Infectious Disease Essays (Examples)

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Infectious conditions in a pediatric patient

Words: 778 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95297378

Infectious Conditions in a Pediatric Patient

What will be your differential diagnoses for this patient?

Chickenpox

Measles

ubella

Scarlet fever

Erythema infectiosum (5th disease) -- human parvovirus

Exanthema subitum or oseola infantum

Non-polio entero-viruses (e.g., echovirus, coxsackievirus) (Long, 2016; de Graaf et al., 2016; Long, Pickering & Prober, 2012)

What specific physical exam findings support these differential diagnoses?

Chickenpox:

• Palmar redness

• Excoriating diaper-area rashes

Measles:

• Injected conjunctiva

• Excoriating diaper-area rashes

ubella:

• Excoriating diaper-area rashes

Scarlet fever:

• Magenta-colored lips

• Palmar redness

• Excoriating diaper-area rashes

Erythema infectiosum (5th disease) -- human parvovirus

• Excoriating diaper-area rashes

Exanthema subitum or oseola infantum

• Excoriating diaper-area rashes

Non-polio entero-viruses (e.g., echovirus, coxsackievirus):

• Excoriating diaper-area rashes

• ed macula

• Magenta-colored lips

• Palmar redness

Of the differential diagnoses you listed, which would be the most concerning?

Non-polio enteroviruses

What additional diagnostic tests will you recommend?…… [Read More]

References

de Graaf, H., Pelosi, E., Cooper, A., Pappachan, J., Sykes, K., MacIntosh, I.,. .. & Tebruegge, M. (2016). Severe enterovirus infections in hospitalized children in the South of England: clinical phenotypes and causative genotypes. The Pediatric infectious disease journal, 35(7), 723.

Long, S. S. (2016). Diagnosis and management of undifferentiated fever in children. Journal of Infection, 72, S68-S76.

Long, S. S., Pickering, L. K., & Prober, C. G. (2012). Principles and practice of pediatric infectious disease. Elsevier Health Sciences.

Thong, W. Y., Han, A., Wang, S. F., Lin, J., Isa, M. S., Koay, E. S. C., & Tay, S. K. H. (2017). Enterovirus infections in Singaporean children: an assessment of neurological manifestations and clinical outcomes. Singapore medical journal, 58(4), 189.
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Contagious Disease and Its Impact

Words: 1172 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85723854

, 2001). These two simple measures can drastically increase the subsequent spread of infectious disease throughout the country.

In Outbreak, the military institutes martial law to quarantine the infected populace in the town of Cedar Creek. Eventually, the military begins plans to bomb Cedar Creek in an attempt to eradicate the virus, which had thus far proven untenable. hile the concept of the United States government destroying a small town and murdering its populace is likely superlative Hollywood movie-making, the institution of martial law is a realistic and effective approach toward preventing further spread (Yassi et al., 2001).

In addition to the non-medical measures which can be taken to deal with the spread of an infectious agent, there are several medical actions which could be utilized to treat infected invididuals, including antivirals, antibiotics, or vaccines (Yassi et al., 2001). For example, antivirals and vaccines are both being utilized in an…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Cavendish, M. (2007). Diseases and Disorders (p. 328). Marshall Cavendish.

Groseth, A., Feldmann, H., & Strong, J.E. (2007). The ecology of Ebola virus. Trends in Microbiology, 15(9), 408-416. doi: 10.1016/j.tim.2007.08.001.

Petersen, W. (1995). Outbreak. Warner Bros. Pictures.

Preston, R. (2009). Panic in Level 4 (p. 230). Random House, Inc.
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Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

Words: 2543 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51889587

Pelvic inflammatoy disease, a citical poblem

Occuence o ecuence of pelvic inflammatoy disease o PID has been linked to STIs such as C. tachomatis o Neisseia gonohoeae. Patient education and simplified guidelines ae needed to develop accuate diagnosis. In ode fo changes to take place, moe eseach must be done to undestand the complex natue of the disease and the most effective and cost effective method of teatment.

This pape delves into the isk factos, diagnosis pocesses, teatment, elevant psychological issues, public health implications, patient and family education, and appopiate efeal to specialty by eviewing liteatue petinent to PID. The esults of the liteatue eview show vey little in the past was done in egads to eseaching symptoms of PID and teatment efficacy. New eseach shows lowe abdominal pain as a main indicato of PID as well as C. tachomatis o Neisseia gonohoeae. The data also elaboates on the isks…… [Read More]

references for fertility in women with pelvic inflammatory disease. Fertility and Sterility, 81(5), 1344-1350.

Sweet, R.L. (2011). Treatment of Acute Pelvic Inftammatory Disease. Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology, 2011(561909), 1-13.

Tepper, N.K., Steenland, M.W., Gaffield, M.E., Marchbanks, P.A., & Curtis, K.M. (2013). Retention of intrauterine devices in women who acquire pelvic inflammatory disease: a systematic review. Contraception, 5(87), 655-60. Retrieved from  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23040135
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Typhoid Fever Disease Is a Global Health

Words: 1926 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98897703

Typhoid fever disease is a global health phenomena or problem with approximately 20 million incidents and 700,000 adult deaths every year. Notably, a huge portion of these cases and deaths occur in developing countries, especially in South East Asia and Indian subcontinent. While the infection was traditionally treated with ampicillin, chloramphenicol, and trimethoprimsulfamethoxazole, serious public health program has emerged in the past decades because of the widespread emergence of antibiotic resistant Salmonella typhi or S.typhi. Moreover, typhoid fever disease caused by MD organisms can also be considered as a significant public health and therapeutic issue. This is primarily because there are a huge number of cases of MD typhoid fever that occur in childhood and are coupled with considerably high mortality and morbidity rates. Since the disease has developed to become a significant public health issue in the past few decades, it's important to conduct a research about it and…… [Read More]

References:

Arjunan, M. & Al-Salamah, A.A. (2010, April 29). Typhoid Fever with Severe Abdominal Pain:

Diagnosis and Clinical Findings using Abdomen Ultrasonogram, Hermatology-cell Analysis and the Widal Test. Journal of Infections in Developing Countries, 4(9), 593-596. Retrieved from http://jidc.org/index.php/journal/article/download/1010/445

Hammad et al. (2011). Ceftriaxone vs. Chloramphenicol for Treatment of Acute Typhoid

Fever. Life Science Journal, 8(2), 100-105. Retrieved from  http://www.lifesciencesite.com/lsj/life0802/14_4757life0802_100_105.pdf
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Communicable Disease

Words: 1456 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85009674

Communicable Disease: Influenza

Description of the Disease

Influenza or "the flu" is a common illness in the winter months, all throughout the United States and many other countries. Both birds and all mammals can contract influenza (Brankston, et al., 2007). In recent years there have been scares regarding "bird flu" and "swine flu," both of which are simply different strains of influenza. The cause of the flu is an NA virus in the family Orthomyxoviridae (Eccles, 2005). Once people contract the flu, they present with common symptoms such as chills, fever, a runny nose, muscle pains, a sore throat, and a headache. The headache is quite often severe, and flu sufferers may also have weakness, fatigue, severe bouts of coughing, and a general feeling of overall discomfort. People with the flu can also become nauseated and vomit, although that is more typical in children and not nearly as common in…… [Read More]

References

Ballinger, M.N. & Standiford, T.J. (2010). Postinfluenza bacterial pneumonia: Host defenses gone awry. Journal of Interferon Cytokine Research, 30(9): 643 -- 52.

Brankston, G., Gitterman, L., Hirji, Z., Lemieux, C., & Gardam, M. (2007). Transmission of influenza A in human beings. Lancet Infectious Diseases, 7(4): 257 -- 65.

Eccles, R. (2005). Understanding the symptoms of the common cold and influenza. Lancet Infectious Diseases, 5(11): 718 -- 25.

Harper, S.A., Fukuda, K., Uyeki, T.M., Cox, N.J., & Bridges, C.B. (2005). Prevention and control of influenza. Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR Recommendation Report, 54(RR -- 8): 1 -- 40.
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Communicable Disease Measles Although Measles Has Been

Words: 1450 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84094096

Communicable Disease: Measles

Although measles has been almost completely eradicated from the Americas, dozens of cases still occur each year in the United States due in large part to transmissions of the disease from travelers returning from abroad. Because it is highly contagious, outbreaks of measles must be addressed as quickly as possible. This paper provides a review of the relevant peer-reviewed and scholarly literature to describe a communicable disease outbreak of measles, and the epidemiological indicators associated with the disease. An analysis of the epidemiological data on the outbreak is followed by a discussion of the route of transmission of the disease causing the outbreak and how the attack could affect the community. Finally, an explanation concerning the appropriate protocol for reporting a possible outbreak is followed by an assessment of a community health nurse's role in modifying care of patients with asthma and other respiratory diseases when the…… [Read More]

References

Diekmann, O., Heesterbeek, H. & Britton, T. (2013). Mathematical tools for understanding infectious diseases dynamics. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Johnson, T.D. (2011, September). Measles cases abroad linked to increase of disease in U.S. The

Nation's Health, 41(7), 1-3.

Knorr, R.S., Condon, S.K. Dwyer, F.M. & Hoffman, D.F. (2004, October). Tracking pediatric asthma: The Massachusetts experience using school health records. Environmental Health Perspectives, 112(14), 1424-1427.
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Preventing Disease

Words: 757 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16905925

Health Map

The risk of a pandemic disease spreading throughout the globe is higher than it has ever been in the history of the world. The massive population boom and rapid travel methods have combined to demonstrate that germs and diseases are potential weapons against the health and welfare of the population. To help remedy this cause, technology has shown us that, with its proper implementation, it can have a great benefit to those who are designated to protect the population from such threats.

The purpose of this essay is to highlight the importance of surveillance in the fight against such communicable disease outbreaks. To accomplish this task, this essay will detail the benefits and limitations of the surveillance system HealthMap. This essay will discuss how this particular piece of technology contributes to minimizing and eliminating potential threats.

HealthMap

The HealthMap system is recognized by the Centers for Disease Control…… [Read More]

References

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (nd). Appendix D; The HealthMap System. Viewed 17 Mar 2014. Retrieved from http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/yellowbook/2014/appendices/appendix-d-the-healthmap-system

HealthMap.org. Viewed 17 Mar 2014. Retrieved from http://healthmap.org/en/

Schlipkoter U, Flahault A. Communicable diseases: achievements and challenges for public health. Public Health Reviews 2010;32:90-119. Retrieved from  http://www.publichealthreviews.eu/show/f/33
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West Nile Virus Emerging Infectious

Words: 877 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72327041



Worldwide, the distribution pattern of WNV is mainly found in the northern, eastern and southern regions of Africa, parts of Eastern Europe, Central Asia, and South Asia. On a global scale, mortality rate of diseases caused by WNV human infection could range from 2.4% to as high as 47% (Bourne, 2011). In the United States, CDC reports its latest (2011) data showing that there have been a total of 432 WNV infections reported as of October 2011. Sixty-seven percent of this reported human infections are neuroinvasive cases (encephalitis / meningitis), while about 5% resulted to death. Across states, California has the most number of cases of WNV human infection at 87 cases (20%), followed by Mississippi as far second (46 cases, or 11% of total reported cases). The prevalence of WNV human infection in these states reflects the virus' characteristic as thriving in tropical / temperate regions. CDC has not…… [Read More]

References

Bourne, D. (2011). "West Nile Virus Disease." Available at: http://usgs.wildlifeinformation.org/List_Vols/westnile/Disease_WNVInfection/04WNVMortality.html

"Epidemic/Epizootic West Nile Virus in the United States: Guidelines for Surveillance, Prevention and Control." (2003). Center for Disease Control (CDC) Website. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvbid/westnile/resources/wnv-guidelines-aug-2003.pdf#page=47

Mostashari, F., Bunning, M. And Kitsutani, P. (1999). "Epidemic West Nile Encephalitis: Results of a household-based seroseroepidemiological survey." In Lancet 2001; 358. Center for Disease Control Website. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvbid/westnile/surv&controlCaseCount11_detailed.htm
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Communicable Disease Epidemiology Has Been

Words: 2112 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97185279

Using condoms is also an excellent prevention activity that can also be used (Primary and Secondary HIV Prevention, 2008).

Potential obstacles to HIV prevention activities taking place in clinical settings often include:

narrow formations of medical care and the role of physicians or health care providers in HIV prevention, a provider's discomfort with discussing human sexuality and illicit drug use and their attitudes towards persons with HIV or AIDS along with constraints on time and resources, and the vagueness of HIV prevention messages (Primary and Secondary HIV Prevention, 2008).

The very nature of HIV transmission involves behaviors that are not readily discussed in American society. It is important for health care providers to become comfortable discussing sexual and substance-use activities with their patients. They need to create an environment of trust for patients so their risk behaviors can be discussed. It is important to assure the patient of the confidential…… [Read More]

References

ABCs of Aids Prevention - Presentation Transcript. (2009). Retrieved September 3, 2009, from Slideshare Web site:  http://www.slideshare.net/drsujnanendra/ab-cs-of-aids-prevention 

CDC Responds to HIV / AIDS. (2009). Retrieved from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Web site: http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/aboutDHAP.htm

HIV / AIDS. (2009). Retrieved September 4, 2009, from MayClinic Web site:
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Detection of the Borna Disease Virus Relating

Words: 6358 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80489172

detection of the Borna disease virus relating them to the epidemiology.

The first cases of Borna disease were descried in the 17-19th century in Southern Germany. It was discovered to e a fatal disease affecting the neurological systems of horses and sheep, (Ludwig et al., 1985; Durrwald, 1993) causing ehavioral and neurological symptoms. It was proven to e caused y a 2003]

Today it is eing realized that the scope of the disease is not limited to just a few countries as was previously elieved ut encompassed the world. Also it was realized that far from affecting just horses and sheep as was originally thought virus, the Borna Disease Virus (BDV) in the early 1900's y Zwick and his team in Giessen Germany. [Author not availale, it in fact affected other animals and even human eings.[Staeheli, Sauder; Schwemmle, et al., 2000]

Research into the epidemiology and pathogenesis of the BDV…… [Read More]

bibliography. Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series B. 44, 147-184.

3.Staeheli, P., Sauder, C. Schwemmle, M. et al.,[2000]. Epidemiology of Borna disease virus, J Gen Virol 81: 2123-2135

4.Author not available, [2003] Diagnostic Methods In Virology, accessed at  http://virology-online.com/general/Tests.htm 

5. Nakamura, K., Takahashi, H., Shoya, Y., Nakaya, T., Watanabe, M., Tomonaga, K., Iwahashi, K., Ameno, K., Momiyama, N., Taniyama, H., Sata, T., Kurata, T., de la Torre, J.C. & Ikuta, K. [2000]. Isolation of Borna disease virus from human brain. Journal of Virology 74, 4601-4611.

6. Zimmermann, W., Durrwald, R. & Ludwig, H. (1994). Detection of Borna disease virus RNA in naturally infected animals by a nested polymerase chain reaction. Journal of Virological Methods 46, 133-143
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Sexually Transmitted Disease Chlamydia a Disease That

Words: 1048 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 198407

Sexually transmitted disease [...] Chlamydia, a disease that can lead to female infertility if not treated, and as a health care worker how would you approach the problem. Chlamydia is a very common sexually transmitted disease (STD) that can lead to many problems, including pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) which is a leading cause of infertility in women, and it is caused by sexually transmitted diseases such as gonorrhea or Chlamydia. Chlamydia is treatable, but it is hard to detect, and so sometimes goes untreated and leads to much more serious health concerns. Chlamydia is also one of the biggest health issues in STDs, because so many people get it each year, and so many people do not know they have it.

Chlamydia is a sexually transmitted disease that causes inflammation and adhesions in the vagina. It can be detected with a penile swab or a urine sample, and it is…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Author not Available. "An Introduction to Sexually Transmitted Infections." National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.org. July 1999. 25 July 2005.

< http://www.niaid.nih.gov/factsheets/stdinfo.htm

Nordenberg, Tamar. "Chlamydia's Quick Cure." FDA Consumer July 1999: 24.

Tomlins, Jacqueline. The Infertility Handbook: A Guide to Making Babies. Crows Nest, N.S.W.: Allen & Unwin, 2003.
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Health and Disease in Russia

Words: 1020 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10891412

Between 1995-2002, 99% of all births in ussia were attended by skilled health personnel, while the number of physicians per 100,000 people was 420 between 1990-2003, and the number of people with sustainable access to affordable essential drugs in 1999 was between 50-79% (http://hdr.undp.org/statistics/data/cty/cty_f_US.html)."

Nutrition, Water and Smoking

The United Nations reports that in 2000, 99% of ussia's population had "sustainable access to an improved water source. Between 1999-2001, 4% of the population was undernourished, while between 1995-2002 of all children under the age of 5, 3% were underweight and 13% were under height for their age group. From 1998-2002, 6% of all infants in ussia were born with low birth weight (http://hdr.undp.org/statistics/data/cty/cty_f_US.html)."

One of the leading, preventable health risks is smoking.

In 2000, 10% of all adult ussian women smoked, compared to 63% of all adult men (http://hdr.undp.org/statistics/data/cty/cty_f_US.html)." This illustrates why men may be more likely to suffer from…… [Read More]

References

Lokshin, Michael M. And Ruslan Yemtsov. (26 February, 2001). "Household Strategies for Coping with Poverty and Social Exclusion in Post-Crisis Russia." The World Bank

Group. (accessed 28 February 2005). http://econ.worldbank.org/working_papers/1417/).

UN Development Programme. (accessed 28 February 2005). http://hdr.undp.org/statistics/data/cty/cty_f_RUS.html).

WHO. (accessed 28 February 2005).  http://www.who.int/countries/rus/en/ ).
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Pathogens and Diseases Pathogens Are Common Characteristics

Words: 1909 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65625701

Pathogens and Diseases:

Pathogens are common characteristics of everyday environment as soil contains huge number of bacteria per cubic centimeter while air contains fungal spores. The existence of pathogens in everyday environment emanates from the fact that microorganisms are deposited through touching of various surfaces like tables. Pathogens can be described as disease-causing agents such as infectious microbes, and parasites. While the infectious microbes include viruses and bacteria, parasites include protozoa and fungi. Notably, microbes are only considered as pathogens if they cause harm or diseases since not all microbes are harmful (Koo, 2009). There are opportunistic pathogens, which are organisms that are normally part of the natural flora of the body. These organisms become harmful or pathogens after an invasion like the occurrence of an accidental injury or surgery.

Spread of Pathogens:

Since pathogens are common disease-causing agents, they spread in various ways to cause harm or illnesses. Some…… [Read More]

References:

ABPI -- Bringing Medicines to Life (n.d.), How Pathogens Cause Disease, The Association of the British Pharmaceutical Industry, viewed 17 April 2012,

ABPI -- Bringing Medicines to Life (n.d.), Pathogens Cause Disease, The Association of the British Pharmaceutical Industry, viewed 17 April 2012,

Canadian Committee on Antibiotic Resistance (2007), Infection Prevention and Control Best

Practices, Canadian Committee on Antibiotic Resistance, viewed 17 April 2012,
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Herpes An Insidious Disease of Modern Times

Words: 3406 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37785685

Herpes: An Insidious Disease of Modern Times

Herpes is considered one of the most insidious and pervasive viral diseases to affect the world population today. Conservative studies suggest that as many as 39% of men and nearly 1/2 of all women are expected to contract herpes in the U.S. alone by the year 2025 (Wetstein, 2002). Already nearly 1 in 5 people will have some form of herpes by the time they reach adolescence or early adulthood (Herpes, 2004).

In light of such dire statistics and information, it is important to examine the disease and its implications for the future. esearchers and scientists are working diligently to uncover new avenues for treatment of this incurable disease, and studies are underway for uncovering potential and promising vaccines to halt the spread of this increasingly common problem affecting millions.

There are many different forms of therapy that have been introduced in recent…… [Read More]

References

ASHA. "National Herpes Resource Center." (2001). American Social Health

Association. 27, October 2004, http://www.ashastd.org/hrc/index.html

CDC. "Epstein Barr Virus." (October 26, 2002). National Center for Infectious Diseases.

28, October 2004, http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/diseases/ebv.htm
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Sexual Transmitted Disease

Words: 1837 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78834875

STDs: A MAJO CONTEMPOAY PUBLIC HEALTH CONCEN

Sexually Transmitted Diseases

Given the advances in medicine and public health over the past several decades, most people might assume that the incidence and prevalence of sexually-transmitted diseases (STDs) is declining; however, the scientific evidence suggests otherwise. ecent estimates from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in the United States suggest that 20 million new STD infections occur every year and cost the U.S. health care system close to $16 billion dollars annually (CDC, 2013). This is up from 12 million STD infections and $10 billion dollars annually during the mid-1990s (Zenilman, 2004). In 2011, reports of chlamydia incidence set another annual record, double from what it was just 10 years ago (CDC, 2011). To better understand the health threats facing Americans when they engage in sexual activity this report will review what is known about the most common STDs infecting…… [Read More]

References

CDC. (2013). CDC Fact Sheet: Incidence, prevalence, and cost of sexually transmitted infections in the United States. Retrieved from:  http://www.cdc.gov/std/stats/STI-Estimates-Fact-Sheet-Feb-2013.pdf .

CDC. (2011). Sexually Transmitted Disease Surveillance, 2011. Altlanta, GA: Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved from:  http://www.cdc.gov/std/stats11/Surv2011.pdf .

Dyck, E.V., Meheus, A.Z., & Piot, P. (1999). Laboratory Diagnosis of Sexually Transmitted Diseases. Geneva: World Health Organization.

Katz, A.R., Lee, M.V.C., & Wasserman, G.M. (2012). Sexually transmitted disease (STD) update: A review of the CDC 2010 STD treatment guidelines and epidemiologic trends of common STDs in Hawai'i. Hawai'I Journal of Medicine & Public Health, 71(3), 68-73.
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Pelvic Inflammatory Disease Pelvic Inflammation

Words: 994 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8358589

There are no diagnostic procedures that can specifically identify PID. However physicians rely on a number of symptoms that can be correlated in the diagnosis of PID. Diagnosis will begin with the physical examination of the abdomen. lood test is undertaken and in general there is an observed increase in the white blood cells. Around 50% of patients with PID have WC level greater than 10,000 and high ESR (erythrocyte sedimentation rate).[

Stephanie Abbuhl] DNA testing, fluorescent antibody testing and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay tests can be used on cervical samples to identify the possibility of Chlamydial PID, while cervical samples collected on a medium of Thayer-Martin agar is used to identify gonorrheal infections. Ultrasound and laparoscopy tests are also indicated as they reveal inflammations and pelvic abscesses. However it is not possible to sufficiently examine the fallopian tube using laparoscopy hence diagnosis is not all that straight forward when the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, "Pelvic Inflammatory Disease," Accessed on Nov 27th 2004, http://www.niaid.nih.gov/factsheets/stdpid.htm

Stephanie Abbuhl, "Pelvic Inflammatory Disease," Accessed on Nov 27th 2004, http://www.emedicine.com/EMERG/topic410.htm

3) Zandt, Shirley Van, "Pelvic Pain in Women," Clinical Reviews, 9/1/2000

4) Famolare, Nancy E. "Teaching and communication strategies: working with the hospitalized adolescent with pelvic inflammatory disease,"
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Addressing Childhood Communicable Disease

Words: 766 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93735020

Intra-Health International

One of the tope 10 global health issues identified by Intra-Health International in 2013 is: Helping even more children to live longer. According to the 2012 UNICEF report,

Committing to Child Survival: A Promise enewed, the number of child deaths has decreased in many countries across the globe ("Intra-Health," 2013). Indeed, child mortality rates have decreased nearly 50% from a 1990 figure of 12 million under-five deaths to a 2011 figure of 6.9 million. In absolute terms, if the child mortality rate could be reduced to just 20 child deaths per 1,000 live births in every country by 2035, a minimum of 45 million children saved ("Intra-Health," 2013). ecommendations from the Child Survival Call to Action hosted by USAID point to the need for better and more systematic collection of health sector data, as well as better implementation of high-impact interventions to tackle the major causes of newborn…… [Read More]

References

Mitku, K., Bedada, T., Masresha, B., Wenemagegn, K., Nafo-Traore, F., Tesfaye, N., and Beyene, B. (2011). The epidemiology of rubella disease in Ethiopia: Data from the measles case-based surveillance system. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 204(1), S239-S242. DOI: 10.1093/infdis/jir120. Retreived from  http://jid.oxfordjournals.org/content/204/suppl_1/S239.full.pdf+html 

____. (2013, January 15). The top 10 global health issues to watch in 2013. Intra-Health International. Retrieved from  http://www.intrahealth.org/page/the-top-10-global-health-issues-to-watch-in-2013
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Sexually Transmitted Diseases and how Automated disease diagnosis and monitoring can help

Words: 1916 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92302594

From the Communicable Disease Prevention and Control Act (Section 27), venereal diseases refer to ailments like gonorrhoea, granuloma, chlamydia, chancroid, syphilis, lymphopathia venereum and inguinale (Public Health Law Research, 2014). Established by the California Department of Public Health (CDPH), the California Regulations and Reportable Disease Information Exchange refer to a safe system used for automated disease diagnosis and monitoring. A number of certain conditions and diseases are authorized by State regulations and rules to be stated by laboratories and healthcare providers to the state healthcare agencies. The mission CPDH pursues is the enhancement of the efficacy of surveillance exercises as well as the quick identification of health occurrences amid public via the gathering of timely and up-to-date surveillance information across the State. This provides a platform for reporting as well as collection of health conditions in real time throughout the year. CPDHs and LHDs (or Local Health Departments) are both…… [Read More]

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Alcoholism as a Disease Throughout

Words: 1556 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15817776

The research results will demonstrate that alcoholism is a disease and support this notion with overwhelming evidence.

Conclusion

In short, alcoholism is a major problem for all countries across the world. Alcoholism destroys lives and tears many families apart. The purpose of this argumentative research paper is to demonstrate with supporting evidence that alcoholism is a disease and not a social stigma.

orks Cited

Foroud Tatiana, Howard J. Edenberg, and John C. Crabbe. "Genetic research: who is at risk for alcoholism?." Alcohol Research & Health 33.1/2 (2010): 64-75. Academic Search Complete. EBSCO. eb. 9 June 2011.

Organization, orld Health. "Society should focus on reducing the negative impacts of alcohol." Alcohol. Ed. Andrea C. Nakaya. Detroit: Greenhaven Press, 2008. Opposing Viewpoints. Gale Opposing Viewpoints In Context. eb. 10 June 2011.

"Survey:…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Foroud Tatiana, Howard J. Edenberg, and John C. Crabbe. "Genetic research: who is at risk for alcoholism?." Alcohol Research & Health 33.1/2 (2010): 64-75. Academic Search Complete. EBSCO. Web. 9 June 2011.

Organization, World Health. "Society should focus on reducing the negative impacts of alcohol." Alcohol. Ed. Andrea C. Nakaya. Detroit: Greenhaven Press, 2008. Opposing Viewpoints. Gale Opposing Viewpoints In Context. Web. 10 June 2011.

"Survey: people still unsure whether alcoholism is disease or moral weakness." Alcoholism & Drug Abuse Weekly 17.40 (2005): 1-5. Health Source: Nursing/Academic Edition. EBSCO. Web. 9 June 2011.
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Individual With a Communicable Disease That Is

Words: 1417 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68800986

individual with a communicable disease that is a disability is other wise qualified for the job?

Individuals with disease can be judged for qualifications in the same way as any other individual applying for a job. Communicable or infectious diseases are considered to constitute a disability when the disease is impairing to such a degree that it "limits one or more major life activities" (Human Resources UNC). In these cases, individuals with communicable disease should be treated like any other disability. When judging whether a disabled individual is qualified for a job, it must be determined if they can perform the specific job with reasonable accomodations. If a communicable disease does not result in disability, then the individual should be judged as a nondisabled person. Additionally, law generally "permits an employer to fail to hire, transfer, promote, or to discharge a disabled person if the person has a communicable disease…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Choose Charity. "How to Run a Business Without Hiding Your Faith." http://choosecharity.org/titlevii_information.htm#_edn1

Cohen, Michael. "As Freely As Everyone Else" Human Rights Campaign. http://www.hrc.org/Template.cfm?Section=Home& CONTENTID=25218& TEMPLATE=/ContentManagement/ContentDisplay.cfm

Human Resources UNC. "Summary of Applicable Laws and Policy Guidelines." Human Resources University of North Carolina. http://hr.unc.edu/Data/SPA/employeerelations/summary-of-laws

Rochelle, Dudley. "Ten Tips for Employers to Avoid Religious Discrimination" Marketplace Leaders. http://marketplaceleaders.org/articles_view.asp?articleid=5623& columnid=743
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Health Transitions More Disease or Sustained Health

Words: 6545 Length: 24 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90103490

There are no deductibles and no user fees nor limits to contributions on the plan. There are also no restrictions on services to be used and no premiums to pay for basic care coverage other than taxes, a far cry from the high deductibles, co-pays and other fees associated with health care in the United States.

Key to this point is the idea that Canadian health care costs less because a large portion of it is publicly financed. The author's note that since Canada adopted their universal healthcare system the Canadian Health Act has implemented a policy of public administration which keeps the cost of health care spending lower and maintains the government's ability to provide health care services to the entire population. The authors argue that public administration is a more optimal choice for keeping health care expenditures down because administration is inexpensive.

U.S. hospitals keep more details of…… [Read More]

References

Armstrong, Hugh; Armstrong, Pat; Fegan, P. (1998). "The Best Solution: Questions and Answers on the Canadian Health Care System." Washington Monthly, Vol. 30, Issue 6, p. 8

Clark, Cal & Mceldowney, Rene. (2000). "The Performance of National Health Care Systems: A "Good News, Bad News" Finding for Reform Possibilities." Policy Studies Review, Vol. 17, Issue 4, p. 133

Grubaugh, S.G. & Santerre, R.E. (1994). "Comparing the Performance of Health Care Systems: An Alternative Approach." Southern Economic Journal, Vol. 60, Issue 4, p. 1030

Martens, Pim. (200). "Health Transitions in a Globalising World: Towards More Disease or Sustained Health?" Futures, Vol. 34, Issue 7, p. 635+
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Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus MRSA and Lyme Disease

Words: 1981 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45596926

Lyme Disease and Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA)

Introduction

This text will concern itself with Lyme disease and methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). In so doing, it will not only give the description and epidemiology of the concerns, but also the etiology and prevention strategies. Further, diagnosis as well as treatment options and prognosis will be highlighted.

1. Lyme Disease

Description and Etiology

Described as an illness that is often debilitating, Lyme disease, as the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention- CDC (2018) points out, “is caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi and is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected blacklegged ticks.” It is important to note that in addition to the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi, blacklegged ticks are capable of transmitting what are commonly referred to as coinfections, i.e. a variety of other disease-causing parasites as well as viruses and bacteria. Those living in wooded areas have a high likelihood…… [Read More]

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Lyme Disease and Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

Words: 2271 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88656588

What the Tick? Tick Born Diseases in America

Introduction

Part predator, part parasite, the tick is considered by many as America’s most harmful bug. Living in humid and overgrown areas, these critters make rural America more prone to acquiring the various diseases these ticks carry. From Lyme disease to Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, ticks are the proliferators of zoonotic diseases in North America (Edlow, 2004). These diseases do not have vaccines and are difficult to manage once the person is infected. This essay will cover tick-borne diseases, why they became such a major issue in recent times, existing treatment for the infections, and predictions of epidemics.

Background

There are 20+ tick borne diseases in the U.S.A. Of the most reported, Lyme disease infects an estimated 300,000 people annually (National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, Health and Medicine Division, Board on Global Health, Forum on Microbial Threats, 2016). In fact,…… [Read More]

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Combating the Infectious Balamuthia Mandrillaris Ameba

Words: 1580 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20163869

California Encephalitis

Although relatively rare, California encephalitis (CE) can be a highly lethal disease that is caused by the Balamuthia mandrillaris ameba. In fact, of the 10 cases of CE reported to the California Encephalitis Project during the period from 1999 through 2007, all but one patient died. Today, though, the majority of victims of CE survive the condition, but a significant percentage (about 20%) experience long-term complications as a result. To determine the facts about this potentially deadly human pathogen, this paper reviews the literature to provide the history of CE including its first outbreak, how the disease is transmitted, and the epidemiology of CE. In addition, a discussion concerning the search for a vaccine for CE is followed by description of the treatments and public health considerations of CE. Finally, an examination of the concern CE has for public health is followed by a summary of the research…… [Read More]

References

Anderson, J. R. & Schneider, J. R. (2005, April). Quantitative genetics of vector competence for la Crosse virus and body size in Ochlerotatus Hendersoni and Ochlerotatus Triseriatus interspecific hybrids. Genetics, 169(4), 1529-1532.

Balamuthia Amebic Encephalitis -- California, 1999 -- 2007. (2015). U.S. Centers for Disease Control. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5728a2.htm.

California encephalitis. (2015). Right Diagnosis. Retrieved from http://www.right diagnosis.com/c/california_encephalitis/intro.htm.

California serogroup - pathogen safety data sheet. (2015). Public Health Agency of Canada. Retrieved from http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/lab-bio/res/psds-ftss/msds27e-eng.php.
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The Ethics of Controlling Disease Spread

Words: 1071 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96833020

Medical Ethics

Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Contact Tracing

MG is a 27-year-old graduate student, recently married, who comes into the student health clinic for a routine pelvic exam and Pap smear. During the course of the exam, the gynecology resident performing the exam obtains the Pap smear, but also obtains cervical cultures for gonorrhea and chlamydia. The examination concludes uneventfully. Several weeks later, MG receives a postcard indicating that the Pap smear was normal, with no evidence of dysplasia, but that the cervical culture for gonorrhea was positive. The card instructs her to come into the clinic to discuss treatment, and that "public health authorities" have been notified for contact tracing, which refers to the identification and diagnosis of sexual partners, as required by law. The young woman is terrified that her husband will be contacted. Is contact tracing ethically justified?

While it is definitely not a good thing that…… [Read More]

References

Amir-Singh, J., Upshur, R., & Padayatchi, N. (2007). XDR-TB in South Africa: No Time for Denial or Complacency. Plos Med, 4(1), e50. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.0040050

Armbruster, B., & Brandea, M. (2007). Contact tracing to control infectious disease: when enough is enough. Health Care Management Science, 10(4), 341. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3428220/

Boskey, E. (2016). Contact tracing really is an important thing to participate in.. About.com Health. Retrieved 20 March 2016, from http://std.about.com/od/prevention/f/contacttracing.htm

McKay, B. (2016). Dangerous TB Patient Detained on U.S. Border. WSJ. Retrieved 20 March 2016, from http://www.wsj.com/articles/SB10001424127887323978104578332461533970412
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Foodborne Illness Foodborne Diseases and

Words: 1547 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84939334

(De Leon, 2010)

Finally, in recent years there has been a call for more stringent regulatory measured to be put in place in order to prevent this category of disease. Many experts refer to outdated laws and policies that are not successful in detecting and prevent problems along the entire food production process (Jessen). They also refer to restricted and inadequate legal tools to check the spread of the diseases. There is therefore a need not only to update present legislation but also for organizations and individuals to be become more aware of the need to prevent this type of disease from occurring.

eferences

De Leon D. ( 2010) Start at the Store: 7 Ways to Prevent Foodborne Illness. etrieved from http://www.foodsafety.gov/blog/7ways.html

Definition of Foodborne disease. etrieved from http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=25399Focus on Epidemiology. Houston Health (2001). etrieved from http://www.houstontx.gov/health/HoustonHealth/winter01.pdf

Foodborne diseases take heavy toll on public health. etrieved from http://www.google.co.za/url?sa=t&source=web&cd=18&ved=0CDgQFjAHOAo&url=http%3A%2F%2Fbioniche.com%2Fnewsroom_factsheet.cfm&ei=SJ7ITMX1LdDCswako7iPDg&usg=AFQjCNESQAvUohGiQZZN1L1TCFwwl-DYQ&sig2=bnOdvFEDnTPpuZO8D2blQ

Foodborne Illness.…… [Read More]

References

De Leon D. ( 2010) Start at the Store: 7 Ways to Prevent Foodborne Illness. Retrieved from http://www.foodsafety.gov/blog/7ways.html

Definition of Foodborne disease. Retrieved from http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=25399Focus on Epidemiology. Houston Health (2001). Retrieved from  http://www.houstontx.gov/health/HoustonHealth/winter01.pdf 

Foodborne diseases take heavy toll on public health. Retrieved from http://www.google.co.za/url?sa=t&source=web&cd=18&ved=0CDgQFjAHOAo&url=http%3A%2F%2Fbioniche.com%2Fnewsroom_factsheet.cfm&ei=SJ7ITMX1LdDCswako7iPDg&usg=AFQjCNESQAvUohGiQZZN1L1TCRFwwl-DYQ&sig2=bnOdvFERDnTPpuZO8D2blQ

Foodborne Illness. Retrieved from http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/foodborneillness.html
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Parkinson's Disease Family and Cultural

Words: 1214 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5499037

" (Fleming et al., 1994)

B. Genetic Factors

hile environmental factors are shown to increase the risk of developing Parkinson's disease there are also specific mutations linked to the development of PD in certain populations. For example it is reported that a study conducted on Parkinson's Disease and hereditary genetic risks of developing this disease states findings that researchers in the study "...found that ethnic Chinese individuals carrying a mutation they indentified in the LRRK2 gene are over two times more likely to develop the disease than non-carriers." (Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL, 2004) the study was conducted at Mayo Clinic in 2004. The research team not only discovered the LRRK2 gene and the role it plays in Parkinson's disease but as well discovered "...a number of mutations in LRRK2 a gene that codes for poorly understood protein, leucine-rich repeat kinase." (Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL, 2004)

One of the mutations 'G209S…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Wood-Kaczmar, a., Gandhi, S. And Wood, NW (2006) Understanding the molecular causes of Parkinson's disease Trends Mol Med. 2006 Nov;12(11):521-8. Epub 2006 Oct 5. Links

Understanding the molecular causes of Parkinson's disease.

Priyadarshi, a., Khuder, SA, Schaub, EA and Priyadarshi, SS (2001) Environmental risk factors and Parkinson's disease: a metaanalysis. Environe Res. 2001 Jun; 86(2):122-7.

How yeast is helping us to understand Parkinson's Disease (2009) Psysorg 27 Feb 2009. Online available at http://www.physorg.com/news154950981.html
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Knowing More About Alcoholic Liver Disease

Words: 1658 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32626090

Alcoholic Liver Disease

CAUSES AND IMPACT

Causes, Incidence, Risk Factors, Impact

Alcohol use has been linked with liver disease mortality and increased social and economic costs (NCI, 2014; ruha et al., 2009). Most recent statistics say that disorders in alcohol consumption afflict millions of people worldwide. The incidence has been increasing along with increasing alcohol consumption. Alcohol liver disease takes the form of acute alcoholic hepatitis and chronic liver disease, such as steatosis, steatohepatitis, fibrosis and cirrhosis. Seriousness and prognosis depend on the amount consumed, the pattern of drinking and the length of time of consumption, the presence of liver inflammation, diet and nutritional and genetic disposition. While steatosis is virtually benign, morbidity and mortality are both high in liver cirrhosis. Survival rate for advanced cirrhosis is 1 to 2 years and 50% mortality risk for those with severe acute alcoholic hepatitis have as much as 50% mortality (NCI, 2014).…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Bruha, R., et al. (2009). Alcoholic liver disease. Vol. 110 # 3m Prague Medical Report:

PubMed Central. Retrieved on April 6, 2014 from  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19655694 

EASL (2012). EASL clinical practical guidelines: management of alcoholic liver disease. Vol. 51 # 1, Journal of Hepatology: European Association for the Study of the liver. Retrieved on April 6, 2014 from http://www.easl.eu/assets/application/files/5e1b5512fb2cabb_file.pdf

Frazier, T.H. (2011). Treatment of alcoholic liver disease. Vol. 4 # 1, Therapeutic
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Prions Proteinaceous Infectious Particles Recent Cases of

Words: 2056 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79151408

Prions:

Proteinaceous Infectious Particles"

Recent cases of Mad Cow Disease have focused the public attention on prion diseases and the small proteins that are believed to cause them. The scientific community has been slow to recognize this mechanism of disease, since prion-caused encephalopathies can demonstrate diverse symptoms, and share characteristics with other disorders, such as dementia.

Prions, as the acronym (Proteinaceous Infectious Particles) suggests, are small proteins that are typically expressed in brain tissue, and may exist in a normal or abnormal shape. The prion protein is encoded by a gene found on the human chromosome 20. Usually, the prion protein is translated in neural tissue, folds into its normal conformation, carries out its cellular role, and is eventually degraded by enzymes. The abnormal prion, however, folds differently from its normal counterpart. This different shape makes it more difficult to degrade, and leads to the brain damage that is seen…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Inherited prion disease. (n.d.). Retrieved April 21, 2004, at http://www.st- marys.nhs.uk/specialist/prion/factsheets/inheritedpd.htm

Kightly, R. (n.d.). Prion replication and spread at the cellular level. Retrieved April

21, 2004, from Mad Cow Disease Images & BSE Pictures

Web site:  http://www.rkm.com.au/BSE/index.html
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Physiological Effects of Hodgkin's Disease in This

Words: 1599 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71218996

Physiological Effects of Hodgkin's Disease

In this paper I shall give an overview of Hodgkin's disease while focusing on its physiological effects. Specifically, the paper consists of an overview of the disease, describes how the disease affects the body cells and tissues, and how the treatment attacks the disease and affects the body, besides reviewing the treatments available.

Hodgkin's disease is one of the two (and less severe) types of cancer of the lymphatic system; the other type being non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The disease is named after the British physician, Thomas Hodgkin, who first discovered the condition in 1832. Hodgkin's disease commonly occurs in young adults (between the ages of 15 to 35) and in older people (over 50-year-olds. However, about 10%-15% of cases have been diagnosed in children below 16 years of age. Statistics also show that more men than women are afflicted by it. ("What are the Key Statistics…… [Read More]

References

'Autologous Bone Marrow Stem Cell Transplantation" (2004). American Cancer Society. Retrieved on September 28, 2004 from http://www.cancer.org/docroot/CRI/content/CRI_2_4_4X_Autologous_Bone_Marrow_Stem_Cell_Transplantation_and_Peripheral_Blood_Stem_Cell_Transplantation_20.asp?rnav=cri 'Chemotherapy." (2004). American Cancer Society. Retrieved on September 28, 2004 from http://www.cancer.org/docroot/CRI/content/CRI_2_4_4X_Chemotherapy_20.asp?rnav=cri 'Do We Know What Causes Hodgkin's Disease?" (2004). American Cancer Society. Retrieved on September 28, 2004 from http://www.cancer.org/docroot/CRI/content/CRI_2_4_2X_Do_we_know_what_causes_Hodgkins_disease_20.asp?rnav=cri

"Hodgkin's Disease." (2000) The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. Columbia University Press: New York.

'Hodgkin's disease: Overview" (2004) Oncology Channel Retrieved on September 28, 2004 from http://www.oncologychannel.com/hodgkins / 'How is Hodgkin's Lymphoma and the Non-Hodgkin's Lymphomas Different?" (2004) Lymphoma Information Network. Retrieved on September 28, 2004 from  http://www.lymphomainfo.net/lymphoma/comparison.html 

'How Is Hodgkin's Disease Treated?" (2004). American Cancer Society. Retrieved on September 28, 2004 from http://www.cancer.org/docroot/CRI/content/CRI_2_4_4X_How_Is_Hodgkins_Disease_Treated_20.asp?rnav=cri 'The Lymphatic System." (2004) CancerBACUP. Retrieved on September 28, 2004 from http://www.cancerbacup.org.uk/Cancertype/LymphomaHodgkins/General/Thelymphaticsystem
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Diabetic Vascular Disease

Words: 1945 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3201728

Diabetic Vascular Disease state caused by the deficiency of a chemical in the body called insulin which is a hormone is called Diabetes. There are two forms of diabetes. In the type-one diabetes no insulin is formed and people require insulin injections for existence. This was once thought it would affect only children, but now it can occur at any age. The type2 diabetes is due to the resistance of the body towards the effects of insulin. This also includes insulin which is insufficient. ut in this type there is some amount of insulin produced. In both the types the blood glucose levels is increased. When compared to people without diabetes, people with diabetes are prone to certain problems. These problems occur in the nerves (neuropathy), kidney (nephropathy) and eye (retinopathy). These people are prone to early heart attacks and stroked due to the hardening of the arteries (arteriosclerosis). With…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Diabetes Basics-About Diabetics," Retrieved from www.orthop.washington.edu/faculty/Hirsch/diabetesAccessed on March 3, 2004

Diabetes & Vascular Disease Research" retrieved from www.medstv.unimelb.edu.au/Research/DCVDR/. Accessed on March 3, 2004

Haptoglobin: A major susceptibility gene for diabetic vascular complications," retrieved from www.pulsus.com/europe/07_02/szaf_ed.htm. Accessed on March 3, 2004

Pathophysiology of Diabetes" retrieved at http://www.dhss.state.mo.us/diabetes/manual/DMOverview.pdf. Accessed on March 3, 2004
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Hodgkin's Disease - Human Lymphatic

Words: 2766 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81244452

Pressure on the superior vena cava may produce SVC syndrome, a swelling of the head and arms. SVC syndrome involving the brain can be fatal and must be treated immediately. But enlarged lymphatic tissue in the chest cavity generally tends to displace -- rather than press upon or encase -- adjacent structures. Therefore, compromised breathing and SVC syndrome are relatively uncommon signs of lymphoma. (Hodgkin's Disease, 1998-2008)

Effects on Bone Marrow

Night sweats, fevers or anemia (a low red-blood-cell count), fevers may indicate Hodgkin's disease has spread to an individual's bone marrow. In these scenarios, a physician may order bone marrow aspiration and biopsy. In biopsy, medical staff uses a large needle to remove a narrow, cylindrical piece of the patient's bone. In another option, medical staff performs an aspiration, a process utilizing a needle to remove small bits of bone marrow. Generally, in both instances, to help determine cancer…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Atlas of the Body: The Lymphatic System." (1999). American Medical Association. 2 June 2008 http://www.medem.com/medlb/article_detaillb.cfm?article_ID=ZZZG0S6CGJC&sub_at=518.

Carson-DeWitt, Rosalyn S; Alic, Margaret. "Hodgkin's Disease," Gale Encyclopedia of Cancer, January 1, 2002. 2 June 2008 http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G2-3405200219.html.

Detailed Guide: Hodgkin Disease What Is Hodgkin Disease? American Cancer Society. Revised: 08/30/2007. 2 June 2008 http://www.cancer.org/docroot/CRI/content/CRI_2_4_1x_What_Is_Hodgkin_Disease.sp?rnav=cri.

Hodgkin's Disease Signs and Symptoms. (1998-2008). 3 June 2008 http://www.oncologychannel.com/hodgkins/symptoms.shtml.
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Sarcoidosis Is a Granulomatous Disease

Words: 1379 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35892392

, 1998). It is hard to know where the boundary stops between psychological and physical illness, since the two are, often intimately combined with one affecting the other.

QOL, as De Vries and Drent (2008) point out is often confounded with state of physical health but actually it reflects one's emotional and psychological welfare. Nonetheless, the two are intimately related in that each affects the other.

Conducting a through review on the subject with key words involving 'Sarcoidosis and health status', Sarcoidosis and quality of life" or Sarcoidosis and fatigue" De Vries and Drent (2008) ended up with 15 studies that they considered relevant to their subject.

Counter-intuitively, they discovered that the greatest challenge on QOL as effected by was the patient's fatigue caused by the disease. Breathlessness, reduced exercise, and impaired working and physical activities were the most frequent reported hindrances. The instrument used was the World Health Organization…… [Read More]

References

American Thoracic Society (1999) Statement on Sarcoidosis, 736-749

The report provides a thorough overview of Sarcoidosis discussing new developments and demonstrating how much in the field remains enigmatic.

Bona, J. et al. (1998) Neurosarcoidosis as a Cause of Refractory Psychosis: A Complicated Case ReportAm J. Psychiatry 155:8, 1100-1107

The report describes Sarcoidosis and gives a case history as example.
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Speech Understanding Ototoxicity Characteristics the Disease Stems

Words: 1116 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45592810

Speech

Understanding Ototoxicity

Characteristics

The disease stems from toxic reactions to structures of the ear, including the cochlea, vestibule, semicircular canals and otoliths. Drug-induced damage to these structures of the auditory and balance system can result in hearing loss, tinnitus, disequilibrium or dizziness (yback 2007).

Etiology

The propensity of specific classes of drugs to cause ototoxicity has been well established and over 100 classes of drugs have been associated with ototoxicity. Hearing loss can be temporary but is usually irreversible with most agents. Generally, antibiotic-induced ototoxicity is bilaterally symmetrical, but it can be asymmetrical. The usual time of onset is often unpredictable, and marked hearing loss can occur even after a single dose (Ishiyama 2006). Additionally, hearing loss may not manifest until several weeks or months after completion of antibiotic or anti-neoplastic therapy (Dille 2003). Vestibular injury is also a notable adverse effect of aminoglycoside antibiotics and may appear early…… [Read More]

References

Campbell KC, Durrant J. (1993) Audiologic monitoring for ototoxicity. Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 26(5): 903-14.

Dille M., et al. (2010). Ototoxicity risk assessment combining distoration product otoacoustic emissions with a cisplatin dose model. J. Of the Accoustical Society of America. 128(3): 1163-1174.

Fausti S., et al. (2009). Auditory and vestibular dysfunction associated with blast-related traumatic brain injury. Journal of Rehab Research and Development. 46(6): 797-810.

Grant KW, et al. (1998). Auditory-visual speech recognition by hearing-impaired subjects: consonant recognition, sentence recognition and auditory-visual integration. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 103(5): 2677-2690.
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Response Team Problems

Words: 799 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91489947

Cholera

The following is a response to a major disaster in the Asian coastal country of Bangladesh. A major and destructive typhoon has recently hit the country and there are significant problems. The result of this typhoon has seem massive death, destruction and population displacement, and to worsen the situation, data indicates that cases of a diarrheal disease consistent with cholera have been reported.

This essay will highlight the priorities of work that need to be addressed in order to respond to the cholera outbreak that appears imminent. This response will recommend certain actions that need to be implemented and which agencies to seek assistance from to help in making the plan work. Pre-deployment preparations for those flocking to the disaster will also be discussed to give a more descriptive form to the problem.

Impacts of Cholera Outbreaks

It is important and preliminary to understand the problems and risks associated…… [Read More]

References

Tappero JW, Tauxe RV. Lessons learned during public health response to cholera epidemic in Haiti and the Dominican Republic. Emerg Infect Dis [serial on the Internet]. 2011 Nov [date cited]. http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1711.110827

The World Health Organization (2006). Communicable Disease following natural disasters. Risk Assessment and Priority Interventions. Retrieved from  http://www.who.int/diseasecontrol_emergencies/guidelines/CD_Disasters_26_06.pdf 

Vaccinations in disaster situations: Recommendations of the PAHO/WHO special program for vaccines and immunization (2012). Retrieved from: http://www.paho.org/English/PED/te_vacc.htm
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Status of World-Level Laboratory Biorisk

Words: 2273 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6181693



The response by the United States to biorisk management at the national level provides a useful example of what can be accomplished with the right resources and vision. For instance, in December 2009, the U.S. government published its "National Strategy for Countering Biological Threats," representing the basic framework for the U.S. response to emerging bioterrorism threats. In the State of the Union address in 2010, President Barack Obama mentioned the National Strategy as an approach that "will give us the capacity to respond faster and more effectively to bioterrorism or an infectious disease." The implementation and oversight of this initiative is the responsibility of the U.S. Department of State's Biosecurity Engagement Program (BEP). This agency is tasked with promoting the National Strategy through efforts targeted at improving biorisk management and infectious disease surveillance practices around the world. To this end, the BEP has strengthened its commitment to the African continent,…… [Read More]

References

Biorisk reduction. (2011). World Health Organization. Retrieved from http://www.who.int / csr/bioriskreduction/en/.

Global alert and response. (2011). World Health Organization. Retrieved from http://www.

who.int/csr/bioriskreduction/laboratorynetwork/en/index.html.

Global Outbreak Alert and Response Network Fact Sheet. (2011). World Health Organization.
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Diagnosis and Treatment of TB

Words: 1771 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44261432

Tuberculosis

Causative agent

Tuberculosis is an infectious disease of animals and humans. The most common causative agent of the disease is a bacterium a mycobacteria known as Mycobacterium tuberculosis. This bacterium was first discovered by obert Koch in 1882. The physiology of this bacterium is aerobic and hence requires very high oxygen levels. This is primarily a pathogen of the mammalian respiratory system which infects the lungs. The most common methods used to diagnose tuberculosis are acid-fast stain, tuberculin skin test and chest radiations. M. tuberculosis requires oxygen in order for it to grow. Due to the presence of mycolic acid, M.tuberculosis has an waxy coating on its surface which is unusual making the cells impervious to Gram staining It can not retain any bacteriological stain as a result of a high lipid content on its wall therefore acid-fast staining or ziehl-Neelsen staining are used. Despite this M.tuberculosis is still…… [Read More]

References

Mandal, A. (2014). History of Tuberculosis. Retrieved October 17, 2014 from  http://www.news-medical.net/health/History-of-Tuberculosis.aspx 

Knechel, N. (2009). Tuberculosis: Pathophysiology, clinical Features, and Diagnosis. Retrieved October 17, 2014 from  http://ccn.aacnjournals.org/content/29/2/34.short 

Mathema, B., Kurepina, N., Bifani, P., & Kreiswirth, B. (2006). Molecular Epidemiology of Tuberculosis: Current Insights. Retrieved October 18, 2014 from  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1592690/
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Healthy People 2020 Review of Three Articles

Words: 1120 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38801242

Healthy People 2020

eview of Three Articles from Healthy People 2020

Global Health

The goal of improved global health is to strengthen U.S. national security through global disease detection, response, prevention, and control strategies. Threats to health in one part of the world may have far reaching consequences that impact public health across the globe. The 2003 SAS epidemic and the 2009 H1N1 influenza outbreak are recent examples. Furthermore, improving the health of the global population promotes political stability, diplomacy, and economic growth worldwide.

The world and its economies are increasingly interdependent and international travel and commerce is becoming more prevalent. Expanding international trade introduces new health risks. A complex international distribution chain has resulted in potential international outbreaks due to food borne infections, poor quality pharmaceuticals, and contaminated consumer goods. Since the 1970s one or more new diseases have been identified annually. apid identification and control of emerging infectious…… [Read More]

References

"Early and middle childhood." (2012, January 10). Healthy people 2020. Retrieved January 12, 2012, from http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/overview.aspx?topicid=10

"Global health." (2012, January 10). Healthy people 2020. Retrieved January 12, 2012, from http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/overview.aspx?topicid=16

"Immunization and infectiuos diseases." (2012, January 10). Healthy people 2020. Retrieved January 12, 2012, from http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/overview.aspx?topicId=23
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Micro in the Media

Words: 650 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95078827

technology and science have progressed so rapidly, a place where cell phones have become video cameras, where scientist can actually clone human life, you would assume medical advancements would progress in the same stride. This has not been the case in recent history, and although we have come a long way, there are many diseases for which there is no cure. Over the last century civilization has advanced in ways unthinkable to mankind, yet two things remain a constant reminder that humans are susceptible to anything. One such thing is Mother Nature and the other is the plague of infectious disease. Though we have found some ways to overcome these forces of nature, it is more like placing a and-Aid over a cut artery. The article, which I chose to write about, gives a painful glimpse of reality. Unhappy Returns, featured in Time Magazine Asia on Monday, Dec. 01, 2003…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Beach, Hannah. "Unhappy Returns." Time Magazine Dec. 2003: Time Asia. 25 Jan. 2005

< http://www.time.com/time/asia/magazine/article/0,13673,50103208-552154,00.html >.

Infectious Disease Article Analysi
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Campylobacter Jejuni Is a Helical Shaped Non-Spore

Words: 2696 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78482727

Campylobacter jejuni is a helical shaped, non-spore forming, curved, Gram-negative bacteria which is most often found in animal feces. This bacteria comes from the intestinal tracks of animals where is exists as a mixed surface-associated community, protected by an extra cellular material called a biofilm. The protection afforded to the bacteria by the biofilm makes it an extremely resilient bacteria. (Siringan, 2011) It was originally discovered by Theodor Escherich in 1886 and called "Vibrio," but in 1963 a new genus was created for this organism, called Campylobacter. C. jejuni is one of the "most important human enteropathogens among the campylobacter." (Nachamkin, 2008, p. 14) This bacterium is microaerophilic and "requires 3 to 5% oxygen and 2 to 10% carbon dioxide for optimal grown conditions." (Bad Bug Book) Prior to 1972, C. jejuni was believed to be primarily an animal pathogen causing enteritis and abortions in cattle and sheep, but it…… [Read More]

References

Acheson, David. (2011). Campylobacter jejuni Infections: Update on Emerging Issues and Trends. Clinical Infectious Diseases 32(8). Retrieved from  http://cid.oxfordjournals.org/content/32/8/1201.full 

Altrkruse, Sean, et al., (1999) Campylobacter jejuni - An Emerging Foodborne Pathogen. Emerging Infectious Diseases 5(1). Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/eid/vol5no1/altekruse.htm

"Bad Bug Book" U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved from http://www.fda.gov/Food/FoodSafety/FoodborneIllness/FoodborneIllness

FoodbornePathogensNaturalToxins/BadBugBook/ucm070024.htm
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Mazen Bader and David S

Words: 1138 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66850004

The focus of the article is upon the unique constitution and needs of the elderly, not upon herpes zoster or influenza as a national phenomenon particular to the United States. However, all of the studies it cites are based in the United States, and SV has been primarily studied as a phenomenon occurring in the U.S. The prevalence of nursing homes in the United States might also make the article more relevant to U.S. practitioners, and the regulatory and drug treatments it discusses are particular to North American, such as the FDA.

Supporting evidence: What scientific evidence does the author(s) present to support his or her claims?

The article's most conclusive evidence is found in its treatment of influenza. It notes that in the 40% to 60% of elderly patients in whom the influenza vaccine produces the desired immunity, an effective immune response can be mounted within 10 to 14…… [Read More]

References

Bader, Mazen & David S. McKinsey. (2005, Nov). "Viral infections in the elderly."

Postgraduate Medicine. 118.5: 45-54
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Rand Report Critique as Discussed

Words: 2581 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27729493

26 Yet public health continued to mean, even more than in the Clinton administration, a technological approach to national defense. In the Bush administration, pharmaceutical protection became the centerpiece of biodefense policy. On December 13, 2002, convinced of the Dark Winter-type threat of smallpox, President Bush announced his nationwide smallpox inoculation program. Publicity about Iraq's potential biological arsenal, especially in the lead-up to the 2003 invasion, and the threat of bioterrorism had convinced many in the public to participate. The states and the CDC were ready to handle the logistics. In addition, civilian participation was voluntary, which reduced legal liability for those who administered the vaccine and for the government.

As might have been predicted, this smallpox vaccination campaign found it difficult to circumvent the well-known fears of vaccination as a source of bodily pollution and the mistrust engendered when vaccines appear a worse health risk than the forecast epidemic.…… [Read More]

References

Fauci, Anthony S.M.D., Bioterrorism Preparedness: NIH Smallpox Research Efforts, available at http://www.hhs.gov/asl/testify/t011102b.htm Accessed on October 22, 2011.

Frist, William. The Political Perspective of the Bioterrorism Threat, in Biological Threats and Terrorism: Assessing the Science and Response Capabilities, 29 (Stacy L. Knobler & Adel A.F. Mahmoud & Leslie A. Pray eds., National Academy Press 2002).

Neergaard, Lauran. Postmaster: Anthrax Threatens Mail, The Washington Post, Oct. 24, 2001, available at http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/aponline/20011024 / aponline090115_002.html Accessed on October 21, 2011.

Tanielian, Terri. Ricci, Karen. Stoto, Michael A. David Dausey, J. Lois M. Davis, Myers, Sarah. Olmsted, Stuart. Willis, Henry H. (2005) Exemplary Practices in Public Health Preparedness. RAND Corporation.  http://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/technical_reports/2005/RAND_TR239.pdf  Accessed on October 21, 2011.
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Prevention and Control of Influenza

Words: 391 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66589917

The statistics in the article show that vaccination levels during 2003 were substantially below the objective set for 2010. Various factors may play a role in this phenomenon, including vaccine supply delays and shortages (MMWR, 2005, p. 8).

The article suggests a variety of strategies to help meet the goals set by Healthy People 2010. The benefits of meeting this goal particularly relate to more hours at work and thus greater productivity and a growth in economy, fewer disruptions in essential services, as well as fewer deaths and other complications related to influenza (MMWR, 2005, p. 12). The benefits to the country then relate to the general well-being of the population and its economy.

ources

Beato, Christina. (2003). Healthy People 2010: Progress Review Focus Area 14: Immunization and Infectious Diseases. http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/about/otheract/hpdata2010/focusareas/fa14-immun.htm

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2005). Prevention and control of influenza: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization…… [Read More]

Sources

Beato, Christina. (2003). Healthy People 2010: Progress Review Focus Area 14: Immunization and Infectious Diseases.  http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/about/otheract/hpdata2010/focusareas/fa14-immun.htm 

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2005). Prevention and control of influenza: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR 54 (No. RR-8)

National Center for Health Statistics (2004, December 16). Healthy People 2010: Focus Areas at a Glance (28).  http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/about/otheract/hpdata2010/2010a28.htm .

Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. (2005). Healthy People 2010.
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Biological Warfare Dramatic Technological Advances

Words: 2144 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60918020

These efforts include: expansion of international efforts to prevent terrorist acquisition of biological agents, initiated Bioatch program to detect initial releases of biological weapons within the environment, launched food programs to carefully inspect foods for potential bioagents (with greater focus on foreign foods), expanded bioterrorism research (including Project Bioshield, a program to develop medical ripostes to biological agents), and increased medical stockpiles and training for dealing with bioterrorism attacks (Cordesman; Lindler, Lebeda, & Korch; Petsko; Fidler & Gostin). These efforts will help to both prevent the initial release of any biological agents within the general populace or environment, as well as effectively treat afflicted individuals and slow spread through appropriate treatments.

Once biological agents are released into the general population, the extent of disease spread and number of individuals afflicted will be significantly affected by the role and effectiveness of the government through quarantine and treatment (Cordesman; Lindler, Lebeda, &…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Cole, Leonard A. The Eleventh Plague. Macmillan, 2002. Print.

Cordesman, Anthony H. The challenge of biological terrorism. CSIS, 2005. Print.

Fidler, David P., and Lawrence O. Gostin. Biosecurity in the global age. Stanford University Press, 2008. Print.

Kortepeter, MG, and GW Parker. "Potential biological weapons threats." Emerging Infectious Diseases 5.4 (1999): 523-527. Print.
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Schistosomiasis 200 Million People Afflicted

Words: 1210 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14665432

The symptoms and signs of chronic schistosomiasis are mostly the body's reaction to the eggs retained in the tissues. S. mansoni or S. japonicum can cause mucosal ulcerations, bloody diarrhea, focal fibrosis, strictures, fistulas and papillomatuous growths. Ulcerations in the bladder by S. haematobium may bring on dysuria, hematuria, frequent urination, and chronic cystitis. Secondary bacterial infections in the genitor-urinary tract may also develop. S. mansoni can induce persistent Salmonella septicemia. S. haematorium may cause genital disease or infertility. Their eggs can cause fibrosis and cirrhosis, portal or pulmonary hypertension in the liver or transverse myelitis and seizure in the central nervous system (Pearson).

Diagnosis and Treatment

Schistosomiasis is diagnosed through a urine or stool test for parasites (DHPE, 2010;

DPDx, 2010). The Centers for Disease and Control uses a blood test on a sample taken 6-

8 weeks after exposure. It can be cured with praziquantel taken for 1…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

DHPE (2010). Schistosomiasis fact sheet. Infectious Facts: Directors of Health Promotion

and Education. Retrieved on November 5, 2010 from http://www.dhpe.org/infect/schisto.html

DPDx (2010). Schistosomiasis. Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria: Centers of Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved November 5, 2010 from http://www.dpd.cdc.gov/dpdx/html/schistosomiasis.htm

Kogulan, P. And Lucey, D.R. (2010). Schistosomiasis. eMedicine Specialties: Infections.
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Cells Are a Type of

Words: 760 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54959512



To date, adoptive T-cell therapy have used peripheral blood, tumors, malignant effusions, and drained lymph nodes as sites for injecting the T-cells for adoptive transfer. Those are routinely used are allogenic bone marrow transplantation and peripheral blood stem cell infusion. It is possible that the bone marrow might be a good place too. It is also arguable which precise T-cells are the best to transfer, since T- cells are differentiated into many subsets.

Furthermore, in order to produce enough effectors T-cells, specific T-cells from peripheral blood or tumor specimens are isolated and generated in vitro, and these are then clonally expanded using various approaches. The T-cells are then reinfused into the patient with the expectation that they will then target antigens. There is much evidence that this approach works, although it also seems that this can be engineered in vivo under certain situations.

For most effective T-cell therapy, it has…… [Read More]

Sources

Greenberg, P.D. 1991, 'Adoptive T cell therapy of tumors. Ad. Immunol. 49, pp. 281-355.

Jamieson, B.D., & Ahmed, R. 1989,'T cell memory. J. Exp. Med. 169, pp. 1993-2005

June, C.H. 2007, 'Principles of adoptive T cell cancer therapy', J. Clin. Invest., 117, pp.11204-1212.

MedecineNet.com. Definition of T cell. Online. Available at: http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=11300
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Colds and Its Common Causes Possible Complications and Management

Words: 1641 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38882799

diseases in the world are suffered by all children. Babies and adults alike have to endure them at some or other point of their life. Furthermore, those whose immune systems are poor or weak have a greater tendency to contract diseases such as the common cold, infant diaper rash, earaches, stomach aches and diarrhea (American Academy of Pediatrics, 2015)

Common cold

The common cold shows the following symptoms: a sore throat, runny nose, headache, and watery eyes. Up till now, no precise medication exists to 'cure' the common cold. Normally, this viral illness wanes by itself after a period of 5-6 days. However, in the event that symptoms continue for an unusually long time, the patient must stay alert, as severe cases of common cold may result in pneumonia, sinusitis, ear infection, asthma attack, and bronchitis (Justadd, 2015). A study indicates that several individuals suffer each winter from sinusitis, impacting…… [Read More]

References

ADAM. (2015). Earache. Medical Encyclopedia. Medline Plus. U.S. Medical Library. Retrieved from http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003046.htm

Alan, M., Lake, M.D.(1999). Chronic Abdominal Pain in Childhood: Diagnosis and Management. American Academy of Family Physicians. Retrieved from http://googleweblight.com/?lite_url=http://www.aafp.org/afp/1999/0401/p1823.html&ei=KmJxS8Wk&lc=en-IN&s=1&m=992&ts=1439382771&sig=APONPFkf1k48Ut_Q5SluR0akIscNP1e-gg

American Academy of Pediatrics. (2015). Overview of Infectious Diseases. USA. Retrieved from https://www.healthychildren.org/English/health-issues/conditions/infections/Pages/Overview-of-Infectious-Diseases.aspx

Benaroch, R. (2015).Your Baby's Diaper Rash. WebMD, LLC.