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Instructional Strategies for Differentiating Instruction
Providing a Multitude of Examples
Lessons with a number of potential explanations for the end result are important. Lessons should always provide examples in different genre categories that encompass a broader number of interests or genres.
Sufficient Exploration of Crucial Features
The primary elements of the lesson plan are clear and concise. No students can move to more complicated understanding without first mastering the basics. Lesson plans need to highlight these features to show their importance and relevance to other core concepts.
Lessons Tailored to Learning Goals
The method of delivery can be adjusted in order to meet specific learning goals in the class. Introduction activities can help teachers understand individual skills and abilities. Understanding from an individual level can then help teachers to use specific strategies to target these groupings.
Use of Multi-Media Components
Lessons must incorporate…
Hall, Tracey, Strangman, Nicole, & Meyer, Anne. (2011). Differentiated instruction and implications for UDL implementation. The Access Center. Web. http://www.k8accesscenter.org/training_resources/udl/DifferentiatedInstructionHTML.asp
Mulligan, Dan. (2005). Learning and Succeeding in a Caring Environment. Appomattox County Public Schools. Web. http://www.appomattox.k12.va.us/acps/attachments/6_6_12_dan_mulligan_handout.pdf
Preszler, June. (2006). Strategies that Differentiate. SD Department of Education. Web. http://www.tie.net/content/docs/StrategiesThatDifferentiateInstructionK.4_001.pdf
Rather than using a basic recitation technique in which a teacher poses a problem and one student offers a reply, Think-Pair-Share supports a high extent of student response and can help keep students on task., on condition that "think time" boosts quality of student responses. Students become energetically involved in thinking about the thoughts presented in the lesson.
Research tells us that we require time to psychologically "chew over" fresh thoughts in order to collect them in memory. When teachers present too much information all at once, much of that information is nowhere to be found. If we give students time to "think-pair-share" throughout the lesson, more of the significant information is retained.
When students speak over fresh ideas, they are required to make logic of those fresh ideas in conditions of their previous knowledge. Their confusions about the subject matter are often exposed (and resolved) during this debate phase.…
Benjamin S. Bloom, Bertram B. Mesia, and David R. Krathwohl (1964).
Taxonomy of Educational Objectives (two vols: The Affective Domain & the Cognitive Domain). New York. David McKay
2. Donovan R. Walling
Phi Delta Kappa International, Bloomington, in 3. Gropper, G.L. (1974). Instructional strategies. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Educational Technology Publications.
These factors develop a child's level of ability that is measurable and it will pay huge dividends in the child's educational future.
Chapter 3 Methodology
The research focused on assessing kindergarten level reading skills and providing insights into the instructional strategies for teaching effective reading skills. The methodology used was to incorporate picture books, vocabulary instruction, phonic instruction, and visual cues for linguistic processing in order to build phonological awareness skills, comprehension and vocabulary.
The research helped gain insights into a kindergartener's ability to use Phonemic awareness, reading comprehension and word knowledge which made it easier to identify children who were struggling with tasks required in reading.
esearch Design and Details
For letter identification measures, students were measured in an un-timed test where each student had to read a lower-case alphabet letter on an individual card over the course of the two months and then having to say the…
Chard, David J., & Dickson, Shirley V. (1999). Phonological Awareness: Instructional and Assessment Guidelines. Intervention in School & Clinic.
Cranton, Patricia a. (2000). Exploring the Scholarship of Teaching. Journal of Higher Education, July 1.
Franz, Ph.D., Vivian. (n.d.). Strategies for Reading Comprehension. Retrieved October 5, 2004, at http://www.thudscave.com/~lamplighter/readcomp.htm
Fuchs, Douglas, et al. (2001). Peer-assisted learning strategies in reading: Extensions for kindergarten, first grade, and high school. Remedial & Special Education.
ELL Instructional Strategies
Instructional Strategies for ELL Classrooms
ELL INSTUCTIONAL STATEGIES
Instructional Strategies for ELL Classrooms
Instructional Strategies for ELL Classrooms
According to Echevarria et al. (2005), "Each year, the United States becomes more ethnically and linguistically diverse, with more than 90% of recent immigrants coming from non-English speaking countries." The dramatic influx of English language learners has led to changes in instructional practices within classrooms and to changes in how ELL instruction is delivered to students. There are a wide range of programs that are being used to teach ELL learners, such as dual-language instruction, transitional bilingual education and sheltered English immersion (Echevarria et al., 2005). egardless of the program that is being utilized, five important components will make language transition easier for ELL learners. Delivering comprehensible input, providing ongoing feedback, utilizing grouping techniques and strategies, building background, and facilitating student engagement will all help to make instruction…
Diaz-Rico, L. & Weed, K. (2010). The crosscultural, language, and academic development handbook. Boston: Pearson Education, Inc.
Echevarria, J. & Graves, A. (2007). Sheltered content instruction: teaching English language learners with diverse abilities. (3rd ed.) Boston: Pearson Education, Inc.
Echevarria, J. et al. (2004). Making content comprehensible for English learners: the SIOP model. (2nd ed.). Boston: Pearson Education, Inc.
Gillet, J. et al. (2008). Understanding reading problems: assessment and instruction. (7th ed.). Boston: Pearson Education, Inc.
Specialized Instructional Strategies for Teaching Reading
The objective of this study is to examine two studies relating to development of literacy in preschoolers in view of the National Reading Project. Toward this end this study will examine the work of the National Early Literacy Panel (2008) and the work of Vossenkuhl (2010) both of which report studies involving literacy learning in preschool students.
Study Reported y the National Early Literacy Panel (2008)
The work of the National Early Literacy Panel entitled "A Scientific Synthesis of Early Literacy Development and Implications for Intervention" reports a study in the form of a metasynthesis that sought to answer the questions of what are the skills and abilities of young children that predict later reading, writing, or spelling outcomes?" In addition the questions were posed as follows:
Which programs, interventions, and other instructional approaches or procedures have contributed to or inhibited gains in children's…
A Scientific Synthesis of Early Literacy Development and Implications for Intervention (2008) Developing Early Literacy: Report of the National Early Literacy Panel. Retrieved from: http://lincs.ed.gov/publications/pdf/NELPReport09.pdf
Vossenkuhl, AD (2010) Building an Effective Preschool Literacy Program. Preschool Literacy. Retrieved from: http://www.cu-portland.edu/coe/thesis/documents/angela%20vossenkuhl%20ar.pdf
espect for self, others, and the teacher is a primary rule that must be followed at all times (Holowicki, 2013). Putting forth best effort, coming to class every day prepared, following directions, paying attention, and preserving a positive learning environment are all components of respect for the classroom. There are specific rules that must be followed at all times in order to preserve classroom integrity. Those rules include no smartphone, cell phone, texting, or gaming during class. efraining from eating and drinking during class, from talking over the teacher, from being late, and from cheating are also important rules to follow.
The consequences for bad behavior will differ depending on the situation. However, there should be a formal procedure that the teacher follows so that there is no ambiguity and to protect student rights. A verbal warning comes first, followed by a parent consultation. If the parental consultation fails to…
Dunn, C. (n.d.). Classroom management plan. Retrieved online: http://www.calstatela.edu/faculty/jshindl/cm/caroldunnCMP.htm
Geltner, J.A. (2007). Curriculum components of classroom management training for school counselors. Delphi Study for University of Florida. Retrieved online: https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:fCJo3wlfTLIJ:ufdcimages.uflib.ufl.edu/UF/E0/01/96/66/00001/adamsgeltner_j.pdf+&hl=en&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEESh2anxNyzeSZ6nxTnbW5deWFaqEVKZjHo8IGBL_NxnCi1S8I0z9ousEOWElE9dHI5aYq1QAw4qTa0cJFUsyTVcNZbIpmlma_LCi8MowYDsNu_w7fmNRJ-tmHFDvq9M2emEkBPPz&sig=AHIEtbS_rO1puu6_GX_paOFMYvwHIyyVAA
Holowicki, M. (2013). Mrs. Holowicki's Classroom Expectations, Rules, Procedures and Consequences. Retrieved online: http://www.brightonk12.com/webpages/mholowicki/index.cfm?subpage=581663
State of Florida Department of State Teaching Resources (2009). Instructional Strategies. Teaching Resources for Florida ESE. Retrieved online: http://www.cpt.fsu.edu/eseold/in/strmain.html
Wondering what to do the articles tells that the study of David Pearson entitled "What Research Has to Say to the Teaching of Reading published by the International Association 1992 was the "most compelling research available." Pearnson's research claimed that "thoughtful proficient readers make connections, draw upon prior knowledge, create visual imagery, make inferences, ask questions, determine important ideas, and synthesize what they read." Lansdowne set out to test this at their school with their students. The spring of 2003 saw the invitation of Debbie Miller who is the author of "Reading with Meaning: Teaching Comprehension in the Primary Grades" published by Stenhouse, 2002, to create lessons incorporating the analytical skills into the first through third grade classrooms. "Millers work is an expansion on Pearson's" study in relation to strategies needing to be addressed toward all the "components of a good reader. " efore Miller arrived to work with the…
Brown, Kathy Laboard (2003) Teaching Learners to Think, Read, and Write More Effectively in Content Subjects. Education, Fall2003, Vol. 124 Issue 1, p49, 6p Assistant Professor the Citadel
Curran, Catherine (1997) Analyzing story characters: Facilitating Higher level
Intervention in School & Clinic, May 1997, Vol. 32 Issue
Dunn, Rita (1989) Survey of Research on Learning Styles. Educational Leadership March 1989 Vol.46 Issue
Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation:
One of the major tasks that teachers must undertake during teaching is identifying students who demonstrate high or low motivation in some learning activities. Generally, motivated students are involved in learning activities with intensity and feeling while the unmotivated ones tend to postpone and demonstrate their interests in other things through various ways. As a teacher in a classroom of 20 students, the students have varying academic and social skills levels. Some of the students are very good in all subjects while others are good in mathematics but have difficulties in reading well whereas others are good readers but not very competent in mathematics. The other characteristic of this classroom is that a few of the students have difficulties with nearly every subject. Consequently, there is need to apply various principles of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation as well as using technology and instructional interventions to help…
Dell'Olio. (2007, January 23). Chapter 4 -- Direct Instruction. Retrieved February 28, 2014,
Koeze, P.A. (2007, January 1). Differentiated Instruction: The Effect on Student Achievement in an Elementary School. Retrieved from Eastern Michigan University website: http://commons.emich.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1030&context=theses&sei-redir=1&referer=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.google.com%2Furl%3Fsa%3Dt%26rct%3Dj%26q%3Dmotivational%2Btheories%2Bdifferentiated%2Binstruction%26source%3Dweb%26cd%3D9%26cad%3Drja%26ved%3D0CHsQFjAI%26url%3Dhttp%253A%252F%252Fcommons.emich.edu%252Fcgi%252Fviewcontent.cgi%253Farticle%253D1030%2526context%253Dtheses%26ei%3D3rkQU_feGsmd7gaO1YCYCQ%26usg%3DAFQjCNH3_KzXOunxaRWwpRDekQbGpunwtA%26sig2%3D97o2-BW7H83lFzQjz0tx4Q%26bvm%3Dbv.61965928%2Cd.ZGU
Tollefson, N. (2000). Classroom Applications of Cognitive Theories of Motivation. Education Psychology Review, 12(1), 63-83. Retrieved February 28, 2014, from http://www.delta.wisc.edu/Events/Brown%20Bag%20Buzz%20readings/Metacognition_Optional.pdf
Part I: Definitions and Characteristics
Deaf/Hard of Hearing
Hearing disabilities occur on a continuum from mild to more serious impairments to the ability to process auditory cues. Deafness is a spectrum of disabilities referring to anything from mild hearing impairments to fully identifying with the Deaf community and culture (Taylor, Smiley & Richards, 2009). Defining deafness or hard of hearing requires various types of assessments, including those that determine responsiveness to various types of sounds and their decibel levels. Hearing loss can also be defined according to cause or type (such as damage to the auditory nerves), degree of hearing loss (whether a person can hear some sounds but not others), and also age of onset or etiology (Taylor, Smiley & Richards, 2009). According to laws like IDEA, though, hearing disabilities may also be defined by the degree to which they impact the student’s performance in school (Taylor, Smiley &…
Becker, S.J. & Bowen, S.K. (2018). Service providers’ perspective on education of students who are deaf or hard of hearing and English learners. American Annals of the Deaf 163(3): 356-373.
Bruce, S., Ferrell, K. & Luckner, J.L. (2016). Guidelines for the Administration of Educational Programs for Students Who Are Deaf/Hard of Hearing, Visually Impaired, or Deafblind. Journal of the American Academy of Special Education Professionals, 2016, pp. 47-59.
Christiansen, D., Bilder, D., Zahorodny, W., et al. (2016). Prevalence and characteristics of autism spectrum disorder among 4 year-old children in the autism and developmental disabilities monitoring network. Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics 37(1): 1-8.
Israel, M., Wherfel, Q.M., Pearson, J., et al. (2015). Empowering K-12 students with disabilities to learn computational thinking and computer programming. Teaching Exceptional Children 48(1): 45-53.
Lambros, K., Kraemer, B., Wager, J.D., et al., (2015). Students with Dual Diagnosis: Can School-Based Mental Health Services Play a Role? Journal of Mental Health Research in Intellectual Disabilities 9(1-2): 3-23.
Ludi, S., Bernstein, D., & Mutch-Jones, K. (2018). Enhanced robotics. SIGCSE \\\\'18 Proceedings of the 49th ACM Technical Symposium on Computer Science Education, p. 372-377.
Roberts, C.A., Ruppar, A.L. & Olson, A.J. (2017). Perceptions matter. Research and Practice for Persons with Severe Disabilities 43(1): 3-19.
Taylor, R.L., Smiley, L.R. & Richards, S. (2009). Exceptional Students. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Instructional Strategy Into the Classroom
The instructional strategy selected for implementation in the classroom is job aids. There is a large body of research that suggests that job aids can be used to effectively improve understanding, cognition, retention and interpretation of material in the classroom (Dwyer & Spaulding, 2001). Simply defined, job aids are simple tutorials that often contain graphics used to illustrate the steps needed to accomplish a task or define a problem (Thiagi, 1999). They can come in many different forms including: checklists, decision tables, worksheets, flowcharts, diagrams or any other items that help improve student performance with regard to individual tasks, without requiring memorization of the specific steps or factual information related to the task (Thiagi, 1999).
A good example of a potential 'job aid' is a yellow pages directory (Thiagi, 1999) which helps people locate and use telephone numbers. Job aids work by improving an individual's…
Dwyer, F. & Spaulding, K. (2001). "The effect of time-on-task when using job aids as an instructional strategy." International Journal of Instructional Media, Vol. 28, Issue 4, p. 437
Dwyer, F. & Spaulding, K. (1999). "Effect of job aids in facilitating learners' cognitive development." International Journal of Instructional Media, Vol. 26, Issue 1, p. 87
Rossett, A. (1991). "Job aids in a performance technology world." Performance & Instruction, Vol. 30, Issue 1, pp. 1-6
Thiagi, S. (1999). "Rapid instructional design." [online]. October 5, 2004, at http://www.thiagi.com/article-rid.html.
Knowles stated "The richest resources for learning reside in the adult learners themselves" (p. 66). n instructional strategy like gaming may help to facilitate tapping into the adult learner's experience. Through collaboration during the play of a game, learners may discuss prior experiences to aid in discovery of the correct answer. Gaming activities also permit peer feedback to be given to students based on their previous experiences. The millennial student desires immediate feedback and integrates their experiences into their learning (Tapscott, 1998). gain, through group discussion and collaboration, learners share previous experiences with others to confirm or not the correct answer.
By not tapping into the experience of adult learners, negative effects may result (Knowles, 2005). The adult learner identifies their experiences as who they are. In other words, their experiences help to define them as a person. dult learners, who perceive their experiences as being ignored or devalued, perceive…
A somewhat controversial and negative environmental outcome identified from the review of literature was the competitive component to gaming. In an evaluation conducted by Gruendling et al.(1991), some learners (5%) felt threatened by competitive nature of gaming (N = 40) and stated that gaming can cause unnecessary anxiety and stress. Bloom and Trice (1994) stated that too much competition can take the fun out of the process of learning for some and perhaps discourage student participation.
Psychosocial outcomes were also identified from the review of literature. Gaming was found to have encouraged and enhanced active participation and communication-social interactions, improve peer relationships, promote teamwork and collaboration, as well as decrease participants fear, tension, stress, and feelings of intimidation (Ballantine, 2003; Bays & Hermann, 1997; Berbiglia et al., 1997; Bloom & Trice, 1994; Cowen & Tesh, 2002; Dols, 1988; Fetro & Hey, 2000; Gifford, 2001;
Scholastic claims that a multi-purpose approach to learning, such as that included in the Read 180 program, is ideal for enabling greater achievement among special needs children. Evidence gathered from the literature on first review seems to promote this concept. The evidence provided from in-depth studies of education and special needs students in integrated and segregated classrooms show many factors influence learning. These include collaboration with teachers, an integrated approach to learning, and an approach to learning that is individualized or tailored to the unique needs of the disadvantaged student. When these factors are considered uniformly, Read 180 has the potential to facilitate greater achievement and success among special needs students. Read 180 cannot however, have the label as a universal panacea for educational problems plaguing special needs programs. Further research is critical to assessing the full utility of Read 180 among each of the three core categories of…
Dymond, S.K., & Orelove, P. (2001). What constitutes effective curriculum for students with severe disabilities? Exceptionality, 9(3): 109-22.
Elliot, C., Pring, T., & Bunning, K. (2002). Social skills training for adolescents with intellectual disabilities: A cautionary note, Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 15(1):91-6.
Fisher, D. & Frey, N. (2001). Access to the core curriculum, Remedial and Special
Improve Mathematic Performance for Children With Learning Difficulties and Their Effectiveness
Students with learning disabilities face several problems. More often than not, these students advanced approximately one academic year for every two academic years they attended school. Strategies employed by teachers can have a major impact on enhancing this particular performance in all levels of schooling. The lack of comprehensive strategies and interventions students with mathematics disabilities end up considerably lagging behind compared to their peers. Statistics indicated that approximately 25% to 35% of students experience difficulty with math knowledge and application skills. Moreover, 5 to 8% of all students in school have such considerable deficits that influence their capability to solve computation problems (Sayeski and Paulsen, 2010). In accordance to Hott et al. (2014), strategy training has been beneficial to students with learning disability when learning math conceptions and practices. As presented in the article one of the strategies…
de Boer, H., Donker-Bergstra, A. S., & Konstons, D. D. N. M. (2012). Effective strategies for self-regulated learning: A meta-analysis. Gronings Instituut voor Onderzoek van Onderwijs, Rijksuniversiteit Groningen, Groningen.
Hott, B. L., Isbell, L., & Oettinger, T. (2014). Strategies and Interventions to Support Students with Mathematics Disabilities. Council for Learning Disabilities.
Maag, J. W., Reid, R., & DiGangi, S. A. (1993). DIFFERENTIAL EFFECTS OF SELF-MONITORING ATTENTION, ACCURACY, AND PRODUCTIVITY. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 26(3), 329-344.
Mercer, C. D., Mercer, A. R., & Pullen, P. C. (2011). Teaching students with learning problems (8th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.
The Encouraging Appropriate Behavior Specific Praise strategy is based on delivering positive reinforcement in the form of either verbal or written praise. It can help to foster desirable and appropriate relationships between students and instructors, and requires pedagogues to utilize a number of timely plaudits that are related to specific actions and academic behaviors for students. This strategy would be of immense benefit to Sam since he has a lengthy history of underachieving, and it would behoove him to gain attention in a classroom setting that is rewarding and for positive, on-task behaviors. Implementing this strategy with Sam would likely require utilizing a variation of types of praise with "other forms of behavior and reinforcement strategies" (Curran and the Iris Center, 2003, p. 6) since he is not used to approbation.
Criterion specific rewards serve as a preemptive means of "managing classroom behavior" ( Curran and the…
Curran, C and the Iris Center. (2003). Encouraging appropriate behavior. The Iris Center. http://iris.peabody.vanderbilt.edu/wp-content/uploads/pdf_case_studies/ics_encappbeh.pdf
ationalism Politics Impacts Public's View
Web Article eview
The principle best-practice strategy elucidated within Louis DePaola's article entitled "Infection control in the dental office" is for practitioners to adhere to sanitary and hygiene mandates as noted within a pair of documents produced by the Centers for Disease Control. The first document is the Guide to Infection Prevention for Outpatient Settings: Minimum Expectations for Safe Care (which was published in 2011), and the companion Infection Prevention Checklist for Outpatient Settings: Minimum Expectations for Safe Care. These documents have a number of specific measures for those working in dental offices to follow to reduce the incidence of healthcare associated infections (HAI).
In addition to denoting several of the key guidelines for practitioners to adhere to in order to ensure safety and reduce the rate of infection transmission, the author also reinforces several key facets of this literature that apply to dental office…
DePaola, L. (2012). "Infection control in the dental office." http://static.ow.ly/. Retrieved from http://static.ow.ly/docs/RICDE%20Infection%20Control%20in%20the%20Dental%20Office,%20Standards%20of%20Care%202012%20(CE%20Article%20PDF)_Mcl.pdf
Instructional Practices for High Level Learners
hen it comes to the right curriculum (instructional practices) that teachers and administrators should be developing -- that are effective in helping students achieve a high level of learning -- this paper points to a standards-based system (combined with creative curricula) as the most effective. There are a number of ways in which teachers can implement those practices that lead to a high level of learning in students -- and this paper reviews those strategies.
Explain various instructional practices designed to achieve high-level learning for all students in a standards-based curriculum.
Instructional practices in schools rarely stay static, according to a peer-reviewed article in the journal Computers in the Schools. In fact, many schools over the past few years have been actively engaged with "fundamental restructuring efforts" because teachers appear willing in many instances to try "…a range of instructional practices" that will be…
Copeland, S.R., and Cosbey, J. (2008-2009). Making Progress in the General Curriculum:
Rethinking Effective Instructional Practices. Research & Practice for Persons with Severe
Disabilities, 33(4), 214-227.
Liu, L., Jones, P.E., and Sadera, W.A. (2010). An Investigation on Experienced Teachers'
Note that this framework also includes support for Expert Network and Learning Management applications to also increase school employees, teachers, and students' productivity as well.
Figure 1: Electronic Education Record ystems Hierarchy
ource: Murphy and Columbus (2002)
chool it Continuity Plan
What is most critical is that the core business processes are not interrupted within the school, and that is the primary objective of the it Continuity Plan. These include the daily collaboration of employees, teachers, administrators, parents, teachers, service organizations and school district offices. The software platforms and applications relied on to support these processes include collaboration tools including e-mail, the website, the intranet portal and content management system, school supplier management and school procurement. To ensure these processes are not interrupted the systems and databases that contain these records need to be first replicated and then moved to an interim hosting center. It is imperative that the school…
Klein, Russ (2006) -. Achieving Collaboration Excellence: Content Management, Data Integration and the Enterprise Portal. Aberdeen Group Research Report. Aberdeen Group. August, 2006
Murphy, Jim and Columbus, Louis. Re-Orienting Your Content and Knowledge Management Strategies. AMR Research. Report. October 31, 2002. Boston, MA. Downloaded from the Internet on February 9, 2007 at http://www.lwcresearch.com/filesfordownloads/ReorientingYourContentandKnowledgeMgmtStrategy.pdf
Olsen, Florence. The Power of Portals. The Chronicle of Higher Education. Page A32. Downloaded from the Internet on February 9, 2007:
Just as Sarbanes-Oxley legislation created significant opportunities for management consultancies, the same holds true for sustainability requirements in European nations.
In conclusion, all management consultancies are attempting to position themselves as trusted advisors to firms looking to stabilizing existing sales while growing into emerging markets. Of the five included in this analysis, all also have social media channels that are well-populated with content meant to convey their thought leadership in specific areas as well. Yet in the area of equating strategies to IT investments, the majority take the approach that more IT spending is potentially the path out of strategies not performing well. Only the Boston Consulting Group takes a more strategic view of systematic change to businesses, choosing to layer in TI after the frameworks have been created. Their legacy strengths in the BCG and Growth/Share Matrices could be the impetus for this approach. Despite that fact, Boston Consulting…
Greiner, L., Motamedi, K., & Jamieson, D.. (2011). New consultant roles and processes in a 24/7 world. Organizational Dynamics, 40(3), 165.
Mors, M.. (2010). Innovation in a global consulting firm: when the problem is too much diversity. Strategic Management Journal, 31(8), 841.
Klaasjan Visscher, & J. Irene A Visscher-Voerman. (2010). Organizational design approaches in management consulting. Management Decision, 48(5), 713-731.
The four pillars that must be included in a technology plan are: Infrastructure, software, hardware and the professional development (Cradler, 2013).
There are two basic categories that the software instruction and curriculum can be divided into:
Teaching and Learning Software Tools: the use of technology to improve the quality of education for the students as well as the teachers. Subscription-based electronic learning resources have enabled the teachers as well as the students to access more reliable and vast sources of information like they were never before able to do (Cradler, 2013).
Productivity Software Tools: the basic technology tools that have increased the usage of technology to the extent that it has changed the landscape of how work was done in the past and how it is being done today. Student information systems and the electronic gradin systems are an example of such tools (Cradler, 2013).
The most important…
Cradler, J. (n.d.). WestEd. Retrieved February, 2013, from Implementing Technology in Education: Recent Findings from Research and Evaluation Studies: http://www.wested.org/techpolicy/recapproach.html
Dexter, S. (2002). ETIPs -- Educational technology integration and implementation principles. In P. (Rogers, Designing instruction for technology-enhanced learning (pp. 56-70). Hershey: Idea Group Publishing.
International Society for Technology in Education. (2002). NETS for Teachers. Retrieved November 2007, from National Education Technology Standards Project: http://cnets.iste.org/
Massachusetts Department of Education. (2007). Technology Self-Assessment Tool (TSAT). Retrieved February, 2013, from the Office of Instructional Technology: http://www.doe.mass.edu/odl/
Technology in Instructional Delivery: The Case of Capella University
The use of technology, particularly Internet technology, in instructional delivery in educational institutions has revolutionized the way people access and utilize educational information. Online instructional delivery, either in mixed (combination of traditional and online modes of instruction) or purely online formats, have made learning more interactive, not only between the learner and the tool, but also between the teacher and learner and among learners themselves. This increasing demand for an online mode of instruction delivery in educational institutions is a reflection of the need to not only adopt the new technology, but also to 'manipulate' this technology to suit the users' learning needs (oschmann, 1996:8). The following description of the technology of instructional delivery at Capella University demonstrates this point.
In addition to its traditional format of instructional delivery, which is face-to-face classroom setting, Capella University has an online learning system…
Koschmann, T. (1996). In CSCL: Theory and Practice of an Emerging Paradigm. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Merrill, G. And C. Galbraith. (2010). "Learning outcomes and instructional delivery method in professional and business related courses: An empirical study controlling for course and instructor differences." Journal of Business and Behavioral Sciences, Vol. 21, No. 2.
Reiser, R. And J. Dempsey. (Eds.). (2007). Trends and Issues in Instructional Design and Technology. NJ: Pearson.
Educators are faced with the challenge of dealing with each student's needs. Everyone needs a chance to grow, learn and face the challenges that are necessary for attaining excellence. There are always special needs children in each learning environment. Each of these students needs special attention because of their uniqueness in the learning process. Such learners may possess special gifts including learning potential and other talents. If such learners are attended to with an aim to nurture their special gifts, they are likely to make significant and special contribution to the communities that they come from and the world in general (Davis & Rimm, 2004).
Recommendation for Mike Grost
In the case of Mike Grost, he has been found to possess special gifts including perfect emotional and physical health, remarkable intelligence, and eidetic memory, artistic and creative abilities. He demonstrates great ability in a wide range of areas of learning.…
The instructional strategy utilized for this exercise was the concept of pairing actions with words in order to provide contextual meaning for the ELL. This was situated in an informal, casual method of conversational instruction during a one-on-one, face-to-face moment, in which I could engage the students individually to help reinforce concepts. This instructional strategy is based on the recommendation of Peregoy and Boyle (2013) to differentiate so as to expand on the meaning of the lesson of the day (p. 86). The idea here was that I would focus on vocabulary words that could be demonstrated actively, concentrating on verb conjugations (the difference between verb endings in present, past and future). For example I could say, "I pick up the pencil" at the same time that I pick it up. I would also spell this out on the board or on the ELL's paper. Then I would…
Peregoy, S., & Boyle, O. (2013). Reading, writing, and learning in esl: A resource book for teaching k-12 english learners.. Boston: Pearson Education, Inc.
Disrupting by Imagining: ethinking Early Childhood esearch
Early Childhood esearch
This research highlights four teachers who work in early childhood classrooms who have chosen to implement the use of video-observations of their teaching in conjunction with the reflective process. Each teacher profile will include discussions and interviews about their teaching and change implementation. The ideas for change will be based upon their own knowledge, skills, and dispositions along with evidence from the recorded and observed videotapes. After viewing their own instruction, practitioners began the process of implementing change for individual students as well as for their class overall. Teachers shared this experience with others in their school and provided information regarding their results based on the following three areas: 1) Analysis: individuals and/or groups in the process of reflection (grade level teams); 2) Strategies: offers other teachers and/or programs ways to introduce concepts to a group of teachers and/or school;…
Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: the exercise of control. New York: Freedom.
Brophy, J.E. (2004). Using video in teacher education. San Diego, CA: Elsivier.
Copa, A., Lucinski L., Olsen, E, & Wollenburg, K. (1999). Promoting professional and organizational development: A reflective practice model. Zero to Three, 20(1), 3-9.
Cross, N. (2011). Coaching: Seven reasons to go to the tape. ASCD Express, 7(1).
In the example provided, the teacher could explain that homework assignments will allow them to learn more about how life in Ancient Greece and ome influenced modern customs and practices, and the purpose of homework assignments is to break the information they are learning into smaller chunks so they do not have to memorize or learn too much information at once, which might become overwhelming. Knowing this, students are more likely to take time to complete assignments. A teacher can encourage the student to utilize a separate assignment notebook for each subject they are studying, and track daily assessments of what they learned in class about their study of Ancient ome and Ancient Greece. This employs the technique of practice, which enforces student's ability to write well and apply scientific method or logical analysis to information they learn in class. Students may for example, be encouraged to make notes alongside…
Marzano, R.J., Gaddy, B.B., & Dean, C. (2000). What works in classroom instruction?
Aurora, CO: Mid-continent Research for Education and Learning.
Marzano, R.J. (1998). A theory-based meta-analysis of research on instruction. McEd. Accessed 7, May 2007:
Part 1: Understanding by Design - Stage 1
What content standards and program or mission-related goals will this unit address?
The mission related-goal to be addressed in this unit is to enhance students’ ability to make sense of problems and work towards solving them. In this regard, the relevant ISTE Standard to be addressed in this unit is Standard 1: Creativity and Innovation. Additionally, the unit will address Pennsylvania’s Common Core State Standard CC.2.3.2.A.2 for Mathematics.
What standards, competencies, and outcomes will this unit address?
Based on PA’s Standard CC.2.3.2.A.2, the competency to be addressed in this unit is the use of understanding of fractions to partition shapes into halves, quarters, and thirds (Pennsylvania Department of Education, 2014). Students are expected to be creative and innovative in partitioning shapes in different sizes based on insights they have obtained from fractions. Through this process, the unit is expected to…
Time to develop and use assessments effectively must be built into the teachers' work week. They are time-consuming, but worthwhile, and should not be administered as an afterthought. The results tell us a great deal about students and ourselves. It will be a challenge to make sure assessments are meaningful and are accorded the time they deserve.
When we think of assessments, we often think about formal assessments, whether they are teacher-created quizzes, chapter tests from a textbook, or standardized tests that compare students across the country. Assessment can, and should, include the informal observations teachers make in their classrooms on a daily basis. Because teachers spend so much time with their students, they are in a good position to see both struggles and progress. It may be one of the easiest ways to see what students need because it is immediate and requires no preparation. We can learn from…
Hur, J.W., & Suh, S. (2010). The development, implementation, and evaluation of a summer school for English language learners. The Professional Educator 34(2).
Joosten-ten Brinke, D., Sluijmans, D.M.A., & Jochems, W.M.G. (2010). Assessor's approaches to portfolio assessment in assessment of prior learning procedures.
Evaluation in Higher Education 35(1), pp. 55-70.
Rhodes, T. (2010). Since we seem to agree, why are the outcomes so difficult to achieve? New
Instructional Method Applicability
Online learning is becoming increasingly common, given the rise of nontraditional learners who must fit their classes into a schedule with outside work and family obligations. However, grave concerns remain as to whether online learning is as effective as face-to-face learning. New technological methods of instruction have created ways in which synchronous or 'real time' education can take place, through chat rooms, versus asynchronous methods like message boards, which do not facilitate dialogue and debate. However, online learning is still often perceived as 'second best' versus face-to-face learning.
A 2010 report by the U.S. Department of Education contradicts this finding. It found that "on average, students in online learning conditions performed modestly better than those receiving face-to-face instruction. The difference between student outcomes for online and face-to-face classes -- measured as the difference between treatment and control means, divided by the pooled standard deviation -- was larger…
Means, Barbara; Toyama, Yukie; Murphy, Robert; Bakia, Marianne & Karla Jones. (2009).
Evaluation of evidence-based practices in online learning: A meta-analysis and review of online learning studies U.S. Department of Education. Retrieved:
instructional program is to educate health instructors so they can go out into their respective communities and provide critical health information to at-risk populations. It is thus absolutely essential that these teachers have accurate information yet are able to disseminate it in an accessible fashion. They must understand the material but also be able to use effective teaching strategies. With this in mind, the initial pedagogical techniques will be lecture-based, to get the necessary information across. However, to maintain a high level of student engagement early on in the process, there will be frequent class discussions about the material, as well as reinforcing tests and quizzes to ensure students are retaining what they have learned.
Once students have a base of knowledge, the teacher can assign practical exercises so the students can use what they have learned -- for example, simulating being teachers themselves and demonstrating how they would present…
Access to the Internet
Each student will be asked to research facts about domestic violence online, specifically to find a 'case study' of a woman affected by domestic violence as homework
In class, the student will be paired up. Each student will be asked to take on the persona of the abused woman; the other student, the police officer who has been called to her house due to a reported disturbance there by a neighbor. The two students will 'role play' the interaction. Then, they will switch roles and the second student will take on the persona of the victimized woman she (or he) researched.
Case studies, statistics, and other options are all good choices for methodologies, but they do not all work well for each specific type of study and therefore the type of methodology becomes highly significant.
Once all of these specific issues have been addressed, the researcher can assume that he or she has a good plan that can generally be used as the start of a research project. Sometimes, a research plan will have to be modified somewhat, but this is not always the case and some research plans are perfectly acceptable from the beginning. For those that are not, however, the research plan gives a good 'jumping-off' point from which changes can be made in order to get the best research study possible.
Ethical considerations are very important where research is concerned, and two specific ethical considerations will be discussed here. The first ethical consideration is that there will very…
Professional Standards for Educational Leaders (PSEL)
The concept of instructional leadership posits that strong leadership in education focuses on curriculum and instruction (Mitchell, Kensler & Tschannen-Moran, 2015). As an instructional leader, therefore, it is important to have a deep understanding and personal sense of the Professional Standards for Educational Leaders (PSEL). This paper will examine PSEL’s Standards 1-10, summarize each standard and describe my role in relation to each standard.
Standard 1: Mission, Vision, and Core Values
This standard holds that effective educational leaders create, promote and embody and mission, vision and core set of values that can be shared by all stakeholders within the educational system (Professional Standards for Educational Leaders, 2015). As I do not have a great deal of experience in creating such a vision, this is one standard that I need improvement in. For most of my educational career, I have followed others in the sense…
For example, managers can increase productivity by assigning the right number of employees to each project, avoiding over- or understaffing. Managers should also be sensitive to interaction problems between employees. When managers are aware of personality conflicts between employees, they should avoid assigning them to the same team.
Increasing productivity involves a careful study of employees' work performance and of managerial decisions, a daunting process in which individuals may feel unfairly singled out or victimized. While this process is painful, it is appropriate when responsibility for low productivity clearly lies with certain individuals. if, however, it is not obvious who the culprits are, the best approach to take is to consider not only individual responsibility, but also search for larger systematic factors behind the low productivity. The problem may be a result of poor management of people and inadequate allocation of resources. Alternatively, it could be the result of an…
Instructional strategies for transitioning students with disabilities from high school to post-High school vocational programs.
Like all young people, students with disabilities want to go out in life and make a career and learn skills, which are necessary for their future use. Some students with disabilities have a strong desire to attend college or a vocational school and some want to operate independently in the community. Most of these students with disabilities work either in paid or subsidized jobs and this is the reason they need to learn, especially in the high school to be prepared for his or her adult life. Transition services are thus services, which help the students to prepare for their future work and devise strategies and learning skills to cope up with the coming challenges. These services allow the students to identify and increase the scope of their skills as they will need to pursue…
D.W., Grossi, T., & Keul, P. A functional analysis of the acquisition and maintenance of janitorial skills in a competitive work setting. Journal of The Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps, 1988, 13(1).
Sharon Lesar Judge. Computer Applications in Programs for Young Children With Disabilities: Current Status and Future Directions JSET E. Journal, Volume 16, Number 1, Winter 2001.
Katherine J. Inge, Stacy Dymond, Paul Wehman, Curtis Sutphin, Christopher Johnston, Marguerite Faina, Community-Based Vocational Preparation for Students with Severe Disabilities: Designing the process. Vocational Options Project: Chapter 1 Accessed on 8-4-2003 at http://www.vcu.edu/rrtcweb/techlink/iandr/voproj/chap1/chapter1.html www.vcu.edu/rrtcweb/techlink/iandr/voproj/chap1/chapter1.html
teacher instructional technology with new literacy instruction to improve elementary (K-5) student achievement in reading vocabulary?
The alternative hypothesis would be that new literacy instruction does have th potential to improve elementary (K-5) student achievement in reading vocabulary. In other words that significant difference is found between classrooms that employ new literacy instructions and classrooms that do not use this method.
The null hypothesis would be that no significant difference is found between classrooms that employ new literacy instructions and classrooms that do not use this method.
The study will choose 2 different schools in a certain district with classes k-5 where one school has introduced new literacy techniques (namely technological strategies), and the other school is still employing traditional instruction.
The schools would be as closely matched as possible with students coming from a similar socio-economic background and with their parents generally sharing a similar educational niche (i.e. either…
Babchuk, W. (1996). Glaser or Strauss? Grounded theory and adult education. Presented at the Midwest Research-to-Practice Conference in Adult, Continuing, and Community Education, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska, October 17-19, 1996.
Glaser, B. (1993). Examples of grounded theory: a reader. Mill Valley, CA:
Glaser, B. (1998). Doing grounded theory. Mill Valley: Sociology Press.
The classroom with likely be culturally diverse, and students will be encouraged to bring their cultural experiences from the home into the learning environment.
My orientation towards feeling is important, because gaining an empathetic rapport with students when they experience personal and academic struggles is essential, so they do not blame themselves, or their teacher, or the subject itself. Judging in a fair manner, however, is also important to me, and I will not be so eccentric in my assignments to fail to use more standardized forms of assessment to drill students in basic skills and areas of knowledge. Students must have a sense of mastery of, for example, basic grammar, even if these principles are reinforced with fun assignments like writing a letter to their pet.
Understanding, I believe is best realized through activity and sorting out problems in open-ended assignments as well as drills. Creating challenging activities where…
Team Plan Strategy for Program Implementation
Success University (SU) a medium sized undergraduate institution located Southern California. SU offers Associates Bachelors programs Business, Psychology Education San Moreno campus online. SU decided launch programs Fall.
Strategies for as unified team
The members of the task force team will be selected internally to maintain the university culture and ensure that the team does not need training on the values, mission and vision of the university.
Strategies for as unified team
Including an already existing employee base will also boost their morale and ensure commitment to projects needs. The need for recruiting internally is because the ability of the faculty members is known and one can easily target them for an ideal position. The proposed members of staff to form the task force will also go through a vetting process from their colleagues. This will further go to advice the leader on the…
Balmer, J.M.T. (2001). Corporate Identity, Corporate Branding and corporate marketing European Journal of Marketing 34(4), 248-291.
Barney J.B., & Hesely W.S. (2008). strategic management and competitive advantage concepts and cases second eds. upper saddle river: pearson prentice-hall.
Lorenzen M. (2006). Strategic Planning for Academic Library Instructional Programming. Illinois West Publishing.
Michael A., & Jude K. (2005). Strategic Planning for Nonprofit Organizations. Second Edition. . Australia: John Wiley and Sons.
Crafting and Execution Strategy
Crafting Executing Strategy Due Week 2 worth 280 points Assume a business owner business professional, a company industry choice, responsible creating executing company's strategic plan.
Crafting and Execution Strategy
Description of the company
Our company deals in distribution of imported tires for both trucks and small and medium sized motor vehicles. The company operates under the name Motor Tire Limited. In the region of operation, there are two other major suppliers who deal in imported tires only. One deals in imported tracks tires while, the other deals in imported small and medium size motor vehicles tires. In the market of tires, there are small companies who deal with supply of tires on demand basis but, they have slowly started expanding their operations with the realization that the two wheel motor vehicle industry is growing and, there are no key players in the industry.
Importance of Strategic…
Beasley M.S., Frigo M.L., & Litman J. (2007). "strategic risk:" Creating and protecting value. Strategic Finance, 88(24), 31-53.
Brown, S., Lamming, R., Bessant, J., & Jones, P. (2005). Strategic Operations Management. 2nd Edition. Burlington:: Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann.
Cravens D., Merrilees B., & Walker R. (2000). Strategic Marketing Management For The Pacific Region. Sydney: Mcgraw-Hill.
Khurana, R., & Nohria, N. (2008). It's Time to Make Management a True Profession. Harvard Business Review, 86(10), 1-8.
The principal along with other teachers should convey the significance of the parents’ part as being a provider in their children’s accomplishment. Members of staff ought to make endeavors to make sure parents really feel delightful in the school and give significant and frequent interaction to ease the sense of distrust usually common among parents as well as school personnel. A premium ought to be put on the nice things pupils do, as limitations are put on the unfavorable things they carryout. Research outcomes backed an optimistic recommendation program within the school works well; while schools send updates to parents in the event that their kids are exceptional. Occasionally parents are trying to learn certain parenting abilities. The principal or members of staff can help parents to learn those parenting abilities required to make the house a place of learning and expand school learning straight into…
teacher instructional technology literacy instruction improve elementary (K-5) student achievement reading vocabulary? Create a qualitative research scenario phenomenology approach.
Does the use of instructional technology improve elementary (K-5) student reading vocabulary?
In the era of high-stakes testing, student performance on reading has become increasingly important in determining school evaluations. eading is a fundamental skill necessary for future success in life. Students are reading in a paper-based format less frequently, at younger ages. This research study will attempt to asses the impact of using technology within the classroom to enhance vocabulary recognition. Previous research indicates that "teacher-made online learning resources provide course content anchored resources that focus on specific real world tasks in class, and a supportive authentic learning environment to learners" (Li 2011).
Using technology to teach reading has several apparent advantages. First of all, it can deploy a multimedia strategy to enhance student engagement. Students are often…
Introna, Lucas. (2011). Phenomenological approaches to ethics and information technology.
The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/sum2011/entries/ethics-it-phenomenology
Li, S., Price, D., & Fu, Y. (2011). The impact of the teacher-made online learning resources.
The Business Review, Cambridge, 18(1), 35-40.
Communicate that strategy is part of moving the organization to the future: http://workplacepsychology.net / 2011/02/18 / successful-strategic-execution-is-hard/
Explain commonalities of tasks, how company tailor's strategic management to its needs http://www2.uhv.edu/chapao / Management4340/Lecture%20Notes / 2 eIM-LN-Chapter10.pdf
Add additional slide if too crowded; focus on tiering
Define and Examples of 8 Tasks
1-Build Organization; 2- Allocate esources, 3- Ensure policies work; 4- Push for continual improvement, 5 -- Install systems, 6 -- Use ewards, 7 -- Foster corporate culture, 8 -- Exert internal leadership
See above and perhaps use chart like this:
1-Build the organization 2-Allocate resources 3- Ensure policies work http://www.gsu.edu/images/H/HI-high-performance07.pdf
Graphic: http://www.authoritydirectory.com/blog / competition-can-destroy-organizational-team-building/
Instituting Strategy-Facilitating Policies
4-Push for continuous improvement, 5-Install systems that are appropriate
F - Formulate a plan. - Disaggregate student performance data.
O - Optimize time by preparing and following a timeline. - Plan…
Review highlighted points
Perhaps use FOCUS document to reiterate rest of presentation -- use graphic at:
Direct Instruction stands for society's equality and it works best.
Direct Instruciton should be used as a method for education because it has proven to be the most effective technique for actual learning and understanding. Since teachers are working directly with the student, they are can immediately respond to the needs of the student and adjust levels of comprehension based upon their different rates of comprehension. Additionally, the use of DI ensures that teachers do not "belabor" certain aspects of lessons and at the same time can either slow or speed up their lesson according to the student's needs. The focus is that this learning strategy places all of the emphasis upon the student and provides manevurability into the hands of the teacher. This creates high levels of confidence for the student because he feels that he is consistently accomplishing goals while increasing comprehension because the teacher adjusts to the…
Cognitive Strategies in Education
The purpose of this work is the first define metacognition and explain the four cognitive strategies of chunking, mnemonics, advance organizers and rehearsals and then to consider how each one might be useful in helping facilitate understanding of metacognition. Finally this work intends to create a sample lesson plan that represents the strategies.
Metacognition can be defined as the learner's awareness of the knowledge they possess as well as their ability in understanding, controlling and manipulating of their own metacognitive processes. Metacognitive skills are important both from an educational perspective and throughout the individual's life. Metacognition is a new field which has left theorists in a vague position in terms of conventional terminology. The primary factor in metacognition is the "conscious awareness" on the part of the individual in learning as to the learning taking place and their control of the learning process.
Barrett, Nancy F. (nd) Cognitive Styles and Strategies [Online] available at:
Metacognitive Skills (nd) available [Online] at: http://education.calumet. pur due.edu/vockell/EdPsyBook/Edpsy7/edpsy7_meta.htm
Jacobson, Rebecca (1998) Teachers improving learning using metacognition with self-monitoring learning strategies Education, 1998 June
Teaching Strategy for Special Ed
Special Education Standard
Direct instruction is the most widely-used teaching strategy, although it has become controversial in recent years. Critics argue that it limits the creativity of good teachers and provides a crutch for poor ones (What is direct instruction? 2011). It is a teacher-centered approach that relies on structured lesson plans, offering little or no variation and no opportunity for discussion or active participation. The effectiveness of direct instruction has been demonstrated widely but it can be a poor choice for students with disabilities who would benefit from another approach.
What is Direct Instruction?
"Direct instruction is a theory of education which posits that the most effective way to teach is by explicit, guided instructions" (What is direct instruction? 2011). Although it is the oldest form of instruction, it gained attention in the 1980s when implemented in the schools of inner-city Baltimore. Instruction was…
Adams, G., and Carnine, D. (2003). Direct instruction. National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities. Retrieved from http://nichcy.org/research/summaries/abstract1
National Institute for Direct Instruction. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.nifdi.org/15/
What is direct instruction? (2011). Teach-nology. Retrieved from http://www.teach-
Develop a strategy specific to your organization for integrating job performance and training.
Job performance is an integral aspect within the health care services industry's overall. For one, it holds both associates and management accountable for their respective actions. This accountable provides a means of deterring any subpar performance on the part of employees who might otherwise be a detriment to the overall operations of the firm. By linking job performance to training, the organization can train those deficient in certain skills. In many instances training allows a means for personnel to acquire skills deemed necessary by leadership. By integrating both concepts, organizations can minimize waste while also growing talented personnel within the organization. This is particular important in regards to the changing landscape of the health care industry overall. Excessive and meaning regulation has created fundamental change within the industry overall. As such, job training must reflect…
1) Draper, Elaine, Joseph LaDou, and Dan J. Tennenhouse. 2011. "Occupational Health Nursing and the Quest for Professional Authority," New Solutions 21, 47 -- 81
2) Fang, D., Wilsey-Wisniewski, S.J., & Bednash, G.D. (2006). 2005-2006 enrollment and graduations in baccalaureate and graduate programs in nursing. Washington, DC: American Association of Colleges of Nursing
3) Levsey, K.R., Campbell, D., & Green, A. (2007). Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow; Challenges in Securing Federal Support for Graduate Nurses. Journal of Nursing Education, 46(4), 176-183
4) Lucia, Patricia R.; Otto, Tammy E.; Palmier, Patrick A. (2009). "Chapter 1
However, forty percent, or 2.4 million of these students are enrolled in special education programs for the sole reason that they have not learned to read. According to Scholastic, "Read 180 is proven effective in accelerating reading achievement for all students- including those in Special Education."
Read 180 takes an approach to special needs students that focus on providing multi-functional support. These support systems include universal access provisions, multi-model approaches, individualized software and reports, pre-teaching methods in order to improve understanding, instructional routines that promote active participation of special education students, and an instructional model that sets a routine and repetitive structure for learning.
The question thus becomes whether this approach actually works for students with special needs? Although Scholastic argues that there is data that proves it does, this data has to be questioned in that it is provided by the company selling the product. Therefore, it is unknown…
Scholastic Homepage. Read 180 Product Information. www.scholastic.com.
Taberski, Sharon. On Solid Ground: Strategies for Teaching Reading K-3. New York: Heinemann, 2000.
integrating ethical use of technology into the K-12 curriculum
Integrating Technology in the Classroom
The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 aims to close the achievement gap between disadvantaged and struggling students and their peers. The message is that every child can learn, and that schools are accountable for a child's progress.
At the federal level, there is to be more money for at-risk children in low-income communities. The government will invest in teacher training and innovative education practices that improve student performance.
While this new law defines a destination, it is up to the states and school districts to define the paths for getting there. Best practice begins with ensuring that all the components for successful integration of technology are in place. The primary ethical concerns of access, attitude, training, and support must be addressed before moving on to the more popular topic of integrating instructional technology into…
Dede, C. (1996) Emerging technologies and distributed learning. American Journal of Distance Education, 10, 2, 4-36.
Linn, M.C. (1997) Learning and Instruction in Science Education: Taking Advantage of Technology. Handbook of Science Education.
Salpeter, J. (1998) Taking stock: What's the research saying? Technology and Learning, 18(9) 24-25, 28-30, 32, 34, 36, 40.
Wenglinsky, W. (1998) Does it compute? The Relationship Between Educational Technology and Student Achievement in Mathematics. Princeton, N.J.
The Cricket Eats
The Cricket Lives
The Cricket Does
The Cricket Has
Helps: Quote memory, rewrite text, apply information, apply extra materials to book.
Part 7- riting Activity -- Pick one setting in Cricket in Times Square and write a 1-2 paragraph explanation of why that setting was used and your description of it (e.g. city, etc.). Be sure to develop concepts like: hat do you see? hat do you smell? Are there lots of people there? hy? Is it calm or busy? Is it dangerous? Imagine that you are in this setting and seeing it from the Cricket's point-of-view.
Part 8 - Fluency Activity
Part 1 -- Comparative and Superlative Adjectives (example questions, this from Chapter 13):
1. Chester stayed up most of the night
a) playing for the animals
b) learning new musical pieces
c) talking to Tucker and Harry
d) because he was too excited to…
Guided Reading Level. (2007, June). Retrieved from hsnature.org: http://www.hsnature-ar.org/uploads/6/6/2/7/6627983/leveled_book_list.pdf
Glass, K.T. (2009). Lesson Design for Differentiated Instruction. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
Miller, G. (2007). Reading Activities. Retrieved from:
Several approaches will be helpful in creating this environment:
1. Developing useful study guides useful for ELLs. This will focus their ideas and attention on major ideas and gives a place of focus.
2. Assign reading partners or groups. Pairing ELLs with fluent readers will be very helpful. Teamwork can have a very strong effect on learning.
3. Encouragement: One strategy is the "Say Something" activity. Students take turns reading aloud, and following the reading, each student 'says something,' such as asking question, making a comment, making a connection to something already read, or responding personally to the text. The exercise also engages students as readers and get them thinking about the text
Observation and assessment are also important components of this approach and must be successfully managed by the teacher in order to maximize learning and comprehension. Assessment occurs throughout a lesson and is informal, authentic multidimensional, and…
Echevarria, J. & Graves, a. (2003). Sheltered instruction: Teaching English language learners with diverse abilities. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
Echevarria, J. & Short, D. (2003). The effects of sheltered instruction on the achievement of limited English proficient students. Retrieved from http://www.cal.org/crede/si.htm
Utay and Miller (2006) described a study in which researchers observed over 100 individuals with unresolved grief reactions. There were three phases of treatment employed with these individuals. The first stage of treatment involved cognitive structuring for the decision to grieve again and for procedure clarification. The second stage involved guided imagery for reliving, revising, and revisiting the scenes at which the loss occurred. The third and final stage involved future-oriented identity reconstruction. The researchers reported that the reliving of the event through guided imagery effectively changed the client's view of reality, and furthermore helped along their grief resolution (Melges & DeMaso (1980), as cited by Utay & Miller, 2006). Moreover, Guided imagery has been established as a versatile and effective intervention.
The importance in assisting the children's mother with the grief process lies in the fact that bereavement is associated with increased risk of morbidity and mortality, and it…
Elliott, K. (2000). Long QT syndrome. Alberta RN, January/February.
Firth, Hurst (2005). Clinical Genetics, New York: Oxford University Press, 378-9.
Gravitz, MA. (2001). Perceptual reconstruction in the treatment of inordinate grief. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 44(1), 51-5.
Joffrion, L.P., Douglas, D. (1994). Grief resolution: faciliatating self-transcendence in the bereaved. Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 32(3), 13-9.
MNCs need to consider when devising strategy for training and development?
Nowadays quality management philosophy is given great importance as its role is considered in all the explanations of the major decision making policies regarding training in Multinationals (MNCs). As, Prajogo and McDermott (2006) and Reed et al. (2000) have described, in their respective studies, the importance and impact of the quality management philosophy on training. he positive effect that quality management and human resources training has on the company can also be measured by the number of MNCs who have got it in all their high-performance workplaces (Ashton and Sung, 2002; Smith et al., 2004). According to Arora and Asundi (2000) the I industry of India has adopted the quality management philosophy to a great extent.
It was observed in a review of the last ten years of HRD research and scholarship, which was done in 2006 by Short…
Tharenou, P. (2001), "The relationship of training motivation to participation in training and development," Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, Vol. 74 No. 5, pp. 599-621.
Tracey, J.B., Hinkin, T.R., Tannenbaum, S. And Mathieu, J.E. (2001), "The in uence of individual characteristics and the work environment on varying levels of training outcomes," Human Resource Development Quarterly, Vol. 12 No. 1, pp. 5-23.
Van den Bossche, P., Segers, M. And Jansen, N. (2010), "Transfer of training: the role of feedback in supportive social networks," International Journal of Training and Development, Vol. 14 No. 2, pp. 81-94.
Technology-Based Teacher Training and Teacher-Led Classroom Implementation on Learning Reading Comprehension Strategies
Summary of Article and Meaning
This study was done to examine the efficiency of an expertly advanced comprehensive reading comprehension strategies program. The purpose was to compare it to the traditional reading comprehension instruction which was offered to over 800 fourth and fifth graders. The study was done using 34 classrooms in the United States. Also, the treatment involved a strong, technology-founded teacher training component in addition to extremely encouraging materials that would be used for 53 classroom-delivered student instructions. The study utilized a research design which was a randomized trial performed at the classroom level. It was done with classes unsystematically apportioned to either the treatment which (classroom n=16) or the control made up of (classroom n=17) circumstances. Hierarchical Linear Modeling was executed on student success statistics, nested inside classrooms within treatment situations, for the classes that…
President X of Education:
Even proponents of high-stakes standardized testing for grades K-12 have argued that such tests should be only one measure amongst many to validate the effectiveness of a school or student. Yet the emphasis placed upon such tests in determining school ratings and the increasing proportion of the day devoted to preparing for such exams has inevitably fostered teaching to the test rather than teaching higher-level concepts. There are concerns as well that students are being placed largely due to their scores based solely on a single result on a high-stakes state test (Hamilton, Halverson, Jackson, Mandinach, Supovitz, & Wayman16). Furthermore, the pressure on many teachers to demonstrate that students are performing well as a collective group often causes them to focus unduly upon 'bubble' students (students who are just below the cutoff) rather than raising the academic performance of the class as a while (Hamilton, et…
"Appropriate use of high-stakes testing in our nation's schools." APA. Web.
21 Nov 2015.
Breakstone, J., Smith, M., & Wineburg, S. "Beyond the bubble: New
history/social studies assessments for the Common Core." Phi Delta Kappan.
How are these expectations communicated to your students?
I communicate my expectations to my students in written and verbal form when possible. At the beginning of each lesson, I hand out the overview of the lesson, which outlines the key deliverables and points of assessment. This helps students understand exactly what I will be looking for, and provides them with a focus for their learning experience. I also send students periodic updates when necessary, if my expectations change or if I want to check-in with students.
How would you promote these expectations during instructional time?
During instructional time, I promote my expectations of the students differently depending on the lesson. I try as best I can to provide examples of what I am looking for, so that students are clear about my grading parameters. Moreover, I promote instructional expectations sometimes by showing why the lesson is relevant to the students'…
Marzano's nine instructional strategies provide a useful springboard for structuring student activities in a clear and unambiguous fashion. Students can be easily intimidated by a difficult concept or a difficult piece of writing. Identifying similarities and differences can be a useful way to break down the exercise: asking, for example, how one character in a novel is similar or different to the main character of a novel the students previously read. Creating a similarity/difference chart can also be a valuable asset for visual learners.
The nine instructional strategies are also useful because they make use of a variety of different learning styles. Some students learn best by taking notes and verbally summarizing the material. Others learn through the use of interpersonal approaches, such as team-based learning, or non-verbal visual strategies. Using a diversity of learning techniques better ensures that all students will be "on board" with the concepts being taught…
Marzano's nine instructional strategies for teaching and learning. Retrieved from:
Strategy/implicit instruction is a student-centered approach, which focuses on the general skills, rules and processes required for learning a particular concept. The chief objective of strategy/implicit instruction is to encourage the students to apply higher-level thinking skills to problem solving and use acquired techniques in other spheres. Strategy/implicit instruction holds as one of its major goals to teach students to control and evaluate their progress, thus assessing the strategy effect. Strategy/implicit instruction requires a certain sequence of actions: the teacher points out the objective, reviews the knowledge and skills required for comprehension of the new material and then presents the new material. The instructional process consists in the following: the strategy is introduced and modeled by the teacher. While modeling problem-solving with the help of the new strategy, it is crucial that the teacher clearly describes his thinking process so that the students could use the same considerations while applying…
In has been proven by the experience of many teachers that strategy/implicit instruction in application to middle school mathematics can yield very positive results. Therefore, in my teaching practice, I would choose this very instructional strategy.
Strategy/implicit instruction is a student-centered approach, which focuses on the general skills, rules and processes required for learning a particular concept. The chief objective of strategy/implicit instruction is to encourage the students to apply higher-level thinking skills to problem solving and use acquired techniques in other spheres. Strategy/implicit instruction holds as one of its major goals to teach students to control and evaluate their progress, thus assessing the strategy effect. Strategy/implicit instruction requires a certain sequence of actions: the teacher points out the objective, reviews the knowledge and skills required for comprehension of the new material and then presents the new material. The instructional process consists in the following: the strategy is introduced and modeled by the teacher. While modeling problem-solving with the help of the new strategy, it is crucial that the teacher clearly describes his thinking process so that the students could use the same considerations while applying the strategy. Then the students are assigned problems to solve with the help of the newly-introduced strategy.
At this point it appears opportune to dwell upon a few literary sources dedicated to the strategy/implicit instruction. In the book Focus on Exceptional Children by Swanson (2001) the author lists the following components of this instructional strategy: mental scaffolding as basis for new understanding, student assessment of their own understanding and progress, connection between the new information and material already learned, and summarizing new information. The researcher also finds such general learning strategies as questioning, discussions, outlining and underlining, indispensable in strategy/implicit instructional process. Swanson considers it crucial that sufficient amount of time is dedicated to group instruction as well as individual practice. Swanson mentions seven criteria characteristics of strategy/implicit instruction. They are
esponse to instruction and intervention TI2 is reported as a general approach in education to closing the gap in achievement. TI2 methods are constructed upon the esponse to Intervention (TI) model that was an option for schools under the 'Building the Legacy, Idea 2004 reauthorization of the individuals with Disabilities Education Act IDEA. (California Department of Education, 2011) TI and the expanded TI2 are reported as being based upon "17 years of practice that has refined continuous progress monitoring as a strategy for keeping students on a path toward success." (California Department of Education, 2011) TI is reported as a strategy that moves all students through the steps set out in the learning standards and is further more stated to be an approach that views both academic and behavioral achievement of students.
Tier 1 included the 'Universal Interventions' which include "preventive, proactive, universal intervention in all…
Benchmark interventions -- reinforcement (2011) Department of Education. Retrieved from: http://pubs.cde.ca.gov/tcsii/ch2/bnchmrkrnfrcmnt.aspx
Case Study: El Rancho Unified School District in Pico Rivera, California (2011) International Reading Program. Retrieved from: http://www.reading.org/downloads/resources/rti0707_implications.pdf
Case Study: Pella Community School District, Iowa (2011) International Reading Program. Retrieved from:
When they see the library staff in this light, teachers are more willing to work with others in improving the effectiveness of their lesson planning (by incorporating more tools and techniques). (Gregory, 2003, pp. 100-109)
Task 4: Change can be difficult for some. Think about a change you would like to see in your educational or work environment. How would you implement this change? Consider and discuss the possible resistance that you may encounter from your professional community. How would you support them throughout the change process? How would you overcome any resistance to the change?
A change that can be implemented inside an educational environment is to unify the approach educators are using in reaching out to students. What normally happens is most teachers have different theories and practices they are following. This can be problematic as some of the most experience educators may be reluctant to alter their…
Adams, C. (2006). Differeniating Instruction. Waco, TX: Puff Rock Press.
Bender, W. (2009). Differentiating Math Instruction. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Demmitt, C. (2007). Evidence-Based Counseling. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
Dryer, W. (2007). Team Building. San Francisco, CA: Jossey Bass.
movie Stand and Deliver (Menendez & Musca, 1988), which is based on the true story of Jamie Escalante, an individual who overcame ethnic, cultural, and socioeconomic issues to become a highly successful mathematics teacher. Discuss the beliefs he held and the strategies he employed in his classroom that contributed to high achievement levels in his students.
The final report of the National Mathematics Advisory Panel (2008) presents a three-pronged argument for an effective math curricula: 1) It must foster the successful mathematical performance of students in algebra and beyond; 2) it must be taught by experienced teachers of mathematics who instructional strategies that are research-based; and, 3) the instruction of the math curriculum must accomplish the "mutually reinforcing benefits of conceptual understanding, procedural fluency, and automatic recall of facts" (National Mathematics Advisory Panel, 2008, p. xiv). Jamie Escalante began teaching before this report was released, but he knew from experience…
____. (2004, April 13). "Hero'" Teacher Escalante Addresses Students At Wittenberg Commencement May 9. Wittenberg University. Retrieved http://www4.wittenberg.edu/news/1998/commspeaker.shtml
____. (2008). National Mathematics Advisory Panel, Foundations for Success. The Final Report of the National Mathematics Advisory Panel, U.S. Department of Education. Washington, D.C. Retrieved http://www2.ed.gov/about/bdscomm/list/mathpanel/report/final-report.pdf
Barley, Z., Lauer, P.A., Arens, S.A., Apthorp, H.S., Englert, K.S., Snow, D., & Akiba, M. (2002). Helping at-risk students meet standards: A synthesis of evidence-based classroom practices. Retrieved March 20, 2008, from the Midcontinent Research for Education and Learning [Web]. Retrieved http://www.mcrel.org/PDF/Synthesis/5022RR_RSHelpingAtRisk.pdf
Berkas, N., & Pattison, C. (2007, November). Manipulatives: More than a special education intervention. NCTM News Bulletin. Retrieved March 20, 2008, from the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics [Web] Retreived http://www.nctm.org/news/release_list.aspx?id=12698
Pyramid of Intervention
hat is the purpose of the Pyramid of Intervention?
For students that are struggling in their quest to learn, there are a number of interventions available through various educational channels. One of those interventions is the "Pyramid of Intervention" (POI), and according to professors with the University of South Florida, this pyramid is designed for children who need additional intervention to ensure their continuing development as learners. "A tiered intervention model is an excellent fit with the presumption" -- in the very important period of early childhood -- "that young children…" should be given learning opportunities that take place in the natural environment and in "inclusive settings" in order to meet their needs (Fox, et al., 2009).
Moreover, there has been a need for a particular intervention that addresses the social and behavioral issues young learners go through, and Fox explains that there is a "…substantial body…
Fox, L, Carta, J., Strain, P., Dunlap, G., and Hemmeter, M.L. (2009). Response to Intervention
And the Pyramid Model. University of South Florida / Technical Assistance Center on Social
Emotional Intervention. Retrieved September 18, 2013, from http://nhcebis.seresc.net .
Howery, K., McClellan, T., and Pederson-Bayus, K. (2013). "Reaching Every Student" with a Pyramid of Intervention Approach: One District's Journey. Canadian Journal of Education,
There are varying educational backgrounds and levels in distance education and the delivery method must be in a way that is interactive using visuals, charts, graphs and other stimulating realia.
In conclusion, the Dick & Carey Model of Instructional Design and the Jerrold Kemp Model of Instructional design are both excellent models for developing both traditional and distance learning materials. However, the differences among the types of ISD Comparison 6 learners must be clearly identified and defined in order for either of these models to be successful. With technology changing the face of education, instructional design models will also need to change in order to best educate and meet the needs of the different types of learners.
Dick, Walter, & Carey, Lou. (1985) The Systematic Design of Instruction (2nd ed.) Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman and Company.
Kemp, Jerrold E. (1977). Instructional Design. (2nd Ed.) Belmont, CA: Fearon Publishers,…
Dick, Walter, & Carey, Lou. (1985) The Systematic Design of Instruction (2nd ed.) Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman and Company.
Kemp, Jerrold E. (1977). Instructional Design. (2nd Ed.) Belmont, CA: Fearon Publishers, Inc.
Brown, Frederick G. (1981). Measuring Classroom Achievement. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
Dalton, William. Assessing Student Learning: It can be more than a survey. Retrieved May 25, 2006 at http://fie.engrng.pitt.edu/fie95/2c1/2c14/2c14.htm
Gustav Klimt Lesson Plan
"Describe the central focus and purpose for the content you will teach in the learning segment".
Students will learn the art of Gustav Klimt, which will assist in creating the work of art that will resemble Klimt's style. Moreover, students will be introduced to the Gustav Klimt's artwork focusing on his love for cats. (Weidinger, 2007).Students will also learn their artistic style and utilize their patterns and shapes to fill up their works. Moreover, students will continue to build and develop the basic skill sets utilizing art tools such as paint, glue, scissors, and oil pastels. Students will also learn how to utilize the line variation, stylized form, symbol, color, and media variety with the ability to create their "Tree of Life". Moreover, the lesson plan will assist students to learn about cool and warm colors incorporating them into the artistic styles of Gustav…