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Infectious Diseases orksheet
Select two infectious diseases that have gained prominence in the United States in the past five years and complete the worksheet. Include references.
Disease description: Anthrax
Cause: Bacteria found in spores, food and animals
Mode of transmission: Direct contact, consumption, inhalation
Symptoms:fever, shivers & shakes, flu-like symptoms, pneumonia
Descriptive epidemiologic data (Person, place, or time): its a bacteria that is ingested or comes in contact with the human or animal
Demographic data on affected populations:anthrax is normally lethal although it can be addressed early on with some degree of effectiveness. It has a 97% morbidity rate if not caught in time.
Disease frequency: Anthrax has been around for centuries and outbreaks occur often throughout the world.
c. Geographic variation in rates of disease: although the majority of the time outbreaks happen in third world countries more often than not
d. Reasons for place variation: third world countries…
Olsen, R.; Long, S.W.; Musser, J.M.; (2012) Bacterial genomics in infectious disease and the clinical pathology laboratory, Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine, Vol. 136, Issue 11, pp. 1414-1422
Price, E.P.; Seymour, M.L.; Sarovich, D.S.; Latham, J.; Wolen, S.R.; Mason, J.; Vincent, G.; Drees, K.P.; Beckstrom-Sternberg, S.M.; Phillippy, A.M.; Koren, S.; Okinaka, R.T.; Wai-Kwan, C.; Schupp, J.M.; Wagner, D.M.; Vipond, R.; Foster, J.T.; Bergman, N.H.; Burans, J.; Pearson, T.; (2012) Molecular epidemiologic investigation of an anthrax outbreak among heroin users, Europe, Emerging Infectious Diseases, Vol. 18, Issue 8, pp. 1307-1313
These germs "are constantly mutating to breach your immune system's defenses" ("Germs" 2007). Once these germs breach the immune system, they multiply, resulting in the second link of spreading infectious diseases. As Germs multiply and breach the immune system, a person becomes sick.
The third and final step in the chain of spreading infectious diseases from person to person deals with that sickness. Once a person comes into contact with a germ, and the germ enters the body, multiplies, and attacks the body, the immune system "springs into action," using white blood cells, antibodies, and other methods of fighting that disease. These actions often have exteriorly obvious symptoms, such as sneezing and coughing ("Germs" 2007). At the end of this third link, the infectious disease has generally been vanquishd by the immune system.
While this chain of events suggests that spreading infectious diseases from person to person occurs relatively easily,…
Environmental changes are spreading infectious diseases -- UN study. (2005). United
Nations News Center. Retrieved 6 September 2008 at http://www.un.org/apps/news/story.asp?newsid=13407&cr=infectious&cr1=diseases
Germs: Understand and protect against bacteria, viruses, and infection. (2007). Mayo
Clinic. Retrieved 6 September 2008 at http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/germs/ID00002
Infectious Disease Salmonellosis
Salmonellosis, named after pathologist Daniel S. Salmon who first isolated the organism from porcine intestine, was first described in 1880 and cultured in 1884 (Salmonellosis1 pp). Salmonellae are motile, gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria of the family Enterobacteriaceae, and are common in the gastrointestinal tracts of mammals, reptiles, birds, and insects (Salmonellosis1 pp).
Salmonellae are potential enteric pathogens and a leading cause of bacterial food-borne illness (Salmonellosis1 pp).
ith a single overarching species (Salmonella
choleraesuis) and over 2000 serotypes, salmonellae have been implicated in a spectrum of diseases, including enteric or typhoid fever (primarily
Salmonella typhi and Salmonella paratyphi), bacteremia, focal infections, and enterocolitis (typically Salmonella
typhimurium, Salmonella enteritidis, and Salmonella
heidelberg) (Salmonellosis1 pp).
Salmonellae is usually transmitted by consumption of contaminated foods, particularly beef, poultry, and eggs, although improperly prepared fruits, vegetable, dairy products, and shellfish have also been implicated, as well as human-to-human and animal-to-human transmission (Salmonellosis1…
Salmonellosis1. Accessed from Emedicine web site May 07, 2005.
Salmonellosis. Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases. Accessed from the Centers of Disease Control and Prevention web site May 07, 2005.
In a weird way, that's good news" (Caldwell, 2003, p. 29).
The research showed that Staphylococcus aureus is a particularly challenging pathogen for clinicians seeking to prevent nosocomial infections in their patients. Over time, S. aureus has shown itself capable of mutating into various resistant strains that make treating it much like trying to hit a moving target. Further, the incidence of infections by S. aureus were found to be on the increase across the country, in hospital settings as well as other public places where skin-to-skin contact is made. In the final analysis, it is reasonable to assume that'd. aureus is not going anywhere soon, and healthcare practitioners should either start, or continue, to use universal precautions as they carry out their day-to-day activities. In addition, those who may be at increased risk of infection by MSA should ensure that they take reasonable precautions such as avoiding skin-to-skin…
Caldwell, J. (2003, April 29). Staph's scary reality: How a little fun on the dance floor - or in the steam room at your gym - can land you in the hospital. The Advocate, 28.
Chikami, G.K., & Murphy, D. (1998). Microbial menace. Forum for Applied Research and Public Policy, 13(4), 11.
Eidson, M., Olson, R.K., & Sewell, C.M. (1997). Staphylococcal food poisoning from a fundraiser. Journal of Environmental Health, 60(3), 7.
Levy, S.B. (1992). The antibiotic paradox: How miracle drugs are destroying the miracle. New York: Plenum Press.
HIV and AIDS Content Knowledge for Dental Professionals:
HIV Defined and the History of HIV
esearch Methodology, Statistical Data Analysis and Study Limitations
THE DIFFEENCES IN THE LEVEL OF HIV AND AIDS CONTENT KNOWLEDGE FO DENTAL POFESSIONALS:
Infectious diseases, whether hepatitis, flu, herpes, HIV, AIDS, impetigo, encephalitis, measles, ocky Mountain Fever, or a host of others have plagued mankind for centuries. Without doubt new infectious diseases will appear in the world's population for centuries to come. However, no disease has been more detrimental to populations all over the world that than of HIV and AIDS. Although this paper is not intended to moralize, theorize, pontificate, or set moral standards on the HIV and AIDS issue it is extremely important to know that the epidemic affects citizenry all over the globe. As such all individuals alike, wherein no known cure is available, must take precautionary measures to limit exposure…
AIDS epidemic update: December 1998. UN AIDS Joint United Nations Program on HIV / AIDS
Ferguson, George A. (1966). Statistical Analysis in Psychology and Education. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Holmberg, SD. (1996). The Estimated Prevalence and Incidence of HIV in 96 large U.S. Metropolitan areas, Am J. Public Health
Kerlinger, Fred N. (1964). Foundations of Behavioral Research. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
Human monkeypox can be distinguished from smallpox only by the development of the virus or the presentation of a virus-specific serological test with convalescent serum (Chapter 29: Human Monkeypox and other Poxvirus Infections of Man, n.d). People can acquire monkeypox from a creature with monkeypox if they are bitten or if they handle the creature's blood, body liquids, or its rash. The illness also can go from person to person by way of big drops throughout long periods of in person contact or by touching body liquids of a sick person (What You Should Know about Monkeypox, 2008).
There is no precise cure for monkeypox. In Africa, people who acquired the smallpox vaccine in the past had a lower danger of monkeypox. The CDC has put out guidelines setting down when the smallpox vaccine should be used in order to guard against monkeypox (What You Should Know about Monkeypox, 2008).…
Chapter 29: Human Monkeypox and other Poxvirus Infections of Man. (n.d). Retrieved October
25, 2010, from Web site: http://whqlibdoc.who.int/smallpox/9241561106_chp29.pdf
Questions and Answers about Monkeypox. (2008). Retrieved October 25, 2010, from CDC Web
site: http://www.cdc.gov /ncidod/monkeypox/qa.htm
is an acute infectious disease that came into the limelight recently due to the Anthrax Attacks in the United States in the weeks following the September 2001 terror attacks, causing widespread panic. This report on Anthrax includes information on how the disease is caused, types of Anthrax, symptoms of the disease and its treatment. It also includes information on the 2001 Anthrax attacks in the U.S. And why anthrax is a good bioterrorism agent.
How is Anthrax Caused?
Anthrax is caused by the bacterium
"Bacillus anthracis' that is highly lethal in its virulent form. Anthrax most commonly occurs in wild and domestic animals, but it can also occur in humans when they are exposed to infected animals, tissue from infected animals, or high concentrations of anthrax spores.
Bacillus anthracis, the bacterium which causes anthrax, is rod-shaped and about 1 by 6 micrometres in size. It was the…
'2001 anthrax attacks." From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. 2005. May 1, 2005.
"Anthrax as a Biological Weapon, 2002." Journal of American Medical Association (JAMA)
Vol. 287 No. 17, May 1, 2002. May 1, 2005.
"Anthrax: What You Need To Know." Center for Disease Control and Prevention. July 31, 2003. May 1, 2005.
Journal of Clinical Infectious Diseases released the findings of a group of stem-cell researchers working on improving the recovery of leukemia patients that received stem cell transplantations, in the article "Ciprofloxacin decreased polyoma BK virus load in patients who underwent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation." The hypothesis of the study conducted was that Ciprofloxacin would be an effective treatment against a certain virus that affects patients, called Polyoma BK virus, or BKV, which is associated with hemorrhagic cystitis, a kind of serious bladder infection. The hypothesis was found to be true, and the antibiotic Ciprofloxacin will undergo further studies and clinical applications to determine the most effective uses against the BKV in post stem-cell transplant patients.
Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is a common treatment used to treat leukemia. This is a type of transplant of stem cells from a donor into the patient, rather than a transplant of one's…
Anskar, Y.H., et al. (2005, February 15) Ciprofloxacin decreased polyoma BK virus load in patients who underwent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 40.4. 528(10).
Tuberculosis is an airborne infectious disease caused by tubercule bacilli, spread from person to person (CDC 2011). It affects the lungs and other parts of the body, such as the brain, the kidneys and the spine. It is curable but an infected person can also die of it if he does not get proper treatment (CDC)
Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis or MDRT is T that does not respond to the action of at least two of the best drugs, isoniazid and rifampicin, the first-line treatment of T (CDC 2011). Extensively drug-resistant T or XDRT is the rare type, which is resistant to these two major drugs, to any fluoroquinolone and at least one of three injectable second-line drugs. These injectable drugs are amikacin, kanamycin and capreomycin. These additional drugs are considered second-line treatment for T. Those with XDR T resort to less effective options. Among those affected are persons…
CDC. Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis. Fact Sheet. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2011. Retrieved on July 9, 2011 from http://www.cdc.gov /tb/publications/factshets/drtb/mdrtb.htm
Gavin, Patricia et al. Multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Strain from Equatorial Guinea Detected in Spain. Emerging Infectious Diseases: U.S. National
Center for Infectious Diseases, 2009. Retrieved on July 15, 2011 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_mOGVK/is_11_15/ai_n47559748/?tag=mantle_skin.content
Hoek, KGP et al. Resistance to Pyrazinamide and Ethambutol Compromises MDR-
Burden of Infectious Disease
Infectious diseases have continued to be some of the biggest public health concerns across the globe, which has contributed to increased attention from various stakeholders, especially the health sector. The public health burden of infectious diseases across the world is influenced by the increased global deaths of individuals suffering from them. In light of these factors, infectious diseases have attracted considerable attention from new agencies and personnel. Actually, there are several news items published daily that relate to infectious diseases such as updates on the incidence and prevalence of these diseases, newly emerging infectious diseases or those relating to scientific breakthroughs and disease outbreaks. An example of a news item on infectious disease is an article on the outbreak of measles that sparked national debate.
Measles is one of the vaccine-preventable diseases that have attracted considerable attention in the recent past because of its increase spread.…
Barrett, T. (1987). The Molecular Biology of the Morbilivirus (Measles) Group. Biochemical Society Symposium, 53, 25-37.
Jenkins, M. (2015, February 3). Measles Outbreak Sparks Vaccination Debate. THV11 -- A Tegna Company. Retrieved October 23, 2015, from http://www.thv11.com/story/news/local/little-rock/2015/02/03/measles-outbreak-sparks-vaccination-debate/22838367/
Rima, B.K. & Duprex, W.P. (2011, July). Measles Virus. Encyclopedia of Life Sciences Journal. doi: 10.1002/9780470015902.a0000418.pub3
This report will discuss the recent growth of the infectious/communicable disease of paratyphoid and typhoid fever in underprivileged regions across India, together with its contributing factors, pathophysiology, signs, symptoms, and management.
Communicable / Infectious Disease That Occurred Globally
The twenty-first century's onset was accompanied by growth in a range of wild and domesticated animal species acting as reservoirs/carriers of pathogens like bacteria, parasites, and viruses. Given the continuum of species of animals involved in the process and the pathogens' typically complicated natural history, proper prevention, surveillance, and control/management of zoonotic infections poses a genuine public health challenge. Foodborne diseases, mad cow disease and other such newly developed zoonoses, as well as several agents of viral infections (like, Ebola, Nipah, monkeypox virus, Highly Pathogenic Asian Avian Influenza (H5N1), etc.) have seriously impacted public health, directly as well as indirectly. With continual changes to the environment, such occurrences are expected to…
Ali, S., 2006. Typhoid fever - Aspects of environment, host and pathogen interaction. Royal Dutch Academy of Sciences project, Volume 99.
Anon., n.d. Typhoid and paratyphoid - including symptoms, treatment and prevention. [Online]
Available at: http://www.sahealth.sa.gov.au / [Accessed 22 May 2016].
Anon., n.d. Typhoid: most common communicable disease in India. [Online]
anatomy and physiology of the Nervous System
The nervous system is a "network of specialized tissue that controls actions and reactions of the body and its adjustment to the environment." ("Nervous System 2000) There are two segments of the nervous system which include the peripheral and central systems. ("Nervous System 2000)
The peripheral nervous system consists of spinal, cranial, and autonomic nerves, and their branches. ("Nervous System" 2000)
The central nervous system consists of the spinal chord and brain.
The brain might be compared to a computer and its memory banks, the spinal cord to the conducting cable for the computer's input and output, and the nerves to a circuit supplying input information to the cable and transmitting the output to muscles and organs. The nervous system is built up of nerve cells, called neurons, which are supported and protected by other cells. Of the 200 billion or so neurons…
Meningococcal Disease. (2002). Centers for Disease Control. Retrieved January 28, 2004 from;
Meningitis Manual. (1998). Centers for Disease Control. Retrieved January 28, 2004 from;
Infectious Conditions in a Pediatric Patient
What will be your differential diagnoses for this patient?
Erythema infectiosum (5th disease) -- human parvovirus
Exanthema subitum or oseola infantum
Non-polio entero-viruses (e.g., echovirus, coxsackievirus) (Long, 2016; de Graaf et al., 2016; Long, Pickering & Prober, 2012)
What specific physical exam findings support these differential diagnoses?
• Palmar redness
• Excoriating diaper-area rashes
• Injected conjunctiva
• Excoriating diaper-area rashes
• Excoriating diaper-area rashes
• Magenta-colored lips
• Palmar redness
• Excoriating diaper-area rashes
Erythema infectiosum (5th disease) -- human parvovirus
• Excoriating diaper-area rashes
Exanthema subitum or oseola infantum
• Excoriating diaper-area rashes
Non-polio entero-viruses (e.g., echovirus, coxsackievirus):
• Excoriating diaper-area rashes
• ed macula
• Magenta-colored lips
• Palmar redness
Of the differential diagnoses you listed, which would be the most concerning?
What additional diagnostic tests will you recommend?…
de Graaf, H., Pelosi, E., Cooper, A., Pappachan, J., Sykes, K., MacIntosh, I.,. .. & Tebruegge, M. (2016). Severe enterovirus infections in hospitalized children in the South of England: clinical phenotypes and causative genotypes. The Pediatric infectious disease journal, 35(7), 723.
Long, S. S. (2016). Diagnosis and management of undifferentiated fever in children. Journal of Infection, 72, S68-S76.
Long, S. S., Pickering, L. K., & Prober, C. G. (2012). Principles and practice of pediatric infectious disease. Elsevier Health Sciences.
Thong, W. Y., Han, A., Wang, S. F., Lin, J., Isa, M. S., Koay, E. S. C., & Tay, S. K. H. (2017). Enterovirus infections in Singaporean children: an assessment of neurological manifestations and clinical outcomes. Singapore medical journal, 58(4), 189.
, 2001). These two simple measures can drastically increase the subsequent spread of infectious disease throughout the country.
In Outbreak, the military institutes martial law to quarantine the infected populace in the town of Cedar Creek. Eventually, the military begins plans to bomb Cedar Creek in an attempt to eradicate the virus, which had thus far proven untenable. hile the concept of the United States government destroying a small town and murdering its populace is likely superlative Hollywood movie-making, the institution of martial law is a realistic and effective approach toward preventing further spread (Yassi et al., 2001).
In addition to the non-medical measures which can be taken to deal with the spread of an infectious agent, there are several medical actions which could be utilized to treat infected invididuals, including antivirals, antibiotics, or vaccines (Yassi et al., 2001). For example, antivirals and vaccines are both being utilized in an…
Cavendish, M. (2007). Diseases and Disorders (p. 328). Marshall Cavendish.
Groseth, A., Feldmann, H., & Strong, J.E. (2007). The ecology of Ebola virus. Trends in Microbiology, 15(9), 408-416. doi: 10.1016/j.tim.2007.08.001.
Petersen, W. (1995). Outbreak. Warner Bros. Pictures.
Preston, R. (2009). Panic in Level 4 (p. 230). Random House, Inc.
Pelvic inflammatoy disease, a citical poblem
Occuence o ecuence of pelvic inflammatoy disease o PID has been linked to STIs such as C. tachomatis o Neisseia gonohoeae. Patient education and simplified guidelines ae needed to develop accuate diagnosis. In ode fo changes to take place, moe eseach must be done to undestand the complex natue of the disease and the most effective and cost effective method of teatment.
This pape delves into the isk factos, diagnosis pocesses, teatment, elevant psychological issues, public health implications, patient and family education, and appopiate efeal to specialty by eviewing liteatue petinent to PID. The esults of the liteatue eview show vey little in the past was done in egads to eseaching symptoms of PID and teatment efficacy. New eseach shows lowe abdominal pain as a main indicato of PID as well as C. tachomatis o Neisseia gonohoeae. The data also elaboates on the isks…
references for fertility in women with pelvic inflammatory disease. Fertility and Sterility, 81(5), 1344-1350.
Sweet, R.L. (2011). Treatment of Acute Pelvic Inftammatory Disease. Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology, 2011(561909), 1-13.
Tepper, N.K., Steenland, M.W., Gaffield, M.E., Marchbanks, P.A., & Curtis, K.M. (2013). Retention of intrauterine devices in women who acquire pelvic inflammatory disease: a systematic review. Contraception, 5(87), 655-60. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23040135
Communicable Disease: Measles
Although measles has been almost completely eradicated from the Americas, dozens of cases still occur each year in the United States due in large part to transmissions of the disease from travelers returning from abroad. Because it is highly contagious, outbreaks of measles must be addressed as quickly as possible. This paper provides a review of the relevant peer-reviewed and scholarly literature to describe a communicable disease outbreak of measles, and the epidemiological indicators associated with the disease. An analysis of the epidemiological data on the outbreak is followed by a discussion of the route of transmission of the disease causing the outbreak and how the attack could affect the community. Finally, an explanation concerning the appropriate protocol for reporting a possible outbreak is followed by an assessment of a community health nurse's role in modifying care of patients with asthma and other respiratory diseases when the…
Diekmann, O., Heesterbeek, H. & Britton, T. (2013). Mathematical tools for understanding infectious diseases dynamics. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Johnson, T.D. (2011, September). Measles cases abroad linked to increase of disease in U.S. The
Nation's Health, 41(7), 1-3.
Knorr, R.S., Condon, S.K. Dwyer, F.M. & Hoffman, D.F. (2004, October). Tracking pediatric asthma: The Massachusetts experience using school health records. Environmental Health Perspectives, 112(14), 1424-1427.
Typhoid fever disease is a global health phenomena or problem with approximately 20 million incidents and 700,000 adult deaths every year. Notably, a huge portion of these cases and deaths occur in developing countries, especially in South East Asia and Indian subcontinent. While the infection was traditionally treated with ampicillin, chloramphenicol, and trimethoprimsulfamethoxazole, serious public health program has emerged in the past decades because of the widespread emergence of antibiotic resistant Salmonella typhi or S.typhi. Moreover, typhoid fever disease caused by MD organisms can also be considered as a significant public health and therapeutic issue. This is primarily because there are a huge number of cases of MD typhoid fever that occur in childhood and are coupled with considerably high mortality and morbidity rates. Since the disease has developed to become a significant public health issue in the past few decades, it's important to conduct a research about it and…
Arjunan, M. & Al-Salamah, A.A. (2010, April 29). Typhoid Fever with Severe Abdominal Pain:
Diagnosis and Clinical Findings using Abdomen Ultrasonogram, Hermatology-cell Analysis and the Widal Test. Journal of Infections in Developing Countries, 4(9), 593-596. Retrieved from http://jidc.org/index.php/journal/article/download/1010/445
Hammad et al. (2011). Ceftriaxone vs. Chloramphenicol for Treatment of Acute Typhoid
Fever. Life Science Journal, 8(2), 100-105. Retrieved from http://www.lifesciencesite.com/lsj/life0802/14_4757life0802_100_105.pdf
Communicable Disease: Influenza
Description of the Disease
Influenza or "the flu" is a common illness in the winter months, all throughout the United States and many other countries. Both birds and all mammals can contract influenza (Brankston, et al., 2007). In recent years there have been scares regarding "bird flu" and "swine flu," both of which are simply different strains of influenza. The cause of the flu is an NA virus in the family Orthomyxoviridae (Eccles, 2005). Once people contract the flu, they present with common symptoms such as chills, fever, a runny nose, muscle pains, a sore throat, and a headache. The headache is quite often severe, and flu sufferers may also have weakness, fatigue, severe bouts of coughing, and a general feeling of overall discomfort. People with the flu can also become nauseated and vomit, although that is more typical in children and not nearly as common in…
Ballinger, M.N. & Standiford, T.J. (2010). Postinfluenza bacterial pneumonia: Host defenses gone awry. Journal of Interferon Cytokine Research, 30(9): 643 -- 52.
Brankston, G., Gitterman, L., Hirji, Z., Lemieux, C., & Gardam, M. (2007). Transmission of influenza A in human beings. Lancet Infectious Diseases, 7(4): 257 -- 65.
Eccles, R. (2005). Understanding the symptoms of the common cold and influenza. Lancet Infectious Diseases, 5(11): 718 -- 25.
Harper, S.A., Fukuda, K., Uyeki, T.M., Cox, N.J., & Bridges, C.B. (2005). Prevention and control of influenza. Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR Recommendation Report, 54(RR -- 8): 1 -- 40.
The risk of a pandemic disease spreading throughout the globe is higher than it has ever been in the history of the world. The massive population boom and rapid travel methods have combined to demonstrate that germs and diseases are potential weapons against the health and welfare of the population. To help remedy this cause, technology has shown us that, with its proper implementation, it can have a great benefit to those who are designated to protect the population from such threats.
The purpose of this essay is to highlight the importance of surveillance in the fight against such communicable disease outbreaks. To accomplish this task, this essay will detail the benefits and limitations of the surveillance system HealthMap. This essay will discuss how this particular piece of technology contributes to minimizing and eliminating potential threats.
The HealthMap system is recognized by the Centers for Disease Control…
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (nd). Appendix D; The HealthMap System. Viewed 17 Mar 2014. Retrieved from http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/yellowbook/2014/appendices/appendix-d-the-healthmap-system
HealthMap.org. Viewed 17 Mar 2014. Retrieved from http://healthmap.org/en/
Schlipkoter U, Flahault A. Communicable diseases: achievements and challenges for public health. Public Health Reviews 2010;32:90-119. Retrieved from http://www.publichealthreviews.eu/show/f/33
Worldwide, the distribution pattern of WNV is mainly found in the northern, eastern and southern regions of Africa, parts of Eastern Europe, Central Asia, and South Asia. On a global scale, mortality rate of diseases caused by WNV human infection could range from 2.4% to as high as 47% (Bourne, 2011). In the United States, CDC reports its latest (2011) data showing that there have been a total of 432 WNV infections reported as of October 2011. Sixty-seven percent of this reported human infections are neuroinvasive cases (encephalitis / meningitis), while about 5% resulted to death. Across states, California has the most number of cases of WNV human infection at 87 cases (20%), followed by Mississippi as far second (46 cases, or 11% of total reported cases). The prevalence of WNV human infection in these states reflects the virus' characteristic as thriving in tropical / temperate regions. CDC has not…
Bourne, D. (2011). "West Nile Virus Disease." Available at: http://usgs.wildlifeinformation.org/List_Vols/westnile/Disease_WNVInfection/04WNVMortality.html
"Epidemic/Epizootic West Nile Virus in the United States: Guidelines for Surveillance, Prevention and Control." (2003). Center for Disease Control (CDC) Website. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov /ncidod/dvbid/westnile/resources/wnv-guidelines-aug-2003.pdf#page=47
Mostashari, F., Bunning, M. And Kitsutani, P. (1999). "Epidemic West Nile Encephalitis: Results of a household-based seroseroepidemiological survey." In Lancet 2001; 358. Center for Disease Control Website. Available at:
Using condoms is also an excellent prevention activity that can also be used (Primary and Secondary HIV Prevention, 2008).
Potential obstacles to HIV prevention activities taking place in clinical settings often include:
narrow formations of medical care and the role of physicians or health care providers in HIV prevention, a provider's discomfort with discussing human sexuality and illicit drug use and their attitudes towards persons with HIV or AIDS along with constraints on time and resources, and the vagueness of HIV prevention messages (Primary and Secondary HIV Prevention, 2008).
The very nature of HIV transmission involves behaviors that are not readily discussed in American society. It is important for health care providers to become comfortable discussing sexual and substance-use activities with their patients. They need to create an environment of trust for patients so their risk behaviors can be discussed. It is important to assure the patient of the confidential…
ABCs of Aids Prevention - Presentation Transcript. (2009). Retrieved September 3, 2009, from Slideshare Web site: http://www.slideshare.net/drsujnanendra/ab-cs-of-aids-prevention
CDC Responds to HIV / AIDS. (2009). Retrieved from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Web site: http://www.cdc.gov /hiv/aboutDHAP.htm
HIV / AIDS. (2009). Retrieved September 4, 2009, from MayClinic Web site:
detection of the Borna disease virus relating them to the epidemiology.
The first cases of Borna disease were descried in the 17-19th century in Southern Germany. It was discovered to e a fatal disease affecting the neurological systems of horses and sheep, (Ludwig et al., 1985; Durrwald, 1993) causing ehavioral and neurological symptoms. It was proven to e caused y a 2003]
Today it is eing realized that the scope of the disease is not limited to just a few countries as was previously elieved ut encompassed the world. Also it was realized that far from affecting just horses and sheep as was originally thought virus, the Borna Disease Virus (BDV) in the early 1900's y Zwick and his team in Giessen Germany. [Author not availale, it in fact affected other animals and even human eings.[Staeheli, Sauder; Schwemmle, et al., 2000]
Research into the epidemiology and pathogenesis of the BDV…
bibliography. Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series B. 44, 147-184.
3.Staeheli, P., Sauder, C. Schwemmle, M. et al.,. Epidemiology of Borna disease virus, J Gen Virol 81: 2123-2135
4.Author not available,  Diagnostic Methods In Virology, accessed at http://virology-online.com/general/Tests.htm
5. Nakamura, K., Takahashi, H., Shoya, Y., Nakaya, T., Watanabe, M., Tomonaga, K., Iwahashi, K., Ameno, K., Momiyama, N., Taniyama, H., Sata, T., Kurata, T., de la Torre, J.C. & Ikuta, K. . Isolation of Borna disease virus from human brain. Journal of Virology 74, 4601-4611.
6. Zimmermann, W., Durrwald, R. & Ludwig, H. (1994). Detection of Borna disease virus RNA in naturally infected animals by a nested polymerase chain reaction. Journal of Virological Methods 46, 133-143
Sexually transmitted disease [...] Chlamydia, a disease that can lead to female infertility if not treated, and as a health care worker how would you approach the problem. Chlamydia is a very common sexually transmitted disease (STD) that can lead to many problems, including pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) which is a leading cause of infertility in women, and it is caused by sexually transmitted diseases such as gonorrhea or Chlamydia. Chlamydia is treatable, but it is hard to detect, and so sometimes goes untreated and leads to much more serious health concerns. Chlamydia is also one of the biggest health issues in STDs, because so many people get it each year, and so many people do not know they have it.
Chlamydia is a sexually transmitted disease that causes inflammation and adhesions in the vagina. It can be detected with a penile swab or a urine sample, and it is…
Author not Available. "An Introduction to Sexually Transmitted Infections." National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.org. July 1999. 25 July 2005.
Nordenberg, Tamar. "Chlamydia's Quick Cure." FDA Consumer July 1999: 24.
Tomlins, Jacqueline. The Infertility Handbook: A Guide to Making Babies. Crows Nest, N.S.W.: Allen & Unwin, 2003.
Between 1995-2002, 99% of all births in ussia were attended by skilled health personnel, while the number of physicians per 100,000 people was 420 between 1990-2003, and the number of people with sustainable access to affordable essential drugs in 1999 was between 50-79% (http://hdr.undp.org/statistics/data/cty/cty_f_US.html)."
Nutrition, Water and Smoking
The United Nations reports that in 2000, 99% of ussia's population had "sustainable access to an improved water source. Between 1999-2001, 4% of the population was undernourished, while between 1995-2002 of all children under the age of 5, 3% were underweight and 13% were under height for their age group. From 1998-2002, 6% of all infants in ussia were born with low birth weight (http://hdr.undp.org/statistics/data/cty/cty_f_US.html)."
One of the leading, preventable health risks is smoking.
In 2000, 10% of all adult ussian women smoked, compared to 63% of all adult men (http://hdr.undp.org/statistics/data/cty/cty_f_US.html)." This illustrates why men may be more likely to suffer from…
Lokshin, Michael M. And Ruslan Yemtsov. (26 February, 2001). "Household Strategies for Coping with Poverty and Social Exclusion in Post-Crisis Russia." The World Bank
Group. (accessed 28 February 2005). http://econ.worldbank.org/working_papers/1417/).
UN Development Programme. (accessed 28 February 2005). http://hdr.undp.org/statistics/data/cty/cty_f_RUS.html ).
WHO. (accessed 28 February 2005). http://www.who.int /countries/rus/en/' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Pathogens and Diseases:
Pathogens are common characteristics of everyday environment as soil contains huge number of bacteria per cubic centimeter while air contains fungal spores. The existence of pathogens in everyday environment emanates from the fact that microorganisms are deposited through touching of various surfaces like tables. Pathogens can be described as disease-causing agents such as infectious microbes, and parasites. While the infectious microbes include viruses and bacteria, parasites include protozoa and fungi. Notably, microbes are only considered as pathogens if they cause harm or diseases since not all microbes are harmful (Koo, 2009). There are opportunistic pathogens, which are organisms that are normally part of the natural flora of the body. These organisms become harmful or pathogens after an invasion like the occurrence of an accidental injury or surgery.
Spread of Pathogens:
Since pathogens are common disease-causing agents, they spread in various ways to cause harm or illnesses. Some…
ABPI -- Bringing Medicines to Life (n.d.), How Pathogens Cause Disease, The Association of the British Pharmaceutical Industry, viewed 17 April 2012,
ABPI -- Bringing Medicines to Life (n.d.), Pathogens Cause Disease, The Association of the British Pharmaceutical Industry, viewed 17 April 2012,
Canadian Committee on Antibiotic Resistance (2007), Infection Prevention and Control Best
Practices, Canadian Committee on Antibiotic Resistance, viewed 17 April 2012,
Herpes: An Insidious Disease of Modern Times
Herpes is considered one of the most insidious and pervasive viral diseases to affect the world population today. Conservative studies suggest that as many as 39% of men and nearly 1/2 of all women are expected to contract herpes in the U.S. alone by the year 2025 (Wetstein, 2002). Already nearly 1 in 5 people will have some form of herpes by the time they reach adolescence or early adulthood (Herpes, 2004).
In light of such dire statistics and information, it is important to examine the disease and its implications for the future. esearchers and scientists are working diligently to uncover new avenues for treatment of this incurable disease, and studies are underway for uncovering potential and promising vaccines to halt the spread of this increasingly common problem affecting millions.
There are many different forms of therapy that have been introduced in recent…
ASHA. "National Herpes Resource Center." (2001). American Social Health
Association. 27, October 2004, http://www.ashastd.org/hrc/index.html
CDC. "Epstein Barr Virus." (October 26, 2002). National Center for Infectious Diseases.
28, October 2004, http://www.cdc.gov /ncidod/diseases/ebv.htm
STDs: A MAJO CONTEMPOAY PUBLIC HEALTH CONCEN
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Given the advances in medicine and public health over the past several decades, most people might assume that the incidence and prevalence of sexually-transmitted diseases (STDs) is declining; however, the scientific evidence suggests otherwise. ecent estimates from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in the United States suggest that 20 million new STD infections occur every year and cost the U.S. health care system close to $16 billion dollars annually (CDC, 2013). This is up from 12 million STD infections and $10 billion dollars annually during the mid-1990s (Zenilman, 2004). In 2011, reports of chlamydia incidence set another annual record, double from what it was just 10 years ago (CDC, 2011). To better understand the health threats facing Americans when they engage in sexual activity this report will review what is known about the most common STDs infecting…
CDC. (2013). CDC Fact Sheet: Incidence, prevalence, and cost of sexually transmitted infections in the United States. Retrieved from: http://www.cdc.gov /std/stats/STI-Estimates-Fact-Sheet-Feb-2013.pdf' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
One of the tope 10 global health issues identified by Intra-Health International in 2013 is: Helping even more children to live longer. According to the 2012 UNICEF report,
Committing to Child Survival: A Promise enewed, the number of child deaths has decreased in many countries across the globe ("Intra-Health," 2013). Indeed, child mortality rates have decreased nearly 50% from a 1990 figure of 12 million under-five deaths to a 2011 figure of 6.9 million. In absolute terms, if the child mortality rate could be reduced to just 20 child deaths per 1,000 live births in every country by 2035, a minimum of 45 million children saved ("Intra-Health," 2013). ecommendations from the Child Survival Call to Action hosted by USAID point to the need for better and more systematic collection of health sector data, as well as better implementation of high-impact interventions to tackle the major causes of newborn…
Mitku, K., Bedada, T., Masresha, B., Wenemagegn, K., Nafo-Traore, F., Tesfaye, N., and Beyene, B. (2011). The epidemiology of rubella disease in Ethiopia: Data from the measles case-based surveillance system. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 204(1), S239-S242. DOI: 10.1093/infdis/jir120. Retreived from http://jid.oxfordjournals.org/content/204/suppl_1/S239.full.pdf+html
____. (2013, January 15). The top 10 global health issues to watch in 2013. Intra-Health International. Retrieved from http://www.intrahealth.org/page/the-top-10-global-health-issues-to-watch-in-2013
From the Communicable Disease Prevention and Control Act (Section 27), venereal diseases refer to ailments like gonorrhoea, granuloma, chlamydia, chancroid, syphilis, lymphopathia venereum and inguinale (Public Health Law Research, 2014). Established by the California Department of Public Health (CDPH), the California Regulations and Reportable Disease Information Exchange refer to a safe system used for automated disease diagnosis and monitoring. A number of certain conditions and diseases are authorized by State regulations and rules to be stated by laboratories and healthcare providers to the state healthcare agencies. The mission CPDH pursues is the enhancement of the efficacy of surveillance exercises as well as the quick identification of health occurrences amid public via the gathering of timely and up-to-date surveillance information across the State. This provides a platform for reporting as well as collection of health conditions in real time throughout the year. CPDHs and LHDs (or Local Health Departments) are both…
The research results will demonstrate that alcoholism is a disease and support this notion with overwhelming evidence.
In short, alcoholism is a major problem for all countries across the world. Alcoholism destroys lives and tears many families apart. The purpose of this argumentative research paper is to demonstrate with supporting evidence that alcoholism is a disease and not a social stigma.
Foroud Tatiana, Howard J. Edenberg, and John C. Crabbe. "Genetic research: who is at risk for alcoholism?." Alcohol Research & Health 33.1/2 (2010): 64-75. Academic Search Complete. EBSCO. eb. 9 June 2011.
Organization, orld Health. "Society should focus on reducing the negative impacts of alcohol." Alcohol. Ed. Andrea C. Nakaya. Detroit: Greenhaven Press, 2008. Opposing Viewpoints. Gale Opposing Viewpoints In Context. eb. 10 June 2011.
Foroud Tatiana, Howard J. Edenberg, and John C. Crabbe. "Genetic research: who is at risk for alcoholism?." Alcohol Research & Health 33.1/2 (2010): 64-75. Academic Search Complete. EBSCO. Web. 9 June 2011.
Organization, World Health. "Society should focus on reducing the negative impacts of alcohol." Alcohol. Ed. Andrea C. Nakaya. Detroit: Greenhaven Press, 2008. Opposing Viewpoints. Gale Opposing Viewpoints In Context. Web. 10 June 2011.
"Survey: people still unsure whether alcoholism is disease or moral weakness." Alcoholism & Drug Abuse Weekly 17.40 (2005): 1-5. Health Source: Nursing/Academic Edition. EBSCO. Web. 9 June 2011.
individual with a communicable disease that is a disability is other wise qualified for the job?
Individuals with disease can be judged for qualifications in the same way as any other individual applying for a job. Communicable or infectious diseases are considered to constitute a disability when the disease is impairing to such a degree that it "limits one or more major life activities" (Human Resources UNC). In these cases, individuals with communicable disease should be treated like any other disability. When judging whether a disabled individual is qualified for a job, it must be determined if they can perform the specific job with reasonable accomodations. If a communicable disease does not result in disability, then the individual should be judged as a nondisabled person. Additionally, law generally "permits an employer to fail to hire, transfer, promote, or to discharge a disabled person if the person has a communicable disease…
Choose Charity. "How to Run a Business Without Hiding Your Faith." http://choosecharity.org/titlevii_information.htm#_edn1
Cohen, Michael. "As Freely As Everyone Else" Human Rights Campaign. http://www.hrc.org/Template.cfm?Section=Home& ; CONTENTID=25218& TEMPLATE=/ContentManagement/ContentDisplay.cfm
Human Resources UNC. "Summary of Applicable Laws and Policy Guidelines." Human Resources University of North Carolina. http://hr.unc.edu/Data/SPA/employeerelations/summary-of-laws
Rochelle, Dudley. "Ten Tips for Employers to Avoid Religious Discrimination" Marketplace Leaders. http://marketplaceleaders.org/articles_view.asp?articleid=5623& ; columnid=743
There are no deductibles and no user fees nor limits to contributions on the plan. There are also no restrictions on services to be used and no premiums to pay for basic care coverage other than taxes, a far cry from the high deductibles, co-pays and other fees associated with health care in the United States.
Key to this point is the idea that Canadian health care costs less because a large portion of it is publicly financed. The author's note that since Canada adopted their universal healthcare system the Canadian Health Act has implemented a policy of public administration which keeps the cost of health care spending lower and maintains the government's ability to provide health care services to the entire population. The authors argue that public administration is a more optimal choice for keeping health care expenditures down because administration is inexpensive.
U.S. hospitals keep more details of…
Armstrong, Hugh; Armstrong, Pat; Fegan, P. (1998). "The Best Solution: Questions and Answers on the Canadian Health Care System." Washington Monthly, Vol. 30, Issue 6, p. 8
Clark, Cal & Mceldowney, Rene. (2000). "The Performance of National Health Care Systems: A "Good News, Bad News" Finding for Reform Possibilities." Policy Studies Review, Vol. 17, Issue 4, p. 133
Grubaugh, S.G. & Santerre, R.E. (1994). "Comparing the Performance of Health Care Systems: An Alternative Approach." Southern Economic Journal, Vol. 60, Issue 4, p. 1030
Martens, Pim. (200). "Health Transitions in a Globalising World: Towards More Disease or Sustained Health?" Futures, Vol. 34, Issue 7, p. 635+
Lyme Disease and Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA)
This text will concern itself with Lyme disease and methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). In so doing, it will not only give the description and epidemiology of the concerns, but also the etiology and prevention strategies. Further, diagnosis as well as treatment options and prognosis will be highlighted.
1. Lyme Disease
Description and Etiology
Described as an illness that is often debilitating, Lyme disease, as the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention- CDC (2018) points out, “is caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi and is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected blacklegged ticks.” It is important to note that in addition to the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi, blacklegged ticks are capable of transmitting what are commonly referred to as coinfections, i.e. a variety of other disease-causing parasites as well as viruses and bacteria. Those living in wooded areas have a high likelihood…
What the Tick? Tick Born Diseases in America
Part predator, part parasite, the tick is considered by many as America’s most harmful bug. Living in humid and overgrown areas, these critters make rural America more prone to acquiring the various diseases these ticks carry. From Lyme disease to Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, ticks are the proliferators of zoonotic diseases in North America (Edlow, 2004). These diseases do not have vaccines and are difficult to manage once the person is infected. This essay will cover tick-borne diseases, why they became such a major issue in recent times, existing treatment for the infections, and predictions of epidemics.
There are 20+ tick borne diseases in the U.S.A. Of the most reported, Lyme disease infects an estimated 300,000 people annually (National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, Health and Medicine Division, Board on Global Health, Forum on Microbial Threats, 2016). In fact,…
Although relatively rare, California encephalitis (CE) can be a highly lethal disease that is caused by the Balamuthia mandrillaris ameba. In fact, of the 10 cases of CE reported to the California Encephalitis Project during the period from 1999 through 2007, all but one patient died. Today, though, the majority of victims of CE survive the condition, but a significant percentage (about 20%) experience long-term complications as a result. To determine the facts about this potentially deadly human pathogen, this paper reviews the literature to provide the history of CE including its first outbreak, how the disease is transmitted, and the epidemiology of CE. In addition, a discussion concerning the search for a vaccine for CE is followed by description of the treatments and public health considerations of CE. Finally, an examination of the concern CE has for public health is followed by a summary of the research…
Anderson, J. R. & Schneider, J. R. (2005, April). Quantitative genetics of vector competence for la Crosse virus and body size in Ochlerotatus Hendersoni and Ochlerotatus Triseriatus interspecific hybrids. Genetics, 169(4), 1529-1532.
Balamuthia Amebic Encephalitis -- California, 1999 -- 2007. (2015). U.S. Centers for Disease Control. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov /mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5728a2.htm.
California encephalitis. (2015). Right Diagnosis. Retrieved from http://www.right diagnosis.com/c/california_encephalitis/intro.htm.
California serogroup - pathogen safety data sheet. (2015). Public Health Agency of Canada. Retrieved from http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/lab-bio/res/psds-ftss/msds27e-eng.php .
Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Contact Tracing
MG is a 27-year-old graduate student, recently married, who comes into the student health clinic for a routine pelvic exam and Pap smear. During the course of the exam, the gynecology resident performing the exam obtains the Pap smear, but also obtains cervical cultures for gonorrhea and chlamydia. The examination concludes uneventfully. Several weeks later, MG receives a postcard indicating that the Pap smear was normal, with no evidence of dysplasia, but that the cervical culture for gonorrhea was positive. The card instructs her to come into the clinic to discuss treatment, and that "public health authorities" have been notified for contact tracing, which refers to the identification and diagnosis of sexual partners, as required by law. The young woman is terrified that her husband will be contacted. Is contact tracing ethically justified?
While it is definitely not a good thing that…
Amir-Singh, J., Upshur, R., & Padayatchi, N. (2007). XDR-TB in South Africa: No Time for Denial or Complacency. Plos Med, 4(1), e50. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.0040050
Armbruster, B., & Brandea, M. (2007). Contact tracing to control infectious disease: when enough is enough. Health Care Management Science, 10(4), 341. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3428220/
Boskey, E. (2016). Contact tracing really is an important thing to participate in.. About.com Health. Retrieved 20 March 2016, from http://std.about.com/od/prevention/f/contacttracing.htm
McKay, B. (2016). Dangerous TB Patient Detained on U.S. Border. WSJ. Retrieved 20 March 2016, from http://www.wsj.com/articles/SB10001424127887323978104578332461533970412
Prevention and Control of the Flu
The flu is a serious illness but one of its great advantages is that a vaccine does exist to contain its spread and prevent or at least mitigate its symptoms. The flu is a virus and available antiviral medications like Tamiflu are not as effective as treating, for example, a bacterial infection with an antibiotic. The most effective method of treating the flu is to not get it at all -- which is why vaccination is so essential. However, even flu vaccinations are not particularly effective on a seasonal basis: "A flu virus mutates at an exceptionally high rate as it reproduces, and some mutations will change the tips of the surface proteins. The antibodies cannot grab tightly to the altered tips, so the virus is able to proceed with its invasion. From one flu season to the next, the evolution of the flu…
Mwangi, T. Bethony. J. & Brooker, S. (2006). Malaria and helminth interactions in humans: an epidemiological viewpoint. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology, 100(7): 551-570. Retrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1858631/
Zimmer, C. (2013). The quest to end the flu. The Atlantic. Retrieved from:
(De Leon, 2010)
Finally, in recent years there has been a call for more stringent regulatory measured to be put in place in order to prevent this category of disease. Many experts refer to outdated laws and policies that are not successful in detecting and prevent problems along the entire food production process (Jessen). They also refer to restricted and inadequate legal tools to check the spread of the diseases. There is therefore a need not only to update present legislation but also for organizations and individuals to be become more aware of the need to prevent this type of disease from occurring.
De Leon D. ( 2010) Start at the Store: 7 Ways to Prevent Foodborne Illness. etrieved from http://www.foodsafety.gov/blog/7ways.html
Definition of Foodborne disease. etrieved from http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=25399Focus on Epidemiology. Houston Health (2001). etrieved from http://www.houstontx.gov/health/HoustonHealth/winter01.pdf
Foodborne diseases take heavy toll on public health. etrieved from http://www.google.co.za/url?sa=t&source=web&cd=18&ved=0CDgQFjAHOAo&url=http%3A%2F%2Fbioniche.com%2Fnewsroom_factsheet.cfm&ei=SJ7ITMX1LdDCswako7iPDg&usg=AFQjCNESQAvUohGiQZZN1L1TCFwwl-DYQ&sig2=bnOdvFEDnTPpuZO8D2blQ
De Leon D. ( 2010) Start at the Store: 7 Ways to Prevent Foodborne Illness. Retrieved from http://www.foodsafety.gov/blog/7ways.html
Definition of Foodborne disease. Retrieved from http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=25399Focus on Epidemiology. Houston Health (2001). Retrieved from http://www.houstontx.gov/health/HoustonHealth/winter01.pdf
Foodborne diseases take heavy toll on public health. Retrieved from http://www.google.co.za/url?sa=t&source=web&cd=18&ved=0CDgQFjAHOAo&url=http%3A%2F%2Fbioniche.com%2Fnewsroom_factsheet.cfm&ei=SJ7ITMX1LdDCswako7iPDg&usg=AFQjCNESQAvUohGiQZZN1L1TCRFwwl-DYQ&sig2=bnOdvFERDnTPpuZO8D2blQ
Foodborne Illness. Retrieved from http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/foodborneillness.html
" (Fleming et al., 1994)
B. Genetic Factors
hile environmental factors are shown to increase the risk of developing Parkinson's disease there are also specific mutations linked to the development of PD in certain populations. For example it is reported that a study conducted on Parkinson's Disease and hereditary genetic risks of developing this disease states findings that researchers in the study "...found that ethnic Chinese individuals carrying a mutation they indentified in the LRRK2 gene are over two times more likely to develop the disease than non-carriers." (Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL, 2004) the study was conducted at Mayo Clinic in 2004. The research team not only discovered the LRRK2 gene and the role it plays in Parkinson's disease but as well discovered "...a number of mutations in LRRK2 a gene that codes for poorly understood protein, leucine-rich repeat kinase." (Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL, 2004)
One of the mutations 'G209S…
Wood-Kaczmar, a., Gandhi, S. And Wood, NW (2006) Understanding the molecular causes of Parkinson's disease Trends Mol Med. 2006 Nov;12(11):521-8. Epub 2006 Oct 5. Links
Understanding the molecular causes of Parkinson's disease.
Priyadarshi, a., Khuder, SA, Schaub, EA and Priyadarshi, SS (2001) Environmental risk factors and Parkinson's disease: a metaanalysis. Environe Res. 2001 Jun; 86(2):122-7.
How yeast is helping us to understand Parkinson's Disease (2009) Psysorg 27 Feb 2009. Online available at http://www.physorg.com/news154950981.html
Alcoholic Liver Disease
CAUSES AND IMPACT
Causes, Incidence, Risk Factors, Impact
Alcohol use has been linked with liver disease mortality and increased social and economic costs (NCI, 2014; ruha et al., 2009). Most recent statistics say that disorders in alcohol consumption afflict millions of people worldwide. The incidence has been increasing along with increasing alcohol consumption. Alcohol liver disease takes the form of acute alcoholic hepatitis and chronic liver disease, such as steatosis, steatohepatitis, fibrosis and cirrhosis. Seriousness and prognosis depend on the amount consumed, the pattern of drinking and the length of time of consumption, the presence of liver inflammation, diet and nutritional and genetic disposition. While steatosis is virtually benign, morbidity and mortality are both high in liver cirrhosis. Survival rate for advanced cirrhosis is 1 to 2 years and 50% mortality risk for those with severe acute alcoholic hepatitis have as much as 50% mortality (NCI, 2014).…
Bruha, R., et al. (2009). Alcoholic liver disease. Vol. 110 # 3m Prague Medical Report:
PubMed Central. Retrieved on April 6, 2014 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19655694
EASL (2012). EASL clinical practical guidelines: management of alcoholic liver disease. Vol. 51 # 1, Journal of Hepatology: European Association for the Study of the liver. Retrieved on April 6, 2014 from http://www.easl.eu/assets/application/files/5e1b5512fb2cabb_file.pdf
Frazier, T.H. (2011). Treatment of alcoholic liver disease. Vol. 4 # 1, Therapeutic
Proteinaceous Infectious Particles"
Recent cases of Mad Cow Disease have focused the public attention on prion diseases and the small proteins that are believed to cause them. The scientific community has been slow to recognize this mechanism of disease, since prion-caused encephalopathies can demonstrate diverse symptoms, and share characteristics with other disorders, such as dementia.
Prions, as the acronym (Proteinaceous Infectious Particles) suggests, are small proteins that are typically expressed in brain tissue, and may exist in a normal or abnormal shape. The prion protein is encoded by a gene found on the human chromosome 20. Usually, the prion protein is translated in neural tissue, folds into its normal conformation, carries out its cellular role, and is eventually degraded by enzymes. The abnormal prion, however, folds differently from its normal counterpart. This different shape makes it more difficult to degrade, and leads to the brain damage that is seen…
Inherited prion disease. (n.d.). Retrieved April 21, 2004, at http://www.st - marys.nhs.uk/specialist/prion/factsheets/inheritedpd.htm
Kightly, R. (n.d.). Prion replication and spread at the cellular level. Retrieved April
21, 2004, from Mad Cow Disease Images & BSE Pictures
Web site: http://www.rkm.com.au/BSE/index.html
Physiological Effects of Hodgkin's Disease
In this paper I shall give an overview of Hodgkin's disease while focusing on its physiological effects. Specifically, the paper consists of an overview of the disease, describes how the disease affects the body cells and tissues, and how the treatment attacks the disease and affects the body, besides reviewing the treatments available.
Hodgkin's disease is one of the two (and less severe) types of cancer of the lymphatic system; the other type being non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The disease is named after the British physician, Thomas Hodgkin, who first discovered the condition in 1832. Hodgkin's disease commonly occurs in young adults (between the ages of 15 to 35) and in older people (over 50-year-olds. However, about 10%-15% of cases have been diagnosed in children below 16 years of age. Statistics also show that more men than women are afflicted by it. ("What are the Key Statistics…
'Autologous Bone Marrow Stem Cell Transplantation" (2004). American Cancer Society. Retrieved on September 28, 2004 from http://www.cancer.org/docroot/CRI/content/CRI_2_4_4X_Autologous_Bone_Marrow_Stem_Cell_Transplantation_and_Peripheral_Blood_Stem_Cell_Transplantation_20.asp?rnav=cri 'Chemotherapy." (2004). American Cancer Society. Retrieved on September 28, 2004 from http://www.cancer.org/docroot/CRI/content/CRI_2_4_4X_Chemotherapy_20.asp?rnav=cri 'Do We Know What Causes Hodgkin's Disease?" (2004). American Cancer Society. Retrieved on September 28, 2004 from http://www.cancer.org/docroot/CRI/content/CRI_2_4_2X_Do_we_know_what_causes_Hodgkins_disease_20.asp?rnav=cri
"Hodgkin's Disease." (2000) The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. Columbia University Press: New York.
'Hodgkin's disease: Overview" (2004) Oncology Channel Retrieved on September 28, 2004 from http://www.oncologychannel.com/hodgkins / 'How is Hodgkin's Lymphoma and the Non-Hodgkin's Lymphomas Different?" (2004) Lymphoma Information Network. Retrieved on September 28, 2004 from http://www.lymphomainfo.net/lymphoma/comparison.html
'How Is Hodgkin's Disease Treated?" (2004). American Cancer Society. Retrieved on September 28, 2004 from http://www.cancer.org/docroot/CRI/content/CRI_2_4_4X_How_Is_Hodgkins_Disease_Treated_20.asp?rnav=cri 'The Lymphatic System." (2004) CancerBACUP. Retrieved on September 28, 2004 from http://www.cancerbacup.org.uk/Cancertype/LymphomaHodgkins/General/Thelymphaticsystem
Diabetic Vascular Disease state caused by the deficiency of a chemical in the body called insulin which is a hormone is called Diabetes. There are two forms of diabetes. In the type-one diabetes no insulin is formed and people require insulin injections for existence. This was once thought it would affect only children, but now it can occur at any age. The type2 diabetes is due to the resistance of the body towards the effects of insulin. This also includes insulin which is insufficient. ut in this type there is some amount of insulin produced. In both the types the blood glucose levels is increased. When compared to people without diabetes, people with diabetes are prone to certain problems. These problems occur in the nerves (neuropathy), kidney (nephropathy) and eye (retinopathy). These people are prone to early heart attacks and stroked due to the hardening of the arteries (arteriosclerosis). With…
Diabetes Basics-About Diabetics," Retrieved from www.orthop.washington.edu/faculty/Hirsch/diabetesAccessed on March 3, 2004
Diabetes & Vascular Disease Research" retrieved from www.medstv.unimelb.edu.au/Research/DCVDR/. Accessed on March 3, 2004
Haptoglobin: A major susceptibility gene for diabetic vascular complications," retrieved from www.pulsus.com/europe/07_02/szaf_ed.htm. Accessed on March 3, 2004
Pathophysiology of Diabetes" retrieved at http://www.dhss.state.mo.us/diabetes/manual/DMOverview.pdf. Accessed on March 3, 2004
Pressure on the superior vena cava may produce SVC syndrome, a swelling of the head and arms. SVC syndrome involving the brain can be fatal and must be treated immediately. But enlarged lymphatic tissue in the chest cavity generally tends to displace -- rather than press upon or encase -- adjacent structures. Therefore, compromised breathing and SVC syndrome are relatively uncommon signs of lymphoma. (Hodgkin's Disease, 1998-2008)
Effects on Bone Marrow
Night sweats, fevers or anemia (a low red-blood-cell count), fevers may indicate Hodgkin's disease has spread to an individual's bone marrow. In these scenarios, a physician may order bone marrow aspiration and biopsy. In biopsy, medical staff uses a large needle to remove a narrow, cylindrical piece of the patient's bone. In another option, medical staff performs an aspiration, a process utilizing a needle to remove small bits of bone marrow. Generally, in both instances, to help determine cancer…
Atlas of the Body: The Lymphatic System." (1999). American Medical Association. 2 June 2008 http://www.medem.com/medlb/article_detaillb.cfm?article_ID=ZZZG0S6CGJC&sub_at=518 .
Carson-DeWitt, Rosalyn S; Alic, Margaret. "Hodgkin's Disease," Gale Encyclopedia of Cancer, January 1, 2002. 2 June 2008 http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G2-3405200219.html .
Detailed Guide: Hodgkin Disease What Is Hodgkin Disease? American Cancer Society. Revised: 08/30/2007. 2 June 2008 http://www.cancer.org/docroot/CRI/content/CRI_2_4_1x_What_Is_Hodgkin_Disease.sp?rnav=cri .
Hodgkin's Disease Signs and Symptoms. (1998-2008). 3 June 2008 http://www.oncologychannel.com/hodgkins/symptoms.shtml.
, 1998). It is hard to know where the boundary stops between psychological and physical illness, since the two are, often intimately combined with one affecting the other.
QOL, as De Vries and Drent (2008) point out is often confounded with state of physical health but actually it reflects one's emotional and psychological welfare. Nonetheless, the two are intimately related in that each affects the other.
Conducting a through review on the subject with key words involving 'Sarcoidosis and health status', Sarcoidosis and quality of life" or Sarcoidosis and fatigue" De Vries and Drent (2008) ended up with 15 studies that they considered relevant to their subject.
Counter-intuitively, they discovered that the greatest challenge on QOL as effected by was the patient's fatigue caused by the disease. Breathlessness, reduced exercise, and impaired working and physical activities were the most frequent reported hindrances. The instrument used was the World Health Organization…
American Thoracic Society (1999) Statement on Sarcoidosis, 736-749
The report provides a thorough overview of Sarcoidosis discussing new developments and demonstrating how much in the field remains enigmatic.
Bona, J. et al. (1998) Neurosarcoidosis as a Cause of Refractory Psychosis: A Complicated Case ReportAm J. Psychiatry 155:8, 1100-1107
The report describes Sarcoidosis and gives a case history as example.
The disease stems from toxic reactions to structures of the ear, including the cochlea, vestibule, semicircular canals and otoliths. Drug-induced damage to these structures of the auditory and balance system can result in hearing loss, tinnitus, disequilibrium or dizziness (yback 2007).
The propensity of specific classes of drugs to cause ototoxicity has been well established and over 100 classes of drugs have been associated with ototoxicity. Hearing loss can be temporary but is usually irreversible with most agents. Generally, antibiotic-induced ototoxicity is bilaterally symmetrical, but it can be asymmetrical. The usual time of onset is often unpredictable, and marked hearing loss can occur even after a single dose (Ishiyama 2006). Additionally, hearing loss may not manifest until several weeks or months after completion of antibiotic or anti-neoplastic therapy (Dille 2003). Vestibular injury is also a notable adverse effect of aminoglycoside antibiotics and may appear early…
Campbell KC, Durrant J. (1993) Audiologic monitoring for ototoxicity. Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 26(5): 903-14.
Dille M., et al. (2010). Ototoxicity risk assessment combining distoration product otoacoustic emissions with a cisplatin dose model. J. Of the Accoustical Society of America. 128(3): 1163-1174.
Fausti S., et al. (2009). Auditory and vestibular dysfunction associated with blast-related traumatic brain injury. Journal of Rehab Research and Development. 46(6): 797-810.
Grant KW, et al. (1998). Auditory-visual speech recognition by hearing-impaired subjects: consonant recognition, sentence recognition and auditory-visual integration. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 103(5): 2677-2690.
The following is a response to a major disaster in the Asian coastal country of Bangladesh. A major and destructive typhoon has recently hit the country and there are significant problems. The result of this typhoon has seem massive death, destruction and population displacement, and to worsen the situation, data indicates that cases of a diarrheal disease consistent with cholera have been reported.
This essay will highlight the priorities of work that need to be addressed in order to respond to the cholera outbreak that appears imminent. This response will recommend certain actions that need to be implemented and which agencies to seek assistance from to help in making the plan work. Pre-deployment preparations for those flocking to the disaster will also be discussed to give a more descriptive form to the problem.
Impacts of Cholera Outbreaks
It is important and preliminary to understand the problems and risks associated…
Tappero JW, Tauxe RV. Lessons learned during public health response to cholera epidemic in Haiti and the Dominican Republic. Emerg Infect Dis [serial on the Internet]. 2011 Nov [date cited]. http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1711.110827
The World Health Organization (2006). Communicable Disease following natural disasters. Risk Assessment and Priority Interventions. Retrieved from http://www.who.int /diseasecontrol_emergencies/guidelines/CD_Disasters_26_06.pdf' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
The response by the United States to biorisk management at the national level provides a useful example of what can be accomplished with the right resources and vision. For instance, in December 2009, the U.S. government published its "National Strategy for Countering Biological Threats," representing the basic framework for the U.S. response to emerging bioterrorism threats. In the State of the Union address in 2010, President Barack Obama mentioned the National Strategy as an approach that "will give us the capacity to respond faster and more effectively to bioterrorism or an infectious disease." The implementation and oversight of this initiative is the responsibility of the U.S. Department of State's Biosecurity Engagement Program (BEP). This agency is tasked with promoting the National Strategy through efforts targeted at improving biorisk management and infectious disease surveillance practices around the world. To this end, the BEP has strengthened its commitment to the African continent,…
Biorisk reduction. (2011). World Health Organization. Retrieved from http://www.who.int / csr/bioriskreduction/en/.
Global alert and response. (2011). World Health Organization. Retrieved from http://www.
Global Outbreak Alert and Response Network Fact Sheet. (2011). World Health Organization.
Tuberculosis is an infectious disease of animals and humans. The most common causative agent of the disease is a bacterium a mycobacteria known as Mycobacterium tuberculosis. This bacterium was first discovered by obert Koch in 1882. The physiology of this bacterium is aerobic and hence requires very high oxygen levels. This is primarily a pathogen of the mammalian respiratory system which infects the lungs. The most common methods used to diagnose tuberculosis are acid-fast stain, tuberculin skin test and chest radiations. M. tuberculosis requires oxygen in order for it to grow. Due to the presence of mycolic acid, M.tuberculosis has an waxy coating on its surface which is unusual making the cells impervious to Gram staining It can not retain any bacteriological stain as a result of a high lipid content on its wall therefore acid-fast staining or ziehl-Neelsen staining are used. Despite this M.tuberculosis is still…
Mandal, A. (2014). History of Tuberculosis. Retrieved October 17, 2014 from http://www.news-medical.net/health/History-of-Tuberculosis.aspx
Knechel, N. (2009). Tuberculosis: Pathophysiology, clinical Features, and Diagnosis. Retrieved October 17, 2014 from http://ccn.aacnjournals.org/content/29/2/34.short
Mathema, B., Kurepina, N., Bifani, P., & Kreiswirth, B. (2006). Molecular Epidemiology of Tuberculosis: Current Insights. Retrieved October 18, 2014 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1592690/
Healthy People 2020
eview of Three Articles from Healthy People 2020
The goal of improved global health is to strengthen U.S. national security through global disease detection, response, prevention, and control strategies. Threats to health in one part of the world may have far reaching consequences that impact public health across the globe. The 2003 SAS epidemic and the 2009 H1N1 influenza outbreak are recent examples. Furthermore, improving the health of the global population promotes political stability, diplomacy, and economic growth worldwide.
The world and its economies are increasingly interdependent and international travel and commerce is becoming more prevalent. Expanding international trade introduces new health risks. A complex international distribution chain has resulted in potential international outbreaks due to food borne infections, poor quality pharmaceuticals, and contaminated consumer goods. Since the 1970s one or more new diseases have been identified annually. apid identification and control of emerging infectious…
"Early and middle childhood." (2012, January 10). Healthy people 2020. Retrieved January 12, 2012, from http://www.healthypeople.gov /2020/topicsobjectives2020/overview.aspx?topicid=10' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
technology and science have progressed so rapidly, a place where cell phones have become video cameras, where scientist can actually clone human life, you would assume medical advancements would progress in the same stride. This has not been the case in recent history, and although we have come a long way, there are many diseases for which there is no cure. Over the last century civilization has advanced in ways unthinkable to mankind, yet two things remain a constant reminder that humans are susceptible to anything. One such thing is Mother Nature and the other is the plague of infectious disease. Though we have found some ways to overcome these forces of nature, it is more like placing a and-Aid over a cut artery. The article, which I chose to write about, gives a painful glimpse of reality. Unhappy Returns, featured in Time Magazine Asia on Monday, Dec. 01, 2003…
Beach, Hannah. "Unhappy Returns." Time Magazine Dec. 2003: Time Asia. 25 Jan. 2005
< http://www.time.com/time/asia/magazine/article/0,13673,50103208-552154,00.html >.
Infectious Disease Article Analysi
Campylobacter jejuni is a helical shaped, non-spore forming, curved, Gram-negative bacteria which is most often found in animal feces. This bacteria comes from the intestinal tracks of animals where is exists as a mixed surface-associated community, protected by an extra cellular material called a biofilm. The protection afforded to the bacteria by the biofilm makes it an extremely resilient bacteria. (Siringan, 2011) It was originally discovered by Theodor Escherich in 1886 and called "Vibrio," but in 1963 a new genus was created for this organism, called Campylobacter. C. jejuni is one of the "most important human enteropathogens among the campylobacter." (Nachamkin, 2008, p. 14) This bacterium is microaerophilic and "requires 3 to 5% oxygen and 2 to 10% carbon dioxide for optimal grown conditions." (Bad Bug Book) Prior to 1972, C. jejuni was believed to be primarily an animal pathogen causing enteritis and abortions in cattle and sheep, but it…
Acheson, David. (2011). Campylobacter jejuni Infections: Update on Emerging Issues and Trends. Clinical Infectious Diseases 32(8). Retrieved from http://cid.oxfordjournals.org/content/32/8/1201.full
Altrkruse, Sean, et al., (1999) Campylobacter jejuni - An Emerging Foodborne Pathogen. Emerging Infectious Diseases 5(1). Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov /ncidod/eid/vol5no1/altekruse.htm
"Bad Bug Book" U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved from http://www.fda.gov/Food/FoodSafety/FoodborneIllness/FoodborneIllness
The focus of the article is upon the unique constitution and needs of the elderly, not upon herpes zoster or influenza as a national phenomenon particular to the United States. However, all of the studies it cites are based in the United States, and SV has been primarily studied as a phenomenon occurring in the U.S. The prevalence of nursing homes in the United States might also make the article more relevant to U.S. practitioners, and the regulatory and drug treatments it discusses are particular to North American, such as the FDA.
Supporting evidence: What scientific evidence does the author(s) present to support his or her claims?
The article's most conclusive evidence is found in its treatment of influenza. It notes that in the 40% to 60% of elderly patients in whom the influenza vaccine produces the desired immunity, an effective immune response can be mounted within 10 to 14…
Bader, Mazen & David S. McKinsey. (2005, Nov). "Viral infections in the elderly."
Postgraduate Medicine. 118.5: 45-54
26 Yet public health continued to mean, even more than in the Clinton administration, a technological approach to national defense. In the Bush administration, pharmaceutical protection became the centerpiece of biodefense policy. On December 13, 2002, convinced of the Dark Winter-type threat of smallpox, President Bush announced his nationwide smallpox inoculation program. Publicity about Iraq's potential biological arsenal, especially in the lead-up to the 2003 invasion, and the threat of bioterrorism had convinced many in the public to participate. The states and the CDC were ready to handle the logistics. In addition, civilian participation was voluntary, which reduced legal liability for those who administered the vaccine and for the government.
As might have been predicted, this smallpox vaccination campaign found it difficult to circumvent the well-known fears of vaccination as a source of bodily pollution and the mistrust engendered when vaccines appear a worse health risk than the forecast epidemic.…
Fauci, Anthony S.M.D., Bioterrorism Preparedness: NIH Smallpox Research Efforts, available at http://www.hhs.gov/asl/testify/t011102b.htm Accessed on October 22, 2011.
Frist, William. The Political Perspective of the Bioterrorism Threat, in Biological Threats and Terrorism: Assessing the Science and Response Capabilities, 29 (Stacy L. Knobler & Adel A.F. Mahmoud & Leslie A. Pray eds., National Academy Press 2002).
Neergaard, Lauran. Postmaster: Anthrax Threatens Mail, The Washington Post, Oct. 24, 2001, available at http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/aponline/20011024 / aponline090115_002.html Accessed on October 21, 2011.
Tanielian, Terri. Ricci, Karen. Stoto, Michael A. David Dausey, J. Lois M. Davis, Myers, Sarah. Olmsted, Stuart. Willis, Henry H. (2005) Exemplary Practices in Public Health Preparedness. RAND Corporation. http://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/technical_reports/2005/RAND_TR239.pdf Accessed on October 21, 2011.
The statistics in the article show that vaccination levels during 2003 were substantially below the objective set for 2010. Various factors may play a role in this phenomenon, including vaccine supply delays and shortages (MMWR, 2005, p. 8).
The article suggests a variety of strategies to help meet the goals set by Healthy People 2010. The benefits of meeting this goal particularly relate to more hours at work and thus greater productivity and a growth in economy, fewer disruptions in essential services, as well as fewer deaths and other complications related to influenza (MMWR, 2005, p. 12). The benefits to the country then relate to the general well-being of the population and its economy.
Beato, Christina. (2003). Healthy People 2010: Progress Review Focus Area 14: Immunization and Infectious Diseases. http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/about/otheract/hpdata2010/focusareas/fa14-immun.htm
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2005). Prevention and control of influenza: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization…
Beato, Christina. (2003). Healthy People 2010: Progress Review Focus Area 14: Immunization and Infectious Diseases. http://www.cdc.gov /nchs/about/otheract/hpdata2010/focusareas/fa14-immun.htm' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
These efforts include: expansion of international efforts to prevent terrorist acquisition of biological agents, initiated Bioatch program to detect initial releases of biological weapons within the environment, launched food programs to carefully inspect foods for potential bioagents (with greater focus on foreign foods), expanded bioterrorism research (including Project Bioshield, a program to develop medical ripostes to biological agents), and increased medical stockpiles and training for dealing with bioterrorism attacks (Cordesman; Lindler, Lebeda, & Korch; Petsko; Fidler & Gostin). These efforts will help to both prevent the initial release of any biological agents within the general populace or environment, as well as effectively treat afflicted individuals and slow spread through appropriate treatments.
Once biological agents are released into the general population, the extent of disease spread and number of individuals afflicted will be significantly affected by the role and effectiveness of the government through quarantine and treatment (Cordesman; Lindler, Lebeda, &…
Cole, Leonard A. The Eleventh Plague. Macmillan, 2002. Print.
Cordesman, Anthony H. The challenge of biological terrorism. CSIS, 2005. Print.
Fidler, David P., and Lawrence O. Gostin. Biosecurity in the global age. Stanford University Press, 2008. Print.
Kortepeter, MG, and GW Parker. "Potential biological weapons threats." Emerging Infectious Diseases 5.4 (1999): 523-527. Print.
The symptoms and signs of chronic schistosomiasis are mostly the body's reaction to the eggs retained in the tissues. S. mansoni or S. japonicum can cause mucosal ulcerations, bloody diarrhea, focal fibrosis, strictures, fistulas and papillomatuous growths. Ulcerations in the bladder by S. haematobium may bring on dysuria, hematuria, frequent urination, and chronic cystitis. Secondary bacterial infections in the genitor-urinary tract may also develop. S. mansoni can induce persistent Salmonella septicemia. S. haematorium may cause genital disease or infertility. Their eggs can cause fibrosis and cirrhosis, portal or pulmonary hypertension in the liver or transverse myelitis and seizure in the central nervous system (Pearson).
Diagnosis and Treatment
Schistosomiasis is diagnosed through a urine or stool test for parasites (DHPE, 2010;
DPDx, 2010). The Centers for Disease and Control uses a blood test on a sample taken 6-
8 weeks after exposure. It can be cured with praziquantel taken for 1…
DHPE (2010). Schistosomiasis fact sheet. Infectious Facts: Directors of Health Promotion
and Education. Retrieved on November 5, 2010 from http://www.dhpe.org/infect/schisto.html
DPDx (2010). Schistosomiasis. Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria: Centers of Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved November 5, 2010 from http://www.dpd.cdc.gov/dpdx/html/schistosomiasis.htm
Kogulan, P. And Lucey, D.R. (2010). Schistosomiasis. eMedicine Specialties: Infections.
To date, adoptive T-cell therapy have used peripheral blood, tumors, malignant effusions, and drained lymph nodes as sites for injecting the T-cells for adoptive transfer. Those are routinely used are allogenic bone marrow transplantation and peripheral blood stem cell infusion. It is possible that the bone marrow might be a good place too. It is also arguable which precise T-cells are the best to transfer, since T- cells are differentiated into many subsets.
Furthermore, in order to produce enough effectors T-cells, specific T-cells from peripheral blood or tumor specimens are isolated and generated in vitro, and these are then clonally expanded using various approaches. The T-cells are then reinfused into the patient with the expectation that they will then target antigens. There is much evidence that this approach works, although it also seems that this can be engineered in vivo under certain situations.
For most effective T-cell therapy, it has…
Greenberg, P.D. 1991, 'Adoptive T cell therapy of tumors. Ad. Immunol. 49, pp. 281-355.
Jamieson, B.D., & Ahmed, R. 1989,'T cell memory. J. Exp. Med. 169, pp. 1993-2005
June, C.H. 2007, 'Principles of adoptive T cell cancer therapy', J. Clin. Invest., 117, pp.11204-1212.
MedecineNet.com. Definition of T cell. Online. Available at: http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=11300
diseases in the world are suffered by all children. Babies and adults alike have to endure them at some or other point of their life. Furthermore, those whose immune systems are poor or weak have a greater tendency to contract diseases such as the common cold, infant diaper rash, earaches, stomach aches and diarrhea (American Academy of Pediatrics, 2015)
The common cold shows the following symptoms: a sore throat, runny nose, headache, and watery eyes. Up till now, no precise medication exists to 'cure' the common cold. Normally, this viral illness wanes by itself after a period of 5-6 days. However, in the event that symptoms continue for an unusually long time, the patient must stay alert, as severe cases of common cold may result in pneumonia, sinusitis, ear infection, asthma attack, and bronchitis (Justadd, 2015). A study indicates that several individuals suffer each winter from sinusitis, impacting…
ADAM. (2015). Earache. Medical Encyclopedia. Medline Plus. U.S. Medical Library. Retrieved from http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003046.htm
Alan, M., Lake, M.D.(1999). Chronic Abdominal Pain in Childhood: Diagnosis and Management. American Academy of Family Physicians. Retrieved from http://googleweblight.com/?lite_url=http://www.aafp.org/afp/1999/0401/p1823.html&ei=KmJxS8Wk&lc=en-IN&s=1&m=992&ts=1439382771&sig=APONPFkf1k48Ut_Q5SluR0akIscNP1e-gg
American Academy of Pediatrics. (2015). Overview of Infectious Diseases. USA. Retrieved from https://www.healthychildren.org/English/health-issues/conditions/infections/Pages/Overview-of-Infectious-Diseases.aspx
Benaroch, R. (2015).Your Baby's Diaper Rash. WebMD, LLC.
The Infectious Diseases Society of America or IDSA came out with guidelines on the treatment of the infection.
A multidisciplinary group, which prepared these guidelines, included infectious disease specialists, rheumatologists, neurologists, pediatricians, and entomologists. The guidelines primary apply to the disease strain acquired in the U.S. And do not tackle the diagnostic evaluation of the disease. They recommended oral and parenteral therapies according to a timetable. Doxycycline or amoxicillin, cefotaxime or penicillin would be prescribed. The guidelines warned against the use of first-generation cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, and benzathene penicillin.
Greater Recovery Among Children
Studies conducted on 177 children treated for Lyme neuroborreliosis in an endemic area in Sweden showed that 117 of them recovered complete in two months.
The children exhibited fatigue, facial nerve palsy, loss of appetite and fever as symptoms. Antibiotics were given to 69% of the children. At 2 months, 117 of them recovered completely. At 6…
Bransfield, Robert C. 2001. Lyme neuroborreliosis and aggression. Action Lyme. 21-23
(April).Available from http://actionlyme.50megs.com/neuroborreliosis%20aggression.htm
-. 2009. Lyme, depression and suicide. Canlyme. 18 (April). Available