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Infant Observation was given the opportunity to observe a female infant in a rather unique setting. "Herself" is the name that the child's mother, a modern-day flower child named Aloe, has given to the baby until the child is old enough to chose her own name. Aloe runs a small cruelty-free bakery and vegan ice cream shop in a rural community several hours from my home. I first met Aloe and her then unborn child on a road trip with friends, and I have stayed in e-mail contact with her on occasion since then because she was such an interesting person. When given the assignment to observe an infant, I decided it would be nice to catch up with Aloe and meet her now one-year-old child. Aloe's shop is located on a small plot of farmland which is used for animal rescue, and since it is also her home, she…
INFANT DEVELOPMENT: N.S. 12 Months Old
The environment in which the toddler is observed is a private home, approximately 2500 square feet. The primary areas that the toddler interact in include a large family area with an entertainment center, two couches, and several "play stations" including a toddler walker toy, several push toys, a couple of large image books, a giant Elmo stuffed animal and a puzzle. The toddler also moved about the kitchen, which was wide and open, had hardwood floors and a dining area where the toddler's high chair was set up. There were several gates positioned through doorways to block the toddler from accessing other areas of the home.
During the time of observation, the toddler was at home with mom and dad, myself as the observer, and one other couple who had an infant of 3 months with them. The adults were engaged in…
By all accounts, N.S. seemed to be developing at a normal to average pace; however his ability to sign so well at only 12 months seems to put him on a scale slightly above his peers from a cognitive perspective. His natural interest in the infant and in gaining the attention of his guests suggest normal or average social development for a twelve-month-old toddler based on information provided in the readings.
Fogel, A. (2001). Infancy: Infant, Family, and Society. (Fourth Edition) St. Paul, MN: West Publishing.
Ryon is a twelve-month-old, blond-haired, blue-eyed, White toddler. He is fair-skinned with almond-shaped eyes. I met him at a friend’s suburban residence, on 1st November, 2017, where her mom provides daycare services. I spent time between 2 p.m. and 5 p.m. at her place. I discovered Ryon seated on the living room floor. Though equipped with only a TV set and a couple of couches, the setting seemed rather comfortable and safe (Lake, 2017).
The boy seems to find no difficulty sitting up. It appears he is confident of his ability to maintain balance. He is seated feet-outwards, with legs wide out. The boy is able to lean forward till his tummy reaches the floor, though he requires a certain amount of effort in order for sitting back up. When he crawls, his hands are spread flat across the floor, with fingers made wide and feet pointed nearly…
According to this professional, circumcisions that are competently performed under local anaesthesia cause no more pain or harm than an immunisation injection. Furthermore, male circumcision ahs shown benefits such as the reduction of sexually transmitted infections such as the human pailloma virus, chancroid and syphilis. She also cites studies that indicated a reduced risk of HIV infection in males who have been circumcised.
Indeed, there are quite humane ways to circumcise infants with the minimal amount of stress and pain today. Furthermore, cultural and religious reasons for performing the ritual cannot be discarded. Particularly when done under the correct and most humane possible circumstances, cultural practices should not be prohibited.
Having said this, and considering the issue from all viewpoints, however, the fact remains that infant male circumcision is the removal of part of the human body without the consent of its owner, the child. It carries significant risks, especially…
Bering, J. (2010, Apr. 23). Is male circumcision a humanitarian act? Scientific American: Bering in Mind. Retrieved from http://www.scientificamerican.com/blog/post.cfm?id=is-male-circumcision-a-humanitarian-2010-04-23
Hinchley, G. And Patrick, K. (2007, Dec 8). Is Infant Male Circumcision an Abuse of the Rights of the Child? Science Daily. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/12/071207120817.htm
Manimale, N. (2010, Mar 15). CDC should not recommend infant male circumcision. The Oracle Online. Retrieved from http://www.usforacle.com/cdc-should-not-recommend-infant-male-circumcision-1.2191240
infant (birth-12 months old).
The observation is of Julie, the child of a friend who is 6 months old. Her parents are Jewish, the father is a Rabbi in the local Temple, the mother works as a physical therapist. The parents combine American and Jewish values in raising the child, and in comparison to any particular American child of her age, I do not expect to see nor do not see any particular cultural differences emerge as yet.
The family may be described as lower to middle class; it is difficult to make distinctions. They do have a large family -- ten children, with both parents involved in parenting and maintenance of the household. It is a warm, cohesive family with both sets of grandparents living close by and with close family and communal ties.
The observation was conducted last week and occurred during the duration of one and a…
Routine Infant Male Circumcision
While female genital mutilation has garnered a great deal of attention in recent years, male genital mutilation or circumcision has been for the most part overlooked in research reports. (Redactive Publishing, 2010, paraphrased) The objective of this study is to conduct an examination of routine infant male circumcision. This will involve a summarization and critical analysis of the current literature and reliable published evidence in this area of inquiry. The work of ocquet et al. (2009) examines the issue of bleeding complications following ritualistic circumcision and reports on six children who are stated to have no family history of hemorrhagic disease and no personal problems of thrombopenia or hemostatis, who were admitted within 1 year at the emergency department for hemorrhagic complications of nonmedical circumcisions, of which one had glans amputation." ( Five of the children were newborns. All of the newborns had compensated shock with…
Benatar, M & Benatar, D 2003, 'Between prophylaxis and child abuse: the ethics of neonatal male circumcision', American Journal Of Bioethics, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 35-48, CINAHL with Full Text, EBSCOhost.
Bhattacharjee, P 2008, 'Male circumcision: an overview', African Journal Of Paediatric Surgery, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 32-36, Academic Search Complete, EBSCOhost.
Bo, X & Goldman, H 2008, 'Newborn circumcision in Victoria, Australia: reasons and parental attitudes', ANZ Journal Of surgery, vol. 78, no. 11, pp. 1019-1022, Academic Search complete, EBSCOhost.
Bocquet, N, Lortat-Jacob, S, Cheron, G & Chappuy, H 2010, 'Bleeding complications after ritual circumcision: about six children', European Journal Of Pediatrics, vol. 169, no. 3, pp. 359-362, Academic Search Complete, EBSCOhost.
Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. The articles explore separate studies about the topic. The author of this work discusses various aspects of each article and their merit. There were two sources used to complete this paper.
Each year in America thousands of parents walk into their infants room and discover that the child has died from Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. The tragedy shocks and baffles the medical community as it continues to search for answers not only to what causes the syndrome but also what parents can do to reduce the risk of it striking their child. Studies around the globe have been conducted to this end with mixed results.
The determination of factors that influence the existence of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome is vital to the ability to stop its occurrence.
The first study examined whether the temperament of an infant has a bearing on whether that child…
Temperament ratings do not predict arousability in normal infants and infants at increased risk of sudden infant death syndrome. (Original Articles).
Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics; 10/1/2002; Adamson, T. Michael
Cosleeping in young Korean children.
Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics; 6/1/2002; Hahn, Hong-Moo
Developmental Observation of Five-Year-old
Statement of esearch/Observation: To observe a five-year-old female child in her natural setting to determine age appropriate developmental stages.
Description of Child Being Observed: The subject is a five-year-old female: Maribel.
My friend has a five-year-old niece. The subject's mother was contacted and agreed to allow the observations to take place in her home and on the playground. The project was discussed and plans were made to accommodate all involved parties.
The introductory visit was conducted at my friend's house, also the child's grandmother's home. Maribel often visits her grandmother and is very comfortable within this home setting.
Upon this visit, Maribel was introduced to me as her aunt's visitor. She said, "hi" to me, and asked me if I was visiting her aunt. I replied yes, and asked Maribel if she would like to sit with me and wait…
Alliance for Childhood. "Importance of play." 2 May, 2003 http://www.allianceforchildhood.net/projects/play/index.htm
Bergen, D. Pretend Play and Young Children's Development. ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood, 2001. ERIC,ED458045.
Fisch, S.M., & Truglio, R.T. (2001). "G" is for growing: Thirty years of research on children and Sesame Street. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Kagan, J. "Child." World Book Online Reference Center. 2004. World Book, Inc. 25 Mar. 2004. http://www.worldbookonline.com/wb/Article?id=ar110700 .
Evidence-based practice indicates the universal need for the implementation of better maternal and newborn infant care, especially with regard to breastfeeding support and encouragement. This is evidenced by countless research works that both report the optimized goals of better rates of exclusive breastfeeding among infants 0-6 months and the evidence of current trends and practices (AAP, 2010; Scanlon et. al, 2007; Naylor, 2010; Grummer-Strawn & Shealy 2009). These researchers, reviewers an experts base their observations on a need that is well documented in the literature, i.e. both the current state of breastfeeding support in maternity settings and clinical short- and long-term health related outcomes associated with breastfeeding and lack of breastfeeding. The literature associated with this need is demonstrative of many issues regarding breastfeeding and support that the best overall scenario for maternal and infant health is exclusive breastfeeding of infants till six months of age with supplements or…
Resources needed for the implementation of the Baby Friendly Hospital designation are relatively limited, due in large part to the extensive work the Brookdale Hospital has recently done to begin to implement better breastfeeding and maternal practices, as noted at the close of the Problem statement section of this work. The hospital must implement additional changes, file the proper application for assessment and designation and prove and justify implementation of the 10 steps associated with the designation over a period of five years. The resources needed for this process will include participation by existing staff including nurses, nurse managers and the hiring of a certified lactation specialist. The most costly of all the implementation strategies will be hiring of a certified lactation specialist, other costs will be further detailed in the budget section of this work and will include administrative, office supplies, additional signage and support training of nursing and support staff.
Barriers to Change
Barriers to change must begin with a clear understanding and elimination of the kinds of hospital practices that are shown in evidence-based research to be particularly contraindicative of early, long-duration and successful breastfeeding including the; use of artificial nipples (pacifiers), bottles, and even nipple shields in mainly healthy newborns (McKechnie & Eglash, 2010) supplementation that is unneeded for natal nutrition, limitations in the practice of rooming in (infant stays with mother as much as possible over the first 24 hours after birth to ensure on demand nursing opportunities), limitations in skin to skin contact of infant with both mother and father, and other institutionally practiced barriers are not only common but traditionally accepted as standards of practice in most hospitals and birthing centers ("Breastfeeding-related maternity practices…" 2008 ). The Baby-Friendly Hospital Designation, and all the steps to prepare and implement it will go far to demonstrate change in hospitals including but not limited to Brookdale Hospital in NYC.
Barriers to change, that are specific to Brookdale hospital have been briefly developed in the problem statement of this work and demonstrate mostly institutional practices that are not only accepted but supported by the hospital and L&D and neonatal staff. Rooming in, where the newborn infant spends as much time as possible with the mother during the first 24-48 hours of life, leaving the bedside of the mother only when absolutely necessary is essential to change. The existence of a highly staffed and large newborn nursery, where infants spend a good deal of time and receive a great deal of care from staff rather than the mother is one of the first institutional issues that needs to change. This reduction of reliance on the newborn nursery may offset some of the costs of implementing change, as stricter rooming in policies and practices would indicate the need for fewer staff resources in the newborn nursery. Skin-to-skin contact of mother to infant should begin at the moment of birth, as is indicated by the hospital's new policies and procedures for breastfeeding support. Newborns should be given screening tests in the presence of the mother, and if at all possible while the mother is holding and/or nursing the child during skin to skin contact. Breastfeeding education should be continuous, beginning in prenatal clinics, extending throughout the hospital stay and supported and supplemented by follow up care with a certified lactation specialist and/or nursing staff that has taken CEC courses in breastfeeding support, and the number class offerings per week should be increased to every other day to support the usual uncomplicated discharge of mother and baby at 48-72 hours post delivery and the course for mothers should be a condition for discharge. L&D and nursery nurses should continue to be encouraged to take the available course with a first year goal of 100% completion. Lastly, cultural barriers to breastfeeding in the patient population should be mitigated with culturally sensitive training and breastfeeding support, long-term breastfeeding follow up and a sensitive but essential reiteration of the many benefits of breastfeeding for both child and mother, reiteration, for those who qualify, of the benefits of the Women Infant Children program which supports breastfeeding mothers with additional food and benefits for the mother not just by supplying formula or food for the infant after birth.
Role of Nurse Executive
peception of objects in infants elated to IQ duing adolescence?
The tem "social cognition" epesents the fundamental capabilities of childen to peceive an object, categoize, emembe, evaluate, thing and eact appopiately (Dilalla, 2007). This poposal ecognizes the boad definition of the tem, but it emphasizes on the multidisciplinay quality of eseach fo this pape. Nevetheless, scientific disciplines vay in thei emphasis on vaious elements of this sophisticated constuct. In social psychology, the tem illustates a wide ange of happenings including moal easoning, fomation of attitudes and steeotyping. In neuoscience, it defines the tem as the capability to peceive the intentions and dispositions of othe people. On the othe hand, developmental psychology descibes the tem as the theoy of mind, the ecognition that people have beliefs and inteests divegent, and it is possible to explain behavio by efeing to the beliefs and inteests.
This poposal adopts the above definition because acoss…
references for novel and familiar stimuli. Advances in infancy research, 5, 69-95.
McCall, R.B., & Carriger, M. (1993). A meta-analysis of infant habituation and recognition memory performance as predictors of later IQ. Child Development, 64, 57-
Quinn, P.C., & Johnson, M.H. (2000). Global before basic object categorization. Infancy, 1, 31-
What do abies Think?
Psychologists and the rest of the world have always regarded babies as incomplete, merely forming adults whose thoughts can only be rudimental and purposeless. ut Alison Gopnik explored deeply into this issue and came out with the staggering finding that babies are actually smarter and meaningful than we all thought, even more intelligent than adults in essence. Gopnik is a psychology professor at the University of California at erkeley who published her discover in a book entitled, "The Philosophical aby: What Children's Minds Tell us about the Truth, Love and the Meaning of Life."
In totality, Gopnik (2010) discovered that babies and young children are designed by nature to learn but with a kind of intelligence far different from that of adults but very relevant to development and growth. abies and young children, first of all, do think and their minds develop in a way…
Brooks, C.N. (2012). What do babies think about? Family and Parenting: Examiner.com.
Retrieved on November 15, 2013 from http://www.examiner.com/article/what-do-abies-think.about
Catania, M. (200). What do babies think before thus start talking? Exploration:
Vanderbilt University. Retrieved on November 15, 2013 from http://www.exploration.vanderbilt.edu/news/news.baby.htm
Customer Service Triage at Home Depot
Despite the self-service checkout lanes being staffed by an associate to manage all four of the self-service locations, with custom orders and big-ticket items they had to inevitably get the store manager involved to alleviate the conflicts with customers. The time required to resolve both the custom orders and big-ticket purchases actually took more time for customers than it would have taken to just go through the traditional checkout lanes. The lack of information workflow, process, pricing, and employee knowledge of the processes was evident by watching the series of transactions completed. The triage or problem solving of the store manager took an inordinate amount of time to troubleshoot the pricing discrepancies on the service contracts alone would have made it much simpler to have also gone through the traditional check-out lanes. The more complex the transaction the greater the need for Home Depot…
AMR Research (2003) - Self-Checkout Systems -- Waiting for the 'Aha!' Moment. Wednesday April 9, 2003. Paula Rosenblum. Boston, MA
AMR Research-1 (2003) - the Aha Moment Arrives Wednesday April 9, 2003. Paula Rosenblum. Boston, MA
CapGemini (2003) - TRANSFORMING the SHOPPING EXPERIENCE THROUGH TECHNOLOGY, a Study in European Consumer Buying Behaviour. Accessed from the Internet on November 6, 2007 from location: http://www.no.capgemini.com/m/no/tl/pdf_Transforming_The_Shopping_Experience_Through_Technology__A_Study_in_European_Consumer_Buying_Behaviour_.pdf
This chapter points out how early environmental influences, however, are also part of the nurture equation, something that is often forgotten. A baby who is picked up when he or she cries, is given stimulation in the nursery, and is given good nutrition will have a better start in life than a baby who is given none of these advantages, even if the deprived and enriched infants in this hypothetical scenario may have relatively the same genetic material. Nurture, in other words, begins very early on, and nurture can affect the later biology of the brain just as much as genetics.
From birth, it seems as though humans are predisposed to communicate, and to make meaning out of sounds and gestures. Yet despite this apparent hard-wiring to create language, culture also has a profound influence on individual's communication styles, from the words that are used to nonverbal cues.…
Berger, Kathleen Stassen. The Developing Person through Childhood and Adolescence. 6th Ed.
Worth Publishers, 2004.
Kangaroo Care and Premature Babies
Kangaroo care entails holding a full term infant or premature so that there is a skin-to-skin contact between the newborn and the individual holding it. Individuals practice kangaroo care for premature infants for approximately two to three hours every day over a certain period. This takes place during early infancy, and the parent holds the baby against her bare chest. Medically stable babies can receive kangaroo care for up to any period since there is no maximum duration for them (Feldman et al., 2002).
Most parents may keep their babies in their arms for hours each day. According to research carried out, kangaroo care is essential as close bodily contact between the infant and the mother helps to stabilize the heartbeat, breathing and temperature of the premature infant. This is crucial as premature babies always have problems in harmonizing their heart and breathing rate. Mothers…
Aucott, S., Donohue, K., Atkins, E., & Marilee, C (2002). Neurodevelopmental Care In The
Nicu, 8, 298 -- 308.
Dodd, L. (2003). Effects of kangaroo care in preterm infants,
Feldman, R., Weller, A., Sirota, L., & Eidelman, A. (2002). Skin-to-Skin Contact (Kangaroo Care) Promotes Self-Regulation in Premature Infants: Sleep -- Wake Cyclicity, Arousal Modulation, and Sustained Exploration, Vol. 38 (2), 194 -- 207.
At the end of the party he took a card out of his wallet and gave it to me. He said, "Here, I'll give you my phone number. If you'd like to call me up, I'd love to hear from you." called him two days later and we made a date. Turned out he didn't drive so I had to pick him up. Since I had called him and I was going to be the driver, I bought a small bouquet of flowers and brought them to him. It was fun to reverse roles. Philip was the only man I ever met who didn't have a driver's license. He said he didn't want or need to drive. He liked taking buses and having his friends drive him places.
Dinner was a success. He paid for everything in the traditional manner. Philip told me he was a feminist. He had never…
Furman, Frida K. Facing the Mirror: Older Women and Beauty Shop Culture. New York:
Tannen, Deborah. You Just Don't Understand. New York: Ballantine Books, 1990.
Wood, Julia T. Gendered Lives.
It also made me realize how relatively easy I have it in this world when there are so many hungry people and children. I saw mothers with babies coming in by the dozens to shop at the food bank store, and owners of small food pantries picking up their daily and weekly supplies, and massive trailer trucks bringing dozens of pallets of donated food from grocery warehouses and distribution centers.
It all impacted my feeling about volunteering and helping others in need. It is hard to realize how many need such assistance until you see the huge amounts of people, and enormous amount of food necessary to feel those who can't afford to feed themselves.
What I Learned
One person really can make a difference. A small group of dedicated, generous, hard-working people can change a community. And all of us working together could change the world. I helped one…
stood still by a large fountain in a public square and did nothing for ten minutes. I used as many senses as possible to intake information from the world around me as objectively as possible, letting go the temptation to judge or analyze what was going on. The sounds were the first thing I noticed: the occasional cry of a baby or high-pitched voice of a child; the subtle murmurs of intimate conversations; the constant hum of city noise from traffic; and natural sounds like the wind as it hit objects, blew leaves on the trees, and set aloft pieces of trash.
Turning my attention toward the sights around me, the whole square seemed alive and pulsing. There were pigeons and crows going about their daily business, the pigeons seemingly doing nothing but waddling around and flying away when a person would get too close, and the crows pecking at…
McGrane, B.(1994).Un-occupied, Un-employed:Don't Just Do Something, Stand There!In The Un-TV and the 10 MPH Car (pp.20-57). Fort Bragg, CA:The Small Press
Fiction's Come a Long Way, aby
The development of fiction from its nascent stages until today's contemporary works is a storied one. Many features mark contemporary fiction and differentiate it from the classics of the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries: For one, modern writers use different perspectives to narrate: In some works, the narrator switches from third-person omniscient to first person, and in some contemporary works, even the challenging second-person. Experimentation in styles also marks contemporary fiction: Nabokov, perhaps fiction's greatest ever stylist, has written one novel penned to ladies and gentlemen of the jury, and another as literary criticism on a purposefully mediocre poem. (Nabokov: Lolita and Pale Fire).
ut one of the most pronounced shifts in fiction over these centuries has been the move from stuffy, high art to a fixation on and immersion in pop culture. George Eliot, for instance, in "Daniel Deronda," interspersed a very staid…
Cisneros, Sandra: Woman Hollering Creek. New York: Vintage.
Cisneros, Sandra: Mexican Movies. New York: Vintage.
Cisneros, Sandra: Barbie-Q. New York: Vintage.
Johnson, Samuel: Rasselas. New York: Oxford.
Public/high School Gaduate Audience) And 5 Annotated Pofessional, Pee-Reviewed Souces (aimed at a Pofessional/academic/college Student/gaduate Student Audience)
Annotated Pofessional, Pee-eviewed Souces (aimed At A Pofessional/academic/college Student/gaduate Student Audience)
Jounal of Attachment & Human Development (http://www.tandf.co.uk/jounals/titles/14616734.asp)
Routledge. 6 issues a yea. Is child-development oiented. Focuses on child attachment theoy and eseach. Povides empiical pespective with cutting edge studies, eviews, and clinical case obsevations. Cosses ove the fields of psychiaty, psychology, nusing, social wok and elated fields whilst pesenting ideas, methods, and eseach on attachment theoy.
Jounal of Child & Family Behavio Theapy (http://www.tandf.co.uk/jounals/titles/07317107.asp)
Routledge. 4 issues a yea. Teating all aspects of the child and adolescent's life within a behavioal fomat, this issue shaes extensive case methods and pactical behavioal techniques fo anyone involved in the child / o adolescent's life (including paent, teache, and counselo). Thee ae extensive book eviews, case studies, and the latest behavioal techniques with step-by-step details…
references) related to that age are extant.
5. Parenting School Years Magazine
( http://www.magazines.com/product/parenting-school-years )
Part of Parenting magazine, this new edition discusses the challenges that educators, counselors, and parents may face with school-age children. Parenting School Years targets children age 6-11. Has 11 issues per year and in popular style targets a general audience. Articles include dealing with sibling rivalry, and helping kids adjust to parents' divorce and remarriage. In this way, it targets issues that exceed the school parameters and that anyone dealing with children, in whichever capacity, will encounter.
Infants Who Witness Violence: Effects and Treatments
INFANTS WHO WITNESS VIOLENCE: EFFECTS AND 1
Age Span Differences
Effects on Infants
A Sleeper Effect
Stunt Babies' Intellectual Development
Disturbance of attachment and its consequences
Assessment and Intervention
Infants who witness violence: Effects and Treatments
esearch clearly shows that the effects of domestic violence on children, result from children and infants that have been observing witnessing domestic violence in a home where one or both of their parents are abusing each other, plays a key part on the safety and developmental growth of infants and children that are observing this violence. However, in 2009 in the Philippines, it was projected that as many as 8 to 20 million children were exposed to domestic violence (JL, 2010) with about 4.5 million children wide-open to domestic violence in their homes every year. (Attala JM, 2012) Infant children who are current in the…
Alpert EJ, S.R. (2012). Interpersonal violence and the education of physicians. Acad Med., 13(4), 23-45.
Attala JM, B.K. (2012). Integrative review of effects on children of witnessing domestic violence. Issues Compr Pediatr Nurs, 23(9), 567-600.
Jaffe PG, H.D. (2006). Children's observations of violence: I. Critical issues in child development and intervention planning. Can J. Psychiatry, 34(9), 355-366.
JL, E. (2010). Children's witnessing of adult domestic violence. J Interpers Violence, 23(9), 839 -- 70.
Human Behavior Social Environment
This paper begins with an observation of a 4-year-old boy at the train station setting. The surrounding company is the family that consists of father, mother, a son, and three-daughters. The goal of the observation is to establish the boy's entire behavior together with his reaction to punishment and reinforcement. The method used was the Systematic Observation consisting of event sampling and specimen record that lasted for 53 minutes.
The report gathered information through "Systematic Observation." I formulated the design through the simple form of recording data through event sampling and specimen record. In most cases, researchers can record descriptions of the entire scope of behavior using this method (Hutchison, 2008). Further, the particular behavior instances of the specified period were recorded.
The Piaget Cognitive Development Theory was used in analyzing the behavior of the child. The child is at proportional stages of between two…
Freeman, K.A. (Spring 2000). Positive behavior support: Expanding the application of applied behavior analysis. The Behavior Analyst 23 (1): 85 -- 94.
Germaine, C.B and Bloom, M. (1999). Human Behavior in the Social environment: an ecological view. New York: Columbia University Press.
Gilligan, C. (1993). In a different voice: psychological theory and women's development. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press
Greene, R.R. (2008). Human behavior theory and social work practice. New Brunswick, NJ: Aldine Publishers
, 2010). egardless of the cause, infant SV is linked to "significantly more symptoms of wheezing disorder and clinical allergy than controls and were more likely to be sensitized to common inhaled allergens" (Todd et al., 2010). The number of studies and the number of subjects is still small, but the correlations have been consistently large enough to suggest that a serious bout of SV-bronchiolitis in infancy is linked to later lung problems such as asthma, wheezing, and atopy. Therefore, M.C.'s parents should be educated about the possibility that M.C. may experience breathing problems in later life, and told to advise her primary care physician of her SV diagnosis and hospitalization.
Caiulo, V.A., Gargani, L., Caiulo, S., Fisicaro, A., Moramarco, F., Latini, G., & Picano, E.
(2011). Lung ultrasound in bronchiolitis: Comparison with chest x-ray. Eur J. Pediatr, 170, 1427-1433.
Healthwise. (2012). Bronchiolitis- topic overview. etrieved March 9, 2013…
Caiulo, V.A., Gargani, L., Caiulo, S., Fisicaro, A., Moramarco, F., Latini, G., & Picano, E.
(2011). Lung ultrasound in bronchiolitis: Comparison with chest x-ray. Eur J. Pediatr, 170, 1427-1433.
Healthwise. (2012). Bronchiolitis- topic overview. Retrieved March 9, 2013 from WebMD
Baptism Debate: An Examination of the Purpose and Merits of Baptism
There is no trick involved in entering the Kingdom of Heaven, but many theologians argue that there are some important steps that must be taken to help pave the way, including being baptized. Issues such as whether complete immersion is required or simply a token sprinkling, who is authorized to perform baptisms and even the fundamental purpose and merits of baptism, have all been the source of enormously divisive controversy within the Christian church for two millennia. To determine the facts, this paper provides a review of the relevant peer-reviewed and scholarly literature concerning different views about the purpose and merits of baptism, and whether baptism is reserved for believers only or for infants as well. A discussion concerning what mode of baptism is biblical is followed by a summary of the research and important findings in the conclusion.…
Bryant, S.E. (2004, Winterr). "More Than a Symbol: The British Baptist Recovery of Baptismal
Sacramentalism." Baptist History and Heritage, 39(1), 120-123.
Cavendish, R. (1999). "Baptism." Man, Myth & Magic. New York: Marshall Cavendish
These restaurants in particular are a threat to McDonalds -- a chain like Subway has a menu better suited for older customers. There are other threats as well, such as eroding sources of wealth. As people retire, their budgets become more fixed. If they rely on pensions from their employers, many of those shifting from traditional defined-benefit plans to defined-contribution plans. Thus, more seniors are going to rely on the stock market or bond markets for their wealth. This threatens their financial security, and therefore their ability to buy McDonalds. Fortunately, the baby boomer generation picked a good time to be born, and many have wealth locked up in their homes, or accumulated from long careers in world where one could move straight from undergrad into a management job, with no student loans. This generation is fairly well off, relative to just about any other. However, those that rely on…
Elliott, S. (2009). The older audience is looking better than ever. New York Times. In possession of the author.
Landon Carter's Character through
Erik Erikson's stages of development
Erik Erikson was an American developmental psychologist who was born in Germany and went to postulate eight stages of psychological development. He developed a model that talked about the eight stages every human passes through as he grows. These stages depict and analyze a person's life from when they are baby till they die. It mentions how in every stage a person is presented with problems and challenges. Every stage depicts a crisis which has to be resolved or else it will create problems in the next stage. Thus, for a person to attain a positive personality they need to attain positive goals of that stage and progress smoothly to the next one. (osenthal, Gurney, & Moore 2)
A Walk to emember is a popular romantic drama movie released in 2002. With the setting in North Carolina, the movie revolves around…
A Walk to Remember. Dir. Adam Shankman. Perf. Mandy Moore, Shane West, Peter Coyote. Warner Bros. Pictures, 2002. DVD.
Beaumont, Sherry L., & Zukanovic, Ray. "Identity Development in Men and Its Relation to Psychosocial Distress and Self-Worth." Canadian Journal of Behavioral Science. January (2005) Web.
Elkind, D. "Erik Erikson's Eight Ages of Man." New York Times. New York Times, 5 April 1970. Web. 15 November 2012.
Gross, Francis L. Introducing Erik Erikson: An invitation to his thinking. Lanham, MD: University Press of America. 1987.Print
Besides the fact that children need further exposure to the light/sun in order to develop their bones, light facilitates enhanced growth and development. Therefore, it is an essential element in the eyes of the children as well as in their entire bodies. The variations in the intensity of light in the incubators enabled the infants to develop their adaptation into embracing light into their bodies and eyes.
Sound is the other aspect, which appeared to have some varying effects on premature babies. According to Huttenlocher, (2002), sound is a transfer of energy through the air. It is transferred as an energy that can only be detected by the ears. It is a wave of energy, which carries certain aspects as that involved with communication. Like any other aspect, which affects premature babies, sound is an environmental aspect. It is variable and can be transformed from one notion to another with…
Avery, G.B., MacDonald, M.G., Seshia, M.M.K., & Mullett, M.D. (2005). Avery's neonatology: Pathophysiology & management of the newborn journal. Philadelphia:
Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Bradford, N. (2000). Your premature baby: 0-5 years. Vol. 2, Issue 6, Pages 23, London:
The conclusions fit the findings well; the methodology was strong; and there were no limitations mentioned but this research was not "an indictment of parenthood." The authors stress that when couples think they will strengthen their marriage by having children, that is likely to "backfire, and all parties will suffer" (Twenge, 582).
all Street Journal (Europe) article: The goals of this piece were to determine if marriage is better or worse among newest generation of married couples -- and the results of this survey of 90 studies involving 31,000 married people indicate the "…after the first baby's birth" marital satisfaction is 42% lower among the newest generation of parents (mostly Gen-Xers) than in previous generations (Shellenbarger, 2004). Additional research referenced by the author reflects that "one-third to one-half of new parents" have the same amount of stress as couples that are already going through marriage counseling. This is an article…
De Leon, Ferdinand M. (1999). Rocking The Cradle -- And A Marriage -- After D-Day: Programs
Help Couples Prepare For Parenthood. Seattle Times. Retrieved January 18, 2012 from http://community.seattletimes.nwsource.com .
Shellenbarger, Sue. (2004). Career Journal -- Work & Family: A Growing Number of Marriages
Fail After Baby. Wall Street Journal. Retrieved January 17, 2012, from ProQuest.
This ethnographic observation comprises two separate visits to a NHL hockey game, during the regular season. Both of the observations took place at an evening game, which began at 7PM. There are several predispositions of how I believe people will look and behave in this setting. For example, I believed that men would outnumber women. I also believed that about half of the people at the hockey game would be with groups, and especially with families. I believed that roughly half of the attendants would be wearing a hockey team jersey, and that a quarter of the fans would have purchased beer from the stadium kiosks. Shouting and other signs of fan participation and enthusiasm was also expected. I have been to several NHL hockey games, as well as minor league games. This is why I have some expectations of the game but still tried to keep an open…
Cherry, K. (n.d.). The three types of psychology research. Introduction to Research Methods. Retrieved online: http://psychology.about.com/od/researchmethods/ss/expdesintro.htm
Munro, C.E.S. (2006). Sports fan culture & brand community: an ethnographic case study of the Vancouver Canucks Booster Club. University of British Columbia [Thesis].
Noto, C.S. (2008). The ethnography: What it is and how to write it. Retrieved online: http://voices.yahoo.com/the-ethnography-write-it-1913940.html
"Writing an Ethnography," (n.d.). Retrieved online: http://www.bethelcollege.edu/users/blowers/writing%20an%20ethnography.htm
Spatial Cognition Skills
Gregory is a toddler. He is the subject of this observation. He is 3 feet 2 inches tall. He weighs 38 pounds. He has blonde hair and almond shaped green eyes. He is Caucasian with a pinky-pale complexion.
While performing the observation, Gregory wore jeans, a blue tank top, brown sandals, and a blue baseball cap.
Gregory lives with his mother and father, a 4-year-old sister, a cat named Sprinkles, and a parrot named Bella. The parents have been married for five years and had their first child, Jackeline during their first year of marriage. His father is a high school teacher and is 36 years old. His mother is a housewife and is 30 years old. The mother earned her degree in English at the age of 22.
The primary care givers of Gregory are his parents with his mother taking care of him…
Ornkloo, H. & von Hofsten, C. (2007). Fitting objects into holes: On the development of spatial cognition skills. Developmental Psychology, 43(2), 404-416. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0012-16184.108.40.2064
Such a limited gathering of data suggests that perhaps a different outcome may have occurred had a truly careful and representative collection and analysis of data actually been performed.
Other significant limitations to this study exist. In fact, the sample of women and children was generally comprised of low risk and only primiparous mothers. Accordingly, the findings as generally stated may not accurate with regard to high risk and/or multiparous populations. Additionally, the sample itself was underpowered to actually detect the nuances between the different treatment groups. Admittedly, the research undertook to examine several different types of therapies and treatment amongst several different sets of women; and, a fastidious review of subtle differences between treatment groups was not completed. Furthermore, of the indicators that revealed a positive outcome, these indicators were based upon data from mothers which was subjective in nature as it was solely based upon the mothers' assessment…
Music on Vocabulary ompetence, Writing, Reading omprehension and Motivation in English Language Learning in High-School
EFFETIVENESS OF MUSI ON VOABULARY
The Effectiveness of Music on Vocabulary ompetence, Writing, Reading omprehension and Motivation in English Language Learning in High-School
Most English language learners in high schools show poor vocabulary competence. The main reason for this is the limited level of exposure to the language. It is generally understood and practically acknowledged that words form the basic unit of language structure. Therefore lack of sufficient vocabulary constrains students from effectively communicating and freely expressing their ideas.
Vocabulary competence is critical to developing reading comprehension skills. Lack of vocabulary development is detrimental to the development of metacognitive skill that is important in comprehending advanced texts. omprehension is a major component of development of vocabulary, reading to learn. Therefore, reading comprehension it is quite challenging for students lacking adequate knowledge of meaning of words.…
Chapter IV: Results and Evaluation
The main purpose of this study is to examine the effectiveness of using music on vocabulary competence, writing, reading comprehension and motivation in English Language Learning in High school students as a part of the learning process in the classroom. Many teachers of English as a second language as well as the learners consider vocabulary as a critical factor in learning the language. Therefore it is important to develop creative and interesting ways of teaching vocabulary in English class. A qualitative study was appropriate for the research for the reason that the objective was exploratory (Creswell, 1998). The significance that was recognized to the singularities of teaching was examined with hermeneutic methods (Creswell, 2002).
In order to give a reply to the answer of the three research questions, mean scores and standard deviations were computed for each of the two groups on each of the three dependent measures at the ending of study. All three of the dependent measures are considered to be the evaluation of the sight-reading, the evaluation of the playing abilit, and the
Activities to Reduce Inappopiate Behavios Displayed by Childen With Autism and Othe Developmental Disabilities
The pupose of this dissetation study is to test the effectiveness of an eveyday activities-based potocol (Holm, Santangelo, Fomuth, Bown & Walte, 2000) fo managing challenging and disuptive behavios of 13- to 23-yea-old esidential students (male and female) with Autism who live at Melmak Homes, Inc., of southeasten Pennsylvania, and attend school o adult day pogams. Applied behavio analysis and a focus on eveyday occupations (activities) will be combined duing the intevention phase. Reinfocement will be fo subtask completion and duation of paticipation, NOT fo absence of taget maladaptive o disuptive behavios. Behavio analysts, howeve, will document the fequency/duation of the taget behavios duing each condition. Inteventions will occu daily, Monday though Fiday. A single-subject, multiple-baseline, acoss-subjects design with nine subjects will be used to evaluate change in behavios unde altenating conditions. Data will be analyzed…
references, and favorites)
Child and Family Assets
(Abilities, strengths, skills, accomplishments, and capabilities)
Functional and Meaningful Interactions
(Purposeful interactions; ways interests and assets are used in everyday life)
diffusion process? Briefly describe the individuals who make up each grou
The first stage of a diffusion process is the awareness stage. In this stage the consumer becomes aware or informed about the existence of a new innovation. However this group of individuals is only know about the existence of the idea such as a brand name but do not know any further details about the product or the idea. The second stage is of interest where an individual shows interest in knowing more about the idea and how will it be useful to him. In the evaluation stage the customer applies the idea mentally to his situation and evaluates as to what degree is the idea or the product useful to him. In the trial stage, the individuals use the idea or the product but only for experimental purposes. If the individuals are satisfied after using the product in…
Burke, M.A., Fournier, G.M., & Prasad, K. (2007). The Diffusion of a Medical Innovation: Is Success in the Stars?. Southern Economic Journal, 73(3), 588+. Retrieved March 22, 2012, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com /PM.qst?a=o&d=5019432466
Doyle, P. & Bridgewater, S. (Eds.). (1998). Innovation in Marketing. Boston: Butterworth-Heinemann. Retrieved March 22, 2012, from Questia database:
The other major factors were the personal space between each other and the touching behaviors of these couples. To estimate the personal space between the partners, distance in their sitting positions was used while the holding on of hands and hugging was the determining factor of a couple's touching behavior. To test the eye contact of these couples, the amount of time they spent looking at each other while talking was used.
esults of the Observations:
Out of the twenty married couples examined, twelve of them spent a considerable amount of time looking at each other even in cases where there was less talking between them. The couples would constantly smile at each other and seem to enjoy their time in the restaurant. Additionally, the couples spent their time in the restaurant holding each others' arms with some of them spending all their time in the restaurant on each others…
Bailey, S.J. (2009, November). Couple Relationships: Communication and Conflict Resolution.
Retrieved from Montana State University website: http://msuextension.org/publications/HomeHealthandFamily/MT200917HR.pdf
Enochson, J.A. & Wiseman, R.L. (1999, November). Married Couples' Perceptions of Touch
Behavior and Marital Satisfaction. Retrieved from Speech Communication department -- California State University website: http://commfaculty.fullerton.edu/rwiseman/MaritalTouchPaper.htm
Lee (2003) says that insecure attachments have been linked to psychiatric disorders to which the children are exposed to after the loss of the attachment figure. These children will form inability to form secure attachments, react with hostility and rejection to their environment according to Pickover, (2002). This is a phenomenon found among many immigrant children, especially who had the attachment figure back in their country of origin and yet they remained there. They tend to have a problem re-attaching themselves to any other person, hence may grow up to be violent and develop criminal trends Pickover, (2002).
Shortfalls of the attachment theory
The idea that the parents shape the personality and character is misplaced and instead it is the peers who influence character and behavior of the child. According to Harris (1998:Pp2) "parents do not shape their child's personality or character. A child's peers have more influence…
Chris Fraley, (2010). A Brief Overview of Adult Attachment Theory and Research. Retrieved March 12, 2012 from http://internal.psychology.illinois.edu/~rcfraley/attachment.htm
Harris, J.R. (1998). The nurture assumption: Why children turn out the way they do. New York: Free Press. In Lee J., (2003). The Attachment System Throughout the Life Course: Review and Criticisms of Attachment Theory. Pp.2 http://www.personalityresearch.org/papers/lee.html
Klaus, M.H., Kennell, J.H., & Klaus, P.H. (1995). Bonding. Boston: Addison-Wesley.
Pickover, S. (2002). Breaking the cycle: A clinical example of disrupting an insecure attachment system. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 24, 358-367.
Post Modernism Related to the Workplace
Over the last several decades, a shift has been taking place inside the workplace. What has been occurring is that there are different generations in the labor force that are working together side by side. This has led to transformation in the focus and values that each generation embraces the most. In the case of the aby oomers and Generation X, these differences are quite clear. To fully understand these contrasting values and ideas requires examining modernism along with post modernism as it relates to the workplace. At which point, we will focus on the workplace generational gap between: the aby oomers and Generation X Once this occurs, it will provide the greatest insights as to the overall differences between the two the generations in the labor force and how they are impacting the work environment.
Modernism and Post Modernism as it Relates to…
Baby Boomer Retirement. (2010). Be a Successful Entrepreneur. Retrieved from: http://www.beasuccessfulentrepreneur.com/baby-boomer-retirement/
Generation Gap. (2011). Free Dictionary. Retrieved from: http://www.thefreedictionary.com/generation+gap
Modernism. (2011). Dictionary.com. Retrieved from: http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/modernism
Post Modernism. (2011). Dictionary.com. Retrieved from: http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/postmodernism
On a sunny Saturday morning, the mall is a quiet place to be. Most people, unless they have a job or an errand at the mall, contrive to be almost any place else where they can enjoy the golden light and gentle warmth of a new day. Early on Saturday morning, the weekend still lies ahead, with the promise of relaxation, enjoyment, chores accomplished, or whatever else one hopes the weekend will hold.
On a rainy Saturday morning, however, the mall is a bustling place. There is no need to postpone errands. The sky is dark and the air is chilly and wet. There will be no ball games or picnics or walks in the park. It is a good day to get things done indoors and perhaps even snuggle under a summer-weight blanket and take a nap.
Don't children watch cartoons on Saturday mornings anymore? Mothers and fathers,…
Care of Vulnerable Populations
COMMUNITY ASSESSMENT, ANALYSIS, and NURSING INTERVENTION
• Week 1: Windshield Survey and Key Informant Interviews. Complete the First Section of the course template and submit. (Keep this section attached to Weeks 2 and 3 assignments.)
• Week 2: Statistical Analysis of Community Health Problem. Complete the Second Section of the course template and submit. (Keep this section attached to Weeks 1 and 3 assignments.)
• Week 3: Community Health Nursing Intervention. Complete the Third Section of the course template and submit. By now, you should have Sections 1-3 as one whole document.
• Each section of the course template is submitted on a WEEKLY basis, depending on which week you are working on. DO NOT wait to submit all three sections at the end of the third week.
• Please note that students are not to make any changes to the content of the course template,…
The infant mortality rate is of 8.97 deaths per 1,000 live births. This rate places Kuwait on the 160th position on the chart of the CIA. The adult prevalence rate of HIV / AIDS is of 0.1 per cent.
In terms of economy, Kuwait is a relatively open, small and wealthy economy. It relies extensively on oil exports -- petroleum exports for instance account for 95 per cent of the total export revenues as well as for 95 per cent of the federal income. The Kuwaiti representatives have recently set the goal of increasing the oil production per day. Currently, Kuwait is facing the pressures of the internationalized economic crisis -- which however, due to recent economic surpluses in Kuwait, affects the economy to a lower extent.
Simultaneously with the increase in oil production, the Kuwaiti authorities are also focusing on diversifying the economic activities in the sense of supporting…
Agency, Kuwait News. "Blair's "Kuwait Vision." 15 March 2010. Zawya.com. .
Al-Ansari, H. And S. AL-Enezi. "Health Sciences Libraries in Kuwait." Bulletin of the Medical Library Association 89.3 (2001): 287-93.
Al-Awadhi, Olusi, Al-Saeid, Moussa, et.al. "Incidence of Musculoskeletal Pain in Adult Kuwaitis." Annals of Saudi Medicine 25.6 (2005): 459=62.
Al-Baho, A. "Resident's Guide to the Curriculum for Training in Family Medicine." December 2008. Kuwait Institute for Medical Specialization. .
Parents Magazine (2008):
I am Toddler, Hear me Roar: Learning to Live With and Love Your Toddler"
The Terrible Twos: A Preview of the Teenage Years
Angry. Opinionated. Possessing a unique will and capabilities. Ready to explore the world, regardless of whether his or her parents think he or she is ready to do so. Although this description may seem to fit the profile of the typical adolescent, it is also a fair description of toddlers as well. Toddlerhood is the first major stage of childhood development when children are learning how to test their limits and stretch and grow as people by taking risks. As any parent knows, every toddler's favorite word is a decided 'no,' usually uttered in a very loud and declarative tone! Parents are often frustrated during this period of their child's development, as they strike a balance between encouraging the toddler's independence while still striving…
The last step is to get the Associate Director's approval. If other obstacles arise, I will seek simple solutions such as I was able to do with this barrier
XI. To whom will your final project be submitted? Did he or she provide input or criticism along the way? If so, what was it, and how did you react?
This project will be submitted to the Associate Director, as she is more approachable and available to discuss problems.
The Associate Director had an "open" workshop that students both looked toward and dreaded the outcome, because of criticism toward them.
Identifying the right incentive that will support the large variety of employee incentive and award programs in use today, that will appeal to all levels within the organization and is easy and efficient to administer can seem virtually impossible," said Springbok Services (2007).
Annotated Outline Grading Checklist
Payne, Julia, (2007). Developing executive thinking skills. HR Management. Retrieved May 19, 2007 at http://www.hrmreport.com/pastissue/article.asp?art=268504&issue=172 .
Elmit, Chris, (2007), Can you hear me? HR Management. Retrieved May 19, 2007 at http://www.hrmreport.com/pastissue/article.asp?art=268500&issue=172 .
Springbok Services. (2007). HR management employee incentive, recognition and reward case study. HR Management. Retrieved May 19, 2007 at http://www.hrmreport.com/pastissue/article.asp?art=268464&issue=172 .
Both the statues serve the purpose of transmitting the idea that Virgin Mary and Christ the baby are the owners of absolute wisdom. One however is highly majestic and monumental while the other is simpler. Both of them communicate fundamental Christian values. They both have a similar dark colour which suggests the dark ages in which they were created. In both cases the virgin is depicted as protective. In one case the interaction is very strong between the child and the virgin, while in the other one both figures interact with the viewer through their frontal position.
In both cases virgin Mary acts as a supportive element, whether she is the one who holds the desired answer or the very throne for her son. Both of the statues are conceived in a manner which allows them to be cult objects, subject to processes of devotion.
All in all it can…
(Grossman, 2003, Academic Search Elite)
It is hoped that a greater understanding of the human brain's ability to recognize faces in a specific sequence, group of patterns, density and also in whole or part will further assist the purveyors of new technology to train machines to do the same. "The most serious threats to our freedom often advance in small steps. Face recognition systems may one day provide significant benefits in military applications...." (Taslitz, 2002)
Though the different systems still have problems and kinks, specific to each type the promises of face recognition technology being used in this manner is a highly developing theory with a great deal of research to back it. "...the Pentagon is funding a fifty-million dollar initiative to use face-recognition technology a s a means for combating terrorism." (Taslitz, 2002)
The collective information available to the researcher is substantial with regard to the issue of…
Bower, B (7/6/2002) "The Eyes Have it," Science News, 162(1) Database: Academic
Ferber, D. (2/14/2004) "Autism Impairs Face Recognition," Science Now, Database:
Academic Search Elite Psychinfo at EbscoHost.com.
Behavioral activities are more of reactions to stimuli and have less to do with cognitive (or brain) processes and more to do with how one acts in a certain environment. Some behavioral activities would include: 1) sitting quietly while in the classroom or in church; 2) opening the door for somebody to walk in ahead of you; 3) using good manners while at a restaurant; 4) helping an old lady cross the street; and, 5) picking up a child that is crying.
4) the following question requires you to write a short essay consisting of a few paragraphs. Compare and contrast structuralism and functionalism by discussing elements such as their definition, founders, and similarities and differences. Edward B. Tichener formally established and gave a name to structuralism, which was first based on Wilhel Wundt's ideas. Structuralism is the first school of psychology and focuses on breaking down the mental processes…
Pain, 56(1), 95-101.
Andrews, K., & Fitzgerald, M. (1999). Cutaneous flexion reflex in human neonates: a quantitative study of threshold and stimulus-response characteristics after single and repeated stimuli. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 41(10), 696-703.
Breau, L.M., McGrath, P.J., Stevens, B., Beyene, J., Camfield, C., Finley, G.A., Franck, K., Gibbins, S., Howlett, A., McKeever, P., O'Brien, K., & Ohlsson, A. (2006). Judgments of pain in the neonatal intensive care setting: a survey of direct care staffs' perceptions of pain in infants at risk for neurological impairment. he Clinical Journal of Pain, 22(2), 122-129.
Bruce, E., & Franck, L. (2005). Using the worldwide web to improve children's pain care. International Nursing Review, 52(3), 204-209.
Carbajal, R., Gall, O., & Annequin, D. (2004). Pain management in neonates. Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics, 4(3), 491-505.
Chow, S.C., & Liu, J.P. (1998). Design and analysis of clinical trials: concept and methodologies. New York: John Wiley…
Taddio, A., Katz, J., Ilersich, A.L., & Koren, G. (1997). Effect of neonatal circumcision on pain response during subsequent routine vaccination. Lancet, 349(9052), 599-603.
Taddio, A., Goldbach, M., Ipp, M., Stevens, B., & Koren, G. (1995). Effect of neonatal circumcision on pain responses during vaccination in boys. Lancet, 345(8945), 291-292.
Weaver, S.A., Diorio, J., & Meaney, M.J. (2007). Maternal separation leads to persistent reduction in pain sensitivity in female rats. The Journal of Pain, 8(12), 962-969.
Further hypothesis will include the following: 3. That infants who have indicate a greater tendency to use handrails will indicate expanded broadmindedness in other areas of life too, specifically in curiosity of environment and people and, conversely, that, 4: Infants in more confined environments will indicate reduced interest in environment and social instances that infants growing up in more expansive immediate home environments.
To test this proposition, I intend to conduct a cross-sectional observational study with a sample of closely matched infants, between the ages of 12 and 24 months, who originate from a similar socio-economic and cultural, background with their parents having similar educational levels and providing infants with similar levels of stimulation. A measure will be used to assess that the latter is indeed the case. I, then intend to enroll assistants in the project and to spend several weeks in the natural home environment, where, with handrails…
Ethical precautions will involve clearly explaining conditions to parents and having them sign a form enabling us to proceed with our experiment. We will ensure that we will not infringe on parents privacy and that our presence is inconspicuous. In this manner, too, infants will be enabled to act as natural as possible.
Berger, S.E., & Adolph, K.E. (2003). Infants Use Handrails as Tools in a Locomotor Task. Developmental Psychology, 3, 594-605
That is, until an infant ealizes that she is looking at heself in the mio athe than anothe baby, the concept of self cannot begin to fom (Johnston, 1996). As childen matue, the link between cognition and self-concept becomes moe illuminated. In olde childen, pat of the matuation pocess is the ability to solve poblems and pocess infomation (Siegle and Alibali, 2004). The fact that childen use a vaiety of stategies and behave diffeently when ovecoming obstacles to each a common goal eflects diffeences not only in thei cognitive abilities but also how they see themselves -- "I don't give up easily; I always ty my best; I lean well; I don't like myself," etc. (Measelle et al., 2005).
If, as ealie suggested, by five to seven yeas of age, childen ae able to give accuate self-desciptions of themselves, then the pecusos of self-concept clealy evolve aound the toddle and…
references, discussing negative emotions, engaging children in conversations, discovering unique attributes, and the like all have Western upbringing tones. In other cultures, these norms may not be norms at all and hence the psychometric procedures used to generate traditionally Western self-description may not apply, say among Chinese or Asian children (Wang, 2004). The Chinese, as opposed to the autonomy-oriented European-Americans, are interdependent and put value in kinship such that a person's identity is often tied to his social responsibilities. Social rules exist in the Chinese culture that promotes humility and self-criticism for the sake of social harmony (Chin, 1988, in Wang, 2004). This, of course, is in contrast to Western culture that promotes self-enhancement.
A recent study on the comparative autobiographical memories and self-description in 3- to 8-year-old American and Chinese children considered the following differences and used a relatively novel, open-ended narrative method to examine the development of self-constructs. The results of the study are consistent with the cultural outlines above. American children tend to describe themselves in terms of their personal attributes and inner disposition in a generally light tone. Chinese children, on the other hand, focused on specific relationships, social roles, observable behavior, and situation bound features in a modest tone (Wang, 2004). The implication of this study is that self-concept is culture-specific and that the early emergence of cultural self-constructs may prepare children to become competent members of their respective societies (Wang, 2004).
In summary, this paper illustrates that the development of self is a product of cognitive achievement, everyday experiences, and cultural values. The role of child-parent interactions and differing cultural beliefs are emphasized as crucial in shaping self-concept among children.
psychological experiment. The experiment in question studied the effect of maternal stress reduction, during pregnancy, on the health of their children, at one year of age. In this paper, I will apply my understanding of some fundamental principles of proper psychological research and the principles of critical thinking.
First, I will discuss the independent variable, and possible ways the researchers' treatment of this variable may have invalidated their claimed outcome. Further, I will discuss construct and internal validity. Finally, I will investigate possible extraneous variables that may invalidate the researchers' claimed outcome of the research study. I conclude that the researchers claimed outcome results from flawed research practices and design, and that their claimed outcome is therefore, highly questionable.
The experiment analysed in a research study about preparing for parenthood. The research study focuses on the effect of maternal meditation and stress reduction on the health of their children. The…
Christensen, L.B. 1991. Experimental Methodology, 5th Edition. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
The Watertown (MA) Family Network creates a community for mothers who may not have anyone to ask questions about their infants and toddlers. As the video's narrator stated, "There are no roadmaps to raising children." With the Network, which is free and provides resources such as a new mom support group, parents do not need to feel as if they are all alone with this rewarding, but challenging, job of raising a child.
Epstein (2009) suggests there are five types of family engagement: childrearing, communicating, volunteering, learning at home, and representing other families. A comprehensive family involvement plan can be developed by choosing several of these types.
In the church-based childcare center where I worked, as with the Watertown Network, staff helped parents who had questions about what they should do at home. This center was in a military community where many young mothers were away from their…
Grisham-Brown, J., Hallam, R., and Brookshire, R. (2006). Using authentic assessment to evidence children's progress toward early learning standards. Early Childhood Education Journal 34(1), pp. 45-51.
Kostelnik, M.J., Soderman, A.K., and Whiren, A.P. (2011). Developmentally appropriate curriculum: Best practices in early childhood education. Boston: Pearson.
Mueller, J. (2011). Authentic assessment toolbox. Retrieved from http://jfmueller.faculty
Such relationships in childhood begin with the parents, and for Asher, these early relationships are also significant later, as might be expected.
However, as Potok shows in this novel, for someone like Asher, the importance of childhood bonds and of later intimate bonds are themselves stressed by cultural conflicts between the Hasidic community in its isolation and the larger American society surrounding it. For Asher, the conflict is between the more controlled religious environment of the community and the more liberal environment of the art world he joins. What Potok shows about this particular conflict might seem very different from what others experience, others who are not part of such a strict religious background and who are not artists. However, children always find a conflict between the circumscribed world of their immediate family and the world they join as they strike out on their own. This conflict is often portrayed…
Belkin, L. (2004). The Lessons of Classroom 506. New York Times Magazine, 40-53.
Bowlby, J. (1988). Developmental psychiatry comes of age. American Journal of Psychiatry, 145, 1-10.
Erikson, E.H. (1963) Childhood and Society. New York: Free Press.
Kim, W.J., Kim, L. & Rue, D.S. (1997). Korean-American Children. In G. Johnson-Powell & J. Yamamoto (Ed.) Transcultural Child Development: Psychological Assessment and Treatment (pp. 183-207). New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
I said that I also thought that the doctor may want to do some blood tests just to make sure that everything was running smoothly in her body.
Kathy seemed to be restless as she was moving her hands and feet quite a bit -- another sign that is quite common in postnatal depressive patients. I also noted that there seemed to be some kind of anxiety in Kathy and the anxiety seemed to really be present when we talked specifically about the baby. She seemed hopeless as well in that she repeatedly stated that she feels that she can't do anything right. Anxiety over not knowing exactly how to do things as a first time mother are quite common (Dalton & Holton 2001, p. 45), however, Kathy's anxiety seems to be much more than just that. She reported that her focus had been quite scattered (not being able to…
Aiken, C. 2000. Surviving postnatal depression: At home, no one hears you scream. (1st
edition). Jessica Kingsley Publishers.
Dalton, K. & Holton, W. 2001. Depression after childbirth: How to recognize, treat, and prevent postnatal depression. (4th edition). New York: Oxford University Press.
Kleiman, K. 1994. This isn't what I expected: Overcoming postpartum depression. (1st
U.S. Census Bueau Analysis of Key Questions
Has the "baby boome effect" impacted maket demand and maket supply in you industy? If so, how? (Explain clealy)
In the etailing industy thee continues to be a vey significant "baby boome effect" on evey aspect of value chain opeations, fom the supplies chosen to the technologies used to automate the logistics and fulfillment systems. The net effect of the baby boome geneation is to completely e-ode the mix of poducts souced, sold and seviced. The affluence of the baby boome geneation ove the adoption of supestoe etail concepts, futhe changing the multichannel selling natue of the etail industy as well.
Given the beadth and depth of inteests this specific demogaphic segment has, thee continues to be entiely new bands being launched to cate to thei tastes as well. What is emakable about this geneation's impact on the etail industy fom a banding…
references for a very wide selection and the opportunity to customize product when they have the opportunity to. For many boomers, what they own, especially how customized or unique their homes and cars are, to a large extent defines who they are. That is an observation based on experience. The more customization that is available in a given product or service, the greater the potential it will resonate with a member of this segment. Boomers like to have their purchases reflect who they are, and they are often building their own specific, unique and highly personalized brands by purchases in retail today.
History of Pediatric Hemolytic Monitoring
Retrospect to the career of physician, Dr. James A. olff I and his early progress in treatment of Rh hemolytic disease as described in Pochedly (1984), looks at the development of interest in hematology in European field hospitals during orld ar II. After the war period, the transformation of olff's research in this area was advanced by research conducted during a pediatric residency at the Boston Children's Hospital, between 1945 and 1947. During his tenure at Children's he was engaged with Dr. Louis Diamond in his seminal investigation on treatment of erythroblastosis fetalis by exchange transfusion.
Collaborative efforts with Drs. Diamond and Farber focused on preliminary clinical trials of aminopterin for the treatment of acute leukemia, of which olff was in observation. Instrumental to the development of the concept of treating erythroblastosis fetalis by exchange transfusion; collaborative in the area of pathophysiology of disease where…
Al-Eisa, A. And Al-Hajeri, M. Hemolytic uremic syndrome in Kuwaiti Arab children. Pediatric Nephrology 16.12 (2001): 1093-1098.
Blouin, P. et al. Syndrome d'Evans: etude retrospective de la societe d'hematologie et d'immunologie pediatrique (36 cas). Archives De Pediatrie: Organe Officiel De La Societe Francaise De Pediatrie 12.11 (2005): 1600-1607.
Feldman, S.D. And Tauber, A.I. Sickle Cell Anemia: Reexamining the First "Molecular Disease." Bulletin of the History of Medicine 71.4 (1997) 623-650
Friedmann, A.M. et al. Fatal autoimmune hemolytic anemia in a child due to warm-reactive immunoglobulin M. antibody. Journal Of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology: Official Journal Of The American Society Of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology 20.5 (1998): 502-505.
The relation of Ergonomics and Anthropometric Methods & Health Care setting design
Four (4) Main Parts of Research Methods and Design in Ergonomics:
Research relationship with people's study (theory and hypothesis)
Site selection and sampling decisions (setting and population)
Data collection methods (survey, measurements)
Data analysis types and techniques (statistical analyses)
Three (3) different research methods
Can be qualitative or quantitative
Descriptive statistics tell "what is,"
Different from using inferential statistic
Pure fact, no relationships between cause, effect
Assess magnitude or scope of problem and suggest ideas for future research
Manipulation of variables
Use to determine causal relationship or significant correlational relationship
Shares elements in common with experimental and descriptive
Examines system or product
Describes relationship between subject and the system/product
Research with regards to ergonomics in health care environment: Keypoints
Case1: The Role of Qualitative Methods in Designing Health Care Organizations
Language and Thinking
Language is the one aspect, which distinguishes human beings from lower species of life (Faccone et al. 2000). Sternberg (1999 as qtd in Faccone et al.) lists its properties as including communication, arbitrary symbolism, regular structure, structure at multiple levels, generation and production and dynamism. Sternberg assumes that language is most likely acquired naturally from the environment where a person is raised as an infant. The stages seem universal. The first is the cooing stage at two to four months. At this initial stage, an infant seems able to produce and possible phonemes or basic speech sounds. An infant's need to distinguish between phonemes of different languages gradually disappears around 8 months. This is when he recognizes the relationship between sound and meaning in his native language. This is how language begins to have importance to him. The findings of Sternberg's study reveal that human beings are…
Faccone, Claudia et al. The Effct of Language on Thought. The Psychology 20 Course:
University of Carolina, 2000. Retrieved on November 29, 2013 from http://www.unc.edu/~jdumas/projects/languagethought.htm
Hampton, James. A. Language's Role in Enabling Abstract, Logical Thought.
Commentary/Peter Carruthers. Psychology Department: University of London, 2002.
Their heritage is important because certain ethnic groups are more likely to be carriers of Tay-Sachs. "The incidence of Tay-Sachs is particularly high among people of Eastern European and Ashkenazi Jewish descent. Patients and carriers of Tay-Sachs disease can be identified by a simple blood test that measures beta-hexosaminidase a activity." (NINDS, 2011). Because the Trosacks have a fetus with Tay-Sachs, it is not necessary to test their blood and examine the beta-hexosaminidase a activity of either of the parents. However, doing so may help Peter transition out of denial and understand the reality of the diagnosis.
Tay-Sachs impacts a person by interfering with genetic lipid storage. An insufficiency of the enzyme beta-hexosaminidase a, which is responsible for biodegrading gangliosides, leads to a buildup of the ganglioside GM2 in tissues and nerve cells in the brain (NINDS, 2011). Because gangliosides develop, and normally degrade, rapidly in infancy, the disease progresses…
A.D.A.M. Medical Encyclopedia. (2010 November 17). Tay-Sachs disease. Retrieved November 11, 2012 from PubMed website: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0002390/
American Pregnancy Association. (2006). Chorionic villus sampling: CVS. Retrieved
November 11, 2012 from http://www.americanpregnancy.org/prenataltesting/cvs.html
Genetic Alliance. (2012). Home. Retrieved November 11, 2012 from http://www.geneticalliance.org /
Birth to Three Special Needs Brochure
Early Intervention and Early Detection
Georgia's Babies Can't Wait Program
The Babies Can't Wait (BCW) program in the State of Georgia is the service delivery system for children between birth and three years of age who have developmental delays or a disability (GDPH, 2012). Once a child has been referred to the BCW program, either by a family member or physician, the parents are contacted within a few days to schedule an initial interview (GDH, 2005). During the interview parents are given information about BCW services, are asked to sign consent forms, and if the child is determined to be eligible an evaluation is scheduled. The evaluation is conducted by a team of at least two multidisciplinary professionals with training and experience in early childhood education, early childhood special education, occupational therapy, physical therapy, speech-language pathology, nursing, and/or nutrition (GDH, 2005).
The Value of…
GDHR (Georgia Department of Human Resources). (2005). Frequently asked questions for physicians: Getting started with Babies Can't Wait. Health.State.GA.U.S.. Retrieved 23 Aug. 2013 from http://www.health.state.ga.us/pdfs/familyhealth/FAQ%20for%20Physicians%20-%20Getting%20Started%20for%20web.pdf .
GDPH (Georgia Department of Public Health). (n.d.). Babies Can't Wait: Frequently asked questions. Health.State.GA.U.S.. Retrieved 23 Aug. 2013 from
" Every town now has Thai, Japanese, and Indian restaurants to complement the Chinese and Italian fare. Consider the supermarket shelves that carry multicultural products such as Campbell Hispanic-style Fiesta soup, sushi platters, wasabi and seven different taco salsas. Burger King and McDonald's sell their millions of burritos to somebody!
EXAMPLE OF NEW MAKETING TENDS
In July 2001, Campbell's Soup Company announced a program to recreate the company and restore its growth track. In practice this included introduction of new ethnic product lines. Campbell's new Select Harvest () Mexican-Style Chicken Tortilla Soup was the principal new introduction that followed this reinvention.
It was a smart move. Select Harvest () soups were ranked the top new food and beverage product of 2009, according to a report released by Information esources Inc. (II). II's annual New Product Pacesetters (TM) report showcases the most innovative and successful new products of the year in…
Poverty Status of People by Family Relationship, Race, and Hispanic Origin: 1959 to 2006. U.S.
Census Bureau Web site. www.census.gov/hhes/www/poverty/histpov/hstpov2.html. Accessed March 26, 2010.
Toosi M. Labor force projections to 2016: more workers in their golden years. Mon Labor Rev.
Threat or perception of threat is best described by protection motivation theory:
This theory states that the extent to which people show preventive behavior in light of a threat depends on their protection motivation (. W. ogers, 1975, 1983). According to this theory, the level of protection motivation depends on the seriousness of the threat, the probability that the threat will manifest itself, the judged efficacy of the recommended behavior (called response or outcome efficacy), and the self-efficacy expectation relating to that behavior. (Wiegman & Gutteling, 1995, p. 235)
In a practical sense what this theory says about the perceived threat is that as incidences of observation occur in the lives of individuals, be they real or imagined they will likely become more protective and therefore attempt to engage in avoidance of behaviors that have been identified with the production of environmental threat. By doing so this the individual, and…
Agnew, R. (1985). A Revised Strain Theory of Delinquency. Social Forces, 64(1), 151-167.
Lesko, Wayne a (2006). Readings in Social Psychology (6th ed).
New York: Allyn & Bacon.
Lyddon, W.J., & Sherry, a. (2001). Developmental Personality Styles: An Attachment Theory Conceptualization of Personality Disorders. Journal of Counseling and Development, 79(4), 405.
Therapeutic Massage on Elderly, Grieving Widows
The prosperity of a country is in accordance with its treatment of the aged," states an ancient Jewish Proverb ("Massage for the Mature Adult," 2001). This is an honorable and true statement. Too often many of our elderly people's needs are not noticed or attended to by family, friends, or medical practitioners. This is especially true for older women whose husbands have died.
Widowhood can have a tremendous impact on the health of older women (Ferraro, 1989; owling, 1987; Gass & Chang, 1989). The death of a spouse or partner has been described as the most disruptive and difficult role transition that an individual confronts throughout the life course (Lopata, 1987). In the United States, over 49% or 8.4 million women over the age of 65 are widows (radsher, 2000). Houdin (1993) states that "although the literature abounds with subjective pieces concerning bereavement, little…
Bibliography for Chapters One and Two
Barry, Kasl, and Prigerson
Turvey, 1999 (Parkes, 1998).