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Infant development evaluations are meant to help psychologists develop an assessment of childhood growth and development and to alert them to possible growth problems that might arise. An average is attained when 50, 75, or 95% of children have come to a milestone. An average percentage is then determined based on the performance of these children. Children who do not achieve these milestones within the average time are then evaluated more closely in order to help them cope with their lives and schoolwork more easily. These evaluations are therefore meant to help children who seem to be slower in their development.
Gross motor skills begin to develop by 1 month of age, when an infant can lift its head from a prone position. At three months, the infant can use its arms for support to hold its chest up. At 3-4 months an infant can role over, and by 4-5…
The infant's body tenses and jerks up, her face turns bright, eyebrows rise, moth opens in a grin and her finger, toes, arms and legs move toward him to expect a playful interaction from him. The father plays more vigorously than does the mother and this is what the infant comes to expect. He plays through an interactive style, which can have an impact on the infant's cognitive development and contribute to its healthy development. Three approaches to explaining the differences in parenting behaviors were the biophysical explanation of parenting; the sociological interpretation of parent roles, based on the best family arrangement of raising children; and the child development framework. All these approaches recognize the importance of the father. ut they also interpret his behavior differently in interacting with offspring and in what best steps to take in making those arrangements for childrearing (Fletcher) sensitive and responsive caregiver is one…
Caldera, Y.M. (2004). Paternal involvement and infant attachment. 15 pages.Fathering: Men's
Fletcher, R. (2005). The father-infant connection. Engaging Father Project. Australian Association for Infant Mental Health. 26 pages. Brisbane, Australia: University of Newcastle
Gould, B. (2006). The psychological work of pregnancy. Head Start Bulletin, issue 73. 7 pages.
Cognitive Development of Infants
Piaget's sensorimotor model provides the stage of cognitive human development showing that human experience consists of four stages of mental or cognitive starting from the first day a child is born to the adulthood. The first stage of human development is referred as the sensorimotor stage that starts at birth and end when a child is 24 months old. After the age of 24 months, a child moves to the operational stage starts when a child is 2 years old through the age of 7. A child moves into the final stage of behavioral and cognitive development at the age of adolescence that spans through adulthood. The objective of this study is to discuss the "six stages of Piaget's sensorimotor development." (Shaffer, & Kipp, 2010 p 253).
Piaget's sensorimotor Development
Piaget identifies the first two years of a child as the "sensorimotor stage of development." (Shaffer,…
Shaffer, D.D.R., & Kipp, K. (2010). Developmental Psychology: Childhood & Adolescence: Childhood and Adolescence. Cengage Learning
The complex dynamic processes that underlie the development of the various functionalities of the infant brain and its maturation into an adult brain continue to be studied by researchers working to uncover the pattern of brain development. Earlier, there was a battle between the role of nature and nurture in brain development of a Child. Today, neurologists have concurred that both nature and nurture play a significant role during the initial years of development of the brain. Advancements in neuroimaging techniques including the various refinements in MRI and optical tomography have made possible the focused study of the various developmental stages of the brain in an infant. Particularly, the portable, safe and easy to use Optical tomography has brought the scanning device to the infant instead of having to carry the infant to the scanning device. It is also now a known fact that the emotional and behavioral development of…
1) Sean Brotherson, 'Understanding Brain Development in Young Children', Accessed Mar 29th 2010, available at, http://www.ag.ndsu.edu/pubs/yf/famsci/fs609w.htm
2) Nelson, C.A., & Bloom, E. (1997). Child development and neuroscience.
Child Development, 68,970-987.
3) Miguel et.al, 'Withdrawn and intrusive maternal interaction style and infant frontal EEG asymmetry shifts in infants of depressed and non-depressed mothers', Infant Behav Dev. 2006 April; 29(2): 220 -- 229., Available Online at, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1712668/
The psychological preference not only for familiar caretakers, or food, but also for familiar sounds as well as perhaps even the ability to recognize word boundaries.
The article relates directly to this class in that it is an excellent example of the use of perception and memory. Not only does the infant perceive and has to ability to finely distinguish between the sounds of words, but shows the ability to retain and remember that sound over a period of time.
hile I agree with the authors intention and find a great deal of the interest in the research represented, I find that by only using this one research example the author fails to meet the burden of proof for his conclusion that infants know when words end and begin. The target word should have been presented inside a long nonsense word strung together to see if the infant could distinguish…
Fanzen, Harald. "Babies Know Early on Where Words Begin and End." Scientific American Online. June 2001. 16 February 2007 http://www.sciam.com/article.cfm?id=babies-know-early-on-wher
Babies -- Birth to Year One
Thomas Balmes' 2010 documentary Babies portrays the stage of development that infants undergo from their birth to their first year. Focusing on four culturally diverse families and lifestyles, the film gives its viewers insight into how a child's cognitive and physical developments manifest throughout 12 months of life. One surprising aspect of the child's development stage that was shown in the documentary was the fact that even through the different parental backgrounds the basic stages that infants undergo remained ultimately the same. The children cried at certain physical impacts, they gurgled and laughed at forms of amusement, they began to speak and form words in their own languages, and they moved on to crawl, stand, and walk by the end of their first year. Regardless of nationality -- Namibian, Japanese, Mongolian, and American -- and the methods used by cultural and lifestyle constraints, there…
According to this professional, circumcisions that are competently performed under local anaesthesia cause no more pain or harm than an immunisation injection. Furthermore, male circumcision ahs shown benefits such as the reduction of sexually transmitted infections such as the human pailloma virus, chancroid and syphilis. She also cites studies that indicated a reduced risk of HIV infection in males who have been circumcised.
Indeed, there are quite humane ways to circumcise infants with the minimal amount of stress and pain today. Furthermore, cultural and religious reasons for performing the ritual cannot be discarded. Particularly when done under the correct and most humane possible circumstances, cultural practices should not be prohibited.
Having said this, and considering the issue from all viewpoints, however, the fact remains that infant male circumcision is the removal of part of the human body without the consent of its owner, the child. It carries significant risks, especially…
Bering, J. (2010, Apr. 23). Is male circumcision a humanitarian act? Scientific American: Bering in Mind. Retrieved from http://www.scientificamerican.com/blog/post.cfm?id=is-male-circumcision-a-humanitarian-2010-04-23
Hinchley, G. And Patrick, K. (2007, Dec 8). Is Infant Male Circumcision an Abuse of the Rights of the Child? Science Daily. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/12/071207120817.htm
Manimale, N. (2010, Mar 15). CDC should not recommend infant male circumcision. The Oracle Online. Retrieved from http://www.usforacle.com/cdc-should-not-recommend-infant-male-circumcision-1.2191240
CPR Instruction for Young and Middle-Aged Adults with infants and young children.
I will be teaching CPR for infants and young children to a population of young to middle-aged adults at ible aptist Church in Chickasha, OK. Those likely to take this course will range in age from 19 to 40 years old and are likely to be both male and female. This class will teach the highest level of prevention -- the support of life until medical help can arrive.
I determined the learning needs of this group by interviewing several people within the target population. I found that most of the adults in two Sunday School classes at this church knew little or nothing about how to perform CPR on infants and children. At the same time, the people I talked with expressed an interest. Those people were parents or grandparents of young children. In particular,…
Canadian Group for Emergency Training."Child/Infant CPR Course." Accessed via the Internet 9/20/05.
Smith, Donna, and Williams, Jessica. Date not given. "Don't Leave it to Luck: Learn Infant/child CPR." Toddlers Today at iParenting.com. Accessed via the Internet 9/20/05.
Staff writers. 2003. "Babysitting Is a Serious Job." USA Today, March, Vol. 131, pp 6+.
Tobacco, alcohol, and other drug use can lead to birth defects, low birth weight, and premature delivery (HHS, 2006). All of these are listed as the major causes of infant mortality (CDC). Given the literature and public service announcements produced on these subjects over the past several decades, it is difficult to believe that anyone in this country is unaware of the detrimental effects these things can have on a fetus, and apparently thee communications are working to a degree; the infant mortality rate has dropped significantly, and yet such abuse is still among the leading causes of infant death (CDC; HHS, 2006). To tackle these issues, information should not be the focus of the message strategy but rather the mothers themselves should be the message's focus. Perhaps a short bulleted list of the disadvantages children with fetal alcohol syndrome and other effects of in utero abuse are likely to…
Eliminate disparities in infant mortality." Center for disease control website (CDC). Accessed 31 January 2009. http://www.cdc.gov/omhd/AMH/factsheets/infant.htm
Health and human services fact sheet: Preventing infant mortality." (2006). Health and human services website (HHS). Accessed 31 January 2009.
There have been numerous debates over the right choice between breast feeding and other substitutes in the conditions of mothers infected with HIV. Due to the possibility of infecting the infant with the virus, many women prefer bottled milk or other substitutes. However, unlike western countries where the issue of hygiene is no longer a problem, not even in the remotest corners of the countries, the situation is Africa is greatly related to the idea of a clean environment for women and their newborns. In this sense, the lack of financial possibilities determines the state and the population to be unable to provide a proper environment and to be unable to afford one respectively. Thus, the milk other than the maternal one is subjected to all sorts of bacteria, viruses, and even diseases. Therefore, on the one hand, there is the risk of the child to become infected with HIV;…
Afolabi, et al. (2001) Malaria in the first 6 months of life in urban African infants with anemia. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, Vol 65, Issue 6, 822-827. Retrieved 26 March 2008, at http://www.ajtmh.org/cgi/reprint/65/6/822
Andersson, H. (2005). Niger's children continue dying. BBC News. Retrieved 26 March 2008, at http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/4274728.stm
Andersson, H. (2005). Niger children starving to death. BBC News. Retrieved 26 March 2008, from, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/4695355.stm
Aneki (2008) Countries with the Highest Infant Mortality Rates in the World. Aneki Web page. Retrieved 26 March 2008, at http://www.aneki.com/mortality.html
The proclaimers of baby selling argue that the moral implications are not as negative as generally perceived by the society, but that trade with babies exists in numerous markets and in numerous forms and the legalization and embracement of such procedures would only be natural. "These markets are centered around the production and acquisition of babie - babies in the form of component sperm and eggs, babies in the form of fresh or frozen embryos, babies in the form of tissues and organs, and babies as full-term living infants" (Hirschman, 1991). As such, from the technological stand point, the selling of life babies would only be an extension of the modern procedures implemented to help conceive babies.
Then, there is the legal aspect of it. However the current legislature prohibits the trade of babies, the process should be best perceived as a contract between parties and it should be respected…
Colen, B.D., 1987, Bringing Up Baby M., Health, July Edition, pp. 64-68
Eliot, T.S., Where Have all the Babies Gone?, Future Tool Kit, Retrieved from www.futuretoolkit.com/birth97.docon April 1, 2008
Fox, R., 1993, Babies for Sale, Public Interest, Number 111
Hirschman, E.C., 1991, Babies for Sale: Market Ethics and the New Reproductive Technologies, Journal of Consumer Affairs, Volume 25
here it is evident that the parents have run afoul of their rehabilitation responsibilities, I would be inclined to verbally intervene with the intention of advising them on how to protect their interests.
4. How would you adhere to Statement #2 and make sure that you are treating the client with respect, acceptance and dignity?
I would work to maintain the dignity of clients by making as a primary priority the stability of the whole family unit. Removing Baby Kim from the care of the parents appears not to be the best way to pursue this end. Therefore, I would consider it important to work with the parents to emphasize their strengths, which in the case of the mother appears to be domestic responsibilities and rearing her children and in the case of the father appears to be his ability to earn a stable living. These areas should be used…
National Drug Endangered Children Training & Advocacy Center (NDEC-TAC). (2010). The Front Page. Ndec-tac.org.
National Organization for Human Services (NOHS). (1996). Ethical Standards for Human Service Professionals. Nationalhumanservices.org.
Infants (less than a year old) would be in solitary play mode. Family members being present may help but the child will probably explore on their own even if others are present. During the second year, they will probably still tend to play by themselves but family and playmates can start to be integrated. Toddlers (the next two groups) will get into parallel play and associative play. Once the 5-8-year stage is reached, there is more of what is known as cooperative play and the students are fully engaged with each other (Rosemount, 2015).
Rosemount. (2015). Welcome to Independent School District 196. District196.org. Retrieved 30 August 2015, from http://www.district196.org/ec/TeacherCurriculum/KaySikichTheFourStagesofPlay.cfm
C 430 -- Unit II
Piaget defined play as a form of assimilation. Further, Piaget said it displays the child's efforts to make stimuli in his environment match his or her own concepts in life. However, Piaget cautioned that play does…
Englebright-Fox, J. (2015). Early Childhood NEWS - Article Reading Center. Early Childhoodnews.com. Retrieved 30 August 2015, from http://www.earlychildhoodnews.com/earlychildhood/article_view.aspx?ArticleID=240
CE 430 -- Unit V
Inclusion is the idea that all students will be included regardless of background, disability, age and so forth. Inclusion is indeed an ethical issues because lack of socialization can stunt the development of a child and really put them behind for years to come. It can also greatly hurt their feelings. The role or a teacher or facilitator is to ensure that all students and that no exclusion (intentional
AGE GROUP PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT MILESTONES
There are many milestones for each age. I have selected some that have to do with movement on a small and large scale because I believe that they have to do with the way in which children may be inclined to move a good deal and perhaps exercise in later life.
Infants: [footnoteRef:1] [1: American Pregnancy. First Year Development: Infant Development. American Pregnancy Association. http://www.americanpregnancy.org/firstyearoflife/firstyeardevelopment.html, accessed January 28, 2012.]
Fine (Small) -- hands clench, strong grasp reflex, holds objects, pulls on clothing or blankets.
Gross (Large) -- Turns head, rolls back and forth on stomach, holds weight on feet, bounces when held standing, sits well by about nine months.
Toddlers:[footnoteRef:2] [2: Toddler Developmental Milestones. Parenting Magazine. http://www.parenting.com/article/toddler-developmental-milestones?page=0,1, accessed January 28, 2012.]
Fine -- filling up and dumping out small items, trying to dress and undress, drawing or scribbling, stacking or sorting objects, poking and…
Infancy is the stage between birth and two years of age. This stage is characterized by rapid physical growth than any other stage of life. Very interesting changes occur in this couple of years. Brain development also occurs rapidly at this stage. Prior to birth, the unborn baby has most of the brain cells, but not all. There is a very rapid development of the neural connections between the cells. Contrary to what most people think, the baby is not entirely helpless. It is capable of all the basic activities required to sustain life -- breathing, suckling, swallowing and excretion. By the first week, the newborns can identify the direction from which sound is coming, recognize the voice of the mother from other voices and is capable of simple imitating basic gestures such as opening the mouth and sticking out the tongue (Shaffer & Kipp, 2013).
Helping parents understanding the infant's needs, development, and behavior, along with educating the parents in the area of proper parenting constitutes vital components for the prevention of SBS.
In the article, "New programs target shaken-baby syndrome," Alex Newman (2008) relates the following prevention tactics:
Check if baby needs to be changed/fed/burped.
Check if baby is too hot/too cold.
Make sure baby's clothes fit comfortably.
Play white noise (radio, TV static, fan, vacuum).
Rock gently or use a baby swing.
Pick up baby and cuddle, hum, sing or talk in a soothing voice.
Take baby for a ride in car or stroller. (Newman)
To help the potential shaker calm a crying child under 2-years-old, he/she could consider these steps:
Put the child in a safe place. alk away.
Listen to music, read, call a friend to talk.
Check on your baby every 5 to 10 minutes. (Newman)
In "Project baby care:…
A.D.A.M. "Shaken Baby Syndrome." Health Guide. 31 May 2009. 31 May 2009.
Blake, Ann and Jennifer Michael. "Saving Babies From Shaking." Children's Voice. Child Welfare League of America, Inc. 2006. HighBeam Research. 27 May 2009
peception of objects in infants elated to IQ duing adolescence?
The tem "social cognition" epesents the fundamental capabilities of childen to peceive an object, categoize, emembe, evaluate, thing and eact appopiately (Dilalla, 2007). This poposal ecognizes the boad definition of the tem, but it emphasizes on the multidisciplinay quality of eseach fo this pape. Nevetheless, scientific disciplines vay in thei emphasis on vaious elements of this sophisticated constuct. In social psychology, the tem illustates a wide ange of happenings including moal easoning, fomation of attitudes and steeotyping. In neuoscience, it defines the tem as the capability to peceive the intentions and dispositions of othe people. On the othe hand, developmental psychology descibes the tem as the theoy of mind, the ecognition that people have beliefs and inteests divegent, and it is possible to explain behavio by efeing to the beliefs and inteests.
This poposal adopts the above definition because acoss…
references for novel and familiar stimuli. Advances in infancy research, 5, 69-95.
McCall, R.B., & Carriger, M. (1993). A meta-analysis of infant habituation and recognition memory performance as predictors of later IQ. Child Development, 64, 57-
Quinn, P.C., & Johnson, M.H. (2000). Global before basic object categorization. Infancy, 1, 31-
Gap: Early Childhood Intervention and the Development of the Disabled Child
Children with special needs include those who have disabilities, developmental delays, are gifted/talented, and are at risk of future developmental problems. Early intervention consists of the provision of services for such children and their families for the purpose of lessening the effects of their condition. Early intervention may focus on the child alone or on the child and the family together. Early intervention programs may be center-based, home-based, hospital-based, or a combination. Early intervention may begin at any time between birth and school age; however, there are many reasons for it to begin as early as possible. Early Intervention is the key to achieving the most positive outcome in aiding the disabled child to develop as normally as possible.
There are three primary reasons for intervening early with an exceptional child: to enhance the child's development, to provide support…
Bayley, N. (1970) "Development of mental abilities." In P.H. Mussen (ed) Carmichael's manual of child psychology, 1, New York: Wiley.
Bayley, N. (1955) "On the growth of intelligence," American Psychologist, 10, 805, Dec.
Burts, Diane C.; Hart, Craig H.; Charlesworth, Rosalind; DeWolf, D. Michele; Ray, Jeanette; Manuel, Karen; & Fleege, Pamela O. (1993). "Developmental appropriateness of kindergarten programs and academic outcomes in first grade." Journal Of Research In Childhood Education, 8 (1), 23-31. EJ 493-673.
Cooper, J.H. An Early Childhood Special Education Primer. Chapel Hill, NC: Technical Assistance Development System (TADS), 1981.
Hospitalism is essentially the condition of infants becoming attached more to the routine of the hospital and its caregiving medical staff rather than to their mothers. As we now know, children subjected to this kind of a condition (intentionally or even through abuse or neglect) fare much worse than normal children who are tended to by their mothers. In Attachment Theory -- Why NOT to Baby Train (Steph, nd), the works of Spitz and others were recounted, showing how severely improper behaviors can hurt real babies. Spitz's documented how 91 babies in the Foundling Home were first given a taste of love and affection from their mothers. They were then effectively taken away from their mothers and put under the direction of nurses, whose focus was on meeting their medical needs alone. As we now might expect, the children soon deteriorated significantly, showing severe impediments to normal growth…
American Pregnancy (2011). First Year Development: Infant Development. American Pregnancy Association. http://www.americanpregnancy.org/firstyearoflife/firstyeardevelopment.html .
Lubit, R. et al., (2009). Child Abuse and Neglect: Reactive Attachment Disorder. Medscape Refernces. WebMD. Viewable at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/915447-overview .
Steph (n.d). Attachment Theory -- Why NOT to Baby Train.
Visual Perception: Child Development
The concept of preferential looking in regards to visual perception suggests that even infants will show preference in fixating upon certain interesting objects versus other, less stimulating objects. This occurs before they are able to verbally articulate why and have formed specific associations with those images. A good example of this is that infants show a preference for looking at faces that are visually coherent, versus faces which are scrambled. Infants in a series of studies conducted by obert Fantz, as noted in the video "Visual acuity testing (part 1): History of preferential looking and early testing" shifted preference from non-human objects such as a bull's eye image versus stripes and vice versa, preference for intact faces remained consistent.
Fantz also found that when confronted with images of patterns, even ones without faces, infants will tend to prefer visually interesting or varied patterns, versus spaces absent…
McLeod, S. A. (2015). Sensorimotor stage. Simply Psychology. Retrieved from:
Visual acuity testing (part 1): History of preferential looking and early testing. (2014).
Perkins School for the Blind. Retrieved from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oMUlti4QarQ
Piaget’s Stages of Development
Few theorists have had as strong an impact on developmental psychology as Jean Piaget. While the theories of Lev Vygotsky have offered compelling counterpoints to Piaget’s theories, the stages of psychosocial development Piaget proposed remain salient. In fact, it is easy to combine emerging research on childhood development from infancy to adolescence in terms of Piaget’s stages. As Lightfoot, Cole & Cole (2009) point out, evolutionary theories, information processing theories, and systems theories can all be integrated within the staged concept of development that Piaget proposed. Piaget shows how children develop physically, socially, and cognitively. Likewise, theories of childhood development can demonstrate how children develop self-awareness, empathy, and complex use of language. The four main stages of development include the sensorimotor, the preoperational, the concrete operational, and the formal operational. While far from being discreet stages with strong demarcations between them, empirical research in cognitive, behavioral,…
In most modern societies education relies heavily on the distinction between sexes. Therefore, transgressions were severely punished until late in the twentieth century even in societies that like to present themselves as the most civilized and advanced in the world. Scientists such as: biologists, sociologists, psychologists and psychiatrists, are continuously asking questions about the origins of sex differences and sexual reproduction. These are topics that are still raising contradictions in the scientific world today. Furthermore, psychology and sociology dedicate today a large body of research to the differences between sex and gender. Linguistically speaking, sex defines two forms of life biologically, physically and genetically different, known under the names: male and female. Gender, on the other hand, marks a distinction in areas of study, it is related to human behavior and is mostly used to categorize human beings from a sociological point-of-view: masculine or feminine. A study of…
Harrub, B, Thompson, B. 2003 Evolutionary Theories On Gender
And Sexual Reproduction. Reproduced by Permission from TJ, www.AnswersInGenesis.org
Esplen, Emily and Jolly, Susie. GENDER and SEX . 2006. Available at: http://www.iwtc.org/ideas/15_definitions.pdf
infant (birth-12 months old).
The observation is of Julie, the child of a friend who is 6 months old. Her parents are Jewish, the father is a Rabbi in the local Temple, the mother works as a physical therapist. The parents combine American and Jewish values in raising the child, and in comparison to any particular American child of her age, I do not expect to see nor do not see any particular cultural differences emerge as yet.
The family may be described as lower to middle class; it is difficult to make distinctions. They do have a large family -- ten children, with both parents involved in parenting and maintenance of the household. It is a warm, cohesive family with both sets of grandparents living close by and with close family and communal ties.
The observation was conducted last week and occurred during the duration of one and a…
For example, when mothers smoke during pregnancy they not only put toxins in their own bodies, but into the bodies of their babies as well. In addition to these toxins, the maternal smoking often deprives the babies of the oxygen that it needs, and this can result in abnormalities that can lead to SIDS. Metabolic disorders are also a consideration for babies that die of SIDS, although this has not been proven (www.nichd.nih.gov,1997).
As for treatment or prevention, there is little that can be said. Naturally, there is no treatment for SIDS, since by definition it results in the death of the infant. Prevention is also not something that can be accomplished, since there is no definite way to prevent SIDS. However, there are ways to reduce the risk, such as making sure that the baby sleeps only on its back and not on its stomach, keeping the baby's environment…
Works Cited www.nichd.nih.gov.(1997). Fact Sheet: Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. Retrieved 8 February 2005 at http://www.nichd.nih.gov/publications/pubs/sidsfact.htm .
A www.sidscenter.org.(n.d.). What is SIDS? Retrieved 8 February 2005 at http://www.sidscenter.org/SIDSFACT.HTM .
Therefore, the question is, in which type of pregnancy will there be a greater percentage of abortion? it's definitely not in PGD pregnancy because PGD pregnancy provides parents with the kind of child that they want. Who would want to abort a child that they dreamt of? It is in fact the normal pregnancy where a higher rate of abortion may exist because there is a 50% by 50% chance that a mother will bear the child that she or her husband wants. In contrast, in PGD, because it is a scientific and tested way, a mother can be assured of a higher percentage than 50% in delivering the baby with the gender that she wishes for.
Another reason why PGD should be accepted is because it is a method of balancing families. There are sometimes families who do not have even a girl or a boy, but have quite…
Intelligence in Infancy
The child shows many signs of normal cognitive behavior. He seems to understand that when he bangs the blocks together that they will make sound and also seems proud of this activity. He also understood that when the blocks fell that something was wrong and said "uh oh." This is a sign of cognitive understanding of what the blocks are supposed to do.
The social and emotional skills are primarily illustrated by the connection and interactions with the child's mother. The child looks completely comfortable around the mother and interacts naturally. The child is able to understand the mothers questions like "where is the banana" and responds appropriately.
The child shows advanced ability to sit and stand as he wishes with minimal balance issues. The child also shows advanced visual and spatial skills that can be illustrated by his ability to work…
AllPsych. (N.d.). Psychology 101. Retrieved from AllPsych: http://allpsych.com/psychology101/development.html
CA Dept. Of Educatoin. (N.d.). Cognitive Development Domain. Retrieved from CA Dept. Of Educatoin: http://www.cde.ca.gov/sp/cd/re/itf09cogdev.asp
Cherry, K. (N.d.). Communication Milestones. Retrieved from Psychology: http://psychology.about.com/od/early-child-development/a/communication-milestones.htm
Feranld, A., Marchman, V., & Weisleder, A. (2012). SES differences in language processing skill and vocabulary are evident at 18 months. Developmental Science, 234-248.
Infant and caregiving factors affecting weight-for-age and motor development of full-term and premature infants at 1 year post-term. In this assessment, the purpose of the study, the background of the study, the study's main variables, population, research design, data collection and analysis, main findings of the study, discussion of findings, limitations of study, recommendations, generalizability, and the extent the findings can be utilized to address the guiding question of the course are all analyzed.
The purpose of this study was to examine the direct and indirect effects of infants' biological condition and experience, the caregiving environment, and caloric intake variables on two outcomes, weight-for-age and motor development, for 52 full-term and 47 premature infants at 12 months post-term age (Pridham, Brown, Clark, Sondel, & Green, 2002, p. 394).
This stated purpose is quite clear. In addition, it does fit with the clinical question asked for this literature, involving what parents…
Pridham, K., Brown, R., Clark, R., Sondel, S., & Green, C. (2002). Infant and caregiving factors affecting weight-for-age and motor development of full-term and premature infants at 1 year post-term. Nursing & Health, 25. Pp. 394-410.
Ryon is a twelve-month-old, blond-haired, blue-eyed, White toddler. He is fair-skinned with almond-shaped eyes. I met him at a friend’s suburban residence, on 1st November, 2017, where her mom provides daycare services. I spent time between 2 p.m. and 5 p.m. at her place. I discovered Ryon seated on the living room floor. Though equipped with only a TV set and a couple of couches, the setting seemed rather comfortable and safe (Lake, 2017).
The boy seems to find no difficulty sitting up. It appears he is confident of his ability to maintain balance. He is seated feet-outwards, with legs wide out. The boy is able to lean forward till his tummy reaches the floor, though he requires a certain amount of effort in order for sitting back up. When he crawls, his hands are spread flat across the floor, with fingers made wide and feet pointed nearly…
The idea that a healthy lawyer is a more worthy citizen than a sick alcoholic is inherently biased and unacceptable in our society.
Often, as in the keratoplasty case, there are legitimate reasons for wanting to give a rare, valuable transplant to a healthy individual rather than to a sick one. The alcoholic would appear a waste of time in the eyes of the medical system if he is denied the transplant because of his poor health. On the surface it seems that precious medical dollars should be devoted to patients who show the most promise for success after the transplant.
If money and resources are precious and limited, then those resources should be wisely invested. In the keratoplasty case it would appear that the lawyer is a wiser investment. However, patients are not investments. They are people: they have equal rights in the law and should also have equal…
Visual Development in Infants
esearchers have found that the initial assumption about infants and their visual prowess were in fact not true (Siegler, DeLoache, Eisenberg, & Saffran, 2014). . Babies do, in fact, have better vision than at first supposed. Indeed, their vision is certainly not "barely functional" as at first supposed. It has been found that infants begin to explore the world around them visually as soon as within minutes after birth. While it is true that their visual clarity is not as clear as that of adults, research has shown that they gain increasing visual competency within the first month of life. To investigate this, a variety of techniques needed to be used, since babies are unable to understand or follow instructions when it comes to investigation methods. obert Franz (1961) developed this technique in 1961 to study the visual attention of an infant. For this test, Franz…
Armstrong, J., Hutchinson, I., Laing, D., & Jinks, A. (2007). Facial Electromyography: Responses of Children to Odor and Taste Stimuli. Chemical Senses, 32 (6) (1464-3553), 611-621.
Perone, S., Simmering, V., & Spencer, J. (2011). Stronger neural dynamics capture changes in infants' visual working memory capacity over development. Developmental science, 14 (1467-7687), 1379-1392.
Pogetti, L., Souza, R., Tudella, E., & Teixeira, L. (2013). Early infant's use of visual feedback in voluntary reaching for a spatial target. Frontiers in Psychology Front. Psychol., 1-6
Seigler, R. (2010). Seeing, Thinking, and Doing in Infancy. In How Children Develop (4th ed., pp. 172-188). New York:Worth.
What Kinds of Changes Are Occurring Within the Brain During the First 2 Years of Life?"
There are several kinds of changes that occur within the brain during the first 2 years of life (Bornstein & Lamb, 89). In fact, some developmental specialists believe that if first two years of life periods in brain development are not utilized, opportunities for brain development can never be regained because in later years the flexibility of using brain is lost. By the time a baby is born, she will have l00 billion brain cells, but these cells are not connected in circuits the way they will be, when the brain begins to mature. In the first two years of life, the brain rapidly forms connections between brain cells and ultimately a single cell can connect with as many as 15,000 other cells (Bruer, 75-81).
During the first year of life, the…
Bornstein, M.H. & Lamb, M.E. Development in Infancy: An Introduction. NY: McGraw-Hill, 1992
Bruer, J.T. The Myth of the First Three Years: A New Understanding of Early Brain Development and Lifelong Learning. NY: Free Press, 1999.
Campbell, F.A. & Ramey, C.T. Cognitive and school outcomes for high-risk African-American students at middle adolescence: Positive effects of early intervention. American Educational Research Journal, 1995, 32(4): 742-772.
Dawson, G & Fishcer, K. Human Behavior and the Developing Brain. NY: Guilford, 1994.
Early Childhood Development Issues
Module One of Chen's work Early Intervention in Action... presents a number of different aspects of the experience of families raising children who have multiple disabilities. It is quite different to consider these aspects from a clinical or even educational perspective rooted in theory, versus doing so from the perspective of the impact of this situation on one's family. There seems to be a greater amount of difficulty in raising children with multiple disabilities that can challenge a family in numerous ways. Based on the information in this module, it seems almost certain that one of the most exacting is simply modifying one's schedule and accounting for the different people and places that such a child must interact with and go to, respectively, in order to achieve success in life.
Perhaps the most vital facet of this module is the way that it is able to…
Chen, Deborah. (2008). Early Intervention in Action: Working Across Disciplines to Support Infants with Multiple Disabilities and Their Families. Module 1. Retrieved from ***
Chen, Deborah. (2008). Early Intervention in Action: Working Across Disciplines to Support Infants with Multiple Disabilities and Their Families. Module 2. Retrieved from ***
WIDA (2014). THE EARLY YEARS: Dual language learners. www.wida.us Retrieved from ***
French New Wave
French cinema, by the time the second world war ended, was faced with a crisis fittingly summarized by posters that advertised Mundus-Film (distributors for First National, Goldwyn, and Selig). These posters implied that the cannon operated by America's infantrymen launched film after film targeted at the French. La Cinematographie francaise (soon to become the leading French trade journal) claimed that every week 25,000 meters of film imported mainly from America were presented in France for each 5000 meters of local French films. French-made films often constituted as little as 10% of the films screened in Parisian cinemas. Henri Diamant-erger, publisher of French magazine 'Le Film', bluntly stated that France could be in jeopardy of turning into a 'cinematographic colony' of America (Nowell-Smith).
"French New Wave" is one of the film movements shaping the history of French cinema. Rejuvenating the prestigious French cinema, the New Wave that emerged…
Darke, Chris. "The French New Wave." n.d. Retrieved from: http://cw.routledge.com/textbooks/9780415582599/data/The%20French%20New%20Wave%20-%20Chris%20Darke%20(4th%20ed).pdf
Neupert, Richard. A History of the French New Wave Cinema. Madison: Univ of Wisconsin Press, 2007. Retrieved from: https://books.google.com.pk/books?id=OIp7bDHNDs8C&printsec=frontcover&dq=french+new+wave+cinema&hl=en&sa=X&ei=J8E8VZjvM9GxacHFgJgO&ved=0CBsQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=french%20new%20wave%20cinema&f=false
Nochimson, Martha P. World on Film: An Introduction. New York City: John Wiley & Sons, 2011. Retrieved from: https://books.google.com.pk/books?id=c3Kn7dsGGA0C&printsec=frontcover&dq=Nochimson,+Martha+P.,+World+on+Film&hl=en&sa=X&ei=X8k8VdTbBNXgar3RgMAD&ved=0CBsQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=Nochimson%2C%20Martha%20P.%2C%20World%20on%20Film&f=false
Nowell-Smith, Geoffrey. The Oxford History of World Cinema. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996. Retrieved from: https://archive.org/details/The_Oxford_History_Of_World_Cinema.PDF
We don't really know everything a newborn infant is capable of, but we know that mother and infant relate to each other within the first few minutes of life (Klaus, 1998). When we think of infancy, in my opinion we have to keep in mind that we cannot observe brain activity. The baby that can reach for a toy at seven months was learning things all along that brought him or her to that point. So I believe infancy to be a crucial part of child development.
If this is true, then the role of the caregiver is crucial. We know that babies are cared for in different ways by members of different cultures. In the United States, a mother is likely to place the baby in some kind of stroller and push the child in front of her. However in some African and Asian cultures, the mothers carry…
Gonzalez-Mena, Janet. 1997. "The cultural context of infant caregiving. Childhood Education, Sept. 22.
Klaus, Marshall. 1998. "Mother and Infant: Early Emotional Ties." Pediatrics 102:5, November.
Mogilner, Celly. 1995. "Maternal social and physical contact: links to early infant attachment behaviors." Journal of Genetic Psychology, December.
Small, Meredith F. 1997. "Making connections (adult-infant connections) (1997). American Scientist, November.
Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. The articles explore separate studies about the topic. The author of this work discusses various aspects of each article and their merit. There were two sources used to complete this paper.
Each year in America thousands of parents walk into their infants room and discover that the child has died from Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. The tragedy shocks and baffles the medical community as it continues to search for answers not only to what causes the syndrome but also what parents can do to reduce the risk of it striking their child. Studies around the globe have been conducted to this end with mixed results.
The determination of factors that influence the existence of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome is vital to the ability to stop its occurrence.
The first study examined whether the temperament of an infant has a bearing on whether that child…
Temperament ratings do not predict arousability in normal infants and infants at increased risk of sudden infant death syndrome. (Original Articles).
Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics; 10/1/2002; Adamson, T. Michael
Cosleeping in young Korean children.
Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics; 6/1/2002; Hahn, Hong-Moo
Toddlers also consistently failed to recognize the importance of the shelf being inserted into the screen when searching for the ball. hen asked to find the ball, however, they consistently searched in the location where they initially saw the object (Hood, et al. 2000, 1540).
These startling finds suggest the need for further research and study into this topic. Initially, research must determine whether or not these results are mistakes. hile the experiment given to the toddlers was supposedly an expanded version of the infant "looking-time" experiments, perhaps the two types of experiments cannot be compared, which would lead to a false comparison of the two. Additionally, infants and toddlers' cognitive skills are significantly different. hile the first experiments needed no explanation, toddlers would have to receive an explanation or instructions before they could complete the experiment. Perhaps the error was in the explanation of the experiment.
Once the researchers…
Baillargeon, Renee and DeVos, Julie. (1991). Object Permanence in Young Infants:
Further Evidence. Child Development. 62 (6), 1227-1246.
Baillargeon, Renee and Aguiar, Andrea. (1998). Eight-and-a-Half-Month-Old-Infants'-
Reasoning About Containment Evens. Child Development. 69(3), 636-653.
Routine Infant Male Circumcision
While female genital mutilation has garnered a great deal of attention in recent years, male genital mutilation or circumcision has been for the most part overlooked in research reports. (Redactive Publishing, 2010, paraphrased) The objective of this study is to conduct an examination of routine infant male circumcision. This will involve a summarization and critical analysis of the current literature and reliable published evidence in this area of inquiry. The work of ocquet et al. (2009) examines the issue of bleeding complications following ritualistic circumcision and reports on six children who are stated to have no family history of hemorrhagic disease and no personal problems of thrombopenia or hemostatis, who were admitted within 1 year at the emergency department for hemorrhagic complications of nonmedical circumcisions, of which one had glans amputation." ( Five of the children were newborns. All of the newborns had compensated shock with…
Benatar, M & Benatar, D 2003, 'Between prophylaxis and child abuse: the ethics of neonatal male circumcision', American Journal Of Bioethics, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 35-48, CINAHL with Full Text, EBSCOhost.
Bhattacharjee, P 2008, 'Male circumcision: an overview', African Journal Of Paediatric Surgery, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 32-36, Academic Search Complete, EBSCOhost.
Bo, X & Goldman, H 2008, 'Newborn circumcision in Victoria, Australia: reasons and parental attitudes', ANZ Journal Of surgery, vol. 78, no. 11, pp. 1019-1022, Academic Search complete, EBSCOhost.
Bocquet, N, Lortat-Jacob, S, Cheron, G & Chappuy, H 2010, 'Bleeding complications after ritual circumcision: about six children', European Journal Of Pediatrics, vol. 169, no. 3, pp. 359-362, Academic Search Complete, EBSCOhost.
The impact of social pressures and cultural influences on human development are not fully know. Only pieces of information are available for us to understand as there is much to be learned and gathered from this subject. The purpose of this essay is to examine two distinct articles directly related to socio-cultural influences on the development of the human species. This essay will first review and summarize each article on its own merits before offering new conclusions about the feasibility, practicality and overall usefulness of these two arguments presented.
Bakermans-Kranenburg et al. (2004) article about attachment security and minority children helped to expose some important information about the ways culture has a direct and sometimes profound impact on human development. Through statistical analysis gathered from qualitative means, certain patterns of relationships were identified through this study. The study eventually found that there are significant differences in the way…
Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. et al. (2004). Differences in attachment security between African- American and white children; ethnicity or socio-economic status? Infant Behavior & Development,27 (2004) 417-433.
Varela, R. et al. (2009). Parenting strategies and socio-cultural influences in childhood anxiety; Mexican, Latin American descent, and European-American families. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 23, 2009, 609-616.
Kangaroo Care and Premature Babies
Kangaroo care entails holding a full term infant or premature so that there is a skin-to-skin contact between the newborn and the individual holding it. Individuals practice kangaroo care for premature infants for approximately two to three hours every day over a certain period. This takes place during early infancy, and the parent holds the baby against her bare chest. Medically stable babies can receive kangaroo care for up to any period since there is no maximum duration for them (Feldman et al., 2002).
Most parents may keep their babies in their arms for hours each day. According to research carried out, kangaroo care is essential as close bodily contact between the infant and the mother helps to stabilize the heartbeat, breathing and temperature of the premature infant. This is crucial as premature babies always have problems in harmonizing their heart and breathing rate. Mothers…
Aucott, S., Donohue, K., Atkins, E., & Marilee, C (2002). Neurodevelopmental Care In The
Nicu, 8, 298 -- 308.
Dodd, L. (2003). Effects of kangaroo care in preterm infants,
Feldman, R., Weller, A., Sirota, L., & Eidelman, A. (2002). Skin-to-Skin Contact (Kangaroo Care) Promotes Self-Regulation in Premature Infants: Sleep -- Wake Cyclicity, Arousal Modulation, and Sustained Exploration, Vol. 38 (2), 194 -- 207.
Besides the fact that children need further exposure to the light/sun in order to develop their bones, light facilitates enhanced growth and development. Therefore, it is an essential element in the eyes of the children as well as in their entire bodies. The variations in the intensity of light in the incubators enabled the infants to develop their adaptation into embracing light into their bodies and eyes.
Sound is the other aspect, which appeared to have some varying effects on premature babies. According to Huttenlocher, (2002), sound is a transfer of energy through the air. It is transferred as an energy that can only be detected by the ears. It is a wave of energy, which carries certain aspects as that involved with communication. Like any other aspect, which affects premature babies, sound is an environmental aspect. It is variable and can be transformed from one notion to another with…
Avery, G.B., MacDonald, M.G., Seshia, M.M.K., & Mullett, M.D. (2005). Avery's neonatology: Pathophysiology & management of the newborn journal. Philadelphia:
Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Bradford, N. (2000). Your premature baby: 0-5 years. Vol. 2, Issue 6, Pages 23, London:
At first, there won't be any mental disorder, just issues with behaviors such as eating and sleeping. Then during the phase of intersubjective relatedness, the focus switches to controlling, sharing, or influencing the subjective experience of self and others. At this stage, if caregivers are not emotionally attuned enough to the infant, problems may arise such as depression. If they are only attuned when the infant behaves a certain way, this may lead the child to start forming a false self in order to please others. There can also be misattunements between caretaker and child, in which one or the other misreads emotional cues and responds inappropriately. And it's very important for a caregiver's attunement to be authentic.
There are also four types of self-experience: social, private, disavowed, and "not me." Disavowed refers to the parts of self the child learns not to share, and the "not me" experience is…
Stern, Daniel. The Interpersonal World of the Infant. Basic Books, 1985.
What do abies Think?
Psychologists and the rest of the world have always regarded babies as incomplete, merely forming adults whose thoughts can only be rudimental and purposeless. ut Alison Gopnik explored deeply into this issue and came out with the staggering finding that babies are actually smarter and meaningful than we all thought, even more intelligent than adults in essence. Gopnik is a psychology professor at the University of California at erkeley who published her discover in a book entitled, "The Philosophical aby: What Children's Minds Tell us about the Truth, Love and the Meaning of Life."
In totality, Gopnik (2010) discovered that babies and young children are designed by nature to learn but with a kind of intelligence far different from that of adults but very relevant to development and growth. abies and young children, first of all, do think and their minds develop in a way…
Brooks, C.N. (2012). What do babies think about? Family and Parenting: Examiner.com.
Retrieved on November 15, 2013 from http://www.examiner.com/article/what-do-abies-think.about
Catania, M. (200). What do babies think before thus start talking? Exploration:
Vanderbilt University. Retrieved on November 15, 2013 from http://www.exploration.vanderbilt.edu/news/news.baby.htm
Evidence-based practice indicates the universal need for the implementation of better maternal and newborn infant care, especially with regard to breastfeeding support and encouragement. This is evidenced by countless research works that both report the optimized goals of better rates of exclusive breastfeeding among infants 0-6 months and the evidence of current trends and practices (AAP, 2010; Scanlon et. al, 2007; Naylor, 2010; Grummer-Strawn & Shealy 2009). These researchers, reviewers an experts base their observations on a need that is well documented in the literature, i.e. both the current state of breastfeeding support in maternity settings and clinical short- and long-term health related outcomes associated with breastfeeding and lack of breastfeeding. The literature associated with this need is demonstrative of many issues regarding breastfeeding and support that the best overall scenario for maternal and infant health is exclusive breastfeeding of infants till six months of age with supplements or…
Resources needed for the implementation of the Baby Friendly Hospital designation are relatively limited, due in large part to the extensive work the Brookdale Hospital has recently done to begin to implement better breastfeeding and maternal practices, as noted at the close of the Problem statement section of this work. The hospital must implement additional changes, file the proper application for assessment and designation and prove and justify implementation of the 10 steps associated with the designation over a period of five years. The resources needed for this process will include participation by existing staff including nurses, nurse managers and the hiring of a certified lactation specialist. The most costly of all the implementation strategies will be hiring of a certified lactation specialist, other costs will be further detailed in the budget section of this work and will include administrative, office supplies, additional signage and support training of nursing and support staff.
Barriers to Change
Barriers to change must begin with a clear understanding and elimination of the kinds of hospital practices that are shown in evidence-based research to be particularly contraindicative of early, long-duration and successful breastfeeding including the; use of artificial nipples (pacifiers), bottles, and even nipple shields in mainly healthy newborns (McKechnie & Eglash, 2010) supplementation that is unneeded for natal nutrition, limitations in the practice of rooming in (infant stays with mother as much as possible over the first 24 hours after birth to ensure on demand nursing opportunities), limitations in skin to skin contact of infant with both mother and father, and other institutionally practiced barriers are not only common but traditionally accepted as standards of practice in most hospitals and birthing centers ("Breastfeeding-related maternity practices…" 2008 ). The Baby-Friendly Hospital Designation, and all the steps to prepare and implement it will go far to demonstrate change in hospitals including but not limited to Brookdale Hospital in NYC.
Barriers to change, that are specific to Brookdale hospital have been briefly developed in the problem statement of this work and demonstrate mostly institutional practices that are not only accepted but supported by the hospital and L&D and neonatal staff. Rooming in, where the newborn infant spends as much time as possible with the mother during the first 24-48 hours of life, leaving the bedside of the mother only when absolutely necessary is essential to change. The existence of a highly staffed and large newborn nursery, where infants spend a good deal of time and receive a great deal of care from staff rather than the mother is one of the first institutional issues that needs to change. This reduction of reliance on the newborn nursery may offset some of the costs of implementing change, as stricter rooming in policies and practices would indicate the need for fewer staff resources in the newborn nursery. Skin-to-skin contact of mother to infant should begin at the moment of birth, as is indicated by the hospital's new policies and procedures for breastfeeding support. Newborns should be given screening tests in the presence of the mother, and if at all possible while the mother is holding and/or nursing the child during skin to skin contact. Breastfeeding education should be continuous, beginning in prenatal clinics, extending throughout the hospital stay and supported and supplemented by follow up care with a certified lactation specialist and/or nursing staff that has taken CEC courses in breastfeeding support, and the number class offerings per week should be increased to every other day to support the usual uncomplicated discharge of mother and baby at 48-72 hours post delivery and the course for mothers should be a condition for discharge. L&D and nursery nurses should continue to be encouraged to take the available course with a first year goal of 100% completion. Lastly, cultural barriers to breastfeeding in the patient population should be mitigated with culturally sensitive training and breastfeeding support, long-term breastfeeding follow up and a sensitive but essential reiteration of the many benefits of breastfeeding for both child and mother, reiteration, for those who qualify, of the benefits of the Women Infant Children program which supports breastfeeding mothers with additional food and benefits for the mother not just by supplying formula or food for the infant after birth.
Role of Nurse Executive
Methods of Killing
The methods of committing neonaticide, infanticide, and filicide are as diverse as the women who commit the tragic crime. According to ouge-Maillart, Jousset, Gaudin, Bouju, and Penneau (2005), strangulation, head trauma, drowning, and suffocation were the four most frequent methods of filicide. However, in these researchers' study, some mothers used what they deem to be 'more active' methods. Five children died after being struck by their mothers' fists. Two women in the study used a firearm to shoot their children. Two died after being hit with a heavy object, by their mother -- one a monkey wrench the other a stone. One woman slit her 13-year-old's throat. In one case, a 3-year-old boy died by defenestration -- being thrown out of the window. Lastly, a 10-month-old died of starvation and dehydration, after being deprived of food and water for 10 days.
Krischer, Stone, Sevecke, and Steinmeyer's (2007)…
Atwood, T. (Feb 2008). Comment: National Council for Adoption's response to the Texas Safe Haven Study. Child Maltreatment, 13(1). pp. 96-97.
Craig, M. (Feb 2004). Perinatal risk factors for neonaticide and infant homicide. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 97. pp. 57-61.
Friedman, S., Horwitz, S., & Resnick, P. (2005) Child murder by mothers. American Journal of Psychiatry, 162. pp. 1578-1587.
Kauppi, A. Kumpulainen, K. Vanamo, T. Merikanto, J and Karkola K. (2008)Maternal depression and filicide. Archives of Women's Mental Health, 11. pp. 201-206.
unborn baby's emotions be affected?
illke & illke state that nervous tissue in embryos is "open" to communication made possible by neurotransmitters. They further suggest that this makes it possible for the mother's emotional state to "affect the unborn almost from conception onward." Additionally, it can sense discord between parents, fear, hostility, grief and anger. It's also, apparently, capable of feeling anger itself, according to illke & illke, because the grandson of Sigmund Freud "once saw unborn twins fighting." Hopson suggests that the fetus is calmed by the sound of its mother's voice because its heart rate has been observed slowing when she speaks.
hich factor of prenatal development is suggested to have more impact on IQ than genes?
Hopson states that "the environment of the womb" may have more impact on IQ than genes.
hat was De Casper's discovery on fetal primitive learning?
De Casper's most significant discovery on…
Hopson, Janet L. "[no title given]." Psychology Today 31.5 (1998): 44.
Piaget's Cognitive Development
The Webster Dictionary describes the word cognition as; the psychological means of distinguishing, including features such as consciousness, perception, reasoning and decision making (Cognition). Piaget's Cognitive Developmental theory was a novel idea at the time of its birth. In depth, this theory, was the first on the issue and continued the specification of the field for a while. All through this paper, Piaget's thesis will be torn down into its four phases and all will be methodically complete. It is the intention of this research study to see how well Piaget's ideas endured the test of time and see what developments made to the current theory.
Piaget makes the hypothesis that there were four main cognitive phases in practical development, agreeing to four consecutive methods of knowledge. All through each of these stages, children were theorized to ponder and reason in a way that was different. These…
Cook-Cottone, C. (2004). Using piaget's theory of cognitive development to understand the construction of healing narratives. Journal of College Counseling, 7(2), 177-186.
Goswami, U. (2001). Cognitive development: No stages please -- we're british. British Journal of Psychology, 92(00071269), 257-77.
Hinde, E., & Perry, N. (2007). Elementary teachers' application of jean piaget's theories of cognitive development during social studies curriculum debates in arizona. The Elementary School Journal, 108(1), 63.
Leppo, M., Davis, D., & Crim, B. (2000). The basics of exercising the mind and body. Childhood Education, 76(3), 142-147.
Health -- Nursing
Piaget Theoretical Perspective On Human Development
Piaget's Theoretical Perspective on Human Development
Piaget's Theoretical Perspective on Human Development
The theory of cognitive development by Piaget presents a comprehensive approach in evaluating human intelligence development and nature in developmental psychology. Piaget shares that children play active roles in growing of intelligence through learning by doing and by examples. The intellectual development theory involves a focus on believing, reasoning, perceiving and remembering the natural environment. The primary term for this is developmental stage theory dealing with knowledge and how humans gradually acquire, use, and construct nature. Piaget adds that the cognitive development provides progressive mental reorganization for thinking processes resulting from environmental experience and biological maturation. Children construct an appreciation of the real world through experience discrepancies between their knowledge and their discoveries within the environment. According to Zastrow & Kirst-Ashman (2009), the theory insists that the cognitive development…
Ashford, J., LeCroy, C. (2009). Human Behavior in the Social Environment: A Multidimensional Perspective. New York: Cengage Learning
Kail, R., Cavanaugh, J. (2012). Human Development: A Life-Span View. New York: Cengage Learning
Kail, R., Cavanaugh, J. (2013). Essentials of Human Development: A Life-Span View. New York: Cengage Learning
Newman, B.M., Newman, P.R. (2010). Theories of Human Development. New York: Psychology Press
Child Poverty and Its Effects on Education and Development
Beyond problems of financial inequality that occur when countless young children reside in poor as well as persistently inadequate households, poor children can easily perpetuate the never-ending cycle when they achieve adulthood. Prior study implies that children who're born poor as well as are constantly poor are considerably much more most likely to remain poor as grownups, quit school, give teenage premarital births, and also have spotty employment details than all those not very poor at birth (atcliffe and McKernan 2010). This previous research focused on the earliest cohort of youngsters reviewed here-children born in between 1967 and 1974 as well as who turned Thirty amid 1997 and 2004. An important query is whether or not this link has endured with time. Even though information aren't accessible to see outcomes via age 30 for children born within the subsequent two cohort…
Duncan, Greg, W. Jean Yeung, Jeanne Brooks-Gunn, and Judith Smith. 1998. "How Much Does Childhood Poverty Affect the Life Chances of Children?" American Sociological Review 63(3): 406 -- 23.
Ratcliffe, Caroline, and Signe-Mary McKernan. 2010. "Childhood Poverty Persistence: Facts and Consequences." Washington, DC: Urban Institute.
Ratcliffe, Caroline, and Signe-Mary McKernan. 2012. "Child Poverty and Its Lasting Consequence." Washington, DC: Urban Institute
Vericker, Tracy, Jennifer Macomber, and Olivia Golden. 2010. "Infants of Depressed Mothers Living in Poverty: Opportunities to Identify and Serve." Washington, DC: Urban Institute.
Most people have had relationships that began with promise but ended badly. This is certainly the case with myself, and in my case, I can think of one popular song that always reminds me of the optimistic beginning and disastrous end of a certain relationship. This song is "Billie Jean," a well-known and bestselling single by the late Michael Jackson from his 1983 album Thriller -- which still ranks among the best-selling albums of all time. Many people will remember the slow and ominous chord progression of the song's opening, or the memorable video which introduced America to the "moonwalk," Jackson's signature dance move. What is most interesting to me is the way in which the song follows Knapp's classic ten stages of relational development. This is apparent from the song's opening, where the singer and a young woman meet as strangers in a social situation, in the…
(the Teacher's role in developing social skills)
ole of Workplaces:
espectable work is seen as a social standard based on harmonizing and mutually collaborative policies to advance rights at work; employment; social protection and social dialogue. It tackles a basic ambition of women and men everywhere, that is, to get respectable and productive work in situations of freedom, equality, security and dignity of human labor. This ambition stresses a collective attempt by many bodies, namely, by international organizations, national governments, business and workers, and by all the social bodies in civil society. It needs all mediators of change to be involved in pioneering economic and social initiatives, customized to particular national and local needs. It specifically calls for new working relationships and dialogue between the conventional social partners in the sphere of work which includes governments, organizations of employers and trade unions and other associations of civil society, which have…
Jacobs, Garry; Cleveland, Harlan. (1 November, 1999) "Social Development Theory" retrieved at http://www.icpd.org/development_theory/SocialDevTheory.htm . Accessed on 26 February 2005
Keirsey, David. (1998) "Parenting and Temperament" retrieved at http://keirsey.com/parent.html . Accessed on 26 February 2005
Lavoie, Rick. "The Teacher's role in developing social skills" Retrieved at http://www.ldonline.org/article.php?max=20&special_grouping=&id=400&loc=22Accessed on 27 February 2005
Moore, Shirley. G. "The Role of Parents in the Development of Peer Group Competence" ERIC Digest. Retrieved at http://www.fww.org/articles/misc/0628e.html. Accessed on 26 February 2005
Significance of cultural diversity
Theories permit us to determine the world around us coherently and also to act in the world with a reasonable approach. Numerous theories have developed throughout the previous century in western countries that make an effort to clarify how human character evolves, why all of us behave the way we do, what external circumstances encourage us to behave in particular ways, and the way these elements have been connected. A few of these concepts structure their arguments on essential physical as well as social-emotional situations within our very first years of existence; some around the impact involving external influences of our own family members, neighbourhood, as well as culture; a few on the unique learning and also thought procedures; a few on triumphant finalization of precise developmental "activities" at each and every phase throughout lifespan; plus some on the way a healthy-or perhaps unhealthy-sense…
Crandell, T., Crandell, C. And Zanden, J.V. (2011). Human Development. Chapter 2, 10th Ed. McGraw-Hill Humanities/Social Sciences/Languages, p. 1-768 .
Daniels, H., Cole, M., & Wertsch, J.V. (Eds.). (2007). The Cambridge companion to Vygotsky. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Eisenstadt, S.N. (1986). The axial age breakthroughs. In S.N. Eisenstadt (ed.), The origins and diversity of axial age civilizations. New York: State University of New York Press, pp. 1 -- 28.
Huntington, S.P. (1996). The clash of civilizations and the remaking of the world order. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Harry James Potter was born in 1980, the son of James and Lily Potter. Both of Harry's parents died when Harry was an infant. The murder of his parents literally left Harry Potter scarred for life: his lightening bolt-shaped scar is one of his most distinguishing physical features. The orphaned Harry was forced to live with distant family relatives who are Muggles, and culturally distinct from Harry. Harry Potter studies at the Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry. Harry has developed a process of adaptation, by which he adjusts himself to assimilate to the social environment at Hogwarts.
One of Harry's main cognitive schemas is that he aware that the Dark Lord Voldemort wants to kill him. The schema related to his personal identity and abstract concepts like good and evil evolve, revealing the process of child development throughout Potter's early adolescence. He demonstrates a process of accommodation, by…
Cherry, K. (n.d.). Background and key concepts of Piaget's theory. About.com. Retrieved online: http://psychology.about.com/od/piagetstheory/a/keyconcepts.htm
McLeod, S. (2009). Jean Piaget. Simply Psychology. Retrieved online: http://www.simplypsychology.org/piaget.html
"Stage Theory of Cognitive Development (Piaget)" (n.d.). Learning Theories. Retrieved online: http://www.learning-theories.com/piagets-stage-theory-of-cognitive-development.html
Sutton-Smith, B. (1966). Piaget on play: A critique. Psychological Review 73(1): 104-110.
younger brother's development since he was born in 1985, I would not have been able to until the beginning of this century. Until the early 1900s, no one was studying the changes that occurred in individuals from childhood to adulthood.
Now psychologists and other social scientists recognize that children go through similar behavioral, intellectual and mental, and physical steps while growing up. By using these theoretical steps as a guide, I can keep track of the development of my brother and any other child. It should always be remembered, however, that the time frames presented are averages and some children may achieve various developmental milestones earlier or later than the average but still be within the normal range. This information is presented to help interested parties understand what to expect from a child.
The idea that specific development stages exist for adults as well as children began with the initial…
Healy, Jane. Your child's growing mind. Galena, IL: Main Street Books, 1994.
Murray, Thomas. Human development theories. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 1999.
Singer, Dorothy. A Piaget primer: How a child thinks. New York: Plume, 1996.
Mothering and Development
The presence of a sensitive mother throughout a child's developmental period is an essential determinant of healthy growth and maturation. The establishment of a solid social and emotional foundation during a child's formative years can not only aid in preparing one's youngster for life in the outside world, it can also instill a beneficial groundwork in the basic concepts of the self (Cassidy, 1990). In order to achieve such noble maternal goals a good mother needs to possess a plethora of fostering characteristics. The most important of such qualities include love, responsiveness, consistency, an eye to encourage and the ability to provide the child with a sense of security. Successful implementation of the aforementioned traits will allow the child to develop a healthy attachment to the mother. This attachment is most often constructed in the stages of infancy. Through the informative and enlightening work of John owlby…
Caldji, C., Tannenbaum, B., Sharma, S., Francis, D., Plotsky, P.M., & Meaney, M.J. (1998, February 24). Maternal Care During Infancy Regulates the Development of Neural Systems Mediating the Expression of Fearfulness in the Rat. Retrieved February 22, 2011, from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC20261/
Cassidy, J. (1990). Theoretical and Methodological Considerations in the Study of Attachment and the Self in Young Children. In M.T. Greenberg, D. Cicchetti, & E.M. Cummings, Attachment in the Preschool Years: Theory, Research and Intervention (pp. 87-119). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Cherry, K. (2011). Attachment Theory. Retrieved February 22, 2011, from http://psychology.about.com/od/loveandattraction/a/attachment01.htm
Bretherton, I. (1992). The Origins of Attachment Theory: John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth. Journal of Developmental Psychology, 28 (5), 759-775.
U.S. Agency International Development (USAID) http://www.usaid.gov / Write response questions . Write response/background report outline point form. Use headings subheadings organize response. Apply APA style guidelines grammar, spelling, punctuation, citing referencing.
Nature of the organization's mandate
Philosophical perspective, with respect to promoting global health
The United States Agency for International Development (USAID) is the result of the Cold War doctrine related to international assistance. During the Kennedy Administration in the 1960s, the interest for assistance to low income countries and those affected by increased degrees of poverty has determined a need for a concerted action that would alleviate, to a certain extent, the pressures of impoverished national budgets and destroyed economies. In this sense, it was considered that developed countries, and especially the United States as the largest economic power of the Cold War, had the "moral duty" to assist countries in need (Committee on International elations, 2003). Despite this…
Committee On International Relations. (2003) "Legislation on Foreign Relations Through 2002" Committee On Foreign Relations. Available at http://transition.usaid.gov/policy/ads/faa.pdf
Kissinger, H. (2011). Diplomacy. New York: Simon & Schuster
USAID (2013) Key Accomplishments. Available at http://www.usaid.gov/results-and-data/highlights
USAID (2013) Budget and Spending. Available at http://www.usaid.gov/results-and-data/budget-spending
esearch states that "As the child develops and goes through the process of assimilation and accommodation, their brain will develop through the natural process of maturation, and therefore their understanding of the world matures and their ability to accurately interpret and predict the world develops," (Oakley ). A whole new understanding of themselves and the word around them is facilitated through preschooler's cognitive developments. Psychologists Jean Piaget places preschool children within the preoperational stage, between the ages of two and six years old. According to his research, this stage in the theory of cognitive development harbors increased language development and imaginative play, hence books chosen for this stage should appeal to both. Expanded memory allows for children to gather and retain much more information than in previous years. However, this rapid new development is limited by egocentrism, where "the child can only view the world from their perspective and finds…
Cooper, Janice L. (2009). Social-emotional development in early childhood. National Center for Children in Poverty. Retrieved October 10, 2009 at http://www.nccp.org/publications/pub_882.html
This publication explores the factors which influence a child's social development within the preschool years. It gives clear research findings regarding parental and caregiver influences along with social and neighborhood ones as well. It also outlines the potential hazards and issues of a child who develops within a problem area.
Lopes, Marilyn. (1995). Selecting books for children. National Network for Childcare. University of Massachusetts. Retrieved October 10, 2009 at http://www.nncc.org/Literacy/select.books.html
This site is a recommendation-based site which takes proven strategies and concepts developed by child psychologists at the University of Massachusetts. As part of the national network for child care, it aims to help parents make appropriate decisions for their children regarding books based on that child's age.
New Face of Development," onald Inglehart and Chrisitan Welzel's article, "How Development Leads to Democracy: What We Know About Modernization," and Jack Goldstone's article, "The New Population Bomb: The Four Megatrends That Will Change the World." Essentially, each of these articles takes varying approaches in chronicling the history of development and the impact that it will have on the future. The overarching goal that is found in synthesizing each of these works is that the ultimate repercussion for development will involve a shifting of power from conventional Westernization to the emergence of developing nations leading the way in a host of vital areas such as population, workforce, and aspects of production including food and health care.
Lancaster's article alludes to this fact by examining the history of development since the close of World War II. One of the most vital factors during this nearly 70-year process is the Cold War,…
Goldstone, J. (2010). "The new population bomb: the four megatrends that will change the world." Foreign Affairs.
Inglehart, R., Welzel, C. (2009). "How development leads to democracy:what we know about modernization." Foreign Affairs.
Lancaster, C. (No date). "The new face of development."
Trani, E.P. (No date). "Dollar Diplomacy." Encyclopedia of the New Nation. http://www.americanforeignrelations.com/A-D/Dollar-Diplomacy.html#b
Piagetian, Ericksonian, And Freudian Stages of Development
Human beings progress gradually from childhood to adulthood, going through stages that are distinct, continuous, and improving. Developmental psychologists like Freud, Piaget, and Erickson came up with different theories concerning the stages that people often undergo as they grow from childhood. This study discusses the similarities and the differences between the three theories with examples of the stages mentioned by each given. The contrast and comparison will make people appreciate the importance of the three theories of human development
Erickson's theory had the highest number of stages of development compared to the other two. His theory covered eight main stages from birth to death of an individual. According to Erickson, the successful completion of a stage marked a good beginning of the next stage. Failure to fully exhibit and live a stage exhaustively will recur in the future through habits that will…
Katz describes as a "very delicate touch" that recognizes the legitimate financial concerns of many contributors to SCC charitable initiatives.
Managerial and Planning Aspects of Fundraising:
Mr. Katz emphasized the importance of identifying the optimal timing for charitable fundraising initiatives to coincide with times of the year when charitable donations are least likely to conflict with other financial demands of anticipated contributors. Similarly, many of the SCC fundraising efforts naturally coincide with Jewish holidays, in particular those with especially prominent altruistic themes and a traditional focus on community service and charity for the less fortunate.
Mr. Katz also referred to the importance of using customer relationship management principles and tools to assist fundraising planning by personalizing outreach initiatives. Specifically, the SCC fundraising department has been using proprietary CM software to keep track of personal facts and family circumstances of donors and other contributing members of the SCC community. Mr. Katz…
Sephardic Community Center Public Website (2009). Retrieved September 23, 2009,
The program includes five components namely 'Family Support', 'Maternal Interview', 'Records review', 'case review' and 'Community action'. (FIMR, 2010)
The FIMR Process
FIMR Informed of Fetal/Infant Death
Data Collection/Record Review
Improved Maternal & Infant Health
Fetal origins of health and disease has developed into a new medical frontier for researchers. The growing body of research evidence has affirmed positive associations between the gestational environment and the development of various physical and mental disorders in the infant, adolescent and the adult population. The new knowledge that even gestational diet composition has the ability to alter the human epigenome resulting in the expression of undesirable genes and the onset of obesity, diabetes, cancer and other chronic health conditions, is convincing scientific evidence for pregnant women to be careful and cautious in their diet choices. Results from the studies on maternal…
1) Annie Murphy Paul, (Nov 4-2010), "How the First Nine Months Shape the Rest of Your Life," TIME, retrieved Dec 3rd 2010, from, http://www.time.com/time/health/article/0,8599,2020815-1,00.html
2) Barry E. Levin. (July 2006) " Metabolic Imprinting: Critical Impact of the perinatal environment on the regulation of energy homeostasis," Biol Sci. 29; 361(1471)
3) Irwing B. wiener & Richard M. Lerner et.al (2003), "Handbook of Psychology: Developmental Psychology," John Wiley & Sons
4) Kjersti M. Aagaard-Tillery, Kevin Grove, & Jacalyn Bishop et.al (Aug 2008), "Developmental Origins of Diseases and Determinants of chromatin Structure: Maternal diet modifies the Primate fetal epigenome," J. Mol Endocrinol 41 (20) 91 -- 102