Douglas a. "Distinguishing Offense Conduct and Offender Characteristics in Modern Sentencing Reforms." Stanford Law Review 58.1 (2005): 277+.
Delgado, Melvin. Where Are All the Young Men and Women of Color?: Capacity Enhancement Practice in the Criminal Justice System. New York: Columbia University Press, 2001.
What ethical dilemmas do sociologists face?
One dilemma that Sociologists deal with is competence. Many of them do strive to uphold the highest levels of capability in their work. A lot of them try to recognize the limits of their knowledge; and they assume merely those responsibilities for which they are competent by training, education, or knowledge. Sociologists recognize the necessity for continuing education so as to remain professionally competent; and they also apply the suitable scientific, expert, technical, and administrative resources wanted to assure competence in their professional doings. Another dilemma is integrity. Sociologists are fair, honest, and reverent of others in their expert activities -- in teaching, service research, and practice. Sociologists are the ones that do not meaningfully act in ways that risk either their own or others' professional well-being.
What is Culture?
According to Giddens culture is measured by sociologists as something described as the following;…
Adams, B.N. (2001). Sociological Theory. New York city: Pine Forge Press.
Babbie, E.R. (2003). The Practice of Social Research: 10th edition. New York City: Thomson Learning Inc.
Gerber, L.M. (2011). Sociology,. Boston: Seventh Canadian Edition.
Giddens, a. (2010). Essentials of Sociology. New York City: W.W. Norton & Co.
Within my own community, I have seen this as more and more people travel farther and farther away for college, and settle far away from their parents. Access to expanded opportunities motivates the individual to break his or her existing social ties.
A third and final sociological concept manifested in the McMinden example is seen in the prevalence of drug addiction in the town. As noted by Manuel Mendoza, a Hispanic police officer who has made some inroads into the once almost entirely white town's law enforcement hierarchy, drug use crosses all racial divides, as the town's economic condition has worsened, so has the prevalence of addiction. Individuals who feel they have been denied the opportunity to fully enjoy the American Dream, particularly when confronted with increasingly unrealistic expectations of material success in the media, often experience what obert K. Merton called anomie, or alienation. One of the ways individuals…
Deviance. (2010). Sociology Guide. Retrieved November 25, 2010 at http://www.sociologyguide.com/basic-concepts/Deviance.php
Ethnocentrism. (2010). Sociology Guide. Retrieved November 25, 2010 at http://www.sociologyguide.com/basic-concepts/Ethnocentrism.php
Urban sociological theory. (2010). Sociology Guide. Retrieved November 25, 2010 at http://www.sociologyguide.com/industrial-and-urban-society/Urban-sociological-theories.php
Industrial and Information Societies
The major characteristic of the industrial society, which distinguishes it from the previous society types, is the mode of subsistence. Unlike the previous foraging, pastoral and agricultural societies, gathering food in the industrial society is done by only a tiny fraction of the population, who supply food for the entire population. At the same time, the basis for society shifts, with mass production becoming the basis for wealth and power in an industrial society.
The mass production results in the factors associated with an industrialized society: high consumption of energy; reliance on technology; the production of waste material; urbanization; and reduced emphasis on physical labor.
The effect on society also includes a lesser emphasis on community and family and a growing emphasis on the individual. This further leads to a society where there is a complex class and power structure and a stratum of individuals from…
The death penalty should exist as a deterrent but only in a society where the criminal justice system is aligned with social justice—i.e., in a state where there is no deviation from the way the community views justice and from the way the criminal justice system views justice. Criminal justice and social justice must be in accordance, as Bazelon asserts, in order for a system of law to work, to be fair, to be equitable, and to be effective. In a society where social justice is at odds with criminal justice, the death penalty may not be prescribed as a deterrent to murder because the two systems—social justice and criminal justice—are out of alignment. When social justice and criminal justice are in harmony, the death penalty may therefore be appropriately administered as a deterrent for murder. In this harmony, it is acknowledged by society that the criminal justice system, that…
Industrial Revolution heralded a shift in the way that goods were produced. Technological developments in particular began a shift in emphasis away from human capital towards financial capital. Human beings, once almost exclusively in one trade or another, became increasingly viewed as equivalent to machines, or worse. This marked a shift both in business and society with respect to the nature of work in society, a shift whose repercussions are still felt today. The Introduction section will highlight the background information -- defining the Industrial Revolution, the ways work was viewed in society prior to it and how work is viewed in society today, which will provide perspective of some of the critical changes that have occurred.
In his essay hy e ork, Andrew Curry outlines some of the more profound of these changes. These changes will form the basis of my research paper on how the Industrial Revolution affected…
Curry, A. (2003). Why we work. U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved November 9, 2010 from http://www.andrewcurry.com/portfolio/WhyWeWork.html
Crowley, M., Trope, D., Chamberlain, L. & Hudson, R. (2010). Neo-Taylorism at work: Occupational change in the post-Fordist era. Social problems. Vol. 57 (3) 421-447.
eNotes. (2010). Industrial Revolution. eNotes. Retrieved November 9, 2010 from http://www.enotes.com/industrial-revolution-about/introduction
Ferrante, J. (2005). Sociology: A global perspective. Cengage.
It doesn't take a rocket scientist to note that there have been disturbing trends in schools recently. While the spate of extreme violence appears to be waning, schools are still troubled places, with both students and teachers seemingly failing to get out of them what they expect or need, and suffering stress and trauma in the meantime. Society wants 'instant' gratification, TV is full of 'reality shows' that depend on people doing disgusting things to win a huge fortune, relatively speaking, so they can go do and buy more stuff. The most recent presidential race offered us a three-years-and-counting national discussion over who really won the presidency. And we have rushed headlong to send troops into two sovereign nations without benefit of the United Nations' sanctioning the acts, after the United Nations -- located on U.S. soil -- was founded to smooth out relationships between the world's peoples.
Bean, J.P. (1998). Alternative models of professorial roles: New languages to reimagine faculty work. Journal of Higher Education, 69(5), 496+.
Bertoch, M.R. (1989). Reducing teacher stress. Journal of Experimental Education, 57(2), 117-128.
Fatt, J.P. (1998). Innovative teaching: Teaching at its best. Education, 118(4), 616+.
Iannone, R.V., & Obenauf, P.A. (1999). Toward spirituality in curriculum and teaching. Education, 119(4), 737.
Is Canada a Post-Industrial Society?
There is little doubt that the economy in Canada has changed; over the last decade there has been a general movement away from agricultural and industrial jobs towards jobs in the service sector. This is a trend which appears to indicate the country is moving towards, or has become, a post-industrial society. To determine if this is the case it is necessary to define what is meant by the term post industrial society, to identify the characteristics which are seen in a post industrial society. The characteristics may then provide a basis for assessment of Canada.
The concept of a post industrial society was first popularized by Harvard Sociologist Daniel Bell, in his book the coming of the Post Industrial Society, first published in 1973. Bell (1999) hypothesized a model of four stages of society that have, or were believed to be emerging; the…
Aoyama, Yuko; Castells, Manuel, (1994, Jan - Feb), Paths towards the informational society: employment structure in G-7 countries, 1920-90, International Labor Review, 133(1), 5
Bell, Daniel, (1999), The Coming of Post-Industrial Society, New York, Basic Books
CIA, (2013), Canada, CIA World Factbook, [online] retrieved 7th of March 2013 https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ca.html
Krahn, H; Lowe, G, (1998), Work, industry, and Canadian society, International Thompson Publishing Company
shift from agrarian to industrial society a simple substitution of one form of economic behavior for another, hanging up the hat of the farmer to put on the hat of the factory worker. But there was in fact a substantial shift in nearly everything about daily life for those generations caught up in the transition from rural to urban worlds. The most obvious change was in the relationship between people and the land itself. No longer were people defined by their place of birth, by where they had always lived. They were defined - by others as well as themselves - by a series of portable skills.
The magnitude of this change is difficult for those of us who have grown up in a world in which mobility is the norm. But it must have been for those living at the beginning of the Industrial evolution a shattering (as well…
Bensel, R. (2001). The political economy of American industrialization, 1877-1900.
Cambridge: Cambridge University.
Carter, G. (ed.). (2000). Empirical approaches to sociology: A collection of classic and contemporary readings (3rd ed.). New York: Allyn & Bacon.
Durkheim, E. (G. Simpson, trans.). (1971). "Social Order and Control Via Close Social Ties: The Example of Suicide" in Suicide: A study in sociology. New York: The Free Press.
Living in the Industrial (21st Century) Society
One of the most revolutionary events and changes that happened in all of the world's societies is the emergence of the Industrial Revolution during the turn of the 21st century. During this period, human civilization moved from a communal form of living to a highly-industrialized society, wherein commodities and the needs of people became readily available in quantity because of the invention of machineries and the process of mass production. With the growth and development that the Industrial Revolution has brought to the world societies, many people have lived in what now we call as the 'capitalist societies,' and the backbone of most people's living and income comes from the rule of economics and providing people with the means to acquire their wants and needs. This, perhaps, is the most important characteristic that the Industrial or Capitalist society brought to human civilization, that…
For Giddens, the globalization of these abstract systems offers individuals opportunities and crises in which they must continually rebuild their own lives and identities. From his perspective, the increasing integration of systems does not necessarily signify greater worldwide social integration. In fact, the crises that arise from contradictions between the different abstract systems can actually lead to greater problems of social integration.
egardless of whether one looks at globalization from a uni- or multidimensional perspective or an economic or cultural one, it appears that global social integration will remain problematic in the years to come. Globalization is a relatively new phenomenon. The word "globalization," itself, in fact, was not even used much more than over a decade ago. Thus, the sociology of globalization is only in its infancy, and the theories noted here are just a few examples of others that will be argued. More and more, human societies worldwide…
Appadurai, A. (1990) Disjuncture and Difference in the Global Cultural Economy in D. Held and A. McGrew (eds.) The Global Transformations Reader. Cambridge: Polity Press, 239-246.
Busch, A. (2000) Unpacking the Globalization Debate: Approaches, Evidence and Data in C. Hay and D. Marsh (eds.) Demystifying Globalization London: Palgrave, 21-48
Giddens, A. (1990) The Consequences of Modernity in D. Held and A. McGrew (eds.) The Global Transformations Reader. Cambridge: Polity Press, 239-246.
Goldfrank, W.L. (2000). Paradigm Regained? The Rules of Wallerstein's World-System Method. Journal of World-Systems Research 6(2), 150-195
Politics Predominate in Advanced Industrial Societies? Advanced Capitalism, Social Differentiation, and Politics
The focus of this work is to examine the question asking why it is that class politics fail to be predominant in advanced industrial societies. Towards this end, this work will review the work of Karl Marx entitled "Classes" (1867) and the work of Calhoun, et al. (2012) entitled "Contemporary Sociological Theory."
Summary of the Theories
The work of ourdieu (1976) entitled "Outline of a Theory of Practice" demonstrated the development of the core of his theory as an effort to "understand the clash between enduring ways of life and larger systems of power and capital, the ways in which cultural and social structures are reproduced even amid dramatic change, and the ways in which action and structure are not simply opposed but depend on each other." (Calhoun, et al., 2012, p.325-26) In addition, ourdieu is reported to…
Calhoun, Craig, et al. (2012) Contemporary Sociological Theory. 3rd ed. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Marx, Karl (1867) Classes. Chapter 14.
Weber, Max (1914) The Distribution of Power within the Political Community: Class, Status, Party. Chapter 22.
At the time of the Industrial Revolution, philosophy had already dealt substantially with the notion of "division of labour" although the terminology was slightly different. Our modern sense of the division of labour is, of course, largely derived from nineteenth century industrial capitalism, and it was based on this paradigm that sociological thinkers like Marx, Durkheim, and Simmel would analyze the phenomenon. But we might note by way of introduction that they were inheriting an earlier tradition that emerged from earlier pre-industrial forms of capitalism, what began to emerge in England in the Elizabethan period and thereafter. Thus the Elizabethan idea of a "great chain of being" -- which posited an order and hierarchy to social relationships -- would gradually come to be altered by thinkers like Thomas Hobbes and Bernard Mandeville. By the early eighteenth century, Mandeville would lay down the basic principles of an idea of division…
Coser, Lewis. Masters of Sociological Thought. Second Edition. Long Grove, IL: Waveland Press, 2003. Print.
theoretical concepts from parts XII and XIII to the events and actors at the Malheur Wildlife efuge occupation. Be sure to utilize the different sections in your application.
Environmental criminology often focuses on opportunity theory, which is linked with rational choice theory. Opportunity theory suggests that criminal behavior is motivated or prompted by available opportunities to commit the crime. Although the Malheur occupiers were not environmental criminals in the traditional sense of being motivated also by an environmentalist agenda with related ecological goals, the Malheur Wildlife efuge is a nature preserve. There are also compounding issues related to territoriality, the "extent to which a space conveys a sense of being 'owned' or 'private' and has having clearly designated purposes," (XII, p. 459). Territoriality has been a primary driving factor in the occupation. The occupiers, spearheaded by Ammon Bundy and the Hammond brothers "sought to turn the refuge into a symbol…
Bernton, Hal. "Birds -- and staff -- return to Malheur National Wildlife Refuge." Seattle Times. 27 March, 2016. Retrieved online: http://www.seattletimes.com/seattle-news/northwest/birds-and-staff-return-to-malheur-national-wildlife-refuge/
Carpenter, Zoe. "Inside the Bundy Brothers' Armed Occupation." The Nation. Jan 5, 2016. Retrieved online: http://www.thenation.com/article/inside-the-malheur-wildlife-refuge-occupation/
Current events of the environmental ethics
Some of the major current events concerning the environmental ethics are the issue of global warming. One of the leading researchers (in the causes and effects of climate change; and in the field of allergies) in Europe has discovered that the burning of the fossil fuel that has increased over the recent past has resulted into the increase of the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Increase of atmospheric carbon dioxide facilitates the growth of the ragweed- an invasive plant- moreover; the hay fever is triggered of by this plant's pollen grains. Both early and long seasons of allergy are caused by the bloom of the birch trees as a result of the warmer temperatures (White, 1967).
Non-environmentally friendly behaviors currently such as the increased acts of war has not only affected the environment by impoverishing the natural resources but has also caused stress in…
Carson, R. (1962). Silent Spring. California: Houghton Mifflin.
Van, W., & Peter C. (1997). Primitives in the Wilderness: Deep Ecology and the Missing
Human Subject. New York: SUNY Press.
Varner, G. (1998). In Nature's Interests? Interests, Animal Rights, and Environmental
Sociology research review and critique: "oyz to Men"
Anoop Nayak's 2003 sociological study "oyz to Men: masculinities, schooling and labour transitions in de- industrial times" examines the adaptation (or lack thereof) of a representational group working-class ritish young men to a changing labor economy. Life in ritain has been profoundly altered due to shifts in the class structure. There is a dearth of stable factory jobs and a shift to "service sector economies, part-time work, fixed-term contracts and more 'flexible' patterns of labour" (Nayak 2003: 148). The study focuses specifically on the Northeast of England and details a specifically 'male' experience inside and outside of school. The perspective adopted is thus one of social constructivism, which seeks to understand how the subjects understand their own experiences in a social context and contextualizes those experiences within a wider cultural framework of interpretation which has many 'layers.'
The Northeast region was historically…
Nayak, Anoop. 2003. 'Boyz to Men': masculinities, schooling and labour transitions in de-
industrial times. Educational Review, 55(2): 147-158.
elationship Between Individual & Society: Understanding Contemporary Society
The human being, by his nature, is a social creature. This nature drives him to live as a member of society, in which he interacts with others to satisfy his needs and instincts. No person can manage to satisfy his needs on his own; rather, he requires specific relationships with other human beings in order to satisfy them. The nature of these relationships is determined by the system which is implemented in the society. However, every system, in order to produce a progressive society, has to balance between the needs of the individual and the needs of the society. If the individual's needs are ignored, then he will live in misery. Also, if the society's needs are ignored, then the society will not function properly as the environment in which the individual's strive to satisfy their needs. (LBA, 2010)
Blake, NCPsyA, M. (2012). Individuation. Web, Available from: http://www.marthablake.com/individuation1.html . 2012 November 14.
Furlong, A., & Cartmel, F. (2006). Young people and social change. Mcgraw-Hill International: Poland, 35 -- 53.
Health Knowledge. (2012). The Sociological Perspective: Society. Web, Available from: http://www.healthknowledge.org.uk/public-health-textbook/medical-sociology-policy-economics/4a-concepts-health-illness/section1 . 2012 November 14.
Jeffs, T., & Smith, M.K. (2002). Individualization and youth work. Youth and Policy, 76, 39 -65.
Skills and Deskilling
The idea of scientific management in the business world is an attempt to apply the methods of science to the increasingly complex problems of the control of labor in rapidly growing capitalist enterprises (Braverman, 2005, p. 59). According to Grint (1998, p. 176), the notion of mixing human labor with raw materials is a concern that Marx had about the labor process itself being an adaptation in relation to the needs of capital. Two theorists that have contributed greatly to this field are Frederick Winslow Taylor and Harry Braverman.
Braverman believed that the dynamic and immanent process of deskilling and degradation underlay the progression towards monopoly capitalism (Grint, 1998, p. 177).
Changes in the demand for skills are the consequence of changes either in the necessities associated with individual jobs or in the division of employment across jobs that have dissimilar skill requirements (Cappelli, 1993, p.…
Braverman, H. 1998. Labor and Monopoly Capital: The Degradation of Work in the Twentieth Century. New York: Monthly Review Press.
Cappelli, P. 1993, "Are skill requirements rising? Evidence from production and clerical jobs," Industrial & labor relations review, vol. 46, no. 3, p. 515.
Grint, K. 2005. The Sociology of Work. Malden, MA.: Polity Press.
Lerner, S. 1994, "The future of work in North America: Good jobs, bad jobs, beyond jobs." Futures, vol, 26, no. 2, pp.185-196.
Industrial Organizational Psychology: Motivation
Applied behavioral science
This is a branch of science that comprises of fields such as sociology, psychology and anthropology that deals primarily with the human actions and seeks to give a general view on human behavior within the society. This is a field which takes an interdisciplinary approach when it comes to the study of human behavior. It explores the activities and interactions among human beings. Applied behavioral science therefore is a process of systematically applying interventions that are based on the behavioral science principles in order to bring an improvement of socially significant behaviors to a meaningful degree and demonstrate that the interventions used are the ones that are responsible for bringing an improvement in behavior. This case study is explored from cognitive psychology which focuses on internal states like motivation, decision making, problem solving and so on.
In this case study Jasmine has to…
Grant, A. (2012). Leading with meaning: Beneficiary contact, prosocial impact, and the performance effects of transformational leadership.
This article is on the impact of transformational leadership in any organization. This article is relevant to the case study since it brings out the advantages of applying transformational leadership within the case study.
Ajang, P. (2011). Assessing the role of work motivation on employee performance. Retrieved July 7, 2014 from http://umu.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:140549/FULLTEXT01.pdf
This article looks at the importance of motivation of employees when it comes to their performance.it is relevant to the case study since we have seen the issue in the case study is the lack of motivation for employees hence it just emphasizes more on the fact that employee motivation is important when it comes to their performance.
State-Level Challenges and Issues
In the course of social worker's in Indiana performing clinical duties they are likely to provide service to Impaired Professionals. Impaired professionals bring to the clinical atmosphere additional clinical contemplations and challenges, not the least of which is their potential for endangerment or harm to the public (Supporting the Wellness and ecovery of Impaired Professionals, 2011). Impairment on the part of a professional is sure to contribute to unproductive service delivery, possibly even to bringing real harm to the client, and malpractice with all its consequences. Impairment may manifest itself in a number of ways, among them, chemical dependency, stress responses, and inadequate attention to the professionals own emotional troubles (The Impaired Helper, 2011).
Impaired professionals often experience inappropriate anger or resentment in the form of: intimidation, insulting or demeaning language, blaming or shaming others for mistakes or errors, needless sarcasm or pessimism and threats…
Ethical Standards for Human Service Professionals. (2009). Retrieved from http://www.nationalhumanservices.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id
Supporting the Wellness and Recovery of Impaired Professionals. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.naswin.org/displayconvsceduledesc.cfm?SessionId=1988418B-FB48-2FAD-
Sociology and Ecology
Thom Hartmann's "Last Hours of Ancient Sunlight" talks about the issue of increasing degradation of the environment as a result of development in human society. In the book, Hartmann centers his attention on a particular aspect of natural resource that is vital to every human's needs and activities -- the much-needed energy, which come, among others, in the form of sunlight and fossil fuels (reserve carbon energy). One of the author's main ideas and themes in his discussion of this issue (depletion of natural resources) is that human society, through its "dominant culture," played a vital and significant role in furthering the degradation of the state of the planet's physical landscape. Sing history as support evidence, Hartmann illustrates how human actions have indeed affected and caused the destruction of the Earth's environment. A case in point is the use and abuse of human society in its natural…
Hartmann, T. (1999). The Last Hours of Ancient Sunlight. Thom Hartmann and Mythical Research Inc.
The Impact of Workplace Sexual Harassment on Employees and Employers
Sexual Harassment (SH) is a subject that has made its way into the normative, professional lexicon. SH used to be a topic that was not taken seriously because it was a part of the workplace environment that was normal and was not subject to punitive consequences, though there are occasions that are exceptions to the rule. SH is a subject that must be taken seriously by every employee or member of an organization. SH is a subject that must be taken seriously on the individual level and on the organizational level. SH directly affects fundamental aspects of a place of employment, no matter the industry. Prevalent, pervasive, and even sporadic SH in the workplace serves as a destructive force from within and from without.
There is no workplace environment that exists that will never have one instance of SH.…
Houle, Jason N., Staff, Jeremy, Mortimer, Jeylan T., Uggen, Christopher, & Blackstone, Amy. "The Impact of Sexual Harassment on Depressive Symptoms During the Early Occupational Career." Society Mental Health, Vol. 1, No. 2, 89 -- 105, 2011. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3227029/ . 2014 January 10.
Jackson, Robert A. & Newman, Meredith A. "Sexual Harassment in the Federal Workplace Revisited: Influences on Sexual Harassment by Gender." Public Administration Review, Vol. 64, No. 6, 705 -- 717, 2004.
Lim, Sandy, & Cortina, Lilia M. "Interpersonal Mistreatment in the Workplace: The Interface and Impact of General Incivility and Sexual Harassment." Journal of Applied Psycholgoy, Vol. 90, No. 3, 483 -- 496, 2005.
Lim, Sandy, & Cortina, Lilia M. "Personal and Workgroup Incivility: Impact on Work and Health Outcomes." Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 93, No. 1, 95 -- 107, 2008.
dimensional man'? What is the relevance of this concept for management today?
One-Dimensional Man will dither all over between two opposing theories: which is modern industrial community is able to restrict qualitative alteration for the anticipatory future; power and propensities are there that might shatter this repression and blow up this society. The two propensities are present, concurrently and also one within the other. The initial propensity is foremost, and whatever prerequisite for a turnaround is available are being employed to avert it. It seems that a catastrophe might transform the state, but unless the acknowledgment of what is being performed and what is being checked undermines the awareness and the conduct of man, a calamity will not be enough to unleash the transformation. The study is concentrated on modern industrial society, wherein the technological equipment of manufacturing and delivery operates, not as the aggregate of just tools which can…
"Chapter 1: The New Forms of Control. Marcuse, Herbert: The One Dimensional Man" Retrieved from http://www.grossmont.edu/joe.braunwarth/POSC150/Readings/Marcuse.htm Accessed on 14 December, 2004
Fuchs, Christian. "On the Topicality of Selected Aspects of Herbert Marcuse's Works"
Retrieved from http://cartoon.iguw.tuwien.ac.at/christian/marcuse/marcuseENG.html Accessed on 14 December, 2004
"Hebert Marcuse: One-Dimensional Man" Retrieved from http://home.cwru.edu/~ngb2/Authors/Marcuse.html Accessed on 14 December, 2004
Anomie and Alienation
Lost, With No Possibility of Being Found
Running through the literature of classical late nineteenth-century and early twentieth-century sociology are themes of isolation, of the poverty of life lived in isolated cells, of the fragility of a life in which we can almost never make authentic connections with other people, in which we are lost even to ourselves. We have -- and this "we" includes the entire population of the industrialized world, or at least most of it -- have raised the act of rationalism to an art form, but along the way we have lost so much of our humanity that we can no longer form or maintain a community. Four of the major social critics of the twentieth century took up these themes for essentially the same reason: To argue that while ailing human society could be transformed in ways that would give it meaning…
Sociology as a field of study entails examining and understanding the behavior of human groups and associated social behavior. In understanding these aspects, the sociologists have, their focus primarily concentrated on the human interactions. These human interactions revolve around how the different social relations influence the behavior and attitudes of the people and how the societies originate, form and change. Human interactions are vast, and so is the field of sociology. It covers virtually all the topics of human life, from gender, race, religion, education, politics, health, group behavior and conformity among others. Sociologist focus on how the society and people influence other people since most personal experiences has their origin from external or social forces.
The social and external forces exist within the society in the form of interpersonal relationships between families and friends. Additionally, these relations form from the encounters in the academic, religious,…
Schaefer, R.T. (2007). Sociology. Boston: McGraw-Hill.
Ballantine, J.H., & Roberts, K.A. (2010). Our social world: Introduction to sociology. Thousand Oaks: Pine Forge Press, An Imprint of SAGE Publications.
Giddens, A., & Sutton, P.W. (2009). Sociology. Cambridge, UK: Polity.
King, L., & McCarthy, D. (2009). Environmental sociology: From analysis to action. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield.
(115) "hen the old yogis complain about commercialization, who can blame them? Gucci sells a yoga mat and matching bag for $655. Companies use famous yogis and yoga lingo to advertise cereal, beer and Hormel pork-loin fillets...Yoga is at a confused, precarious place, teetering on the edge of overexposure." Though, Rosin stresses that there is no real harm in the utilization of such a tool to teach and help people grow in spirituality and body, as a social outlet and a manner of life. (119)
Max eber contends that a great deal of the importance of understanding the sociology of religion lies in understanding the way such groups access power, and in the modern America what better way for a movement to gain power than through modern media commercialization? "...one aspect of the sociology of religion is the study of how certain groups or institutions (theologians, prophets, churches and sects)…
Blend, Charles, et al. Emile Durkheim, 1858-1917: A Collection of Essays, with Translations and a Bibliography. Ed. Kurt H. Wolff. Columbus, OH: Ohio State University Press, 1960.
Rosin, Hanna "Striking a Pose" The Atlantic Monthly December 2006, 114-119.
Turner, Bryan S. Max Weber: From History to Modernity. London: Routledge, 1993.
Many different views abound on the origins of modern capitalism, causalities that range from economic to political, from religious to cultural, or for some, an amalgamation of societies need to expand and the resources necessary to fuel that expansion. Max Weber's the Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism is a study of the relationship between the ethics of ascetic Protestantism and the emergence of the spirit of modern capitalism. An ascetic Protestant is one who practices self-denial and self-discipline. Weber argues that the religious ideas of groups such as the Calvinists played a role in creating the capitalistic spirit. Calvinism focused on predestination and God's infinite power, a hierarchical system that transcended religion and moved into economic and social activities.
This is true not only in cases where the difference in religion coincides with one of nationality, and thus of cultural development . . . . The same thing…
Durkheim, E. (1997). The Division of Labor in Society. New York: Free Press.
____. (2008). The Elementary Forms of Religious Life. New York: Oxford University
Grusky, D., ed. (2000). Social Stratification: Class, Race, and Gender in Sociological
In other words, he changes, and for Marx, the capitalist cannot change until forced to do so, specifically by the revolution he and Engels call for in the Communist Manifesto. Marx sees the economic development of history as a matter of class struggle, following the dialectic of Hegel as opposing forces fight and through that revolution produce a synthesis, or a new social order. Dickens sees change as possible more simply by showing people the error of their ways and so getting them to change to a different way of behaving. Marx sees the need for a revolution to force any change into existence.
Again, the England described by Dickens was the England that helped produce Karl Marx and that contributed to his social theory. Both Marx and Dickens see the social ills of the time and ascribe these to the greed and single-minded pursuit of money on the part…
Dickens, Charles. A Christmas Carol. Provided.
Marx, Karl. "The Duchess of Sutherland and Slavery." 1953. Provided.
Tucker, Richard C. The Marx-Engels Reader. New York: W.W. Norton, 1978.
Marx Historical Context
Classical sociological and economic theories like those of Karl Marx emerged in Western Europe when it was experiencing the Enlightenment, the emergence of scientific method, a growing sense of individual autonomy over one's life conditions, the emergence of private property, urban growth, and a total shattering of the social balance of relations among peoples that had been in place for centuries if not millennia. Christianity and other traditional religions were being undermined by the new developments in science and technology, while urban, industrial capitalism was breaking up the old feudal-agrarian order in Europe and the Americas. All the founders of modern sociology had to deal with this radically new society, and attempted to describe its historical origins, the new social and economic problems of industrial capitalism, and how governments and societies should deal with them. Karl Marx received his PhD in economics in Germany during the dawn…
Appelrouth, S. And L.D. Edles (2010). Sociological Theory in the Classical Era: Text and Readings, 2nd Edition. SAGE Publications.
Greene, J.C. "Biological and Social Theory in the Nineteenth Century: August Comte and Herbert Spencer" in John Offer (ed). Herbert Spencer: Critical Assessments of Leading Sociologists, Volume 2. Routledge, 2000, pp. 203-26.
Marx, Karl and Friedrich Engels. The Manifesto of the Communist Party. Moscow: Progress Publishers, 1969.
Durkheim were alive today, what elements in the post-industrial world would he say are representative of "mechanical solidarity" and what elements represent "organic solidarity?" Could his theory account for both of these co-existing in post-modern society? Why or why not?
According to Ritzer, the sociologist Emile Durkheim viewed human solidarity under two basic divisions or constructs. The first is that of mechanical solidarity. If solidarity is a form of social cohesion, mechanical solidarity is based upon a sense of physical likeness or ritual similarities between individuals in any particular society. It is dependent on shared customs routines. Although Durkheim usually discusses this concept amongst prehistoric societies and suggests that the need for this solidarity has decreased in post-modernity, this may not be the case -- as much as the sociologist might have liked.
Firstly, the adoption of 'trends' from the street and the mechanical, commonly shared rituals of commuting to…
In this case, they are not even at the level of the industrial society. Therefore, an answer would have to consider both aspects.
The advantages for an individual living in the agrarian society are the freedom of the being. Aside from its philosophical content, the expression points out the fact that people living in agrarian societies were more part of a society that those living today because they still had the human element in their character. The constant interdependent relationship was necessary and connected people more. The disadvantage was, surely, the lack of possibilities, and the limited technology available which made their lives tougher.
The post industrial society however is by far the society which offers the most advantages, as well as disadvantages. The advantages include communication, online education, the Internet, world trade, the globalization of exchanges, and economic development. China has benefited greatly from technology as it is now…
For example, Tocqueville was able to explain 18th century European aristocrat behavior by looking at social consequences. Like Tocqueville, Marx believed that they could explain individual actions by looking at subconscious class interests. Frey has demonstrated that people will accept individually negative outcomes, if they have positive group benefits.
Nietzsche believed that, while conscious of class interests, individual actions and beliefs should be viewed from an individual perspective, since they are motivated by the positive consequences to the individual actor. In discussing his theory of bounded rationality, Simon seemed to combine elements from the different theorist, by showing how social actions include cognitive dimensions.
3. How does the author distinguish human actions from other forms of human behavior?
Again, the author does not make it clear how he feels human actions and other forms of human behavior are different. Instead, he explains how various theorists have attempted to differentiate human…
A nation faithful to democracy is blessed and called to spread this "good news" throughout the nations "(Withrow,2007, p.15 ).
Coupled with this "gospel" was the support and verification of major scientific theories during this period. Social Darwinism was derived from Darwin's work on the evolution of the species. In essence, Darwin's theory of human evolution refers to the principle of the 'survival of the fittest," on which the ideal of human progress becomes possible. Therefore, taking this principle into account, Social Darwinism attempt to explain and justify the social and economic inequalities in society in terms of those who are the strongest and fittest in the society i.e. those who are the most prosperous and who accumulate the most. Therefore, the vision that this theory produced was one that favored and justified the strongest and most successful in society.
In order to understand the impact of Social Darwinism one…
Carnegie a. The Gospel of Wealth Reflection Questions. Excerpts of an essay written by Carnegie in 1889. Retrieved from http://learningtogive.org/resources/stories/gospelofwealth/
De Santis, V. The American Gilded Age Revisited. Australian Journal of Politics & History, 29
(2), pp. 354 -- 367. Available from http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/119538983/abstract?CRETRY=1&SRETRY=0
Withrow L. Success and the Prosperity Gospel: from Commodification to Transformation a Wesleyan Perspective. Journal of Religious Leadership, 6(2). Available from http://arl-jrl.org/Volumes/Withrow07.pdf.
In his theory of evolution, Darwin argued that evolution occurred because of natural selection, wherein the determining principle is, "survival of the fittest." That is, in a given population and a given environment, certain individuals have certain characteristics that would make survive and thrive. As thriving happens, adaptation occurs, wherein the individual ensures that s/he is able to cope with the changes, state, and dynamics of his/her environment. This theory of evolution enforced the idea of competition and the concept of survival, concepts that became more relevant to societies as they became immersed in the industrialized economy and the eventual dominance of the capitalist economy, which is motivated also by the spirit of competition and 'survival of the fittest.'
The Victorian ethos was created and developed in the context of the emerging industrialization of economies in the 19th century. The Victorian ethos held that society is in progress, and that…
Ecological-Evolutionary Theory (EET)
Evolution and evolution: Comparative History of Social Change
In understanding the evolution of human societies in the course of history, it is best traced and determined through the different states of economic development that humanity has experienced. Humanity's evolution from being a hunting and gathering to an industrial society can be pointed to numerous variables that served as catalysts that eventually made the conditions suitable for the nature of societies at present, which are mainly industrialized or heading towards industrialization. Tracing the history of social change is tracing the catalysts that led to the following stages of economic development in human societies over time: from hunting and gathering, to simple horticultural, eventually to advanced horticultural, developing to simple agrarian, then to advanced agrarian, and ultimately, to industrial societies.
This transition from different levels of economic development could have been spurred by population growth, wherein the need more…
Nielsen, F. (2003). "The ecological-evolutionary typology of human societies and the evolution of social inequality." Sociological Theory.
Nolan, P. (2003). "Toward an ecological-evolutionary theory of the incidence of warfare in post-industrial societies." Sociological Theory, Vol. 21, No. 1.
One interesting way of looking at cultural, historical, and sociological trends is to extrapolate the individual into society and vice versa. Trends that occur within the individual -- birth, childhood, adolescence, adulthood, illness, old age, dementia, and death -- also occur within society, albeit at a different pace and severity. The pathology of an empire, for example, the oman Empire, can be compared to more modern interpretations of the stages and psychopathology of the individual, and not only trends examined and compared, but a clear relationship between the way ome declined from within, eventually to merge into something quite different, and ways of looking at individual self-destructive behaviors.
Emile Durkeim (1858-1917) was a French sociologist who many consider to be one of the founders of sociology and anthropology. He was instrumental in establishing sociology as a true, scientific discipline, and also studied education, crime, religion, suicide, and the manner…
Alexander, Jeffrey and P. Smith, (2005), The Cambridge Companion to Durkeim,
Durkheim, E. And Fields, H. (1995). The Elementary Forms of Religious Life.
New York: The Free Press.
Durkheim, Emile and A. Giddens. (1972). Emile Durkheim: Selected Writings.
individual in society: To what extent are individuals the product of society?
The idea of 'the individual' has become such an accepted construct in modern life it is easy to forget that the idea of an isolated, all-important private and individual 'self' is a relatively new development in human sociological thought. Even today, human beings define themselves, not simply as individual selves, but as persons who must function within particular social contexts of family, work, and school. Quite often, when one asks 'who am I,' one's societal roles of child or parent, worker or employee, or student formulate one's answer. But although societal ideals and ideas have produced the modern notion of the individual as an isolated, psychologically contained essence, this idea has grown so powerful that even as societal institutions of church and education continue to shape the collective, individual persons now seek a sense of empowerment and actualization…
Abercrombie, N. And Warde, A. Contemporary British Society. Cambridge: Polity Press, 2000.
Durkheim, Emile. Suicide, 1929.
Freud, Sigmund. Freud's Collected Writings, 1924.
Marsh I. Sociology: Making sense of Society. 2000.
Living in Modernity in Three Easy Steps
Perhaps it is only appropriate that a so-called guidebook to living in modernity is not in fact a book at all, but only a relatively brief overview, encompassing six to nine pages of text, easily condensed for the reader's evaluation into three easy steps. It is short. It can be potentially read and interpreted by a variety of individuals with varying levels of literacy. It is democratic and addresses the reader as part of a collective, but not as someone who is of a particular gender or social or professional hierarchy. It is friendly to those whose attention spans have been shortened by the Internet and the mass media, yet it also creates a program that is inspirational in nature, to the reader's sense of improving the self. It wishes the reader to become a better self, just like everyone else in the…
Charon, Joel. (2000). Ten Questions: A Sociological Perspective. New York: Wadsworth.
Queer Eye for the Straight Guy." (2003). NBC Television Show.
Ritzer, Geroge. (2002). McDonaldization of Society. Pine Forage Press.
Schor, Juliet. (1998). The Overspent American: Why We Want What We Don't Need.
" (Dafler, 2005) Dafler relates that for more than thirty years children who were 'half-caste' "were forcibly removed from their families, often grabbed straight from their mother's arms, and transported directly to government and church missions." (Dafler, 2005) This process was termed to be one of assimilation' or 'absorption' towards the end of breeding out of Aboriginal blood in the population. At the time all of this was occurring Dafler relates that: "Many white Australians were convinced that any such hardship was better than the alternative of growing up as a member of an 'inferior' race and culture." (2005) it is plainly stated in a government document thus:
The destiny of the natives of Aboriginal origin, but not of the full blood, lies in their ultimate absorption by the people of the Commonwealth, and [the commission] therefore recommends that all efforts be directed towards this end." (eresford and Omaji, Our…
Dafler, Jeffrey (2005) Social Darwinism and the Language of Racial Oppression: Australia's Stolen Generations ETC.: A Review of General Semantics, Vol. 62, 2005.
Erich Fromm Foreword to a.S. Neill SummerHill (New York, 1960).
Hawkins, Social Darwinism; Shibutani, Tamotsu and Kwan, Kian M. Ethnic Stratification: A Comparative Approach. New York: The Macmillan Company (1965).
Jacques Ellul, the Technological Society (New York, 1967), 436.
Suicide and Society
Suicide: An Individual Phenomenon or a Societal Construct?
Statistics show that suicide rates in the U.S. are highly predictable. It is annually expected each year that over 30,000 suicides will occur, as compared to about 17,000 homicides. This stable and predictable estimate of suicide rate stems from a precise analysis of social factors describing four separate categories of suicidal influences: egoistic, altruistic, anomic, and fatalistic. According to the functionalist theory described by Emile Durkheim, rates are social facts based on other established social facts, and thus have a sociological basis. As suicide rates are social facts, Durkheim set out to provide an empirical basis of social explanation regarding suicide, providing a far different account of trends than the previously perceived notion that suicide is based purely on individual or psychological reasons. Thus, the phenomenon of what actually motivates the occurrence of suicide can be examined from a…
Dunman LJ. "Suicide." The Emile Durkheim Archive. 2003. The Bettmann Archive. 18 Mar. 2004. http://durkheim.itgo.com/suicide.html
Henslin JM. Down to Earth Sociology, 12th Edition. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster, 2003.
Knapp P. "The Functionalist Analysis of Deviance." Peter Knapp Homepage. 1994. Villanova
University. 18 Mar. 2004. www94.homepage.villanova.edu/peter.knapp/Intro1-24.ppt
Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft
Sociology is the study of how humans interact with each another, whether alone or in groups. But since the study of human interactions is a diverse subject, many sociologist, professional and non-professional, have observed and made conclusions based on their observations and thought. Two of these are Ferdinand Tonnies and Charles Dickens, and while Tonnies is regarded as one of the fathers of the science of sociology, Charles Dickens' writings have as much of a sociological theme as anything written by Tonnies. One of Tonnies' theories is what is called "Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft," and is commonly translated into English as "culture and society." This type of bipartisan split in society is also described by Charles Dickens in his "Hard Times," where his story centers on the lives of both wealthy and poor in a fictional Victorian industrialized city. In fact, "Hard Times," at its core, describes a…
Dickens, Charles. (1854). "Excerpts from Hard Times: For These Times." Retrieved from www.filesonic.com/file/2821003165/Charles_Dickens.rar
Forster, John. (1870). The Life of Charles Dickens: Vol. 2. London: Chapman and Hall.
Nilsson, Jerker, and George Hendrikse. (2009). "Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft in Cooperatives." Erasmus Research Institute of Management. Retrieved from http://repub.eur.nl/res/pub/17528/ERS-2009-059-ORG.pdf