Inferential Statistics Essays (Examples)

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Inferential Statistic Tests Used in Study What

Words: 1125 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39468655

inferential statistic tests used in study. What were these tests typically used for? Why were they chosen here?

The objective of the study was to analyze the true costs of hypertensions. The researchers did this by analyzing the data of four patient groups using propensity score matching to control for possible bias in cost estimates. The regression model that followed estimated for costs of hypertension by controlling for sex, length of hospital stay, Charlson comorbidity index, region of residence, and urbanization of residence.

Researchers used the 2005 MarketScan CCAE database, that contained information about hospitalized patients who belong to more than 100 health insurance plans offered by about 40 employers, in order to estimate hypertension associated hospitalization costs for patients with hypertension as a secondary diagnosis.

The problem was that since more than 95% of the hypertensive patients in the CCAE study had hypertension as secondary rather than primary diagnosis,…… [Read More]

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Statistics the Intent of This

Words: 4324 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44895562

There are also ethical issues pertaining to the observational method that will be discussed later in this paper.

Experience surveys are widely used throughout qualitative research studies, due to their focus on bringing greater insights into the study through the interviewing of experts in chosen fields. There is also a strong focus on how to gain insights of experts in the future definition of the methodology being created, and how the research objectives can be more effectively accomplished as well. Experience surveys also are often used in the first stages of a research project. Another qualitative research technique, the case study, takes the concept of gaining insight and applies it to an organization and its dynamics. A case study seeks to define and complete a thorough analysis of one or more specific circumstances within institution of interest. The goal of case studies is to measure the relationships, inter-dependencies and cause-and-effect…… [Read More]

References

IIT (2007). Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT). The Delphi Method. Definition and Historical Background. Accessed from the Internet on June 22, 2007:

http://www.iit.edu/~it/delphi.html

Joppe (2007) - Research Process Tutorial on Dr. Marion Joppes' website regarding exploratory research fundamentals:

Accessed from the Internet on June 22, 2007 from location:
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Statistics in Workplace

Words: 910 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79640955

Statistics in the Hospital Setting

During the course of performing my professional duties at College Hospital, which is a psychiatric facility located in Cerritos, California, I encounter patients who are struggling to maintain some semblance of a normal life despite struggling with one or more mental illnesses or psychological impairments. College Hospital is a 187-bed, free-standing psychiatric care unit which is accredited by The Joint Commission and licensed by the California Department of Health Services, and part of my job is assist in providing a wide range of psychiatric services for a wide range of patient demographics. As the leader in Partial Hospitalization Programs throughout the greater Los Angeles and Orange County metropolitan areas, College Hospital relies on the accurate and efficient use of statistics to ensure positive patient outcomes.

An Example of Descriptive Statistics Used in My Workplace:

While working at College Hospital the use of descriptive statistics has…… [Read More]

References:

Costea, G., Gheorghiu, V., Buda, O., Popescu, I., & Trandafir, M.S. (2011). Statistical

Association Criteria in Forensic Psychiatry -- A criminological evaluation of casuistry. Journal of medicine and life, 4(1), 21.

Nielsen, J., Graff, C., Kanters, J.K., Toft, E., Taylor, D., & Meyer, J.M. (2011). Assessing QT

interval prolongation and its associated risks with antipsychotics. CNS drugs, 25(6), 473-
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Healing With Statistics There Are Numerous Ways

Words: 795 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13252148

Healing with Statistics

There are numerous ways in which statistics are used in a standard healthcare organization. Statistical measurements and analyses are used to track patient costs and hospital/healthcare organization expenses, to determine appropriate medication levels, to assign work staff and maintain proper human resource levels, and for a wide variety of other applications and areas of concern. In many ways, the quality and the cost-effectiveness of care provided by a typical healthcare organization is directly related to the quality of the statistical data the organization collects and assesses. Without such statistical analysis and manipulation, direct healthcare providers as well as administrators within the healthcare organizations would be left with little more than anecdotal evidence and subjective perceptions and judgments when it came to making decisions for patient health and/or organizational fitness, thus the importance of statistics in such organizations is difficult to overstate.

The most basic level of analysis…… [Read More]

References

Hill, J. (2012). introduction to descriptive statistics. Accessed 19 February 2012. http://mste.illinois.edu/hill/dstat/dstat.html

Lund. (2010). Descriptive and inferential statistics. Accessed 19 February 2012. http://statistics.laerd.com/statistical-guides/descriptive-inferential-statistics.php

Trochim, W. (2006). Levels of measurement. Accessed 19 February 2012.  http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/measlevl.php
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Hear the Word Statistics the

Words: 620 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43849082

Being able to express statistical results in ways non-statisticians can understand, and explaining those results correctly in language that does not mislead or confuse is becoming a lost art, if the popular media are any indication. Entrepreneurs will use these visual display techniques to increase productivity, notice patterns that may go unrecognized in tabular or numerical reporting, and communicate results quickly without requiring extensive and subjective verbal explanation.

Inferential statistics will become increasingly useful even before graduating college, if peer-reviewed studies in consumer psychology, economics and marketing become more rather than less proportional in coursework on the way through graduate school. Some of the coursework I read for other classes contains statistical procedures I am unfamiliar with even after this course, and thus learning more statistics should explain a significant improvement in grades in my other classes, hopefully with a strong (? = .001) effect size! Knowing how likely flaws…… [Read More]

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Role of Research and Statistics

Words: 787 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42191915

Assessing descriptive statistics in the form of raw data is often a critical component of primary research when constructing an experiment, where the experimenter then can have control over the various variables affecting the specific phenomena that is being studied. the, in the actual experiment, the tendency of other information to influence statistical results can be restricted or taken into consideration, and a control, or unaffected group can be included to see what the population resembles without the experimental variable. Descriptive statistics, in short, can be useful, but many variables can affect their results, so they cannot always be relied upon.

In contrast, "inferential statistics are used to help psychologists draw inferences, or conclusions, from the data obtained from their research" ("Statistics in psychology," 2008, Encyclopedia of Psychology). For example, inferential statistics are collected when researchers test if watching a particularly violent film makes a group of subjects more apt…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Research: The scientific method. (2008). SIEM HI Research Retrieved 15 Oct 2008 at  http://islands.unep.ch/siemh1.htm 

The Milgram Experiment. (2008). New Life. Retrieved 15 Oct 2008 at http://www.new-life.net/milgram.htm

Statistics in psychology. (2008). Encyclopedia of Psychology. FindArticles.com.

15 Oct. 2008. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_g2699/is_0003/ai_2699000331
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Business Statistics Is the Study

Words: 637 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76277450

Therefore to form a basis of good decision making business people should be able to understand how statistics can be applied in the description of markets, advertising development, price setting and how they can best respond to the consumer demands that are often changing (Petryni, 2010).

Statistics can be used in various situations within a business for instances; incase a business wants to venture into new markets statistics can be used to inform the business decisions in the definition of target consumers. The statistical analysis of the trends of consumers, purchasing powers and preferences can be useful in making decisions before venturing into a particular business.

Another situation can be where decisions on the branding and advertising products or services the statistical analysis may aid in the definition of the consumers who are targeted, provide information about the industry one wants to venture in and description of the buying trends.…… [Read More]

References

Petryni, M. (2010). How Is Statistical Research Used in Business Decisions? Retrieved January 17, 2013 from  http://www.ehow.com/info_8000423_statistical-research-used-business-decisions.html 

Calkins, K, .G. (2005).Applied Statistics. Retrieved January 17, 2013 from http://www.andrews.edu/~calkins/math/edrm611/edrm01.htm
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Organization Dynamics Basic Statistics

Words: 2349 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76781277

Organizational Dynamics

L. Jones

In my job as a Health Readiness Coordinator, I am required to exercise a high level of skill in communication, leadership, organization, as well as basic statistical analysis. In specific, I have found the following principles of group and organizational dynamics, leadership styles, and basic statistics to be invaluable.

One of the first ways in which a Health Readiness Coordinator begins his or her relationship with a client is by helping them to make relevant decisions. Of course, the best way to begin this process is by utilizing a "break down" method that separates the decision into defined components. Specifically, these include defining the problem, collecting the relevant data on all possible choices, evaluating present alternatives, and finally, making an informed decision (Amos, 2004). Additionally, I have also found it useful to add a final reflection step in which I evaluate the success of the decision,…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Amos Web. (2004). Decision Making Process. Web page. Retrieved on August 16, 2004, from, http://www.amosweb.com/cgi-bin/gls.pl?fcd=dsp&key=decision+making+process

ASC. The Animated Software Company. (2004). Internet Glossary of Statistical Terms: Population. Web site. Retrieved on August 16, 2004, from,  http://www.animatedsoftware.com/statglos/sgpopula.htm 

Blair, Gerard. (1997). Leadership Styles. Web Page. Retrieved on August 16, 2004, from, http://www.see.ed.ac.uk/~gerard/MENG/ME96/

Bresnahan. The Bresnahan Group. (2004). Talk is Cheap. Listening is Priceless. Web site. Retrieved on August 16, 2004, from, http://www.bresnahangroup.com/articles/talkcheap.htm
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Inferential Because it Makes Claims

Words: 946 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29049565



18. Stratified sampling could be used where the population contains characteristics that can be placed together to construct a strata. In a clinical trial cluster sampling could be used to select individuals from a similar geographic area.

19-a

20-B

21-B

22-C

23-B

24-C

25-B

26-B

27-B

28-C

29-a

30-a

31-a

32-a

33-a

34-a

35-B

Quiz 2

1-True

2-False

3-True

4-False

5-False

6-True

7-True

8-False

9-True

10-False

11-True

12-True

13-False

14-False

15-False

16-B

17-D

18-C

19-a

20-D

21-C

22-B

23

H0 is the null hypothesis and it generally states that there is no difference or no change. H1 is the alternative hypothesis or the researcher hypothesis and is generally the opposite of the null hypothesis. Hypothesis testing centers on the acceptance and rejection of the null hypothesis.

24.

In most clinical research studies the researcher would use a one-tailed test. This is so for two basic reasons the first is that…… [Read More]

References

Aron, a., Coups E.J. & Aron E.N. (2011). Statistics for the behavioral and social sciences:

A brief course. New York NY Prentice Hall.

Creswell J.W. (1994).Research Design: Qualitative and Quantitative approaches. London: Sage

Publications
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Statistics This Survey Was Conducted

Words: 613 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20803642

Interestingly, however, only females reported over 60 hours per week. The scatterplot below shows the hours worked with females on the top axis:

Mean

29.0567

Standard Error

1.132015

Median

40

Mode

40

Standard Deviation

19.31074

Sample Variance

Kurtosis

-1.0554

Skewness

-0.26386

Range

80

Minimum

0

Maximum

80

Sum

Count

The correlation between the satisfaction with the weight in men and women is 0.097. As expected, this is also a weak correlation, but it does indicate that males are more likely to be satisfied with their weight. 46.6% of males and 37.3% of females indicated that they were satisfied with their weight. The chart below shows females in pink and men in blue. The top axis represents the number that are not satisfied with their weight and the lower axis, the ones that are.

Mean

1.584192

Standard Error

0.028942

Median

2

Mode

2

Standard Deviation

0.49371

Sample Variance

0.243749

Kurtosis

-1.89513…… [Read More]

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Science if Conducting an Experiment

Words: 1339 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36325672

It is often easier to impose this sort of control in a laboratory setting. Thus, true experiments have often been erroneously identified as laboratory studies" (Woolf, 2012). True experiments rigidly control for validity by attempting to isolate variables so that only a single independent variable is studies. The independent variable "is the variable that the experimenter manipulates in a study. It can be any aspect of the environment that is empirically investigated for the purpose of examining its influence on the dependent variable" (Woolf, 2012). Furthermore in true experiments, the subjects are randomly assigned to the experimental and control groups. Finally, true experiments are double blind, which means that neither the experimenter nor the subjects know whether the subjects are in the experimental or control groups (Woolf, 2012).

True experiments differ from experimental designs in the level of control that exists in each different type of research. An experimental design,…… [Read More]

References

Brogan, R. (Unk.). Single case design and small n research. Retrieved April 9, 2012 from Psychometrics website: http://www.psychmet.com/id15.html

Lund Research Ltd. (2012). Descriptive and inferential statistics. Retrieved April 9, 2012 from Laerd Statistics website: https://statistics.laerd.com/statistical-guides/descriptive-inferential-statistics.php

Woolf, L. (2012). Research methods. Retrieved April 9, 2012 from Webster University

website: http://www.webster.edu/~woolflm/statmethods.html
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Psychological Research It Is Difficult

Words: 1904 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91807125



We have also talked about the "blue print" of a study, or the logical model of proof which guides the researcher throughout the entire study -- i.e. The research design. It is by which the investigator determines the relationships between variables being tested. We have discussed true experiments, its nature and validity issues as well as quasi-experimental designs. We also provided a discussion of the difference between these two designs.

What is worth nothing, I believe, is the importance of a good research design. A good research design theoretically leads to good data. Hence, during the conceptualization of research design, careful thought needs to be employed.

Lastly, our research considerations, on which kind of statistical tool to use, whether to use sample or population, and/or which research design to employ, should always be anchored in our research objectives, on the things that we aim to know through the study.

eferences…… [Read More]

References

American Psychological Association (2003). How To Be A Wise Consumer of Psychological

Research. Retrieved from http://www.psychologymatters.org/wiseconsumer.html on May 15, 2009.

Aron, A., Aron, E. & Coups, E.J. (2006). Statistics for Psychology, 4th Edition.

New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall.
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Attitude Nature Stats Attitudes Table

Words: 687 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58614830

Figure 1 shows that the majority of readings surrounded this mean and median cluster on both sides to symmetrical degree, as opposed to appearing grouped highly above or below. The result of this all is a relatively high value for the first standard deviation, which corresponds to meaningful Kurtosis but very little skew -- Table 1 reveals less than .01 skewness, which means the results are highly symmetric (Brown, 2008-2012, n.p.). Negative Kurtosis reflects the concentration of data in these shoulders (DeCarlo, 1997, p. 294), which is supported by two modes one either side of the mean-median (Figure 2, Appendix IV shows this bimodality, not revealed in Figure 1). While this indicates less than normality and warns that parametric inferential statistics should be scrutinized carefully and non-parametrics (CHI-Squared; rank-sum; Wilcoxon's, etc.) run for corroboration in case the 100 value turns out to be an outlier, these results show more symmetry…… [Read More]

References

Brown, S. (2008-2012). Measures of shape: Skewness and Kurtosis. Dryden, New York:

Tompkins Cortland Community College. Retrieved from  http://www.tc3.edu/instruct/sbrown/stat/shape.htm 

DeCarlo, L.T. (1997). On the meaning and use of Kurtosis. Psychological Methods 2(3), 292-

307. Retrieved from www.columbia.edu/~ld208/psymeth97.pdf
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Larger Population of Cases Term

Words: 644 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54437136



Part 2

One of the important issues that this type of statistical sampling conducted by the substitute teacher was her choice of students to inquire about their test results. In a class size of 30, 5 students hardly represent the whole class; in fact, in order to accurately determine the performance of the class as a whole, it is recommended that all students be asked of their test results. The sub-teacher can also generate a sample, group of students who will represent the total population, which is the whole class. The sample should be objectively chosen, and since the method of choosing the students to report on their exam performance was based only on the fact that they all belonged to the front row of the class, then the sample generated by the teacher is biased. An alternative to this problematic method of sampling would be to choose one student…… [Read More]

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Statistical Analysis of Restaurant Patrons

Words: 1636 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41501656

Many patrons tip based on how quickly their food is delivered, and if it is hot or not, how it tastes, did it meet the patrons' expectations or not for this specific type of food, what is the frequency of the patrons' dining on this specific type of food.

There are also an entire series of attitudinal questions regarding why this specific restaurant was chosen, and these could range from convenience for a family meal together, or for a special occasion. Clearly expectations are significantly higher for those respondents going out to dinner for an anniversary, birthday, or significant family event - all instances were respondents would be going to more upscale restaurants.

There is the entire price/quality aspect of this research. It is one experience to dine at McDonalds' or Burger King and have the expectation of the burger and fries tasting like they have in the past, and…… [Read More]

References

ResearchMethods (2007) - Web Center for Social Research Methods. Research Methods Knowledge Base. Accessed from the Internet on July 11, 2007 from location:  http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/measlevl.php 

SPSS Files:
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Conselling Master Questionnaire Describe the Boolean Approach

Words: 4070 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6118072

Conselling Master Questionnaire

Describe the Boolean Approach (Hauser, 2009 p. 18)

In order to use counseling databases to search for information, it is important to develop appropriate search practices. The terms one types when searching will most likely provide the results owing to their meaning. Therefore, it is up to an individual to come up with a search strategy and learn the tips of using counseling databases. The tips will assist an individual in acquiring high quality information in the required amount. Additionally, an individual is likely to add intelligence to their search strategies, the more one knows the tips of searching, and they are likely to obtain better results.

The Boolean approach is among the techniques that will generate useful results when using counseling databases, and it aims at supporting scholarly research. On the other hand, Boolean operators are words, which have unique meanings that instruct the database to…… [Read More]

References

Houser. R. (2009). Counseling and educational research: Evaluation and application.

Thousands Oaks, CA: Sage.

McLeod. J. (2003). Doing counselling research (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
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Healthcare Environment Palese Et Al 2011 Argue

Words: 1817 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46538101

healthcare environment, Palese et al. (2011) argue there is no effective data to support that patients' satisfaction is correlated with a nursing care. Moreover, there is evidence revealing uncertainty in the nursing care environment since there is lack of identification of caring consequences. While the patient's satisfaction has been linked with nurses' caring behaviors, however, there is no empirical evidence to support "the effect of caring on patient's satisfaction." (Palese, Tomietto, Suhonen et al. 2011 p 342). Moreover, there is ongoing scientific debate to ascertain the meaning of caring with reference to a caring context, and working environment to support nurse is caring. Palese et al. (2011) also reveal that there is scanty of studies that focus on the "international cross-cultural nursing studies" (p 342) despite that the European Union has opened its border for free movement of nursing professional to enhance common base and safeguard equal opportunity that will…… [Read More]

Reference

Palese, A. Tomietto, M. Suhonen, R. et al.(2011). Surgical Patient Satisfaction as an Outcome of Nurses' Caring Behaviors: A Descriptive and Correlational Study in Six European Countries. Journal of Nursing Scholarship. 43 (4): 341 -- 350.

Burston, P.L., & Stichler, J.F. (2010). Nursing work environment and nurse caring: Relationship among motivational factor. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 66(8), 1819-1831.
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Caring Nurses

Words: 1329 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55082621

Palese et al. (2011). According to Wood & Haber (2014) " the critique is process of critical appraisal that objectively and critically evaluates a research report's content for scientific merit and application to practice." Using the text's understanding of this examination this essay will explore the article and examine it for practical use and valid argument.

The problem that this research is premised upon is the idea that nurse's caring has gone mostly under examined in relation to patient's view of quality of care. The role of caring within the nursing profession is described as the factor which inspired this research. The variables within this examination are the patients' satisfaction measured against the practice of caring executed by nurses in their professional duties.

This problem is clearly identified and can be empirically tested as the article revealed in its conclusions. To help lessen the distortion of the ideas and values…… [Read More]

References

LoBiondo-Wood, G., & Haber, J. (Eds.). (2014). Nursing research: Methods and critical appraisal for evidence-based practice. Elsevier Health Sciences.

Palese, A., et al. (2011). Surgical patient satisfaction as an outcome of nurses' caring behaviors: A descriptive and correlational study in six European countries. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 43(4), 341-350.
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Epidemiological Data and Then Exploring Possibility of

Words: 410 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84386973

epidemiological data, and then exploring possibility of a causal connection between lack of government funding for community-based treatments and increase in HIV incidence in queer male communities.

Both statistical descriptive and inferential tests will be employed.

The descriptive tests summarize and describe the data. These would include frequency analysis e.g. Of the amount of men diagnosed as queer, and frequency that the participants experienced homophobia. Univariate analysis would focus on one variable, e.g. frequency of homophobia, by analyzing the mean, the distribution, the central tendency, and the dispersion of the occurrence.

The distribution would provide some assumption of the pattern of the range: whether normal or skewed.

The central tendency would, in this case, measure the mean of the data, i.e. average number of males that experienced discriminatory treatment. Dispersion would be another descriptive tool that measures the spread of values around the central tendency, i.e. range and standard deviation.…… [Read More]

Reference

AllPsych Online: http://allpsych.com/onlinetexts.html
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Females in Military Should Females in Military

Words: 2338 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55618137

Females in Military

Should females in military be allowed to lead combat units?

Gender discrimination is a wide exercised practice that is witnessed in the military organization as well. Women in the current times are equally challenging and capable of being a significant part of combat units. However, this subject matter has come under numerous arguments and disagreements with controversial results. In this regard, this study aims and intends to carry out a profound study that can determine whether females in military should be allowed to lead in combat unit or not. The study is a synthesis of both primary and secondary research that can aid the researcher to conclude with meaningful information.

Table of Contents

Abstract

Introduction

esearch Methodology

esearch Design

Participants of the Study

Data Collection Techniques

Timeline

Conclusion

eferences

Introduction

Since time immemorial, the element of discrimination and biasness, especially based on gender have existed in many…… [Read More]

References

Kotzur, G.P. (1997). Let Us Tell It: How It Was, How It Is and How It Will Be in the Future. USA: Turner Publishing Company.

Kumar, R. 2008. Research Methodology. 2nd Edition -- Reprinted. Great Britain: APH Publishing

Pallant, J. (2010). SPSS Survival Manual. 4th Edition. China: McGraw-Hill International.

Vartanian, T.P. (2010). Secondary Data Analysis. USA: Oxford University Press
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Neuman 2003 Researchers Frequently Need

Words: 1578 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64518944



The median is the middle point in a series and represents the 50th percentile, meaning about half the cases are above it and half below it. The easiest application of this technique is to organize the scores from highest to lowest, and then count to the middle. Therefore, in those cases where there is an odd number of scores, the calculation is straightforward; even numbers require some extra analysis to identify the median (Neuman, 2003).

This measures if the easiest to use (Lomax, 2001) and can be used with nominal, ordinal, interval or ratio data (Neuman, 2003). The mode is simply the most common or frequently occurring number in such a series, but a distribution can have more than one mode (Neuman, 2003).

Sources: As indicated.

Conclusion

The research showed that the three common measures of central tendency are mean, median and mode, although other indexes also exist. The research…… [Read More]

References

Cai, J., Lo, J.J., & Watanabe, T. (2002). Intended treatments of arithmetic average in U.S. And Asian school mathematics textbooks. School Science and Mathematics, 102(8), 391.

Leavy, a.M. (2004). Indexing distributions of data: Preservice teachers' notions of representativeness. School Science and Mathematics, 104(3), 119.

Lomax, R.G. (2001). An introduction to statistical concepts for education and behavioral sciences. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Neuman, W.L. (2003). Social research methods: Qualitative and quantitative approaches, 5th ed. New York: Allyn & Bacon.
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Conducting Analysis in Research Studies

Words: 558 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14545088

statistics statistics and inferential statistics.

Descriptive statistics and inferential statistics are used for different types of designs. For example, correlational studies will utilize descriptive statistics to measure a set of data's central tendency along with the way variables vary and relate to one another. A Pearson r would be a type of descriptive statistics test conducted to evaluate the strength of the relationship or if there relation goes in any one direction but descriptive statistics can also be used in causal-comparative design studies to measure data variability (Statistics for the non-statistician, n.d., p. 70). Inferential statistics on the other hand are used to compare means (typically a t-test is conducted) and statistical significance is determined by whether the p value is > or < than alpha (commonly .05) (Statistics for the non-statistician, n.d., p. 61).

Another way to think of descriptive statistics is that they are "used to synthesize and…… [Read More]

References

Dormann, C. et al. (2012). Collinearity: a review of methods to deal with it and a simulation study evaluating their performance. Ecography, 35: 1-20. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0587.2012.07348.x Retrieved from  http://www.biom.uni-freiburg.de/Dateien/PDF/dormann2012ecography_proofcorrections.pdf 

Junco, R., Elavsky, M., Heibegger, G. (2012). Putting twitter to the test: Assessing outcomes for student collaboration, engagement and success. British Journal of Educational Technology. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8535.2012.01284.x Retrieved from http://blog.reyjunco.com/pdf/Juncoelavskyheibergertwittercollaboration.pdf
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Criminal Justice and Criminology Interpreting

Words: 2030 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74648792

This result is somewhat different from that of a colleague which found that teenagers who are more likely to be at the high school level of education responded in higher numbers. This difference can be attributed to the differences existing in the posts. The other post was on the use of the GPS feature on smart phones. Teenagers are more likely to engage in tech talk compared to other age groups.

Conclusion that can be drawn about interpreting data

ata interpretation is an important exercise that comes after the data is analyzed. It helps to draw conclusions from the data itself. In the data interpretation process, it is possible to tell whether the hypothesis has been accepted or not. It is also possible to know how the sampling or data collection methods affected the results that have been collected. ata interpretation also helps to provide the answer to the research…… [Read More]

Data interpretation is an important exercise that comes after the data is analyzed. It helps to draw conclusions from the data itself. In the data interpretation process, it is possible to tell whether the hypothesis has been accepted or not. It is also possible to know how the sampling or data collection methods affected the results that have been collected. Data interpretation also helps to provide the answer to the research question. This is because the data collected is integrated with the hypothesis in order to find an answer to the initial research question. It is also learnt that data interpretation helps to discuss the summaries and data presentation methods in order to know whether they were appropriate for the type of data collected. Predictions regarding the elements of uncertainty that result from the data collection exercise and data presented can then be discussed and analyzed to acknowledge the role that variation plays in hypothesis testing. The inferential analysis was conducted in order to help draw conclusions about the results of the small data collection exercise. The statistical tests that have been used which are the ANOVA and t-test also show the relationships that exist between the variables. Data interpretation is also an essential step towards making evidence-based predictions for future related research questions.

Reaching research conclusions

Chicago is a famously polarized city in terms of racial and class tensions, thus focusing on community needs generates an important sense of unity between members of the police force and specific community members. It has been praised for its effective implementation of POP. It recently began a much-heralded initiative to bring POP to its public school system. Killings occur with alarming regularity in the city's public schools. There were 67 deaths during the first half of 2007 -2008 academic year alone, the year that POP was instituted to combat the problem within the school system. "If this doesn't sound bad enough, the 67 doesn't include the hundreds of students who were shot or beaten but managed to survive" (Waldek 2009). To implement POP, the Chicago police first surveyed the assessed patterns of school violence and causation possibilities. Over 500 students who suffered school violence were studied. "The students at the highest risk of violence, by statistics, are most likely to be black, male, without a stable living environment, in special education, skipping an average of 42% of school days at neighborhood and alternative schools, and having a record of in-school behavioral flare-ups that is about eight times higher than the average student" (Waldek 2009). Violent outbursts also tended to occur within a relatively narrow window of opportunity, either two hours before or after school and
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Null Hypothesis and the Data Treatment

Words: 564 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61884684

Treatment of Data and Hypothesis in esearch

During the research, there was data that was collected and having been plotted on the histogram and the appropriate scatter plots, the obtained results gave a descriptive portrayal of the finding from the variables. The histogram and the scatter plot gave the pictorial correlation between the time spent and the frequency of the attendance of the gym session with the audio and visual aids and on the other hand without the aids. The descriptive approach enabled the clear display of the findings such that the correlations were seen clearly hence giving a descriptive statistics at the end of the collection of the data. This descriptive data hence has the potential of giving the researcher easy time in explaining the correlation between the variables involved. The descriptive data also gives the researcher the basic information about the variables that are in a dataset for…… [Read More]

References

Lund Research Ltd., (2013). Hypothesis Testing. Retrieved May 12, 2015 from https://statistics.laerd.com/statistical-guides/hypothesis-testing-3.php

The Regents of the University of Michigan, (2013). Descriptive Statistics. Retrieved May 12, 2015 from http://www.researchconnections.org/childcare/datamethods/descriptivestats.jsp

William M.K., (2006). Inferential Statistics. Retrieved May 12, 2015 from  http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/statinf.php
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Human Factors Affecting Safe Operation

Words: 4150 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31803709



Table 5: Summary of the Findings of Survey Question 1, 2 and 3

Survey

Survey Questions

Mean

Standard Deviation

% of Important

% Not important

% Not Sure

1

Graduate from Undergraduate Pilot Training (UPT

2.914

1.40101

34.29%

45.71%

20

2

Pilot should be Under 40 years old

2.057

1.1099

34.28%

66.72

0

3

Having Minimum of 100 Flying Hours

3.2

1.549

40%

34.29

25.71

Total

Mean %

36.19

48.91

Mean Difference

12.72

Fig 5: Bar Chart Comparing esponses of Survey 1, 2 and 3

Based on the findings in the Fig 5, it is revealed that the second survey, which indicates that a Pilot should be under 40 years to demonstrate the effective aviation safety, supports the first null hypothesis and rejects the first alternative hypothesis. From the bar graph in Fig 5, 66.72% of the respondents agree that to be fewer than 40 is not important to demonstrate…… [Read More]

References

Alexander, P.J. (2007). The impact of computer technology in the clinical setting: a nursing perspective. [Thesis _PhD/Research).

Correa, M.A. Camargo, J.B. Gimenes, R.A.V. et al. (2007). Integrating UAV Into Control Airl Space Using Cooperative Multiagent Negotiation, Journal of the Brazilian air Transportation Research Safety.3(1): 24-36.

Dixon, S. & Wickens.C.D. (2003). Imperfect Automation in Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Flight Control. Technical Report. Aviation Human Factors Division Institute of Aviation.

Hou, M. Kobierski, R.D. & Brown, M.(2007). Intelligent Adaptive Interfaces for the Control of Multiple UAVs. Journal of Cognitive Engineering and Decision Making.1(3): 327 -- 362.
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Bmx Racers Research Whether it Is Qualitative

Words: 1359 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46987083

BMX Racers

Research, whether it is qualitative or quantitative in design, must be succinct, thorough, and best fit in order to achieve the intended results. Without proper controls, definition, and well-defined objectives the research endeavor is simply an ad hoc attempt to gather data and explain a particular phenomenon. Research must also command interest, enthusiasm, and passionate commitment to that which is being investigated. The purpose of the proposed research is to determine the differences that possibly exist in and amongst BMX (Bicycle Motocross Racing) racers with respect to the effect this extreme sport has on those who participate.

In order to accomplish the goals of the intended research project data will be collected by way of a short survey questionnaire wherein participants will be asked four (4) questions relative to the following:

The number of body scars received while participating in the sport.

The individual participants relative ranking in…… [Read More]

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M& m Project Report This Project Is a

Words: 727 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63169302

M&M Project Report

This project is a quantitative study involving descriptive statistics. Descriptive statistics allow for summations about objects (FAQs-Descriptive & Inferential Statistics), in this case m&ms. With the exception of measurement error, descriptive statistics can clarify large volumes of data with no uncertainties about the values. Each descriptive statistic reduces lots of data into a simpler summary (Trachim, 2006). The sample was collected by purchasing 1.67 oz. bags from different retailers from around the U.S. The colors were individually counted with the total number of candies per bag. Statistical analyses were conducted to determine whether the distributions were as the targets required, including the mean, standard deviation, and 95% confidence intervals. Half of the colors of the m&ms were off target, which indicates problems in the manufacturing and packaging processes. The blue, yellow, and brown did not show sufficient evidence, meaning they were off target for the target distributions.…… [Read More]

Bibliography

FAQs-Descriptive & Inferential Statistics. (n.d.). Retrieved from Laerd Statistics: http://statistics.laerd.com/statistical-guides/descriptive-inferentail-statistics-faqs.php

Trachim, W.M. (2006, Oct 20). Descriptive Statistics. Retrieved from Research Methods Knowledge Base: http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/statdesc.php
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Normal Distribution

Words: 658 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29909590

Probability and Normal Distribution

In the study of statistics, probability is a key concept that illustrates and describes the randomness and likelihood of an event from happening given the number of ways it can happen and the number of outcomes that this event could probably happen. That is, probability in statistics helps determine how likely an event is going to happen, as the certainty of the event happening cannot be determined specifically and how many times, but the likelihood of it happening can be determined. Using probability for the researcher, statistician or business decision-maker would mean going through all possible outcomes for an event or outcome to happen. andomness and probability makes it possible for an event to not happen at all; or there is an even chance that the event may or may not happen; but there is also a likelihood that the event could happen after all. These…… [Read More]

References

DePaul University Quantitative Reasoning Center. Accessed on April 28, 2014. Available at:  http://qrc.depaul.edu/ 

Urdan, T. (2005). Statistics in Plain English. NJ: Lawrence ErlbaumAssociates.
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Coleman Et Al 2009 Patient Perceptions of

Words: 1428 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67687998

Coleman et. al., (2009) Patient Perceptions of Obstetrician-gynecologists' Practices elated to HIV Testing. Maternal Child Health Journal 13: 355-363.

What were the objectives and hypothesis of the study?

The Coleman and colleagues (2009) study had four main objectives. The researchers sought to determine (1) the number of patients who were tested for HIV by their obstetrician-gynecologist (OBGYN); (2) investigate the attitudes of knowledge of patients concerning HIV testing and their personal risk status; (3) elucidate the key reasons that lead to declining an HIV test; and (4) examine how patients recall their OBGYN's approach to HIV testing.

The researchers hypothesized that women in their sample who were pregnant, seeking preconception care or who were women with risk factors for HIV infection would demonstrate recall for their OBGYN recommending an HIV test.

What was the overall goal/recommendation of the study?

The studying was predominantly seeking to determine whether or not female…… [Read More]

References

CDC (2008). Training: Policy Research and Development. Retrieved May 16, 2010 from http://www.cdc.gov/phtrain/policy_research.html.

Coleman, (2009). Patient Perceptions of Obstetrician-Gynecologists' Practices Related to HIV Testing. Maternal Child Health Journal, 13, 355-363.

DIGISTATS (2007). Descriptive Statistics; Inferential Statistics; Graphical Analysis. Retrieved on May 16, 2010 from  http://www.cvgs.k12.va.us/DIGSTATS/ .

Norusis, M.J. (2008). Guide to Data Analysis. SPSS Statistics 17.0.
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Americans and Canadians Differ in Their Online

Words: 1243 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67208228

Americans and Canadians Differ in their Online Spending Habits?

It is no secret that the economies of most industrialized nations have been sluggish over the first part of the 21st century. However, consumer confidence in North America may be on the rise. For instance, according to a March 2012 euter report consumer confidence for Americans and Canadians remained stable as 26% of Americans (the highest level in over a year) and 28% of Canadians believed that their economies would improve over the next year. These figures are taken from the BC U.S. Consumer Outlook Index and the BC Canadian Consumer Outlook (BC COI and BC CCO respectively; euter, 2012). Of course this is really not as optimistic as the researchers depict it, because 26 or 28% does not represent a majority. Therefore, the real news is that the majority of citizens in these countries DO NOT believe there economy will…… [Read More]

References

Miller, G.E. (July 5, 2011). U.S. Vs. Canada consumer spending: Who is more budget savvy? In 20 Something Finance. Retrieved April 18, 2012, from http://20somethingfinance.com/u- s-vs.-canada-consumer-spending/.

Reuters (March 22, 2012). Canadians and Americans share more than a border - we have similar concerns about economy, employment: RBC. In Reuters. Retrieved April 19, 2012 from http://www.reuters.com/article/2012/03/22/idUS81116+22-Mar-2012+PRN20120322.
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Industrial and Organizational Psychology

Words: 1168 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 859632

Industrial/organizational Psychology deals with the human component of organizations as well as clarifying primary motivational drives together with implications of people, socially, that work at the same place within a setting of an organization. Its research as well as the way it is being applied tries to put up characteristic human nature to be a way of efficiency and productivity in the process of facilitating environment which is conducive and safe as per their effect to the employee. All through I/Q psychology's rich history, it has applied statistical analysis and scientific researches in determining application of real-world in the work environment in trying to uphold efficiency in the process of offering an environment which is safe and is conducive to the satisfaction and well being of the employees.

Evolution of Industrial/Organizational Psychology

The genesis of I/Q psychology is from the early history of psychology in late 1800s at the time…… [Read More]

References

Kanfer, R. (2005). Self-Regulation Research in Work and I/O Psychology. Applied Psychology,

54(2), 186-191. doi: 10.1111/j.1464-0597.2005.00203.x

Kanfer, R. (2009). Work Motivation: Advancing Theory and Impact. Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 2(1), 118-127. doi: 10.1111/j.1754-9434.2008.01120.x

Spector, P.E. (2008). Industrial and organizational psychology. Research and practice (5th ed.).
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Structure the Research to Show How All

Words: 749 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58799216

structure the research, to show how all of the major parts of the research project -- the samples or groups, measures, treatments or programs, and methods of assignment -- work together to try to address the central research. Creating an effective research design is likely to be one of the most difficult and eminently useful tasks in drafting a proposal. An effective research design links abstract and stylized concepts and questions with the empirical world's complexities and challenges.

A research design must at once be specific and highly flexible. It must be expansive enough to adapt these very complexities while still pointing you towards relevant data. The methods you use should be extensions of your substantive question and epistemological orientation. Contrary to some disciplinarians' claims, there is no single research model that one can or should follow. Numerous alternatives must always be considered and choices made.

By the time you…… [Read More]

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Organizational Psychology Definition of Organizational

Words: 776 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53642981

During the post-war era, the principle of organizational psychology were further developed and refined to facilitate maximum production and efficiency throughout American industrial and business organizations (obbins & Judge, 2009).

Comparison to other Psychological Disciplines

The principal difference between organizational psychology and other psychology disciplines is that it pertains mainly to issues involving large groups and the relationship among groups and between individuals and their respective groups whereas most other psychology disciplines relate more to psychology issues that pertain to individuals (Gerrig & Zimbardo, 2008). Certain fields of psychology, such as social psychology, also focus on group behavior and the relationship between individuals and groups; however, unlike organizational psychology, social psychology considers a much broader range of issues that have nothing to do with vocational employment or the nature of organizations in particular. The study of cognitive and developmental psychology also differ substantially from organizational psychology: they address issues in…… [Read More]

References:

George JM. And Jones GR. (2008). Understanding and Managing Organizational

Behavior. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Gerrig RJ and Zimbardo PG. (2008). Psychology and Life. New York: Pearson.

Robbins SP and Judge TA. (2009). Organizational Behavior. Upper Saddle River, NJ:
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chronic pain

Words: 5085 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20582137

diagnoses, pain is a common complaint among inpatients. In the U.S. alone, approximately 100 million patients experience chronic pain (Alaloul et al., 2015). Pain negatively affects numerous aspects of an individual's life, such as sleep, quality of life, and physical functioning. Pain is also associated with negative psychological outcomes like depression, extended hospitalization, and a huge economic burden. In the U.S., for instance, pain imposes an estimated cost of $635 billion on patients and the healthcare system as a whole (Alaloul et al., 2015). Ineffective management of pain can have a negative impact on patient satisfaction, underscoring the need for more effective interventions.

Effective pain management is particularly important in postpartum care, where the experience of pain is common (Eshkevari, Trout & Damore, 2013). However, the management of pain in postpartum care remains quite ineffective, with up to 20% of postpartum patients reporting dissatisfaction with pain management (Niemi-Murola et al.,…… [Read More]

References

Alaloul, F., Williams, K., Myers, J., Jones, K., & Logsdon, M. (2015). Impact of a script- based communication intervention on patient satisfaction with pain management. Pain Management Nursing, 16(3), 321-327.

Broeck, J., Cunningham, S., Eeckels, R., & Herbest, K. (2005). Data cleaning: detecting, diagnosing, and editing data abnormalities. PLoS, 2(10), e267.

Brosey, L., & March, K. (2015). Effectiveness of structured hourly nurse rounding on patient satisfaction and clinical outcomes. Journal of Nursing Care Quality, 30(2), 153-159.

Bryman, A. (2008). Social research methods. 3rd ed. Buckingham: Open University Press.
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Technology on Personal Relationships the

Words: 13203 Length: 50 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85885493



In many ways, students live both in the land-based or physical world as well as in the virtual world; leading what some considers parallel lives.

Helliwell & Putman (2004) posit that social networking sites may offer an avenue for the development of greater social capital which may serve to further reinforce students' likelihood of integrating Facebook and other social media sites into their regular routines. A suggestion made as to the possible reason for the purported decline in mature interpersonal relationships is social media and advances in technology Helliwell & Putnam, 2004.

The following study will build a base of knowledge regarding several popular social media sites including Facebook, and examine the role social media plays in a college students' development and interpersonal relationships.

Technology has revolutionized and transformed the way in which people relate in one another and in this way it has greatly impacted the communication between people.…… [Read More]

References

Anstey, S. (1999). Online Personal Relationships. Milwaukee: University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee.

Arnett, J. (2000). Emerging adulthood: A theory of development from the late teens through the Twenties. American Psychologist, 55(1), 469-480.

Balnaves, M., & Caputi, P. (2001). Introduction to quantitative research methods: an investigative approach. London: SAGE.

Bargh, J., & McKenna, K. (2004). The Internet and social life. Annual Review of Psychology, 55(1), 573-590.
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Workers With in Small Firms Chapter I

Words: 5811 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77787296

Workers With in Small Firms

Chapter I outlines the problems this research aims to address, namely an information gap that may, if filled, enhance employment for potential and existing workers with disabilities. This chapter defines the problem background, purpose of research, theoretical framework through which conclusions will be drawn from survey data gathered in the field, the research questions the survey instrument seeks to answer, the definition of terms those questions employ and limits and delimitations of the intended research. Once those parameters are outlined, the claim this argument attempts to support, that closing a gap in information describing satisfaction and productivity for workers with disability in small firms below conventional definitions of 500 workers or less may improve employment for a historically marginalized population, leads to conclusions that thus inform the subsequent methodological and analytical chapters.

Problem Background: The Uncashed 'Triple Paycheck'

Title I of the Americans with Disabilities…… [Read More]

References With Prospectus (toward inclusion in Literature Review chapter)

Day, N.E. And Greene, P.G. (2008). A case for sexual orientation diversity management in small and large organizations. Human Resource Management 47(3): 637 -- 654. Retrieved from DOI: 10.1002/hrm.20235

Deveau, J.L. (2011). Workplace accommodation and audit-based evaluation process for compliance with the employment equity act: Inclusionary practices that exclude -- an institutional ethnography. Canadian Journal of Sociology/Cahiers canadiens de sociologie 36(3), 151-172. Retrieved from ejournals.library.ualberta.ca/index.php/CJS/article/view/10479

Erickson, W., Lee, C., von Schrader, S. (2011). Disability Statistics from the 2009 American

Community Survey (ACS). Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Rehabilitation Research and Training Center on Disability Demographics and Statistics (StatsRRTC). Retrieved Jun 11, 2012 from www.disabilitystatistics.org
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AIDS HIV Has Been Increasingly Brought

Words: 2479 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21339859

The problem with using this approach is that anomalies could occur, which will make the figures incorrect. To avoid these kinds of oversights, descriptive statistics is looking at a wide variety of numbers. This allows researchers to corroborate the underlying trends with one another. (Descriptive Statistics 2006)

Inferential data is when you are trying to determine what the respondents of the sample are thinking by looking beyond the data. This is accomplished by using probability to make judgments about what the data means by: looking at the differences between the control group and the independent variable. Two types of tests that are appropriate include: the t test and analysis of variance. (Inferential Statistics 2006)

Time Line

To achieve the various objectives of the survey, we include a timeline that will serve as guide in determining the length of the project. elow is a time line that will highlight the extent…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Cross Sectional Study, 2011. Available from: [9 June 2011].

Descriptive Statistics, 2006, Knowledge Base. Available from: [9 June 2011].

HIV / AIDS, 2010, The Kaiser Foundation. Available from: [9 June 2011].

Inferential Statistics, 2006, Knowledge Base. Available from: [9 June 2011].
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Effective Nursing Handoffs in Nursing Practice

Words: 4601 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77275375

Nursing Handoff Communication esearch

Nursing handoffs are important components in the modern health care setting given their role in transfer of the responsibility and authority of care from one practitioner to another during shifts. Generally, nurses work in different shifts when providing patient care in order to reduce their work burdens and potential stressful moments. Therefore, nursing handoffs help ensure continuity of care during a patient's stay in the health care facility. Despite the significance of nursing handoff in continuity of care, this process has been characterized by numerous communication problems. In most cases, nursing handoffs are substandard and contribute to several challenges in enhancing patient outcomes and satisfaction. This study seeks to examine communication problems in nursing handoffs with a view of identifying effective strategies towards enhancing this process. This issue is important in current nursing practice with regards to enhancing patient outcomes and satisfaction. Effective nursing handoffs are…… [Read More]

References

Abraham et al. (2011, October 22). Falling through the Cracks: Information Breakdowns in Critical Care Handoff Communication. AMIA Annual Symposium Proceedings, 28-37. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3243259/

Blouin, A.S. (2011, April - June). Improving Hand-Off Communications: New Solutions for Nurses. Journal of Nursing Care Quality, 26(2), 97-100.

Delrue, K.S. (2013, April). An Evidence-Based Evaluation of the Nursing Handover Process for Emergency Department Admissions. Retrieved from Grand Valley State University website: http://scholarworks.gvsu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1009&context=dissertations

Farhan, M., Brown, R., Woloshynowych, M. & Vincent, C. (2012). The ABC of Handover: A Qualitative Study to Develop a New Tool for Handover in the Emergency Department. Emergency Medicine Journal, 1-6.
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Gance-Cleveland B 2004 Qualitative Evaluation

Words: 945 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16939670

" Orthopedic Nursing. 19 (1); 71-82.

1. 1. What data was collected in this study? How was the data analyzed? Data from 24 patients who were admitted for primary hip replacement was collected. Participants were assessed for functional status using standard modification; mobility assessed, as well as general medical issues. Data was analyzed using the 1975 Sickness Impact Profile, a standard explanatory measurement within the field.

7. 2. Summarize the results of the study in your own words -- remember that results are the findings based on analysis of the data. The study found that functional status improved between pre and post-operative states in patients who underwent total hip replacement surgery. This also included basic mobility and movement. No real relationship was established regarding the patient's pain, however.

8. 3. What findings from this study were based on descriptive statistics? List them below.

Patients asked to rate (describe) themselves on…… [Read More]

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Richmond VA Been Impacted by

Words: 9200 Length: 27 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43920759

Dropping the interest rates and doing other things to make consumers breathe a little easier when they make a purchase shows that the country is pulling together, which is something that the recession is teaching almost everyone in America - that people are all alike in many ways, and they need to help each other out as much as possible.

Is the fiscal policy maneuvering a good idea? Many people think that using fiscal policy is not a good idea to try to stimulate the economy. The reason for this is that fiscal policy has a built-in system of checks and balances. For example, when the unemployment rate rises, the amount paid out in unemployment benefits also rises. It is just the way the system works. Many think that people mess with that system at their own peril. The concern is that the whole thing will get out of balance…… [Read More]

References

Baucus, Max. (2002). Economic Stimulus Package for 2003. United States Senate. http://finance.senate.gov/press/pr121902a.pdf.

Becker, G.S. (1968). Crime and Punishment: An Economic Approach. Journal of Political Economy 76:169-217.

Bertot J. (2001). Measuring Service Quality in the Networked Environment: Approaches and Considerations. Library Trends, 49(4):758-775.

Blitz B, Hamasu C, Sandstrom H. (2001). The Focus Group: A Tool for Programme Planning, Assessment, and Decision-Making -- an American View. Health Information and Libraries Journal, (1):30-37
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Paradox Marketing

Words: 11968 Length: 40 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41319963

Paradox Marketing Implementation for Business ustainability in Indonesian Telecommunication Company

The study provides the analysis of paradox marketing strategy implementation for business sustainability for Indonesian telecommunication company using the Telkom as a center of investigation. The research objectives have been achieved and research questions answered using both the primary and secondary research. The secondary data are collected using a comprehensive literature review from various scholarly research articles. Moreover, comprehensive literature review is carried out by collecting data from various research articles from EBCOhost database, cience Direct, Emerald Publication, university libraries, and online academic libraries. The quantitative research is used as a method of data collection using the survey strategy. Comparative analysis carried out between qualitative and quantitative research reveals that quantitative research is more appropriate to complete the thesis because it saves time and is cost effective.

The data collected through primary and secondary research have been used to achieve…… [Read More]

Sources: Guidelines for Authors. AJN, American Journal of Nursing. 109(4): 76 -- 77.

Appendices

Summary of the Results

Strongly Disagree

Disagree
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Military Retirees Are Entitled to

Words: 12717 Length: 46 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18599361



First of all only a scant few of these Veterans groups will acknowledge the "promise" of free health care; for the most part these groups will tout the benefits already promised by the Veterans Administration and assert that cuts in these benefits are the same a broken promise-or contractual breach in legal terms. The idea of the United States military making a "promise" or forging a legally binding agreement between individual veterans or groups of veterans is barred by the United States Constitution. As will be demonstrated in the Literature eview, specific Constitutional language from Article I give Congress and only Congress the express authority to make laws and regulations pertaining to the armed forces. Therefore, the idea the military breached a contract with service members is, ultimately, inherently inaccurate. Combining the lack of specific language within the materials provided by any governmental agency with the clear language of the…… [Read More]

References

.... (n.d.). The RETIRED MILITARY ADVOCATE. The RETIRED MILITARY ADVOCATE. Retrieved November 29, 2010, from  http://mrgrg-ms.org/ 

Best, R. (2003, August 7). Military Medical Care Services: Questions and Answers. Congressional Research Service, 1, 1-17.

Birkey, a. (2010, July 21). Fraudulent vets charity raised big money in Minnesota. The Minnesota Independent, p. 3.

Burrelli, D. (2008, August 12). Military Health Care: The Issue of Promised Benefits. Congressional Research Service, 1, 1-14.
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ERP Implementation Approach the Study Collects Data

Words: 3586 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25478508

EP Implementation Approach

The study collects data from 5 business units of the company. The data collection method is through both qualitative and quantitative data analysis, and the study collects data to enhance greater understanding of the EP implementation approach carried out by the company. As being discussed previously, the methodology used to collect data is through qualitative and quantitative approach, and the study collects data from the following business units:

Accounting Department

Human esources Department

Purchasing and Supply Department

Manufacturing and Product Development Department

IT (Information Technology) Department.

The study selects these business units because they are the most important business departments that focus on the core business activities of the company. The selected company represents a cross section of the major companies engaging in the EP implementation. Typically, the information collected from the company is treated with high confidentiality, and the company chooses to implement EP system to…… [Read More]

References

Bogdan, R.C. & Biklen, S.K. (2003). Qualitative research for education: An introduction to theories and methods (4th ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

Coffey, A. Holbrook, B. And Atkinson, P. (1996) Qualitative Data Analysis: Representations & Technologies, Sociological Research Online, vol. 1, no. 1.

Ettlie, J.(2000).The adoption of enterprise resource planning systems, in Responsive Production and the agile enterprise, Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Managing innovative Manufacturing, University of Aston.

Gibbs, GR (2002) Qualitative Data Analysis: Explorations with NVivo. Buckingham: Open University Press.
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Role of Mental Health Group in Helping

Words: 1817 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42009911

ole of Mental Health Group in Helping an Individual

ole Of Mental Health Group In A Helping Individual Overcome Schizophrenia In Hawaii: A Substantive Grounded Theory

ole of mental health group in helping an individual overcome schizophrenia in Hawaii: a substantive grounded theory

Schizophrenia is a brain disease that is emotionally distressing for patients and their families. In a society that has misunderstood schizophrenia for a long time, its victims have been undeservingly stigmatized. This study compares the development of social skills and coping skills of schizophrenia patients in support groups: can support groups help these patients? The purpose of this study is to analyze and compare schizophrenia patients with social skills issues and the care they receive from support groups with respect to developing these skills. Schizophrenia patients need a lot of support. They attend support groups to discuss housing, job, and family issues. This also gives them an…… [Read More]

References

Aneshensel, C.S. (2009). Toward Explaining Mental Health Disparities. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 50(4), 377-394. doi: 10.2307/20617650

Austrian, S.G. (2005). Mental Disorders, Medications, and Clinical Social Work (3 ed.): Columbia University Press.

Bateman, J., & Smith, T. (2011). Taking Our Place: Community Managed Mental Health Services in Australia. International Journal of Mental Health, 40(2), 55-71. doi: 10.2307/41345351

Dyke, C.V. (2013). Research Policies for Schizophrenia in the Global Health Context. International Journal of Mental Health, 42(1), 51-76. doi: 10.2307/42003833
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ER Practices in Atlanta

Words: 28237 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57056934

Economic Motivators for Employers on Employment ates for People With Disabilities in Atlanta

Qualitative esearch

Quantitative esearch

Definition of Disability

Statistics for Individuals with Disabilities

Effects Of ADA On Persons With Disabilities

Economic Motivators for Employers Hiring People with Disabilities

Factors Affecting Economic Motivators for Employers

Lack of Information and Knowledge egarding Economic Motivators

Misconception about Individuals with Disabilities

Inaccessible Hiring Strategies

Conflicts with Existing Programs

Lack of Appropriate Planning and Difficulties in implementations Economic Incentive Programs

Unemployment Among People with Disabilities

Summary

Conclusion

CHAPTE III: METHODOLOGY

Introduction

Qualitative esearch

Quantitative esearch

esearch Design

Variables

Selection of Participants

Complete description of the esearch Participants

Type of Sampling

Instrumentation 52

eliability 54

Validity 55

Appropriateness/rationale for use in the study 55

Ethical Consideration 56

Data Analysis 57

Qualitative esearch Analysis 57

Quantitative esearch Analysis 59

The esearcher's ole 60

Credibility 60

Dependability 60

Transferability 60

Conformability 61

Conclusion 61

CHAPTE IV:…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Andrew, D. P. S., Pedersen, P. M., & McEvoy, C. D. (2011). Research Methods and Design In Sport Management. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

Arthur, S., A. Corden, A. Green, J. Lewis, J. Loumidis, R. Sainsbury, B. Stafford, P. Thornton, & R. Walker, R .(1999). New Deal for disabled people: Early implementation, Research Report No 106, (UK) Department of Work and Pensions, Corporate Document Services, Leeds.

Ashworth, K., Hartfree, Y & Stephenson, A. (2001). Well, enough to work? Research Report No. 145, (UK) Department of Work and Pensions, Corporate Document Services, Leeds.

Baker, M. & Tippin, D. (2003). More than just another obstacle: Health, Domestic Purposes Beneficiaries, and the transition to paid work, paper presented at the Social Policy, Research and Evaluation conference Connecting Policy, Research and Practice, 29-30 April, Wellington.
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Equal Employment for the Physically Challenged Employees in Atlanta

Words: 27052 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77003855

Economic Motivators for Employers on Employment ates for People With Disabilities in Atlanta

Qualitative esearch

Quantitative esearch

Definition of Disability

Statistics for Individuals with Disabilities

Effects Of ADA On Persons With Disabilities

Economic Motivators for Employers Hiring People with Disabilities

Factors Affecting Economic Motivators for Employers

Lack of Information and Knowledge egarding Economic Motivators

Misconception about Individuals with Disabilities

Inaccessible Hiring Strategies

Conflicts with Existing Programs

Lack of Appropriate Planning and Difficulties in implementations Economic Incentive Programs

Unemployment Among People with Disabilities

Summary

Conclusion

CHAPTE III: METHODOLOGY

Introduction

Qualitative esearch

Quantitative esearch

esearch Design

Variables

Selection of Participants

Complete description of the esearch Participants

Type of Sampling

Instrumentation 50

eliability 52

Validity 53

Appropriateness/rationale for use in the study 53

Ethical Consideration 54

Data Analysis 55

Qualitative esearch Analysis 55

Quantitative esearch Analysis 57

The esearcher's ole 58

Credibility 58

Dependability 58

Transferability 58

Conformability 59

Conclusion 59

CHAPTE IV:…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Andrew, D. P. S., Pedersen, P. M., & McEvoy, C. D. (2011). Research Methods and Design In Sport Management. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

Arthur, S., A. Corden, A. Green, J. Lewis, J. Loumidis, R. Sainsbury, B. Stafford, P. Thornton, & R. Walker, R .(1999). New Deal for disabled people: Early implementation, Research Report No 106, (UK) Department of Work and Pensions, Corporate Document Services, Leeds.

Ashworth, K., Hartfree, Y & Stephenson, A. (2001). Well, enough to work? Research Report No. 145, (UK) Department of Work and Pensions, Corporate Document Services, Leeds.

Baker, M. & Tippin, D. (2003). More than just another obstacle: Health, Domestic Purposes Beneficiaries, and the transition to paid work, paper presented at the Social Policy, Research and Evaluation conference Connecting Policy, Research and Practice, 29-30 April, Wellington.
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Analysis of Null Hypothesis Significance Testing

Words: 1259 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97193202

Nhst

Compare and Contrast Null Hypothesis Significance Testing (NHST)

The most commonly used statistical technique for testing the impact of the factor being discussed on observations is Null Hypothesis Significance Testing (NHST). Consequently, NHST is the famous approach to inferential statistics, especially when conducting quantitative research. Despite being the dominant approach, NHST has also become increasingly controversial given the belief by a considerable number of people that it is a flawed statistical method. The controversy and consideration of Null Hypothesis Significance Testing as a flawed statistical approach has contributed to the development of alternatives whose proponents consider more beneficial or advantageous unlike NHST. However, an understanding of Null Hypothesis Significance Testing requires correct interpretation of p values.

Meaning of p = .05

P value is commonly used across statistical approaches including regression analysis and t-tests because it determines the statistical importance or significance in testing a hypothesis. According to Frost…… [Read More]

References

Carver, R.P. (1978). The Case against Statistical Significance Testing. Retrieved November 30, 2015, from http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.120.780&rep=rep1&type=pdf

Frost, J. (2014, April 17). How to Correctly Interpret P values. Retrieved November 30, 2015, from http://blog.minitab.com/blog/adventures-in-statistics/how-to-correctly-interpret-p-values

Gliner, J.A., Leech, N.L. & Morgan, G.A. (2002). Problems With Null Hypothesis Significance Testing (NHST): What Do the Textbooks Say? The Journal of Experimental Education, 71(7), 83-92.

Levine et al. (2008). A Critical Assessment of Null Hypothesis Significance Testing in Quantitative Communication Research. Human Communication Research, 34, 171-187.
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Multivariable Statistical Control Charts

Words: 1772 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19359503

Hoteling T^2 Control Charts

Multivariable statistics is an aspect of statistics that involves analysis of more than one variables. In other words, the multivariable analysis is concerned with the statistical analysis of more than one variables how they are related to one another. Some problems involve using the multivariable data using multiple regression or linear regression, and one of the aspects of the multivariable analysis is an area that involves analysis of quality control using the linear regression. Contrary to the univariable analysis that uses two variables, the multivariable analysis uses two or more independent variables or dependent variables. The concept independent variables are the variables manipulated by the researcher to carry out the analysis. With this control, the researcher will be able to correlate the dependent and independent variables. However, the manufacturing companies are increasingly using the multivariable statistics to enhance product quality. In the contemporary manufacturing environment, increasing…… [Read More]

Reference

Bersimis, S. Panaretos, J. &. Psarakis, S. (2005). Multivariate Statistical Process Control Charts and the Problem of Interpretation: A Short Overview and Some Applications in Industry. University of Piraeus, Department of Statistics and Insurance Science, Piraeus, Greece.

Harris, K., Triantafyllopoulos., K. Stillman., E. et al. (2016). A Multivariate Control Chart for Autocorrelated Tool Wear Processes. Quality and Reliability Engineering International, 32: 2093 -- 2106.

Hidalgo, B; Goodman, M (2013). "Multivariate or multivariable regression?". Am J. Public Health. 103: 39 -- 40.

Lyu, J.& Chen, M. (2009). Automated Visual Inspection Expert System for Multivariate Statistical Process Control Chart. Expert Systems with Applications 36: 5113 -- 5118.
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Compliance of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act

Words: 8538 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26804201

Pattern of inductive reasoning is as follows: Theory ?Tentative Hypothesis ?Pattern ?Observation. While inductive approach is concerned with the open-ended explanatory, deductive reasoning chooses a narrow perspective by testing or confirming the hypothesis. (Trochim, & Donnelly 2007). Typically, inductive reasoning chooses qualitative approach to test the hypothesis. However, the deductive approach employs quantitative method to test hypothesis before arriving at confirmation. In qualitative research, it is not necessary to generate hypothesis to begin research, however quantitative studies make use of hypothesis to begin research. One of the advantages of deductive approach is that the researcher is able to test the hypothesis by using data. The limitation of quantitative approach is that the hypothesis could only be tested when there is enough data. (Ali, & Birley, 1998).

In accounting research, testing the hypothesis with the use of the statistical analysis is the common method to arrive at confirmation. The validity of…… [Read More]

References

Ahmed, A.S. McAnally, M.L. Rasmussen, S. et al. (2009). How costly is the Sarbanes-Oxley Act? Evidence on the effects of the Act on corporate profitability. Journal of Corporate Finance 16: 352 -- 369

Ali, H & Birley, S. (1998). Integrating deductive and Inductive Approaches in a Study of New Ventures and Customer Perceived Risk. Imperial College of Science, Technology and Management,

Boot, A.W.A. Gopalan, R. & Thakor, A.V. (2004). Go Public or Stay private: A Theory of Enterpreneurial Choice: CEPR Discussion Papers 4219, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.

Boot, A.W.A. Gopalan, R. & Thakor, A.V. (2008). Market Liquidity, Investor Participation, and Managerial Autonomy: Why Do Firms Go Private?, The Journal of Finance. LXIII (4): 2013: 2059
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Nurses Preparedness to Care for Women Exposed to IPV

Words: 889 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13298450

Sundborg et al. (2012) conducted a quantitative study, which examined the preparedness of nurses to provide care for women who are exposed to intimate partner violence (p.1). The study was carried out on the premise that intimate partner violence (IPV) has significant effect on women's health. Therefore, nurses need adequate preparations to identify such victims and provide suitable interventions. While the study provides significant insights relating to nurses' preparedness in handling such patients, there are some drawbacks associated with it as demonstrated in this critique.

The sample for this study was randomly selected from the 174 primary health care centers that employ approximately 1,200 active nurses in Stockholm County (Sundborg et al., 2012, p.3). Since the sample was selected randomly, a probability sampling method was utilized by the researchers. Every individual in the sampling population had equal chance of being included in the study. The results from this sampling method…… [Read More]

Reference

Sundborg, E.M., Saleh-Stattin, N., Wandell, P. & Tornkvist, L. (2012, January 10). Nurses' Preparedness to Care for Women Exposed to Intimate Partner Violence: A Quantitative Study in Primary Health Care. BMC Nursing, 11(1), 1-11.
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Discussion Board Questions

Words: 1455 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65612565

size is an important step in the sample selection process. In Negarandeh, Bahabadi & Mamaghani's (2014) study, the procedure used to determine the sample size is clearly described. Following a pilot study, using the sample size formula, and based on the population of the hospital in which the trial was carried out, the authors estimated the sample size at 100 participants (50 participants in each group). evealing how the sample size was determined enables readers to ascertain the extent to which the sample selected is representative of the larger population (Thomas, 2009). In quantitative research, a representative sample is important for improving the generalizability of findings (Bryman, 2008). In this case, the sample was quite representative of the study population. The study setting was a 530-bed hospital. The trial was specifically conducted in the medical surgical ward, which had 40 active beds, meaning the findings can readily be generalized to…… [Read More]

References

Al-Abri, R., & Al-Balushi, A. (2014). Patient satisfaction survey as a tool towards quality improvement. Oman Medical Journal, 29(1), 3-7.

Broeck, J., Cunningham, S., Eeckels, R., & Herbest, K. (2005). Data cleaning: detecting, diagnosing, and editing data abnormalities. PLoS, 2(10), e267.

Bryman, A. (2008). Social research methods. 3rd ed. Buckingham: Open University Press.

Creswell, J. (2014). Research design: qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches. 4th ed. London: SAGE.
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Rick Houser's Book Counseling and Educational Research

Words: 6074 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60383503

ICK HOUSE'S BOOK COUNSELING AND EDUCATIONAL ESEACH

ick Houser's book "Counseling and Educational esearch"

ick Houser's book "Counseling and Educational esearch"

Why is it important to acquire necessary skills in research for a counselor?

Clinical counselors are doctoral-level providers of health services skilled in counseling clients while evaluating and treating emotional and mental disorders utilizing scientific theories and methods. Adequate interpersonal correspondence skills are imperative. A clinical counselor must have the ability to listen eagerly and understand what customers communicate with them, and have the capacity to talk clearly with customers about sensitive issues. This occupation also requires basic thinking skills, as clinical therapists must have the capacity to utilize logic and reason to solve and interpret complex issues. Houser writes: "… but I believe acquiring the skill to evaluate how knowledge was generated is a key skill in functioning as a professional and dissociates those with advanced graduate degrees…… [Read More]

References

Houser. R. (2009). Counseling and educational research: Evaluation and application. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage

McLeod. J. (2003). Doing counseling research (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
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Effects of Video Games on Short Term Memory

Words: 3840 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98815860

video games have on short-term memory. esearchers normally study action games, but quest/puzzle games were also included in this study, to allow for direct comparison of different game types along with a control group. In this research, we looked at three different types of short-term memory, the visual-spatial dimension, verbal and numerical. We examined some correlations between improved memory and video game usage. However, not all of the null hypotheses were confirmed in this study, meaning that there is room for future study. In particular, it has been established that quest/puzzle games are correlated with higher visual-spatial and verbal short-term memory, but it has not been determined if differences between baseline abilities amount the study participants might have influenced this result. This, therefore, would be one avenue for future study that has been opened up. This study contributes to the growing body of knowledge with respect to the influence that…… [Read More]

References

Amladi, S., Andrist, S., Ducommun, M. & Leabo, L. (no date). Using action video games to train working memory in students with working memory deficits. University of Wisconsin-Madison. Retrieved April 22, 2016 from http://pages.cs.wisc.edu/~sandrist/pdf/MBE_FinalPaper.pdf

Anand, V. (2007). A study of time management: The correlation between video game usage and academic performance markers. Cyber Psychology and Behavior. Vol. 10 (4) 552-559.

Anderson, C. & Bushman, B. (2001). Effect of violent video games on aggressive behavior, aggressive cognition, aggressive affect, psychological arousal and prosocial behavior. Psychological Science. Vol. 12 (5) 353-359.

Applebaum, L, Cain, M., Darling, E. & Mitroff, S. (2013). Action video game playing is associated with improved visual sensitivity, but not alternations in visual sensory memory. Attention, Perception and Psychophysics. Retrieved April 22, 2016 from http://people.duke.edu/~mitroff/papers/13_AppelbaumCainDarlingMitroff_APP.pdf
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Survey for Cloud Computing and Insider Threats

Words: 877 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5138983

Cloud Computing and Insider Threats)

A survey will be conducted of 40 businesses that have successfully dealt with insider threats. These 40 businesses will be compared with another online survey that arbitrarily and randomly samples other businesses.

My objectives will be to assess how 40 large companies successfully deal with insider threats and how these practices contrast with practices from other companies.

My methodology will be the following: I will randomly select 40 companies from the top Fortune 500 companies and, approaching their manager, will ask the manager whether I can conduct a survey on computer security on their company and whether I can distribute this survey to officials form their IT division. The survey will have certain key items, some of which will be graded on a Likert scale from 0 to 5. One of the questions may, for instance, be "ow secure do you think your company's computer…… [Read More]

How Online Surveys Work

 http://money.howstuffworks.com/business-communications/how-online-surveys-work8.htm 

Power, Richard. (1999) CSI/FBI Computer Crime and Security Survey." Computer Security Issues & Trends..20
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Statistical Information the Role of

Words: 1216 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38104719

Another statistical measure that should be implemented is the use of statistical techniques to measure the side effects of certain drugs and medications given to patients.

Possibly one of the most important statistical aspects that should be applied to modern nursing is the creation of clinical pathways in hospitals. The development of clinical pathways are related to "…attempts to reduce hospital utilization" and "cost-containment initiatives" ( Lagoe, 1998) There are many variables that have to be statistically considered in this regard and statistical analysis of data provides insight into the clinical pathway; for example, an analysis of the variables relating to the hospital population.

While data and information collection processes are important, they are dependent on accurate and dependable analysis techniques to be effective and of use in nursing. While nursing is known as a profession that stresses qualitative aspects, there is an increasing emphasis on the accurate quantitative side…… [Read More]

References

Giuliano K. And Polanowicz M. (2008) Interpretation and Use of Statistics in Nursing research: AACN advanced critical care (AACN Adv Crit Care), 19(2).

Lagoe R. ( 1998) Basic statistics for clinical pathway evaluation. Nursing Economics, May-June, 1998. Retrieved April 9, 2009 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0FSW/is_n3_v16/ai_n18607850/

Maindonald J. THIS PASSIONATE STUDY -- a DIALOGUE WITH

FLORENCE NIGHTINGALE. Retrieved April