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Sleeping and Insomnia
Introduction have been observing my roommate's sleeping patterns. He has insomnia and takes sleeping pills every night, sometimes with alcohol. My hypothesis is that his dependence on sleeping pills and his mixing with alcohol are hindering his condition, rather than helping it. I think that there are many other, more natural things he could do to ease his insomnia.
General understanding of sleeping
We spend about one third of our life sleeping. Sleep is defined as the suspension of consciousness during which the powers of the body are restored (ThinkQuest, 2003). The brain is not at rest during sleep as popularly thought, but is extremely active and it is the brain that tells us when it is time to sleep. Sensations of light taken in from the retina are transferred through the nerves to an area of the brain determines the amount of light exposure and adjusts…
ThinkQuest Online Library. (2003). "Sleep From A To Zzz." Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.thinkquest.org/
Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia. (2003). "Sleep." MSN. Retrieved from the Internet at http://encarta.msn.com/
Coren, Stanley. (1996). "Sleep Thieves: an Eye-Opening Exploration into the Science & Mysteries of Sleep." New York: The Free Press, 1996.
Cardinal, Florence. (2003). "Insomnia- What Is Insomnia?." Retrieved on the Internet at http://sleepdisorders.about.com/cs/whatisinsomnia
Genetics Stress and Trauma as Causes of Insomnia
One disorder of consciousness is insomnia and involves the inability to lose consciousness in sleep. The DSM-V defines insomnia as difficulty initiating sleep, maintaining sleep, wakefulness when one wishes to sleep and dissatisfaction with the quality or quantity of one’s sleep (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). The etiology of insomnia is that stress is the typical causal factor but trauma may also contribute to it. Cox, Taylor, Strachan and Olatunji (2020) show that insomnia and PTSD (post traumatic stress disorder) share similar symptoms, suggesting that trauma and insomnia are linked. Whatever the cause, insomnia involves abnormal neurological control, with neurotransmitter systems failing to connect, and the functional nervous system pathways being blocked. Abnormal brain structures are typically found in the frontal cortex, hippocampus and/or anterior cingulate cortex. Lifestyle and environment have been determined to be the main contributors to insomnia as this is…
American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: DSM-5 (5th ed.). http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.books.9780890425596
Cox, R. C., Taylor, S., Strachan, E., & Olatunji, B. O. (2020). Insomnia and posttraumatic stress symptoms: Evidence of shared etiology. Psychiatry research, 286, 112548.
Lind, M. J., & Gehrman, P. R. (2016). Genetic pathways to insomnia. Brain sciences, 6(4), 64.
318. However, in this and other studies, it seems that lack of effectiveness may be due to a cessation of the CBT and not due to its lack of effectiveness while in treatment (Belleville, 2011, p. 318). egardless, there are very few, if any, studies that show evidence of negative effects of CBT.
An additional factor that should be taken into account in Isabella's case is that substance use may be involved. Neither the DSM nor the DASS questionnaires address the theory that substance use may exacerbate or may be premorbid to anxiety/depression/stress disorders. Perhaps additional questionnaire(s) regarding substance use should have been presented to her. The Cannabis Expectancy Questionnaire is an example of a questionnaire that directly addresses substance use by assessing use by the patient (Connor, 2010).
An important additional consideration regarding Isabella's case is that in her verbal report she states that her inability to relax and…
American Psychiatric Association (2000). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental
Disorders (4th Ed.) Text Revision. Washington D.C.: American Psychiatric
Belleville G., Guay S., Marchand a. (2011). Persistence of sleep disturbances following cognitive-behavior therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Psychosomatic
The assumption here is that ounselor burnout may be heightened as a result of the diversity of students who attend post seondary eduational institutions, and the variety of servies the 2-year postseondary ounselors must provide to these students. This assumption is ongruent with the findings of a study by Wilkerson and Bellini (2006) who advise, "Professional shool ounselors are asked to perform multiple duties as part of their daily work. Some of these duties math the desriptions set forth by national standards for shool ounseling programs, whereas others do not" (p. 440).
Consequently, shool ounselors are required to formulate deisions on a daily basis onerning the best way to perform their jobs (Wilkerson & Bellini). Not surprisingly, many shool ounselors are overwhelmed by these onstantly hanging working onditions and requirements, and a number of ounselors experiene high levels of stress as a result. Beause the onnetion between high levels of…
cited in Angerer, 2003). Unfortunately, it would seem that most helping professionals, including counselors, possess characteristics which predisposed them to this construct. For example, Lambie notes that, "Counselors may have increased susceptibility to burnout because of their training to be empathic which is essential to the formation of a therapeutic relationship. In fact, research has found counselor empathy to account for two thirds of the variance in supporting clients' positive behavioral change" (p. 32). The ability to remain empathic to the plights and challenges typically being experienced by students in community colleges is complicated by the enormous diversity that is increasingly characterizing these institutions, of course, but all helping professionals run the risk of becoming burned out while performing their responsibilities by virtue of their empathic sharing. In this regard, Lambie emphasizes that, "Empathy helps counselors understand the client's experience, but at the same time, a counselor may experience the emotional pain of multiple traumatized clients. Empathy is a double-edged sword; it is simultaneously your greatest asset and a point of real vulnerability; therefore, a fundamental skill of effective counselors, being empathic, may place counselors at high risk for burnout" (p. 33).
Citing the alarming results of a national survey of counselors that indicated that incidence may be almost 40%, Lambie also emphasizes that although all professions involve some degree of stress, counselors and other human service providers are at higher risk of burnout compared to other professionals. For example, this author notes that, "Counseling professionals are often in close contact with people who are in pain and distress. This continuous exposure to others' despair, combined with rare opportunities to share the benefits of clients' successes, heightens counselors' risk for burnout" (Lambie, p. 34). Other authorities confirm the incidence of burnout among educators, and cite even higher rates than the foregoing estimate. For instance, Cheek, Bradley and Lan (2003) report that, "Based on several international studies, approximately 60% to 70% of all teachers repeatedly show symptoms of stress, and a minimum of 30% of all educators show distinct symptoms of burnout" (p. 204). Indeed, a study by Lumsden (1998) determined that overall teacher morale was sufficiently severe that fully 40% of the educators who were surveyed indicated they would not choose teaching again as a career, and far more than half (57%) remained undecided at the time concerning ending their teaching career, were actively making plans to leave teaching, or would opt to leave the teaching field in the event a superior opportunity presented itself.
There are some other qualities that typify school counselors that may predispose them to becoming burned out over the course of time (some quicker than others, of course), but which may reasonably be expected to adversely effect the ability of school counselors to maintain their effectiveness in the workplace. For instance, Lambie concludes that, "Common counselor qualities of being selfless (i.e., putting others first), working long hours, and doing whatever it takes to help a client place them at higher susceptibility to burnout. As a result, counselors may themselves need assistance in dealing with the emotional pressures of their work" (p. 34).
Counselors and Characteristics of Burnout
There is a milder form of mania, for instance, known as a hypomanic episode, in which patients display manic symptoms for a period of three or four days. If the manic episode lasts for a week or longer, as is the case with our patient above, then the patient is experiencing full-blown mania.
It is also somewhat common for bipolar patients to experience mixed episodes. These episodes involve "swinging" back and forth from one pole to the next, experiencing symptoms of both mania and depression within the same day.
From international surveys, we have come to learn that around 1.5% of all adults suffer from bipolar disorders. The average bipolar patient experiences around four episodes within a ten-year time span. There are those patients, however, who experience recurring episodes throughout their lives. Thus, it is quite likely that you will have to deal with a bipolar patient as an acupuncturist…
Moss, Charles a. "Five-Element Acupuncture for Husband-Wife Imbalance and Bipolar
Disorder." Medical Acupuncture Spring/Summer 1999. http://www.medicalacupuncture.com/aama_marf/journal/vol11_1/bipolar.html
See, for example, Moss.
Though there is not anything that clearly indicates that Cliff has not been through some sort of traumatic event to trigger his anxiety, it is unlikely that he suffers from Post Traumatic Stress Disorder since, again, his anxieties are not focused on any one thing and there is no indication in this vignette that he feels he is reliving any kind of event from his past. Social Phobic Disorder is highly unlikely since, again, Cliff operates out in the world with moderate success, and what is most telling to eliminate this diagnosis is the fact that Cliff does not state that he is concerned about his evaluations at work, but instead simply about arriving on time. And finally, Specific Phobic Disorder is not a consideration since, as stated before, his anxieties are not fixed on any one object, person, or situation.
American Psychological Association (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual…
American Psychological Association (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders DSM-IV-TR 4th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing.
Caldwell, J.P. (2005). Anxiety disorders. Redmond Hill, ON CA: Firefly Publishers.
Margaret Fuller was born in Boston and pushed hard at a young age by a father who, when she was just four years old, recognized her high level of intelligence and sought to instill in her a thirst for knowledge. Her father, Timothy Fuller, a Unitarian rationalist, treated her "…not as a plaything, but as a living mind," she explained (Gornick, 2012, p. 2). hile it is true she later wrote at length about how much she appreciated being induced by her intellectual father to study literature, philosophy and to learn languages even before her teens, she reportedly suffered "lifelong migraines, permanent insomnia and impaired eyesight" as a result of the intensity of the pedagogic pressure from her father (Gornick, p. 2). She also had a constant worry that "her intellectual output was insufficient," Gornick writes in The Nation; this was ironic because she was such an intellectual powerhouse and…
Fuller, Margaret. Woman in the 19th Century. North Chelmsford, MA: Courier Dover
Gale Biography in Context. "(Sarah) Margaret Fuller / Feminist Writers." Retrieved November
29, 2012, from http://0-ic.galegroup.com. 1996,
Offered under the same roof are "consultative, diagnostic, and treatment services" which are stated to be provided "by board-certified practitioners in the fields of pulmonary medicine, otolarngology, family medicine and more." (2006)
Smith reports that the laboratories experiencing the most dramatic growth are two which are located the "farthest from the Hillsboro flagship" as they are located in two areas that were "formerly underserved." (2006) Smith additionally reports that the demand is stronger in the areas where the two fastest growing centers are located which supplies "plenty of fuel for expansion."
Smith states that the Sleep Health & Wellness NW is attempting to "fill a gap so that patients who previously were overlooked or not being reached or who fell through the cracks no longer are," she says. "We have no plans to open centers in areas where there are already quality sleep services programs. We only want to go…
Inspiration! Sleep Study Results & Analysis (2006) Q&a with Ron Richard, senior vice president of strategic marketing initiatives at ResMed HME Business April 2006. Online at http://www.hme-business.com/articles/55305/
Johnson, Duane, PhD (2008) Are you Really Managing Your Sleep Lab? The Business of Sleep. Focus Journal May/June 2008. Online at http://www.foocus.com/pdfs/Articles/MayJune08/Duane.pdf
Kay DC, Pickworth WB, Neider GL. Morphine-like insomnia from heroin in nondependent human addicts. Br J. Clin Pharmacol. 1981;11(2):159-169
MacFarlene, James (2009) the Painful Pursuit of Sleep. Sleep Review Journal Jan/Feb 2009. Online available at http://www.sleepreviewmag.com/issues/articles/2009-01_07.asp
e recommended the remedy Natrum muriaticum, as it applies readily to Roy's symptoms, including his responsiveness to massage, his suppressed emotion, and his tendency to keep his feelings concealed from those around him. e asked that Roy not alter anything about his exercise regime during the course of treatment. Six months after Roy started taking the remedy, he returned to us for follow-up. Roy's posture was noticeably improved and he sat upright in spite of having returned from a business trip just that morning. hen asked, Roy stated that he had been increasingly aware of his negative emotions and was making a conscious effort to consciously own up to his feelings by being more assertive at work, and by simply admitting to himself that he was angry. Roy's back problems had waned; although last week he had a sudden relapse, he could readily attribute the setback to a stressful incident…
Homeopathy Index." Vitacost.com. Online at http://www.vitacost.com/science/hn/Index/Homeo.htm.
"…people with NES tend to be more depressed than obese people without NES, and the mood of those with NES tends to worsen during the evening, something not seen in other obese people"(Logue, 2004, p. 185).
Among the many studies that provide insight into the background and origins of this syndrome, one of the most enlightening was Obesity by Stunkard, in Fairburn and Brownell (2002). This provides an in-depth analysis of night eating syndrome as well as a concise overview of the background of this condition. Stunkard also refers to a detailed overview of this condition.
Studies using the above criteria estimate that the prevalence of the night eating syndrome in the general population is approximately 1.5% and that prevalence increases with increasing weight, from about 10% of persons enrolling in obesity clinics to as high as 25% of patients undergoing surgical treatment for obesity…it occurs among about 5% of…
Allison K. et al. ( 2005) Neuroendocrine Profiles Associated with Energy Intake, Sleep, and Stress in the Night Eating Syndrome . The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 90(11), pp. 6214-6217.
Amanda Ursell's: Feel Good. (2001, January 7). Sunday Mirror (London, England), p. 16. Retrieved April 23, 2010, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5007796657
Arieti, S. & Brodie, H.K. (Eds.). (1981). Advances and New Directions. New York: Basic Books. Retrieved April 23, 2010, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=101519121
Aronoff N., Geliebter a., and Zammit G. ( 2001) Gender and body mass index as related to the night-eating syndrome in obese outpatients. J Am Diet Assoc.101(1), pp.102-4.
Researchers used standard sleep questionnaires to assess sleep problems and characteristics in ADHD (n = 122) and non-ADHD (n = 105) comparison youths. They concluded that ADHD may be one of the consequence of nightmares but is not an outcome of it.
This study is valuable to my study in that it teaches me to be skeptical regarding differentiating between outcome and cause.
StRanjbaran, Z., Keefer, L., Farhadi, a., Stepanski, E., Sedghi, S. And Keshavarzian, a. (2007), Impact of sleep disturbances in inflammatory bowel disease. Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 22: 1748 -- 1753.
Study showed that inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients have significant sleep disturbance even when their disease is not active. This problem might affect quality of life, gastrointestinal symptoms and coping ability, and might potentially increase or decrease disease severity. A self-administered, mail-in questionnaire package was sent to 205 subjects using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index…
Overall, the research suggests that CBT is an effective treatment for PTSD, though there definitely certain caveats that need to be raised. CBT is not entirely effective and is not necessarily more effective than certain other treatments, specifically EMD, while there is also a need for greater knowledge and understanding when it comes to PTSD and its treatment in general. As this more detailed and refined understanding is achieved, the research analyzed above and other related research will become more meaningful and more effectively situated.
Cohen, J., Deblinger, E., Mannarino, a. & Steer, . (2004). A Multi-Site, andomized Controlled Trial for Children With Abuse-elated PTSD Symptoms. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 43(4): 393-402.
Hinton, D., Pham, T., Tran, M., Safren, S., Otto, M. & Pollack, M. (2004). CBT for Vietnamese refugees with treatment-resistant PTSD and panic attacks: A pilot study. Journal of Traumatic…
Cohen, J., Deblinger, E., Mannarino, a. & Steer, R. (2004). A Multi-Site, Randomized Controlled Trial for Children With Abuse-Related PTSD Symptoms. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 43(4): 393-402.
Hinton, D., Pham, T., Tran, M., Safren, S., Otto, M. & Pollack, M. (2004). CBT for Vietnamese refugees with treatment-resistant PTSD and panic attacks: A pilot study. Journal of Traumatic Stress 17(5): 429-33.
Seidler, G. & Wagner, F. (2006). Comparing the efficacy of EMDR and trauma-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy in the treatment of PTSD: a meta-analytic study. Psychological Medicine 36(11): 1515-22.
Zayfert, C. & DeViva, J. (2004). Residual insomnia following cognitive behavioral therapy for PTSD. Journal of Traumatic Stress 17(1): 69-73.
This can be as relatively minor as a night without sleep every few weeks or a continual struggle to sleep every night. Curing insomnia by just trying to Google a response to the problem only unleashes a flood of websites that offer all sorts of over-the-counter and prescription medications. The person wants to find relaxation techniques and also understand how they can overcome the insomnia on their own without having to take the trouble of going into a physician's clinic. In choosing which website to trust, using the evaluation criteria provided will be very useful. An example of a website that meets the criteria as defined is WebMD.com. Let's take a look at this website to see why. First, the website makes it clear they have an editorial policy, and their mission and purpose are to provide accurate, valid healthcare information to its website visitors. The WebMD Medical eview Board…
Lorence, D., & Abraham, J. (2008). When medicine tails: evaluating website quality tor interpretation of uncertain diagnoses. International Journal of Healthcare Technology & Management, 9(1), 19.
Stvilia, B., Mon, L., & Yi, Y. (2009). A model for online consumer health information quality. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 60(9), 1781.
Acquainted with the Night, by Robert Frost (1874-1963)
The poem Acquainted with the Night was written by Robert Frost and first printed in a collection called est Running Brook published in 1928. Robert Frost's poetry painted a classic picture of life in America. e get glimpses of every day scenes featuring every day people. e also get a picture of the very troubled and depressed Frost himself. hen reading Frost's poetry, it is important to consider the source of the melancholy tone and obsession with ghosts, death, loneliness and sorrow. Robert Frost had many losses in his personal life, business, and loved ones. He moved many times. It is a little known fact that Frost suffered from Tuberculosis. This disease was in epidemic proportions at the time. Tuberculosis not only effects your ability to breath, lowers your immune system, and steals your energy, it also causes sleeplessness, nervousness, and a…
Lentricchia, Frank. Robert Frost: Modern Poetics and the Landscapes of Self. Duke University Press.1975
Thompson. Lawrence. Robert Frost: The Years of Triumph, 1915-1938 .New York: Holt,
Rinehart, and Winston, 1970.
S ome aromas even affect us physiologically" (p. 38). esearchers exploring human olfaction have determined that:
faint trace of lemon significantly increases people's perception of their own health.
Lavender incense contributes to a pleasant mood -- but it lowers volunteers' mathematical abilities.
A whiff of lavender and eucalyptus increases people's respiratory rate and alertness.
The scent of phenethyl alcohol (a constituent of rose oil) reduces blood pressure.
These findings have contributed to the explosive growth in the aromatherapy industry; according to Furlow (1996), "Aromatherapists point to scientific findings that smell can dramatically affect our moods as evidence that therapy with aromatic oils can help buyers manage their emotional lives" (p. 38). According to Ornstein and Sobel, one recent experiment to determine the effect, if any, of fragrances on mind/body involved subjects being wired to physiological monitoring equipment, and then being interrogated with stress-provoking questions, such as "What kind of person…
Anderson, B.J., Manheimer, E. & Stein, M.D. (2003). Use and Assessment of Complementary and Alternative Therapies by Intravenous Drug Users. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 29(2), 401.
Aromatherapy Therapy Chart of Essential Oils by Therapeutic Effect. (2004). MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Chart. Available: http://www.moondragon.org/aromatherapy/aromatherapychart.html .
Ba, T.R.D.N. (Ed). (2003). An Introduction to Complementary Medicine. Crows Nest, NSW: Allen & Unwin.
Battista, J.R., Chinen, A.B. & Scotton, B.W. (1996). Textbook of transpersonal psychiatry and psychology.
Nursing - Discharge planning
Discharge Planning in Nursing
Mr. Trosack's Case
The three main health issues include movement hindrance where by Mr. Trosack will move with the help of a walker. Mr. Trosack diabetic condition is main health issue. Mr. Trosack is depressed and lonely and requires a special care and assistance. Mr. Trosack lives in a crowded apartment located at a second floor in a 3-storey building. The building does not have an elevator and thus Mr. Trosack has to use the stairs to reach to his apartment. The house has furniture and personal valuables and thus making it hard for him to use his walker once inside the room. e takes the garbage by himself since he lives alone because his wife died two years ago. e fears climbing up the stairs because of pain that emanate from the strain. is family works for 60 hours a week…
Hip fracture is a main health issue that happens in the United States. This study uses the baseline (1993) and data collected in 2006 in order to evaluate the aftermath of hip placement discharge. Patient discharge depends on the status code from the Medicare inpatient claim. They categorize discharge status depending on the condition of the patient. Mr. Trosack would fall for nursing facility because he would not get the required professional assistance from his family. In this study, most of the hip fracture patients went to a nursing facility.
An evaluation in this study reveals that at the time of placement, the patients had gone home for 90 days, and 180 days for patients discharged at a nursing facility. The evaluation of the care of hip placement patients needs consideration when choosing a discharge placement for them. Mr. Trosack, in addition to the surgery, is diagnosed with diabetes, hypertension, and obesity. The family, despite knowing all this, does not provide or hire a medical officer for a regular check up on him.
In order for Mr. Trosack to get well, it is crucial to refer him to a nursing facility. In this study, the home and rehabilitation discharge seems to decline while many people opt for the nursing placement, which increased. In these nursing facilities, patients are not likely to report any health issue compared to those placed at their homes. In addition, these nursing facilities offer functional needs to patients and may reduce hip fractures in elderly people.
Melatonin & the Pineal Gland
The focus of this work is to examine melatonin and the pineal gland. Towards this end, this study examines the literature in this area of study and reports on the findings. The work of Turgut and Kumar (1996) addresses information on the pineal gland, "epiphysis…a small gland in the brain. Stated as that the chief product of pineal gland is that of melatonin. Aleandri, Spina and Morini report that the pineal gland hormonal activity "is influenced by both the dark-light cycle and the seasonal cycle, causing it to play an important role in the neuroendocrine control of reproductive physiology."
Melatonin & The Pineal Gland
The work of Turgut and Kumar (1996) addresses information on the pineal gland, "epiphysis…a small gland in the brain. Stated as that the chief product of pineal gland is that of melatonin. Aleandri, Spina and Morini report that the pineal gland…
Arendt, Josephine (1998) Melatonin and the pineal gland: in-uence on mammalian seasonal and Bercemi, N. et al. (2004) Melatonin for Treatment of Sleep Disorders. Summary: Evidence Report/Technology Assessment: Number 108. Retrieved from: http://www.ahrq.gov/clinic/epcsums/melatsum.htm
Borijgin, J. And Snyder SH (1999) The pineal gland and melatonin: molecular and pharmacologic regulation. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 1999;39:53-65.
Bowen, R. (2003) The Pineal Gland and Melatonin. Other Endocrine Tissues and Hormones 17 Mar 2003 Rerieved from: http://www.vivo.colostate.edu/hbooks/pathphys/endocrine/otherendo/pineal.html circadian physiology. Reviews of Reproduction 3; 13-22. Retrieved from: http://www.reproduction-online.org/content/revreprod/3/1/13.full.pdf
Summation -- Fluoride and Pineal Gland (2012) Fluoride Action Network. Retried from: http://www.fluoridealert.org/health/pineal/
ithin the field of nursing there are many theories that receive a great deal of attention for the manner in which they assist nurses in treating patients. The middle range theory of unpleasant symptoms was developed many years ago and has proved to be beneficial to nurses treating patients with various ailments. The purpose of this discussion is to investigate the middle range theory of unpleasant symptoms as it relates to cancer patients. This subject was chosen because of the substantial number of patients that are affected by cancer. As a result of the presence of so many cancer patients, Nurses must understand how to effectively treat people with this disease. The middle range theory of unpleasant symptoms is one of the tools that can assist in the treatment of cancer patients.
Overview of theory
According to Smith & Liehr (2008) Middle range theory is defined as "a…
Dirksen, S.r, Belyea, M.J., Epstein, D.R. (2009)Fatigue-Based Subgroups of Breast Cancer Survivors with Insomnia. Cancer Nurs. 32(5): 404 -- 411
Kim, H., Barsevick A.M. (2009) Predictors of the Intensity of Cluster Symptoms in Patients With Breast Cancer J. Nurs Scholarsh. 2009; 41(2): 158 -- 165.
Otte, J.L. And Carpenter J.S. Theories, Models, and Frameworks Related to Sleep-Wake Disturbances in the Context of Cancer. Cancer Nurs. 2009; 32(2): 90 -- 106
Smith, M.J. & Liehr P.R. (2008) Middle Range Theory for Nursing. http://www.springerpub.com/samples/9780826119162_chapter.pdf
Individual Programmatic Assessment
TEATMENTS OPTIONS FO IEGULA SLEEP-WAKE SYNDOME
Irregular Sleep-Wake Syndrome is a form of a psychological disorder also called Irregular Sleep-Wake hythm. People with Irregular Sleep-Wake Syndrome have non-aligned sleep times. These people have sleeping patterns that do not adhere to the "normal" times of sleeping at night. The sleeping patterns are disorganized to a magnitude that one cannot tell the presence of a clear sleep or wake pattern. Such people have a tendency to sleep off on some naps over a 24-hour period. The sleep patterns have been split into pieces. They behave like infants who sleep for a few hours, wake up for some other few hours, and also sleep off for some few hours, with the cycle repeating with no clear sequence. During the day, the number of sleep times may be high since they like napping a lot. During the night, they seem to…
American, P. A. (2015). Sleep-Wake Disorders: DSM-5 Selections. New York: American Psychiatric Pub
Flamez, B., & Sheperis, C. (2015). Diagnosing and Treating Children and Adolescents: A Guide for Mental Health Professionals. New York: John Wiley & Sons
Fontaine, K. L. & LeFontaine (2014). Complementary and Alternative Therapies for Nursing Practice. New York: Pearson
Kerkhof, G. A., & Dongen, H. P. A. (2011). Human Sleep and Cognition: Part II. Amsterdam: Elsevier.
Cognitive Behavioural Therapy Techniques
For Treating Sedative, Hypnotic or Anxiolytic use disorder
Sedative-Hypnotic are a Class of Medications that Includes Barbiturates.
Sedative hypnotic refers to the medication such as benzodiazepines, barbiturates and nonbenzodiazepine. All these are medications used to treat insomnia. They are referred to as Z drugs because the members consist of zaleplon, the eszopiclone and zolpiden all of which contain letter Z. Benzodiazepines are the most prescribed drugs across the globe. They are used to treat anxiety, disorder, insomnia and panic disorders. The drugs are used to treat disorders even though they are hazardous, and expose the user to other conditions such as physical dependence misuse, overdose as well as abuse (Levounis, Herron & American Psychiatric Association, 2014). When the individuals become dependent, they suffer from anxiolytic, hypnotic or sedative; a condition where one becomes dependent on the substances that cause a calming effect. They may also suffer…
American Psychiatric Association (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, ed. 5. Arlington, VA, APA Press.
Barlow, DH, Gorman, J. M., Shear, M. K., & Woods, S. W. (2000). Cognitive-behavioral therapy, imipramine, or their combination for panic disorder: A randomized controlled trial. Jama, 283(19), 2529-2536.
Doweiko, H. (2014). Concepts of chemical dependency. Nelson Education.
GonAalves, D. C., & Byrne, G. J. (2012). Interventions for generalized anxiety disorder in older adults: systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of anxiety disorders, 26(1), 1-11.
However, those participants that chose to ignore sleep disturbances, engaged in sleep-promoting activities, or attempted unsuccessfully to overcome sleeping problems had poor sleep quality. The study also found that regardless of the coping strategy used daytime sleepiness still persisted. Yang et al. set out to establish the coping mechanisms used by young adults as it pertained to sleeping disturbances.. The research confirms that sleep disturbances lead to daytime sleepiness. This information is useful for colleges and for students because it presents the opportunity to educate students concerning how they can cope with sleep problems. The article is articulate and informative.
Caldwell K, Harrison M, Adams M, Quin RH, Greeson J.(2010) Developing mindfullness in college students through movement-base courses: Effects on self-regulatory self-efficacy, mood, stress, and sleep quality." J. Am Coll Health. 2010 Mar-58(5):433-42.
College can be a stressful time for students because of the responsibilities associated with classes and social…
Insomnia is a significant problem amongst all age groups. Young adults are particularly vulnerable to experiencing sleep disturbances. The inability to slessp can lead to a myriad of physical and social problems. As a result many researchers have studied the impact of sleep disturbances on young people. This is also the case with Yang et al. (2003) as they studied the ways in which this particular population copes with insomnia and other sleep disturbances. Te study also examined the effectiveness of young adults coping strategies on daytime tiredness and sleep quality. A total of 1,922 college freshmen participated in the study. Of the participants 44% indicated that they had sleep disturbance issues. The most common the disturbances was insufficient sleep. The study found that the adjustment of sleep schedules and naps were the types of coping strategies that were correlated with higher qualities of sleep. However, those participants that chose to ignore sleep disturbances, engaged in sleep-promoting activities, or attempted unsuccessfully to overcome sleeping problems had poor sleep quality. The study also found that regardless of the coping strategy used daytime sleepiness still persisted. Yang et al. set out to establish the coping mechanisms used by young adults as it pertained to sleeping disturbances.. The research confirms that sleep disturbances lead to daytime sleepiness. This information is useful for colleges and for students because it presents the opportunity to educate students concerning how they can cope with sleep problems. The article is articulate and informative.
Caldwell K, Harrison M, Adams M, Quin RH, Greeson J.(2010) Developing mindfullness in college students through movement-base courses: Effects on self-regulatory self-efficacy, mood, stress, and sleep quality." J. Am Coll Health. 2010 Mar-58(5):433-42.
College can be a stressful time for students because of the responsibilities associated with classes and social life. These stresses can effect mindfulness. With this in mind Caldwell et al. (2010) sought to evaluate if mindfulness improved when students participated in movement-based courses. In addition the study examined whether changes in mood, self-regulatory self-efficacy, and stress reconciles the relationship between more mindfulness and improved sleep. There were a total of 166 college students that participated in the study. The research took place during the 2007-2008 academic year. All participants were enrolled in Pilates classrooms. The result of the study reveal that total mindfulness scores and mindfulness subscales rose. In addition more significant changes in mindfulness were correlated to improved sleep quality at the end to the semester when compared to the beginning of the semester. . The authors therefore concluded that Movement-based courses are effective at improving mindfulness in this particular population. The researchers were thorough in their explanation of mindfulness and the impact of physical activity on the ability of people to remain mindful. The information presented is important because it reveals some of the steps that colleges can take to ensure that students have movement-based courses or activities so that mindfulness increases.
My final recommendation was that the parents and Adam's teachers should work as a team to help Adam manage his condition. In other words, the parents should communicate with the teachers to determine if the interventions have been effective. I would then talk to the parents themselves every two months to make further recommendations as necessary.
While drug interventions for ADHD, especially in children, have been increasingly controversial because of their possible side-effects, their main advantage is the speed and efficacy with which they work. Those who have benefited reported that the effects were almost immediately visible, on the same day the drug was used.
On the other hand, drug therapies for any mental disorder have been imperfect and frequently plagued by side-effects and non-compliance. Continuous research is therefore necessary to improve not only drug therapies and identify potential harmful effects in the long-term, but also to find possible…
ADHD Information Library (2008). ADHD Treatment Options: many Good Choices. Newideas.Net. Retrieved from: http://newideas.net/adhd/treatment
Martin, B. (2011). Treatment for Attention Deficit Disorder (ADHD). PsychCentral. Retrieved from: http://psychcentral.com/lib/2007/treatment-for-attention-deficit-disorder-adhd/
Personal Health Lifestyles, Inc. (2001). Attention Deficit Disorder: Facts, Prevention and Treatment Strategies. Retrieved from: http://www.healingwithnutrition.com/adisease/add-adhd/add-adhd.html#A1
For that reason, employers routinely provide stress-management programs for their employees (Archer, 2005; Probst, 2005; ichardson & othstein, 2008) and some hospitals have begun implementing stress-relieving programs and services because patient stress has been demonstrated empirically to inhibit recovery and suppress the immune system (Archer, 2005).
Strategies for educing Stress
There are many different strategies for reducing stress, depending on the type of stress involved and the source of its origin (Probst, 2010). In general, some kinds of stress can be reduced by making changes that address their source; meanwhile, other kinds of stress cannot necessarily be reduced at their source but their negative effects on the individual can be reduced through the use of coping strategies (Probst, 2005; ichardson & othstein, 2008). For example, certain kinds of self-induced stress (such as fear of failure, social anxiety, and performance anxiety) can be addressed by cognitive psychological therapy. Other kinds of…
Archer, R. (2005). "Hospitals design stress-reduction treatment to speed recovery."
Westchester County Business Journal. Westfair Communications, Inc. Retrieved
November 30, 2010 from HighBeam Research: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-132120351.html
Jancin, B. (2005). "Bright light therapy also looks promising for primary insomnia."
One of the most frequent injuries is represented by the traumatic brain ones.. amongst other symptoms, one can mention anxiety, severe depression. Headaches and the difficulty to reason clearly. PTSD, post traumatic stress disorder is also manifested through depression, insomnia, flashback.
It is important to underline that these psychological disorders are usually associated with drug abuse. Taking this into consideration, it can be underlined that we are dealing with a social phenomenon. Most soldiers do not have the psychological training needed in order to do what they need to do once in combat. War has never been and could never be a pretty things, so the atrocities that these young men witness or are forced to do, shake them up psychologically. The use of drugs is to be understood in close connection to this factor.
Depression is not a factor that can be ignored. And there is no time for…
Allen, T., the Iraq war-on drugs, 2006, March 20, 2008 http://www.inthesetimes.com/article/2670/
Alcohol and other drugs plague soldiers in Iraq, March 20, 2008 http://www.jointogether.org/news/research/summaries/2005/alcohol-and-other-drugs-in.html
Kelly, R., U.S. soldiers in Iraq suffer horrific brain and mental injuries, 2004, March 20, 2008 http://www.wsws.org/articles/2004/nov2004/sold-n20.shtml
Millitary Drug Programs, March 20, 2008 www.jackson.army.mil/Directorates/Asap.htm
Prioritize. Try not to schedule too many things at once. In the words of one article by the health center at Colorado University entitled "10 Great Stress Reducers," learn to say 'no.' Also, learn to live within your budget. In other words, don't sweat the small stuff, and don't make yourself crazy by overcommitting yourself and leaving everything to the last minute. Ask yourself, do I need this? Do I have to do this?
Of course, no one can completely avoid stress in their life, and in fact, some forms of stress can be good. Lots of people like the positive, controlled stress of exercise or performing. There is a different 'perfect' balance of stress and relaxation for every person. But everyone can benefit from learning some ways to counteract the physical strains of being under stress. Stretching -- and stretching often, even simply rolling down your spine, touching your…
10 Great Stress Reducers." (2008). Colorado University. Retrieved 24 Feb 2008 at http://www.colorado.edu/studentgroups/wellness/NewSite/StressHelpfulTips10Great.htm
How to survive finals with less stress. (2008). Colorado University. Retrieved 24 Feb 2008 at http://www.colorado.edu/studentgroups/wellness/NewSite/StressHelpfulTipsFinals.html
Stressed Out?" (Jan 2007). The National Institute of Health. NIH. Retrieved 24 Feb 2008 at http://newsinhealth.nih.gov/pdf/NIHNiH%20January07.pdf
Stretch Often." (2008). Colorado University. Retrieved 24 Feb 2008 at http://www.colorado.edu/studentgroups/wellness/NewSite/StressHelpfulTipsStretch.html
Depression and other serious mental disorders are the most frequent causes of suicidal thoughts or actions. Certain groups of people are at a higher risk of this tendency than others. These can be prevented by watching out for symptoms like changes in mood and behavior. These symptoms include thoughts about suicide or dying; attempts to commit suicide; new or greater depression; new or greater anxiety; strong agitation or restlessness; panic attacks; insomnia; extreme irritability; aggressiveness or violent behavior; impulsiveness; manias; and other unusual behavioral or mood changes. It reminds patients never to stop a Paxil regimen without first notifying a healthcare provider. Antidepressants are medicines intended to treat depression and other serious mental illnesses. They have side effects. They can interact with other medicines. And not all medicines prescribed for children are not approved for children by the FDA (GlaxoSmithKline).
Carey, . And Harris, G. (2006). Antidepressant may raise…
Carey, B. And Harris, G. (2006). Antidepressant may raise young adult suicide risk. 2 pages. The New York Times: The New York Times Company
GlaxoSmithKline (2007). How Paxil Works. Your Life is Waiting. 1 web page. Retrieved on November 27, 2007 at http://www.paxilcr.com/how_paxilcr_works/how_paxilcr_works.html
Paxil Prescribing Information. 42 pages.
Healthfacts (2002). Paxil risky for kids - warning issued. 2 pages. Center for Medical Consumer, Inc.: Gale Group
However, proper treatment may restore fertility. During pregnancy, existing fibroids may grow at a greater pace due to the increased blood flow and estrogen levels but they usually return to their original size after delivery.
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease
Definition & Cause: Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is a general term for infection of the lining of the uterus, the fallopian tubes. It is a very common disease and in the United States alone, nearly 1 million women develop PID each year and more than 100,000 women become infertile as a result of PID (NAID Fact sheet, 2005). It is caused in a majority of cases through sexually transmitted diseases such as Chlamydia and gonorrhea but PID-causing bacteria may also cause infection through other means such as during childbirth, abortion, or IUD insertion.
Complications: PID can damage the fallopian tubes, ovaries, uterus, and cervix, leading to chronic pelvic pain and serious damage…
Carson-DeWitt, R., and Odle, T.G. (2006). "Infertility.." The Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine. Third Edition. Jacqueline L. Longe, Editor. 5 vols. Farmington Hills, MI: Thomson Gale, 2006.
Frequently Asked Questions About Infertility." (2006). American Society of Reproductive Medicine. Retrieved on November 6, 2006 at http://www.asrm.org/Patients/faqs.html
General Infertility FAQ." (2006). The InterNational Council on Infertility Information Dissemination (INCIID). Retrieved on November 6, 2006 at http://www.inciid.org/faq.php?cat=infertility101&id=1
Mallari, B. (2001). "Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome." 3 RX.com. Retrieved on November 6, 2006 at http://www.3-rx.com/polycystic-ovarian-syndrome/default.php
Hours of Sleep, Life Satisfaction & Cognitive Functioning
ELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HOUS OF SLEEP, SATISFACTION WITH LIFE AND COGNITIVE FUNCTIONING
elationship between Hours of Sleep and Both of Satisfaction with Life and Cognitive Functioning
Proper sleeping hours are very important for our body's functioning. When a person is sleeping, his body is in the process of repair; thus allowing his brain to have some rest and the needed down time. There are many negative effects of less sleeping hours on the cognitive function as well as life satisfaction of a person.
Just like a proper diet, sleep plays a very essential role in the maintenance of overall health of an individual. Unfortunately, Americans are facing some serious cognitive and life satisfaction problems due to lack of sleeping hours. According to an estimate from U.S. Center for Disease Control & Prevention (CDC), approximately 25% of U.S. citizens have less sleeping…
National Sleep Foundation, 2005. Summary of Findings, retrieved on June 17, 2011 from www.sleepfoundation.org
Siri Carpenter, 2001. Sleep Deprivation May Be Undermining Teen Health. Monitor Staff, Vol 32, No. 9, pp.42.
Julia A. Shekleton, Naomi L. Rogers and Shantha M.W. Rajaratnam, 2009. Searching For The Daytime Impairments Of Primary Insomnia. Clinical Review, Brain & Mind Research Institute, University of Sydney, Camperdown, New South Wales
William E. Kelly, 2010. Sleep-Length And Life Satisfaction In A College Student Sample. Retrieved on June 17, 2011 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0FCR/is_3_38/ai_n6249228/
oing so helps us calm irrational fears and also helps us realize that others have faced the same kind of situation. We can benefit from what they have learned, but e Angelis maintains we must each go through our own pain to learn to deal with it and come out better for it. She points out, "Wake-up calls are never on our itinerary…but they test who we are and reveal us to ourselves like nothing else can."
e Angelis cites some startling statistics: depression affects approximately 19 million American adults; 22 million suffer from alcohol or drug abuse; 22% experience insomnia on a nightly basis. "We have more comforts, more possessions, more of everything than ever before in the history of humankind. Yet in spite of all this, we appear to be more miserable." e Angelis argues that many people mourn for the lives they thought they would have, rather…
De Angelis cites some startling statistics: depression affects approximately 19 million American adults; 22 million suffer from alcohol or drug abuse; 22% experience insomnia on a nightly basis. "We have more comforts, more possessions, more of everything than ever before in the history of humankind. Yet in spite of all this, we appear to be more miserable." De Angelis argues that many people mourn for the lives they thought they would have, rather than making the most of the lives they do have. She does not discuss the fact that depression, alcoholism, and insomnia can have real physiological causes, no does she discuss ways these diseases can be treated. The focus of De Angelis's book is the choices that many people can make for themselves; they can choose to be happy rather than dwell in the miserable past or think wishfully about what they believe they have missed.
Barbara De Angelis has written a number of self-help books and she is a sought-after motivational speaker. After reading this book, it is easy to understand why. The book is very uplifting. She uses many real-life examples and intersperses them with words of wisdom from various philosophers, both Eastern and Western. She has the ability to use her words to make her readers feel as though they can truly take charge of their lives. There is no room for pity in De Angelis's world. She asks that we acknowledge personal pain but not dwell on it. Rather, she insists that we use the pain to learn about life and about ourselves. In doing so, we can emerge stronger and embrace the future.
De Angelis, B. (2010). How did I get here? Finding your way to renewed hope and happiness when life and love take unexpected turns. New York: St. Martin's Press. (Kindle edition).
She attends Catholic church service with her family and friends on special occasions like Easter and Christmas as this seems to please her mother.
Her favorite hobby is reading novels.
The act of cutting her wrist frightens her. She has no transportation problem; therefore her Initial Diagnostic Interview with Dr. Philips is scheduled for 12/1/11.
The 28-year-old female demonstrates a high level of depression as well as anxiety as indicated by the symptoms of flashbacks, repetitive nightmares, insomnia, poor appetite as well as a general feeling of emptiness. Her behavior of self-harm (cutting) has also increased. She has a physical and sexual abuse history all of which affect her current mood.
The client was diagnosed with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, Depression and migraines.
Master problem list
Client: Grace Manchester
Date of Identification
Date of esolution
The client has a chronic medical problem…
Nemade, R., Reiss, NS and Dombeck, M (2007)Psychotherapy - Evidence-Based Treatments for Major Depression.
Whitfield, G and Williams, C (2003)The evidence base for cognitive -- behavioral therapy in depression: delivery in busy clinical settings. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment (2003) 9: 21-30 doi: 10.1192/apt.9.1.21
Shopping online has many benefits and advantages as compared to going to an actual store. One of the biggest advantages is that you can see many different products in much less time (Prussakov & Kaushik 2008). However, with the benefit of so many online stores comes some apprehension. There are literally tens of thousands of online shopping sites -- with more being added every single day (Lynn 2006). ith the benefit of so many choices comes a bit of an overload of information. Yet despite this overload of information, one only has to know how to navigate their online shopping experience in order to make the best of their shopping adventure.
Shopping online is an incredible way to shop because you can find pretty much anything you would ever want -- or anything you would ever need (or not need). A trip to the local mall to find something very…
Beshara, Tony. Acing the Interview: How to Ask and Answer the Questions That Will Get You
the Job. AMACOM. 2008.
Davis, Brian. Top Notch Interviews: Tips, Tricks, and Techniques from the First Call to Getting
the Job You Want. Career Press; 1st edition. 2010.
Nolan's Dark Knight deals directly with the idea of a hero's control over his world by pitting the emblem of anarchy (the Joker) against Batman (a mythological hero, supported by technology that borders on the totalitarian). Nolan questions the degree of power that someone like Batman should possess and whether or not he actually possesses it. Much of the film is spent analyzing this philosophical query, with Batman's tech-support man Lucius Fox even weighing in with his two cents. Regardless of the film, Nolan inserts the same preoccupations again and again.
For example, in the Prestige, Nolan advances the speculations of philosopher Martin Heidegger by examining the illusion of time with a nonlinear narrative: "For Heidegger, authentic temporality concerns itself above all with the future, whereas the film's notion of time is tied to repetition. According to the logic set forth by the Prestige, the idea of time as linear…
Gargett, Adrian. "Nolan's Memento, Memory, and Recognition." Comparative
Literature and Culture, vol. 4, no. 3, 2002, pp. 2-9.
McGowan, Todd. "The Violence of Creation in the Prestige." International Journal of Zizek Studies, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 1-31.
Rosenstock, Martin. "Review: Inception and Philosophy: Ideas to Die for." Image & Narrative, vol. 13, no. 1, 2012, pp. 114-116.
Drug addiction is a human issue that cultivates biological, psychological, and social consequences, among others. The manifestation of addiction itself is characterized by physical dependence, and is defined by the uncontrollable, compulsive urge to seek and use drugs despite harmful repercussions (Fernandez, odriguez & Villa, 2011). Philologically, drug use affects the reward center, where dopamine receptors are over-stimulated. Ultimately, the repetition of drug use is encouraged to achieve the same, heightened, pleasure response (U.S. DHHS, 2007). Psychological responses to drug use may reflect motivations caused by positive pleasure, anxiety, or protection. The bodily effects of drugs often reflect the drug's class: stimulants, depressants, narcotics, hallucinogen, and cannabis. Each class represents various drugs and causes distinct biochemical responses. In addition to illicit drugs, prescription drugs are also highly abused and are categorized within the drug classes. Drug addiction does not discriminate between gender, race, sexual orientation or creed, and…
Connecticut Department of Mental Health and Addiction Services (CDMHAS). (n.d.). Drugs with addictive potential. Retrieved 08 March 2012 from: http://www.ctclearinghouse.org/topics/customer-files/Drugs-with-Addictive-Potential-071105.pdf
Coon, D., & Mitterer, J. (2009). Psychology: A journey. (1st ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
Fernandez, G., Rodriguez, O., & Villa, R. (2011). Neuropsychology and drug addiction. Papeles del Psicologo, 32(2), 159-165.
Hyman, S., & Malenka, R. (2001). Addiction and the brain: The neurobiology of compulsion and its persistence. Neuroscience, 2, 695-703.
The researcher will gather all of the information collected from the self report questionnaires and analyze using a variety of techniques including summary, interpretation, classifying and describing. The author will use the data to measure change that occurs among the populations using HT therapy.
In conducting the study the researcher will undoubtedly run into some obstacles including determining how to measure change in the participants health and well being, examining the extent of change and the attributes of change for purposes of the study (King, 2001). Measuring change is a key concept vital to longitudinal research design (Kind, 2001). As this study is qualitative in nature the data will be presented via narratives, observations and transcripts from the survey to record and measure data appropriately (King, 2001).
The researcher will attempt to explain change and identify causal relationships between the independent and dependent variables. Data managing, reading, describing,…
Baldo, T.D., Schneider, M.K, & Slyter, M. (2003). "The impact of menopause:
Implications for mental health counselors." Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 25(4): 311.
Gambacciani, M., Ciaponi, M., Cappagli, B., Monteleone, P. Benussi, C., Bevilacqua, G.,
Vacca, F., Genazzani, A.R. (2005, Feb). "Effects of low dose, continuous combined hormone replacement therapy on sleep in symptomatic postmenopausal women." Maturitas, 50(2): 91-7.
Nursing Theorist: Sr. oy Adaptation Model
The oy Adaptation model for Nursing had its beginning when Sister Callista oy happened to get admitted in the Masters Program of pediatric nursing in the University of California, Los Angeles, in the year 1964. At that time, Sr. Callista was familiar with the idea of 'adaptation' in nursing, and it must be mentioned that Sr. Callista's adviser at that time was Dorothy E. Johnson, who believed firmly in the need to define nursing as a means of focusing the development of knowledge, for the practice of nursing. When Sr. Callista oy started working with children in the pediatric ward of the hospital, she was quite impressed with the basic resiliency of the small children who had been admitted into the wards for treatment. This was why when the first seminar in pediatric nursing was called for; Sr. Callista oy proposed that the basic…
"Callista Roy's Adaptation Model" Retrieved From
http://www.geocities.com/ninquiry2002/callistaroy Accessed 28 October, 2005
'Case Study" Retrieved From
http://www.geocities.com/ninquiry2002/casestudy.html Accessed 28 October, 2005
Drug treatment and behavior therapy may be useful, rather than analysis.
Also, psychological symptoms may produce biological phenomenon, like sleep disturbances. "Sleep disturbances and unipolar depression are such intransigent bedfellows that troubled sleep is considered a hallmark of the mood disorder," for example. (Marano, 2003) However, insomnia can also fundamentally unbalance the brain's natural state of homeostasis, causing the symptom of depression, as well as manifesting itself as a symptom of depression itself.
Behavioral problems in children can have their roots in biology. Children without enough sleep or proper nutrition are more likely to act out inappropriately, and without treating these biological causes, simply addressing the children's purely psychological feelings or even giving them coping mechanisms such as rationally discussing the issues, will matter little. Children and adolescents also have different sleep needs, and different internal time 'clocks' because their bodies are still busily growing at night. Children and adolescents,…
Goldman and C. Barr. (2002) "On the Addicted Brain." New England Journal of Medicine. 347:843. Retrieved 10 Oct at http://scienceweek.com/2003/sb031003-6.htm
Marano, Hara E. (2003) "Insomnia and Depression." Psychology Today.
Retrieved 10 Oct at http://www.psychologytoday.com/articles/index.php?term=pto-2862.html&fromMod=popular_depression
Michael Lauren who is struggling with drug problem. Michele Lauren is twenty-one-year-old girl, single and a resident of New York City. Michele lives with her parents and is addicted to marijuana. She was arrested on various circumstances, each time for the violation of Health & Safety Code 11357 (Samaha, 2007) that is the possession of large quantity of drugs and was locked up behind the bars on trials during the years 2002 to 2008.
Lately, she had been arrested three times in a month for the violation of such law. Michele had also encountered the problem of alcohol along with her problem of smoking pot and marijuana, but she has not been arrested for excess drinking and violation of Health and Safety laws related to alcohol. She had not been arrested for any other related crimes, as she normally filched her mother's purse for money whenever needed.
a) Casual drinks…
Samaha, J. (2007). Criminal Procedure, Seventh Edition, Cengage Learning, USA.
Letter to My Addiction:
To an Old Friend,
Chai Latte, you have always been there for me every day, even when no one else was. As a result, you were my first love because I could turn to you when I was happy, sad, stressed, or angry. You were always there to give me comfort and relief by taking away my fears and insecurities, while giving me hope and strength to face the next moment and situation. While I felt alone in the beginning, you became my best friend by being ever-present to an extent I no longer feel lonely or alone. Your ability to lessen my pain, struggles, and worries made me to lean on you on a daily basis.
You appealed to my senses by enabling me to have increased focus and attention, especially in moments when I was tired and helpless. I turned to your strength at…
Since its approval for use in the United States by the FDA in 1987, fluoxetine (commonly known as Prozac) has been the subject of great debate. Fluoxetine, now available in generic form, has been proven useful in the treatment of depression, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive disorder, some eating disorders, panic disorder, insomnia, migraines, schizophrenia, and more (Schmetzer, 2002). However, this drug does have a range of possible side effects including sexual dysfunction, anxiety, insomnia, agitation, tremors, irritability, hypomania, impulsivity, and gastrointestinal distress (Kerr, 2008). In addition, it may be too early to tell what the consequences of long-term (more than 20 years) use of fluoxetine might be on the human brain (Murray, 2006).
As a psychoactive drug, fluoxetine works by affecting the neurotransmitters serotonin and norepinephrine. Neurotransmitters in the brain are synthesized in neurons, stored in vesicles, and upon nerve impulse stimulation, are released into the synaptic cleft. Here they…
Borne, R. (1994). Serotonin: the Neurotransmitter for the '90s. Drug Topics, 108+.
Keltner, N. (2000). Mechanisms of Antidepressant Action: In Brief. Perspectives in Psychiatric Care, 69.
Kerr, L. (2008). Is Social Anxiety Making Us Depressed? Ethical Human Psychology and Psychiatry, 16+.
Murray, T.J. (2006). The Other Side of Psychopharmacology: A Review of the Literature. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 309+.
Taxi Driver: A Case Study
Travis Bickle: An Introduction
The facts that are presented to the spectator about Travis Bickle in the most general sense do paint a portrait of a certain level of pathology. Travis Bickle is a decorated Vietnam veteran, and appears to suffer from PTSD. The spectator also quickly learns that Travis does not have many friends: he's socially very isolated and this appears in part to be connected to the fact that he has trouble starting and maintaining friendships.
The spectator learns very quickly that Travis Bickle is given to disturbances in his judgment and perception, as well as in his decision-making process. In fact, the very reason he takes a job driving a taxi, thus bestowing the film with its very title, is because he has trouble sleeping (suffering from insomnia, a common symptom of PTSD). Bickle claims that he got lonely just walking around…
Berry, K., Band, R., & Corcorran, R. (2007). Attachment styles, earlier interpersonal relationships and schizotypy in a non-clinical sample. Psychology & Psychotherapy:
Theory, Research & Practice.,80(4), 563-576.
Filmsite.org. (2013). Taxi Driver (1976). Retrieved from Filmsite.org: http://www.filmsite.org/taxi3.html
Hurst, R., Nelson-Gray, R., & Mitchell, J. (2007). The relationship of asperger's characteristics and schizotypal personality traits in a non-clinical adult sample. Journal of Autism & Developmental Disorders, 37(9), 1711-1720.
O'Briens sandwich bars business model basically failed as a result of subletting franchisee properties.
O'Briens founder was Brody Sweeney.
He got the idea for O'Briens from a Subway restaurant in New York.
He started O'Briens in 1988 in Dublin.
The business lost money for the first six years of its existence.
A boost in the economy of Ireland brought success.
Employed people came in daily for sandwiches and coffee.
At its peak, the company was selling 140,000 sandwiches daily.
It was the biggest coffee seller in the Republic.
In 2007, franchise stores had a combined turnover of €140m per year.
The holding company had profits of €1.2m.
Sweeney became a poster boy for Ireland's new breed of entrepreneur.
He took the brand overseas.
In July 2007, O'Briens Irish Sandwich Bars Ltd. employed 20 people directly and 800 indirectly via franchises in Ireland.
The brand had 220 worldwide outlets in 13…
Hops (Humulus Lupulus) are well recognized and extensively grown for their use in preparing beer and lager. Whilst hops have been utilized in beer preparing in Europe from the oman times, they started their widespread utilization in Flanders in the 14th century. Hops got admired recognition in Britain in the 16th century for medical and drinking reasons. The pure characteristics given by the hops, developed beer as an everyday drink instead of water, in a lot of areas water was usually unhealthy for human utilization
The Hop plant is a perpetual climbing plant that in character strings itself around trees. It is an associate of the Cannabidaceae species. Hops and cannabis are the only two types in the family and there are a lot of resemblances amid hemp (Cannabis sativa) and the cultivated hop. However, there are no "chemical" connections amid them. The nettle family is in the…
Murakami, A. (2000). Hop variety classification using the genetic distance based on RAPD. Journal of the Institute of Brewing. May June 106(3): 157-161.
Yamazaki, T. (2000). Humulus lupulus L. var. cordifolius (Miq.) maxim. found in Chugoku District. Journal of Japanese Botany. April 75(2): 125.
Beatson, R.A. And T.E. Inglis (1999). Development of aroma hop cultivars in New Zealand. Journal of the Institute of Brewing. Nov. Dec. 105(6): 382-385.
De, K.D., F. David, et al. (1998). Automated reporting on the quality of hops and hop products. Journal of the Institute of Brewing 104(2): 75-82.
Proteinaceous Infectious Particles"
Recent cases of Mad Cow Disease have focused the public attention on prion diseases and the small proteins that are believed to cause them. The scientific community has been slow to recognize this mechanism of disease, since prion-caused encephalopathies can demonstrate diverse symptoms, and share characteristics with other disorders, such as dementia.
Prions, as the acronym (Proteinaceous Infectious Particles) suggests, are small proteins that are typically expressed in brain tissue, and may exist in a normal or abnormal shape. The prion protein is encoded by a gene found on the human chromosome 20. Usually, the prion protein is translated in neural tissue, folds into its normal conformation, carries out its cellular role, and is eventually degraded by enzymes. The abnormal prion, however, folds differently from its normal counterpart. This different shape makes it more difficult to degrade, and leads to the brain damage that is seen…
Inherited prion disease. (n.d.). Retrieved April 21, 2004, at http://www.st - marys.nhs.uk/specialist/prion/factsheets/inheritedpd.htm
Kightly, R. (n.d.). Prion replication and spread at the cellular level. Retrieved April
21, 2004, from Mad Cow Disease Images & BSE Pictures
Web site: http://www.rkm.com.au/BSE/index.html
consciousness has been studied actively since the 1960s. Interestingly, Taylor (2003) notes, "Consciousness is a subtle phenomenon, which has so far resisted all attempts to understand it." Taylor's statement may be an exaggeration, as the author of this assigned reading goes on to discuss a number of facets of consciousness that have been well studied. These include biological rhythms, facets of waking consciousness, automatic vs. controlled processing, shifts in self-awareness, sleep, and drugs that alter consciousness.
This article notes that circadian rhythms can be either short-term or longer term, and are simply biological rhythms that occur as regular changes in our bodily functions and processes. The pineal gland plays an important role in long-term biological rhythms like hibernation through its production of melatonin. Human differences between day and night people is a common example of biological rhythms in humans.
The author then moves on to examine common disturbances in circadian…
Morin, Alain. 2002. Self-awareness review part 1: Do you 'self-reflect' or 'self-ruminate'? SCR, December, No. 1. 26 August 2004. http://www2.mtroyal.ab.ca/~amorin/Rumination.pdf
Chapter: States of Consciousness. p. 121 -154.
Revonsuo, Antti and Valli, Katja. 2000. Dreaming and Consciousness: Testing the Threat Simulation Theory of the Function of Dreaming. PSYCHE, 6(8), October 2000. 26 August 2004. http://psyche.cs.monash.edu.au/v6/psyche-6-08-revonsuo.html
Tart, Charles T. 1975. States of Consciousness. First published by E.P. Dutton & Co., New York, in 1975. ISBN 0-525-20970-0. August 26, 2004. http://www.druglibrary.org/special/tart/soccont.htm
Children Use of Internet
There is no doubt that American society and its kids get more and more connected to the internet and at a younger age as the years, technologies and generations drive on. As this phenomenon persists, there is a burning question as to whether using the internet makes children more socialized and/or more intelligent as a result. The answer is an important one because there is more and more use of the internet across all stripes of America's youth in the form of tablets, iPods, mobile phones, laptops and desktop computers. This brief literature review will pull in ten different sources that all refer to and speak of socialization and intelligence vis-a-vis internet use amongst children. The prevailing wisdom is that it either hurts or harms but the question is which. There is even the possibility that there are some good and bad benefits at the same…
Hispanics and 40,375,000 African-Americans live in the United States and the respective percentages of these population groups are projected to continue to increase well into the foreseeable future. The purpose of this study was to provide descriptions of these two cultures and why they are of interest as well as a comparison of similarities and differences related to time orientation, communication, physical and mental health, group relationships, and perceptions and measures of intelligence between these two population groups. The study also presents a description of the theoretical framework that guided the analysis of both of these cultures as well as an explanation concerning how each culture influences human development, identity development, and personality development within it. An examination concerning how each culture influences the expression of emotion, the development of morality, gender, aggression, and marital fidelity and an explanation concerning potential biases that may influence the analysis of these cultures…
Brown, D. (2002, Winter). The role of work and cultural values in occupational choice, satisfaction, and success: A theoretical statement. Journal of Counseling and Development, 80(1), 48-51.
Buzi, R. S. & Weinman, M. L. (2010, Summer). Depression and risk behaviors among males attending family planning clinics. International Journal of Men's Health, 9(2), 91-93.
Carter-Parker, K., Edwards, K. A. & McCleary-Jones, V. (2012, Summer). Correlates of physical activity and the theory of planned behavior between African-American women who are physically active and those who are not. The ABNF Journal, 51-58.
Choi, K-H, Paul, J., Ayala, G., Boylan, R. & Gregorich, S. E. (2013, March 14). Experiences of discrimination and their impact on the mental health among African-American, Asian and Pacific Islander, and Latino men who have sex with men. American Journal of Public Health, 1-7.
Neuroscience is the study of the nervous system. Neuroplasticity reflects the brain's ability to transform itself. This is an important concept, because it means that the brain is constantly changing, in that there is no constant self. The brain can thus be "re-wired," as a consequence of this neuroplasticity. When considering the brain and its role in our health, this is important because as the brain regenerates, we have the opportunity to change it. We do not need to be who we were, for example. Some of this is fairly common sense -- new experiences can change us -- but neuroscience has allowed this to be proven, that our brains are not set entities but can be transformed. Even more important is the finding that we can change our own brains over time with training (Draganski, et al., 2004).
Stress is one of the major influences on the…
AIS (2016). Stress effects. American Institute of Stress. Retrieved April 5, 2016 from http://www.st ress.org/stress-effects/
Draganski, B., Gaser, C., Busch, V., Schuierer, G., Boghdan, U. & May, A. (2004). Neuroplasticity: Changes in grey matter induced by training. Nature. Vol. 427 (22 Jan 2004) 311-312.
Pradhan, E., Baumgarten, M., Langenberg, P., Handwerger, B., Gilpin, A., Magyan, T., Hochberg, M. & Berman, B. (2007). Effect of mindfulness-based stress reduction on rheumatoid arthritis patients. Arthritis Care and Research. Vol. 57 (7) 1134-1142.
Zautra, A., Burleson, M., Matt, K., Roth, S. & Burrows, L. (1994). Interpersonal stress, depression and disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis patients. Health Psychology. Vol. 13 (2) 139-148.
Lifespan development is a field of study that involves growth patterns stability and change in one's behavior in the whole stretch of life. The definition does not fully capture the intricate process of the study. The study employs scientific approaches to establish these trends. We need a close examination of the elements of the definition above. In examining stability, growth and change, lifespan development checks the assumptions about the course and nature of the development of a human being. This is a scientific way of establishing the facts in the study. Scientists evolve development theories and apply systematic scientific methods to establish the exactness of these assumptions. The focus of the studies is the development of human beings (FLDNMC, 2010).Lifespan Development scientists select a topical area of focus and consider the age range of study. The span normally spreads out in broad age range segments. These segments include…
Adolescence. (n.d.). Pearson Highered. Retrieved from:https://www.pearsonhighered.com/assets/hip/us/hip_us_pearsonhighered/samplechapter/020559526X.pdf
Baltes, P. B., Lindenberger, U., & Staudinger, U. M. (2007). Life Span Theory in Developmental Psychology. In Handbook of Child Psychology. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Retrieved from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/9780470147658.chpsy0111/abstract
Chand, S. (2013). How to Adapt CBT for Older Adults? Current Psychiatry, 12(3), 10-15.
Cooper, J., Masi, R., & Vick, J. (2009). Social-emotional Development in Early Childhood. National Center for Children in Poverty.
Piscidia piscipula formerly known as Piscidia erythrina and commonly known as Jamaican dogwood or Florida fishpoison tree, is a tropical, deciduous, medium-sized tree endemic to the Caribbean, Texas, southern Florida and the Keys, and Latin America. Historic use of the herb details West Indies Natives using the extracts from the tree to sedate fish (Fetrow & Avila, 2000). The sedated fish became easy to catch by hand leading to the common name of fishpoison. In modern times, scientists have discovered use for the herb as a sedative and analgesic.
The historic use of Jamaican Dogwood has been to catch fish by hand by sedating them and other traditional uses. Because the herb has sedative and analgesic properties, people of the Caribbean used it for pain relief, aid for labor, menstruation pains, toothaches, migraines, insomnia, and asthma. They would consume it either as a tincture, as a dried product, or as…
Cannabis contains more than one hundred and twenty distinct chemical compounds known collectively as cannabinoids. One of those canabinoids is cannabidol, commonly abbreviated and referred to as CBD. While CBD has no psychoactive properties, it may be beneficial for treating specific medical conditions including chronic pain. CBD can be used orally or topically. In its topical form, CBD is typically added to a carrier oil. Topical applications of CBD oils include the management of pain due to arthritis and inflammation. Research continues to mount suggesting the additional benefits of oral administration of CBD to treat epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, chronic pain, and anxiety. Because CBD does not produce known side effects, euphoric or otherwise, it has also garnered attention for its relative safety especially vis-a-vis its sister compounds found in cannabis. CBD also presents tremendous opportunities for market-related growth in the budding international cannabis industry.
Cannabidiol (CBD) is one…
Review of History and Physical Findings
The client is a 56-year-old Caucasian female who presents with complaints of fatigue that reportedly began 2 to 3 months prior to her visit. She reports that the fatigue is generalized and constant in duration, and has been progressively worsening since onset. The client reports feeling tired all the time and lacking the energy to do anything‘she could normally do’despite sleeping eight hours per night. No relieving factors were identified, although the client reports exertion as a possible aggravating factor. The client is married, has two grown kids, and works as a full-time office manager in an internal medicine office. She reports missing a day of work two weeks ago because she ‘couldn’t get out of bed’. She denies pain, fever, chills, or recent illnesses, but has gained 5 pounds since the last visit 6 months ago.
The client denies visual changes, ear pain,…
FDA (2017). LEVO-T: Highlights of Prescribing Information. Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved from https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2017/021342s023lbl.pdf
Lassale, C., Curtis, A., Abete, I., Van der Schouw, Y., Verschuren, M., Lu, Y., & Mesquita, B. (2018). Elements of the Complete Blood Count Associated with Cardiovascular Disease Incidence: Findings from the EPIC-NL Cohort Study. Scientific Reports, 8(1), doi: org/10.1038/s41598-018-21661-x
Samuels, M. H., Kolobova, I., Antosik, M., Niederhausen, M., Purnell, J., & Schuff, K. (2017). Thyroid Function Variation in the Normal Range, Energy Expenditure, and Body Composition in L-T4 Treated Subjects. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 102(7), 2533-42.
Soh, S., & Aw, T. (2019). Laboratory Testing in Thyroid Conditions – Pitfalls and Clinical Utility. Annals of Laboratory Medicine, 39(1), 3-14.
Dunphy, L.M., Winland-Brown, J. E., Porter, B. O., & Thomas, D. J. (2019). Primary Care: The Art of Science of Advanced Practice Nursing (5th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: F.A Davis Company
One cannot build the right sort of house -- the houses are not really adequate, "Blinds, shutter, curtains, awnings, were all closed and drawn to keep out the star. Grant it but a chink or keyhole, and it shot in like a white-hot arrow." The stare here is the metonymic device -- we assume it is stranger, the outside vs. The inside, but for some reason, it is also the authority involved, and one that is able to ensure adequacy. In a similar vein, the "churches were freest from it," but they offer only an homage' to safety, and use their power to shut people out from the light that "made the eyes ache" and had been inhumanly oppressive. The prison, though, is "so repulsive a place that even the obtrusive star blinked at it and left it to such refuse of reflected light as could find." The stare is…
Labor in Little Dorrit." Journal of the Novel. 31 (1) 21+.
Young, Arlene. (1996). "Virtue Domesticated: Dickens and the Lower Middle
Class." Victorian Studies. 39 (4): 483+.
Therefore the cognitive performance wasn't improved significantly by the use of DHEA though in the 3 months period only a fleeting effect might have been observed (Wolkowitz et al., 2003, p.1073.)
Vitamin is often prescribed by doctors for the treatment of Alzheimer disease. A large study which was funded by the federal government showed that the reduced ability to do daily activities is delayed slightly by the intake of vitamin E The useful aspects of vitamin E can be attributed to its antioxidant nature which helps in the protection of nerve cells from chemical deterioration. The physician supervision is necessary when someone takes vitamin E as an Alzheimer treatment. There were high doses of vitamin E used in the federal study and vitamin E when used with other medications can interact negatively including the ones used for preventing the clotting of the blood (Khachaturian, 1992, P.73).
Wolkowitz, O., Kramer, J., Reus, V., Costa, M., Yaffe, K., Walton, P., et al. (2003). DHEA
treatment of Alzheimer's disease: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Neurology, 60(7): 1071-1076. Retrieved April 1, 2010, from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12682308
Khachaturian, Z. (1992). Alzheimer's disease: new treatment strategies. New York: Wiley
Eventually, Esther sneaks into the cellar with a bottle of sleeping pills -- prescribed to her for the insomnia she was experiencing, without any other real attempts to understand or solve the underlying problems of her mental upset -- having left a note for her mother saying she was taking a long walk. Esther then swallows as many of the pills as she is able, and it appears to be several days (it is never conclusively stated in the text) before she is found and taken to the hospital, where she awakens to learn that she has yet again been unsuccessful.
Following her physical convalescence, Esther is subjected to electroconvulsive therapy, which she notes has a soothing effect on her depression. Things begin to look somewhat better for Esther; she is being well-cared for at a private hospital paid for by a rich benefactress and admirer of Esther's work. The…
Buell, Frederick. "Sylvia Plath's Traditionalism." Boundary 2-5(1) (1976), pp. 195-212.
Gilson, Bill. "Biography of Sylvia Plath." Accessed 3 April 2010. http://www.poemhunter.com/sylvia-plath/biography/
Liukonnen, Petri. "Sylvia Plath." Accessed 3 April 2010. http://www.kirjasto.sci.fi/splath.htm
Plath, Sylvia. The Bell Jar. New York: Harper, 2000.
Either way, what they shared is gone. The interesting thing about this story is the boyfriend's inability to see things from Jig's point-of-view. He does not have to deal with the emotional aspect of abortion, so he can say things like, "It's not really an operation at all" (Hills Like hite Elephants 1391). The nameless man is selfish and a liar because he tries to convince Jig "It's really not anything. It's just to let the air in" (1391) and "it's all perfectly natural" (1391). Hemingway purposefully leaves him nameless in an attempt to reveal how very little there is to his character. hat is worse, he probably is not concerned with what Jig is experiencing. He fails her and he fails to see her struggle, alienating her with just a few words. In addition, while he is alienating her, he is separating himself from her by demonstrating how selfish…
Aldrige, John. "The Sun Also Rises: Sixty Years Later." Readings on Earnest Hemingway. San Diego: Greenhaven Press. 1997. Print.
Hemingway, Ernest. "A Clean Well-Lighted Place." Literature: An Introduction to Fiction,
Poetry, and Drama X.J. Kennedy, ed. New York: Longman. 1998. Print.
-. "Hills Like White Elephants." The Heath Anthology of American Literature. Vol. II.
In the end, he is in fact alone. The social effect of hashish is temporary and fading. hen the intoxication wears off, he discovers that the freedom from loneliness was a dream. That is the dramatic twist at the end of the narrative. But it happens because of the depth of sympathetic involvement that carries the reader along with the narrator as he explores the dimension of society through the effects of hashish.
Didion's "Goodbye to All That" also displays depth through the narrator's self-exploration. The theme that unifies the essay is that the experience of New York changes over time. Didion wants to show this contrast of youth and later years. In the beginning, she is full of romantic illusions about New York. She is young, fueled by movie images, and optimistic. This is heightened by her expectations of some life-changing experience. The reader identifies with the excitement of…
Benjamin, Walter. "Hashish in Marseilles." In The Art of the Personal Essay: An Anthology from the Classical Era to the Present, ed. Phillip Loparte, 370-375. New York: Anchor Doubleday, 1994.
Didion, Joan. "Goodbye to All That." In The Art of the Personal Essay: An Anthology from the Classical Era to the Present, ed. Phillip Loparte, 681-688. New York: Anchor Doubleday, 1994.
Gornick, Vivian. The Situation and the Story: The Art of Personal Narrative. New York: Farrar, Strauss, & Giroux, 2001.
It also relaxes them and helps build rapport, and it can give you ideas to use for treatment...Everybody has natural resources that can be utilised. These might be events...or talk about friends or family...The idea behind accessing resources is that it gives you something to work with that you can use to help the client to achieve their goal...Even negative beliefs and opinions can be utilised as resources. (p. 451)
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy also works with negative aspects of the client's life as a way to increase the positive aspects of his or her life. Cognitive behavioral therapy is a more established therapy than in solution-based therapy, although the two are conceptually twinned. The major goal of cognitive behavioral therapy is to solve difficulties that arise in the client's life as the result of the presence of behaviors and cognitions (that is, thoughts) along with emotions that are dysfunctional (Albano…
Jones, D. (2008). Becoming a brief therapist: Special edition. London: Lulu Enterprises.
McCullough, J.P. (2003). Treatment for chronic depression: Cognitive behavioral analysis system of psychotherapy. London: Guilford Press.
Miller, S.D., Hubble, M.A., Duncan, B.L. (1996). Handbook of solution-focused brief therapy. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.
O'Connell, B. (1998). Solution focused therapy. Los Angeles: Sage.
Discuss the criteria used to define abnormality (abnormal behavior / mood disorders)
There are no established criteria to define what is abnormal. On the other hand, every individual trait can be said as abnormal on some social plane. (Oracle think quest, 2010) Some of the preferred ideas to define abnormality are as given below:
Statistical Norms Deviation: Certain population facts such as height, weight and intelligence are measured and recorded. Most of people come in the middle range of intelligence. Those who fail in general terms and falls below the so-called intelligence scale are termed as abnormal. But then, the people with extra intelligence also become abnormal. Furthermore, intelligence is a subjective issue. (Oracle think quest, 2010)
Social Norms Deviation: People going again social norms and trying to make their idiosyncratic identity are also termed as abnormal. Galileo was abnormal and he was brutally punished for his abnormality, he suggested…
Baker, B.L., Blacher, J., & Pfeiffer, S. (1993). "Family involvement in residential treatment of children with psychiatric disorder and mental retardation" Hospital and Community Psychiatry, vol. 44, no. 6, pp: 561-566.
Chan, Jeffery; Hudson, Colin. (2002) "Individuals with Intellectual Disability and Mental Illness:
A Literature Review," Australian Journal of Social Issues, vol. 37, no. 1, pp: 31-40.
Davidson, P.W., Cain, N.N., Sloane-Reeves, J., Giesow, V.E Quijano, L.E., Van Heyningen, J., & Sholam, I. (1995). "Crisis intervention for community-based individuals with developmental disabilities and behavioral and psychiatric disorders" Mental Retardation, vol. 33, no. 1, pp: 21-30.
The third type of response is the prolonged response also referred to as chronic stress which is a response to a trigger that is unrelenting or repetitive that can be caused by work related situation, the domestic stress, unsolved financial stress and such prolonged triggers.
Stress, if not checked can be harmful to the individual but also the immediate family or those living around the victim. Hence, there is absolute need to tackle stress as soon as it shows signs as discussed above. These responses may include though not restricted to; a) Talking about it, this should be encouraged. The victim should talk about it with the family members, friends, colleagues, counselor etc. b). Taking a break, which may include going to a place one rarely goes to or doing some activities they rarely do but enjoy, it may also involve indulging in picnics or long travel holidays, engaging in…
"Twenty-three million Americans experience workplace bullying within their work lifetimes" (cited in Seagriff, 2010, p. 575). With the economic challenges Americans are facing recently, tensions in the workplace are also on the rise, as employees increasingly worry that their jobs are in jeopardy. This fear over possibly losing their job means many employees will not risk reporting bullying to their employers.
Interdependence conflicts, as mentioned, are another common type of workplace conflict. This type of conflict centers on an employee's dependence of another person's assistance, input or output to perform their job (Kankanhalli, Tan, & Kwok-kee, 2007). In other words, task interdependence varies depending on the extent which an employee needs materials, information or support from their workplace peers, in order to do their job. "Task interdependence alters the course and consequences of conflict. Some have asserted that because high task interdependence implies the need for intensive interactions among members,…
Bacal, R. (1998). Conflict prevention in the workplace: using cooperative communication. Winnipeg: Bacal & Associates.
Bhattacharya, S. (19 Sept 2010). "Resolving conflict at work." Busienss Today, 19(9). p. 127-129.
Booher, D. (May 1999). "Resolving conflict." Executive Excellence, 16(5). p. 5.
Budd, J. & Colvin, a. (Jul 2008). "Improved metrics for workplace dispute resolution procedures: Efficiency, equity and voice." Industrial Relations, 47(3). p. 460-479.