International Finance Essays (Examples)

Filter results by:

 

View Full Essay

Finance Has Always Been a

Words: 616 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4934845

The experience has proven to be a real world confirmation of what I want to do in my professional life. I was charged with handling financial computations, modeling, forecasting and transactions. While doing so, I knew I have found my niche in life and need only gain both theoretical training and further real world experiences to become the best I can be in my chosen field. Once I have completed my graduate studies in Finance, I intend to apply for work at leading firms specializing in international finance and trade. This will enable me to apply knowledge learnt in undergraduate and graduate studies. Graduating from two prestigious institutions in the United States will accord me the opportunity to practice anywhere in the world since I have had the global education necessary. It will be a different world since I would have left the secure confines of the academe and enter…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

International Financial Manager at Apple Inc Is

Words: 654 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93763354

International financial manager at Apple Inc. is the Senior Financial Analyst who has been serving in this department since October 2005. This individual works in close partnership with the Operations, IS&T and Merchandising departments in launching support, prices and planning changes of the various products of Apple Inc. Currently, Greg Gingo is the Senior Financial Analyst at Apple Inc. And has created and executed system expected commissions through the use of POS systems testing and contract review ("Greg Gingo," n.d.).

Additionally, Greg partners with the store operations on a daily basis in order to identify and understand the transactional behavior resulting in counteractive training. The Senior Financial Analyst also partners with the store operations on a day-to-day basis for the purpose of lessening future outstanding receivables. During his time as the international financial manager at Apple Inc., Greg Gingo has been able to review the carrier level contracts and recognized…… [Read More]

References:

"Greg Gingo: Senior Financial Analyst at Apple Inc." (n.d.). Linkedin.com. Retrieved January

19, 2011, from http://www.linkedin.com/pub/greg-gingo/26/177/47

Lin, Y.B. (2005, December 8). Financial Analysis: Apple Computer Inc. Retrieved from Boston

University website: http://people.bu.edu/beelin/TermPaper-AppleCom.pdf
View Full Essay

International Monetary System's Policies Support

Words: 1029 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90809578

According to Chancellor Helmut chmidt the interest rates of the developed countries in the post1990 era were higher than they had ever been "at any time since Jesus Christ" (http://hdr.undp.org/external/HDR_papers/oc3b.htm). In 1983, in Latin America, whose devaluations were enormous, it was recorded that in one year "the effect on the individual private sector, which in [some] cases had been encouraged by the policies of the authorities to borrow, has been devastating...the amount needed in local currency to service external debt has increased three or four times" (Kuczynski,1983, p. 22). The situation in these countries is such: with the decrease of their currency value, more goods must be sold to pay back their debt plus interest, and since their export prices have been steadily declining in the post war years, their accumulated interest swells to a rate that is higher than the nominal dues stipulated in the original contract (http://hdr.undp.org/external/HDR_papers/oc3b.htm). In…… [Read More]

Sources

Developing countries in the international economic system. Accessed on 1/13/2011 from: http://hdr.undp.org/external/HDR_papers/oc3b.htm

InfoPlease, International finance. The International Monetary System. Accessed on 1/13/2011 from:  http://www.infoplease.com /cig/economics/international-monetary-system.html

Kahn, a.A. (19-Jan-2009). International monetary system, globalization, and developing countries. The News, Accessed on 1/13/2011 from: www.opfblog.com/3909/international-monetary-system

Kuczynski, P.P. (1983). Latin American Debt: Act Two, Foreign Affairs, 22-29
View Full Essay

International Trade Participation

Words: 1848 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63665175

regional international institutions, International Monetary Fund, World Bank, United Nations, World Trade Organization, a financial institution. Select countries apply traditional international trade theories, absolute advantage, comparative advantage, factor endowment, enhance participation international trade.

International Trade Participation

The interaction between countries is a complex process that is strongly influenced by economic, political, and cultural factors. The need for this interaction is based on the resources that can be provided with smaller efforts by some countries to countries that need them. The need for resources has determined countries to involve in military, economic, and biological wars, or to involve in influence relationships where several countries support a larger community that can polarize greater power in the attempt to counteract the influence of other powerful countries. This is the case of the European Union that was developed in order to join the efforts of European countries so that they could balance the power…… [Read More]

Reference list:

1. Comparative Advantage (2014). Investopedia. Retrieved March 6, 2014 from  http://www.investopedia.com/terms/c/comparativeadvantage.asp .

2. Regional Trade Agreements (2011). OECD. Retrieved March 6, 2014 from http://www.oecd.org/document/62/0,3746,en_2649_36442957_31839102_1_1_1_1,00.html.

3. Role of the World Trade Organization (2012). ICT. Retrieved March 6, 2014 from  http://www.ictregulationtoolkit.org/en/section.1651.html .
View Full Essay

International Trade Ever Since Adam Smith Demonstrated

Words: 3419 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58679961

International Trade

Ever since Adam Smith demonstrated in The Wealth of Nations (1776) that individuals would be better off if they specialize, instead of trying to be economically self-sufficient, countries across the world have tried to apply the same principle to international trade. It is argued that all countries would be better off if they exchange the products and services that they are relatively good at producing for those things that other countries are relatively better at producing. David icardo (1772-1823), British economist and businessman, through his theory of Comparative Advantage went on to "prove" that it can be beneficial for two countries to trade, even if one of them is able to produce each item more cheaply than the other.

The colonialist powers, particularly Britain, had realized the benefits of international trade after its industrial revolution although it is highly debatable whether such trade was beneficial for the colonies…… [Read More]

References

Dollar, D. And Kraay, A. (2001). "Trade, Growth, and Poverty." Development Research Group: The World Bank. [Available online] Accessed on November 05, 2004 from http://econ.worldbank.org/files/2207_wps2615.pdf

Moore, Richard K. (1999). "Achieving a Livable, Peaceful World." Part I - Corporate rule and global ruin. Introduction. [Available online] Accessed on November 05, 2004 from http://cyberjournal.org/cj/rkm/alpw/p1.intro.html

Nordstrom, H. And Vaughan, S. (1999) "Trade and Environment." Special Study: World Trade Organization. [Available online] Accessed on November 05, 2004 from http://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/envir_e/environment.pdf

'The Rural Poverty Trap." (2004). Oxfam Briefing Paper # 59. [Available online] Accessed on November 05, 2004 from http://www.maketradefair.com/en/assets/bp59_The_Rural_Poverty_Trap.pdf
View Full Essay

Intl Finance

Words: 721 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65828826

International Finance

The performance of stock market indices is subject to a wide number of variables. In the past six months, one of the more interesting international markets to watch has been India. In late May, Narendra Modi ascended to the Prime Minister office in India, the highest position. His election campaign was controversial, being viewed by many as overtly nationalist, something that threatened to destabilize multicultural India. This, combined with India's status as a major emerging economy, has made India's stock market an interesting study. The BSE Sens, referring to the Bombay Stock Market, today sits at 26459. Six months ago, it was at below 23,000. The gain has been around 17% in the past six months, versus around 6% in the S&P 500.

It would appear that the Indian stock market has specifically gained a boost from the political environment. The Modi government was feared by many observers…… [Read More]

References

Anand, K. (2014). 100 days of Narendra Modi government: Sensex rallies nearly 9%, top bets. The Economic Times. Retrieved October 8, 2014 from  http://articles.economictimes.indiatimes.com/2014-09-02/news/53479975_1_saugata-bhattacharya-gdp-growth-narendra-modi 

Stanlib.com (2014). Bond markets and bond market instruments. Stanlib.com. Retrieved October 8, 2014 from  http://www.stanlib.com/Individuals/knowledgecentre/Pages/Bondmarketsandbondmarketinstruments.aspx
View Full Essay

International Risk

Words: 1052 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99332350

International Risk Management

No profit was ever made without taking some financial risk. However, economists such as John Eatwell and Lance Taylor have argued in their text Global Finance at Risk: The Case for International Regulation that international financial markets are intrinsically and particularly apt to pose the threat of risk to potential investors on an individual and a corporate level. Investors in finance base their decisions on guesses, not only about how other investors within a nation will behave, but also about national stability, which affects the stability of the currency. As markets have grown more global in scope, industrialized countries often have pursued a more cautious monetary policy regarding other nations. However, too much caution can be risky too, Ultimately hesitancy in investment results not only in lost opportunities, but a climate of fear that can at its extremes generates international deflation, a depression in economic growth, and…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Eatwell, John & Lance Taylor. (2000) Global Finance at Risk: The Case for International Regulation. New York: New Press.

Kelly, Michael P. (June/July 2001.)"Foreign Currency Risk: Minimizing Transaction Exposure." International Law.  http://www.vsb.org/publications/valawyer/june_july01/kelley.pdf 

Schnaue, Frank. (2004). "U.S. trade gap widens as production rises." UPI. http://app.quotemedia.com/data/newsItem.htm?storyId=1533543
View Full Essay

International Monetary System and Exchange Rate Policies

Words: 1065 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20667598

International Monetary System and Exchange ate Policies

A report/essay: chapter 17, multinational companies. select topic research write: Multinational vs. domestic financial management exchange rates international trade international monetary system exchange rate policies trading foreign exchange european monetary union interest

rate parity/purchasing power parity international capital structures.

The international monetary system and exchange rate policies

International Monetary systems

These are a set of rules and that regulate how international trade and payments are handled. It facilitates the exchange of capital, goods and services among countries. However, this system does not have a physical presence but, it consists of interlacing rules and procedures and is influenced by the market of foreign exchange. An example of an international monetary system is the International monetary fund. These interlacing rules and procedures are referred to as exchange rate Policies.

Exchange rate policies

These are rules that officials of public finance from different nations have developed…… [Read More]

References

Eichengreen. (2011). Exorbitant Privilege: The Rise and Fall of the Dollar and the Future of the International Monetary System

Goyal, M., Raman, Wang, and Ahmed; . ( 2011). Financial Deepening and International Monetary Stability.

Michael C. Ehrhardt, & Eugene F. Brigham. (2011). Corporate Finance (4th ed.): Cengage.

OECD. (2011). The Effects of Oil Price Hikes on Economic Activity and Inflation.
View Full Essay

International Political Economics the International

Words: 1375 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75684134

Socialist states use a command and control management structure as a substitute for the profit motive. This structure is less efficient, so production levels cannot match those of capitalist states. Ultimately, the lack of productivity and the large number of distortions lead to economic collapse (Tesche, 1993).

Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, the pace and nature of economic reforms has differed greatly in the former Soviet states. These range from regions with a virtual continuation of communist dictatorship (Belarus, Transnistria) to full-scale embrace of the free market (Estonia in particular). Russia's economy has only opened somewhat, and only to small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs). For the most part, the major firms in the economy are controlled by powerful businessmen with close ties to government. Freedom of capital flows has improved slightly, but the Russian economy overall remains under significant government control. The economy has grown substantially since…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

No author. (2009). Smithsonian agreement. Investopedia. Retrieved December 13, 2009 from  http://www.investopedia.com/terms/s/smithsonian-agreement.asp 

Eichengreen, B. (2004). Capital flows and crises. MIT Press. Retrieved December 13, 2009 from http://mitpress.mit.edu/catalog/item/default.asp?tid=10369&ttype=2

Pollard, P. (2001). The creation of the euro and the role of the dollar in international markets. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis. Retrieved December 13, 2009 from http://research.stlouisfed.org/publications/review/01/09/0109pp.pdf

Sheppard, M. (2004). The politics of the oversight of OTC derivatives markets: Is there any evidence of systemic risk? Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Studies Association, Le Centre Sheraton Hotel, Montreal, March 17, 2004. Retrieved December 13, 2009 from http://www.allacademic.com/meta/p_mla_apa_research_citation/0/7/3/4/2/p73424_index.html
View Full Essay

International Financial Markets and Institutions Throughout the

Words: 2559 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45284927

International Financial Markets and Institutions:

Throughout the globe, today's landscape of international financial market and institutions has continued to experience several changes that require practitioners to examine new models. The need for practitioners to examine new models that are relevant to the state of these markets and institutions has also been necessitated by the recent events that contribute to financial crises, which have been very dramatic. Actually, the recent financial crisis has had significant impacts on the financial institutions and markets resulting in the need for changes. International financial markets and institutions have become an important aspect of economies because they affect daily life. This is primarily because they involve the huge flow of different types of funds in the entire economy that in turn impact the profits of businesses, production of goods and services, and economic well-being of countries. In some cases, the events in these institutions and markets…… [Read More]

References:

Accounting Education (2010), International Capital Market, Accounting Education, viewed 7

June 2012,

Australian Securities Exchange (n.d.), Absolute Return Funds, Australian Securities Exchange,

viewed 7 June 2012,
View Full Essay

International Business Is a Term

Words: 2123 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83416987

(5).

This paper provides further illustration of trade barrier to provide greater understanding on the method barrier to trade hurts economy. Fig 1 reveals the effects of international trade without trade barrier. From the graph, DD refers to domestic demand and DS means domestic supply, and the price of good is found at P, and the world price is found at P. However, domestic consumer will consume at Qw because the home country could only produce Qd. Thus, the home country must import Qw-Qd worth of goods to enhance efficiency in the economy.

Figure 1. Price without Trade Barrier

However, Fig 2 reveals the economy with trade barrier. It is revealed that the economy will not achieve maximum allocation of scarce resources because trade barriers reduce efficiencies because it would allow companies that would not have existed in a more competitive market environment to exist.

Figure 2. Price with the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Anderson, Kym. Subsidies and Trade Barriers. University of Adelaide. The Centre for International Economic Studies.2004.

Elwell, C.K (2006). Trade, Trade Barriers, and Trade Deficits: Implications for U.S. Economic Welfare. CRS Report for Congress.

Jeffery Frankel and David Romer, Does Trade Cause Growth?, NBER Working Paper No.

5476, June 1999.
View Full Essay

International Business Environment Today's Micro

Words: 2692 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57054507

"Opening up the financial system to foreign capital flows can lead, and has led, to disastrous financial crises, which have resulted in great pain, suffering and even violence" (Mishkin, 2006, p.9).

Directly linked to the previous disadvantage and the basic definition of globalization, is the fact that the interdependence of sectors and institutions increases in a global market. In this instance then, a financial crisis within one country or within one institution is likely to generate negative effects upon its partners. The most relevant example of chain reaction to a financial crisis is the current situation, in which the global community is threatened with economic collapse due to the financial difficulties of the United States. The situation is similar in terms of politics or the social environment.

Globalization has often been assimilated with Americanization, meaning by this the desire of the American corporations to transcend boundaries and get access to…… [Read More]

References

Ervin, J., Smith, Z.A., 2008, Globalization: A Reference Handbook, ABC-CLIO

Geddes, P., 2004, the Benefits of Globalization, Foundation for Research on Economics and the Environment, http://www.free-eco.org/articleDisplay.php?id=378last accessed on January 19, 2009

Holm, H.H., Globalization and What the Governments make of it, European Institute Firenze, Retrieved at http://www.djh.dk/pdf/forskning/global.pdfon January 20, 2009

Kolodko, G.W., 2003, Emerging Market Economies: Globalization and Development, Ashgate Publishing
View Full Essay

International Business Environment Ireland Was

Words: 1558 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30731914

Additionally, its taxation advatantages may erode due to pressure from EU and implicitly its wages will increase as taxes increase. Competition from emerging countries, namely Eastern Europe will become stronger as Ireland allings its strong points to EU standards. Moreover, the country's inflationary problem persistance may strengthen EU pressure on the authorities to reduce it through its fiscal policy.

eference List

BBC news channel. 2004. Ireland is Named 'Best Country', published on Nov 17, http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/4020523.stm.

Barry, F. And Bradley, J. 1997. FDI and Trade: The Irish Host-Country Experience. The Economic Journal, vol. 107(445): pp. 1798-1811, http://www.res.org.uk/

Berry, . 2001. U.S. Foreign Direct Investment in Ireland: Making the Most of Other's People Money. Perspectives on Business and Economics, vol. 19.

Cassidy, Mark, 2002. The Irish Economy: ecent Experience and Prospects. in: Aronson, ., Munley, V., Thornton, . (Eds.). The Irish Economy in Transition: Successes, Problems and Prospects. Elsevier Science, Amsterdam: pp.…… [Read More]

Reference List

BBC news channel. 2004. Ireland is Named 'Best Country', published on Nov 17, http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/4020523.stm.

Barry, F. And Bradley, J. 1997. FDI and Trade: The Irish Host-Country Experience. The Economic Journal, vol. 107(445): pp. 1798-1811, http://www.res.org.uk/

Berry, R. 2001. U.S. Foreign Direct Investment in Ireland: Making the Most of Other's People Money. Perspectives on Business and Economics, vol. 19.

Cassidy, Mark, 2002. The Irish Economy: Recent Experience and Prospects. in: Aronson, R., Munley, V., Thornton, R. (Eds.). The Irish Economy in Transition: Successes, Problems and Prospects. Elsevier Science, Amsterdam: pp. 5-30.
View Full Essay

International Pol Ec The Four Different Scenarios

Words: 1619 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93941725

International Pol. Ec.

The four different scenarios laid out by the orld Economic Forum in 2009 paint distinctly different visions of the development of global financial markets. The four scenarios are financial regionalism, re-engineered estern centralism, fragmented protectionism and rebalanced multilateralism (yman, 2009). Of these four different scenarios, there is evidence late in 2010 that would support the evolution of two of these different scenarios. These scenarios, in particular the one with the most support, will be given primary consideration in this paper. The implications for these scenarios for my chosen company, an IT firm with a local focus, will also be discussed in this paper.

The EF scenario that fits the world best as of late 2010 is the first scenario, financial regionalism. This scenario relies on post-crisis blame-shifting, something that can be seen in the global political environment at present. The United States has raised serious issues about…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Chan, S. & Ewing, J. (2010). Echoing Obama, Bernanke presses China on imbalances. New York Times. Retrieved November 19, 2010 from http://www.nytimes.com/2010/11/19/business/economy/19fed.html?_r=1&hp

Euro Intelligence. (2010). European panic over QE2. Euro Intelligence. Retrieved November 19, 2010 from http://www.eurointelligence.com/index.php?id=581&tx_ttnews[tt_news]=2948&tx_ttnews[backPid]=743&cHash=8bec5d30ed

Garrett, G. (2010). G2 in G20: China, the United States and the World after the global financial crisis. Global Policy. Vol. 1 (1) 29-39.

IMF. (2010). Reports for select countries and subjects. IMF. Retrieved November 19, 2010 from http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2010/02/weodata/weorept.aspx?
View Full Essay

International Trade and Finance Law

Words: 2844 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78054175



In the case of United States, Article 9 of the Uniform Commercial Code provides for practically all types of security agreements for owned property that are both for own use as also for commercial purposes. This type of agreements includes fixtures which mean personal property that is attached to the property, and the ready example can be a water heater. This does not include other liens taken on the property like the lien of a mechanic are not covered by this act, but are covered by the individual laws that govern them. There is also a statute of frauds and that requires a security agreement to be in writing for it to be valid, unless the property has been pledged for getting the loan. This sort of a pledge takes place when the borrowing party shifts the collateral to the lender of money in exchange for the loan that he…… [Read More]

References

9-203. Attachment and Enforceability of Security Interest; Proceeds: Formal Requisites.

Retrieved at http://www.law.cornell.edu/ucc/9/9-203.html. Accessed 10 November, 2005

Bailey, Sue. PM defensive over election threat. Retrieved at http://cnews.canoe.ca/CNEWS/World/2005/11/03/1291616-cp.html. Accessed 10 November, 2005

Banking: An overview. Retrieved at http://www.law.cornell.edu/topics/banking.html. Accessed 10 November, 2005
View Full Essay

International Lending Implications International Lending

Words: 2293 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71433049

Liquidity shocks on the international arena can have a strong negative impact on less developed countries whose access to funding sources is already reduced.

The clearing risk is a specific risk, which combines credit risk, in the sense that it results from a counterparty's inability to meet its liabilities, market risk in the sense that it is caused by market shifts (general and specific market risk) between the time a transaction is executed and the time it is cleared, as well as liquidity and systemic risk." (Casanova, 2000). The clearing risk is assumed by clearing houses, which guarantee the proper settlement of transactions done by the members. These institutions engage themselves to bear potential replacement costs if either one of the trade counterparties can't fulfill its obligations. In international markets this risk is increased as the international arena as mentioned before it more dynamic and volatile and the chance of…… [Read More]

Reference List

Casanova, J - F. 2000 - Role Played by Risk Management and Clearing Systems in the Economy of Future Exchanges and ECNs. UNCTAD, www.unctad.org

Eichengreen, B. 1990a. Trends and Cycles in Foreign Lending. CEPR - Center for Economic Policy Research. Working Paper N"451.

Eichengreen, B. 1990b, Economic Policy - International Lending, Center for Economic Policy Research. Working Paper N"452.

Investopedia, Accessed October 2008, www.investopedia.com
View Full Essay

Finance Discuss Some of the Motivations Firms

Words: 1676 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66381050

Finance

Discuss some of the motivations firms have for setting up production facilities in other countries. Will the effect on the host country differ depending upon the motivation? Explain. Will the effect on the source country differ depending upon the motivation? Explain. What relationship might trade barriers (or the lack of trade barriers) have in determining a company's primary motivation for producing abroad?

The reasons for the foreign investment are high profit returns, and the rate of return is dependent upon the capital invested, the tax reductions and employees' fund. The foreign investment or production company is highly welcomed by the government because the company is expected to bring in foreign exchange. THz enhances the purchasing power of the country in international currency; thereby the nation has to rely minimum on loans and international borrowing.

The major motivation that the international investor has towards foreign investment is that cheap labor…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

International Financial Markets and Institutions

Words: 3339 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65472909

27-29) This provoked financial demands and awareness of the people in different parts of the world. People and businesses are dissatisfied with the traditional financial systems due to lack of opportunities for investors. Businesses today require more diversified portfolios for investments because this will reduce their investment risks and increase the probability of future capital flows.

Increased capital mobility has increased the importance of exchange rates which is serving as a monetary policy channel in some industrialized economies. In mid 2000s, there was a sharp shift in the flow of international investments and savings (geographic pattern) resulting in the segmentation of current account imbalances. This was also a major contributing factor. Additionally, the domestic financial markets were also affected by the change in regulatory environment. The two important factors for this are as follows:

1. apid growth of OTC (over-the-counter) markets of derivatives in terms of complexity as well as…… [Read More]

References

Bekaert, G., Harvey, C. And Lundblad, C. 2005. Does financial liberalization spur growth? Journal of Financial Economics 77, 3 -- 55.

Edison, H., Klein, M., Ricci, L. And Slok, T. 2004. Capital account liberalization and economic performance: survey and synthesis. IMF Staff Papers 51, 111 -- 115.

Kaminsky, G. And Reinhart, C. 1999. The twin crises: the causes of banking and balance-of payments problems. American Economic Review 89, 473 -- 500.

Klein, M. 2005. Capital account liberalization, institutional quality and economic growth: theory and evidence. Working Paper No. 11112. Cambridge, MA: NBER, pp.19-21.
View Full Essay

International Trade Is an Important

Words: 4173 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34868399



Only a few decades ago, China was a struggling economy. It is much newer in the free market economy system as compared to the already established economical giants, given the country's communist history. China, a country with an extremely high population, put its resources to its best possible advantage and that was something which contributed towards the country's rapid growth. China has one of the cheapest labor and energy and power resources available for its production. As a result, the industries can achieve economies of scale and thus can cut down on their cost of production. As a result, China enjoys a greater absolute advantage over its competitors. Importers around the world have realized the fact that importing goods from China is relatively much cheaper as compared to imports from other developed economies. These cheaper imports allow them a greater profit margin. Moreover, given the fragile economic conditions and declining…… [Read More]

References

Kreh, W. (2008). Money, Debt and Wealth of Nations. Canada: COMER publications

Lipsey, R. & Chrystal, K. (1997). An Introduction to Positive Economics. London: Oxford University Press.

Zweig, D. & Jianhai, B. (2005). China's global hunt for energy. Foreign Affairs, 84(5), 25-38.

Hale, D. & Hale, L. (2003). China takes off. Foreign Affairs, 82(36).
View Full Essay

International Business in South Florida Premise and

Words: 1319 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34412930

International Business in South Florida

Premise and Conclusion

The location of any business entity, but especially one engaged in international commerce, is a complex and critical pre-condition for serving customers, providing a nurturing and productive environment for employees, and achieving profitable operations. Of the many factors management must consider, the following are generally thought to be the most influential: access to capital, favorable tax advantages, excellent transportation and technological infrastructure, and a skilled multilingual and multicultural workforce. (web eFlorida 2010)

South Florida, comprising Miami-Dade, Broward, and Palm Beach counties, does not present a perfect record on any of the success factors, but a close examination of the efforts made and the resulting accomplishments leads to a favorable recommendation for the formation or expansion of international business functions in the region.

Access to Capital

Depending on the stage of company development, a business may need venture capital, commercial bank lenders, or…… [Read More]

References

Enterprise Florida, Inc., 2010, a public-private partnership serving as Florida's primary organization devoted to statewide economic development. www.eFlorida.com

Florida International Bankers Association, 2010, a non-profit trade association founded in 1979.  http://www.fiba.net 

Florida Development Finance Corporation. 2010 Created by special state statute as an issuer of tax-exempt revenue bonds. www.floridafinance.org

Fodor's South Florida, 2010. Word of mouth tips from fellow travelers. www.fodors.com/guidebooks/9781400004775/
View Full Essay

International Financial Management the Sovereign

Words: 2451 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53404659

257%

Greece

12.514%

Ireland

Baa1

9.384%

Spain

5.119%

Portugal

A3

7.497%

The structural issues that underlie the crisis remain unresolved. The austerity measures that have been implemented have failed miserably to restore business confidence -- they are crippling any economic recovery and have not given investors any reason to be confident about resolving the long-run debt problems faced by any of the peripheral Eurozone nations. The specter of increased Eurozone interest rates to meet the needs of Germany will only hurt the recovery of the peripheral economies further. As a result, a resolution of the sovereign debt crisis in the Eurozone does not appear to be on the horizon. Economists have made a number of proposals for the resolution of the crisis, none of which appear to have any political traction: a single Eurobond (De Grauwe & Moesen, 2009); addressing the divergence between Euro-level monetary policy and sovereign-level fiscal policy…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Arezki, R.; Amadou, N. & Candelon, B. (2010). Bad news spreads. Finance & Development. Retrieved March 22, 2011 from http://www.perjacobsson.org/external/pubs/ft/fandd/2010/12/pdf/arezki.pdf

BBC. (2011). Greece debt rating cut further by Moody's. British Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved March 22, 2011 from  http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/business-12664681 

CIA World Factbook. (2011). Greece: Economy. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved March 22, 2011 from  https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/gr.html 

De Grauwe, P. (2010). The Greek crisis and the future of the Eurozone. U. Leuven. Retrieved March 22, 2011 from http://www.econ.kuleuven.be/ew/academic/intecon/Degrauwe/PDG-papers/Discussion_papers/EuroIntelligence-March-2010.pdf
View Full Essay

International Equity Markets

Words: 1160 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42780096

International Equity Markets

Advantages and disadvantages of cross listing on stock exchanges

When a company lists its stock exchange on many stock exchanges in different countries, it is referred to as cross listing. It entails exchanging in more than one country. However, a company can list its stocks on two stock exchanges in the same country. The administration is likely to be widened besides the generation of great pool of possible investors. In most cases, companies employ the common form of cross listing whereby they launch a primary listing in the country of origin before initiating a secondary listing in a foreign country. This happens when a business is pursuing to go global. For instance, an Australian firm expanding in the U.S. And seeks to reflect this in the best way (Dobbs & Goedhart, 2010).

The major reason of cross listing is to avail stock to many people across the…… [Read More]

References

Rubery, S. (2007). Corporates spread their wings on international exchanges. Corporate Finance, London, U.K.

McDowall, L. (2010). Publicly listing a company - the advantages and disadvantages. Retrieved from http://ezinearticles.com/?Publicly-Listing-A-Company-The-Advantages-And-Disadvantages&id=835976

Dobbs, R. & Goedhart, M.H. (2010). Why cross-listing shares doesn't create value. Retrieved from http://www.bnet.com/2403-13239_23-255550.html

Youxing, L. (2009). Comparison of the legal institutions of enterprise financing in China and the United States. Retrieved from  http://www.indiana.edu/~rccpb/uschinacooperation/papers/P10%20Li%20Youxing.pdf
View Full Essay

International Lending and Financial Crisis

Words: 2001 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35269295

International Lending and Financial Crisis

One of the major global financial crises is the financial crisis of 2007-2009. The financial recession that occurred between 2007 and 2009, encompasses the housing bubble that instigated the financial crisis, federal expenditure, and foreign exchange rates. Also, referred to as the 'Great recession', this global financial crisis had adverse impacts not only on the financial markets but also on the economies of nations across the globe, being the worst financial crisis in history. The financial crisis emanating from the U.S. affected other nations owing to financial globalization and led to discussions regarding restructuring of the international financial system (Ozkan, 2012). In particular, the global financial crisis originally started in and adversely impacted the financial sector of developed nations, especially in the United States, and subsequently had a detrimental impact of the real sector of affected nations as the financial institutions in the United States…… [Read More]

References

Ahid, M., & Augustine, A. (2012, August). The impact of global financial crisis on Jordan.

 http://www.ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/ijbm/article/view/16475/13021 

Argandona, A. (2012). Three ethical dimensions of the financial crisis. Retrieved from: http://www.iese.edu/research/pdfs/di-0944-e.pdf

Boundless. (2016). Limitations of Monetary Policy. Retrieved from: https://www.boundless.com/economics/textbooks/boundless-economics-textbook/monetary-policy-28/impacts-of-federal-reserve-policies-119/limitations-of-monetary-policy-473-12569/
View Full Essay

International Monetary System

Words: 3495 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13803492

International Monetary System

In world trade, varied national currencies are swapped for each other by means of rules and procedures set by a system called the international monetary system. To delineate a general standard of value for the world's currencies, such a system is believed to be necessary.

The global monetary structure has always adhered to the organizational framework of the international discipline. In each stage of the financial capitalism there exists a corresponding monetary approach. The monetary structure during the postwar periods catered to the dominance of the United States. This was applied as a tool during the period to enforce the U.S. dominance over all its allies and the developing countries, irrespective of the socialist countries isolated themselves being unconnected from the influence of the financial and monetary disciplines of the global capitalism.

Gold standard was the first contemporary international monetary system. The gold standard contributed for the…… [Read More]

References

Amin, Samir. Replacing the International Monetary System? - Current Failures of Global Economic Policy. Monthly Review. Volume: 8; No: 1; October, 1993. pp: 93-98

Holloway, Thomas. M. The International Monetary System: Essays in World Economics. - Book Reviews. Monthly Labor Review. Volume: 12; No: 1; January, 1998. pp: 158-164

International Monetary System. The Columbia Encyclopedia. Sixth Edition. 2001. Retrieved from http://www.bartleby.com/65/in/intlmone.html Accessed on 12 November, 2004.

Little, Jane Sneddon; Oliveri, Giovanni. P. Rethinking the International Monetary System: An Overview. New England Economic Review. Volume: 16; No: 1; November, 1999. pp: 24-29
View Full Essay

International Fraud -- the Case

Words: 890 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21889207

This type of international fraud occurs due to a desire to develop a climate that allows investors to benefit from the comparative advantages of countries such as Mali and Senegal (Barney and Hunt). These countries generally compete against other African states in order to attract more investors and, when the resources are insufficient to convince these foreigners, state officials engage in frauds.

4. Impact on International Business Setting

The increased levels of fraud generate a series of chain reactions upon the business setting within Senegal and Mali. First of all, they reduce general trust in the economic and political systems. This then means that foreign investors are not attracted to the region and that developmental opportunities are reduced. This in turn materializes in the lack of new jobs. It means as such that the federal authorities are unable to cash in taxes from foreign investors conducting business operations within Senegal…… [Read More]

References:

Altman, L.K., Broad, W.J., Global Trend: More Science, More Fraud, December 20, 2005

Barney (1986) and Hunt (1990), Resource-Based View of the Firm

Humphreys, M., Mohamed, H.A., Understanding Civil War -- Senegal and Mali

Peng, M.W., Wang, D.Y., Jiang, Y., An Institution-Based View of International Business Strategy: A Focus on Emerging Economies, Journal of International Business Studies, 2008
View Full Essay

International Business Identify the Risks

Words: 2009 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9312730



Another reason why corporations choose to hold cash balances in a centralized repository is that the variety of accounts can be better managed as a mutual fund more complex investment structure than would be the case if the subsidiary alone managed the funds. A greater quality of information is available for example in the leading financial centers globally that would otherwise not be the case in more remote regions, making it possible to make more informed and correct decisions (Mitsos, 1997). The accuracy, efficiency and speed of decision-making based on more efficient use of information has led to more advanced forms of cash management than would have been the case on a per-subsidiary level (Fresard, Salva, 2010). Lastly, by having a centralized depository of cash for all subsidiaries, firms can hold less accumulated total cash, freeing up financial resources for other investments (Fresard, Salva, 2010). Companies become more efficient at…… [Read More]

References

Elliott, Graham, & Bewley, Ronald. (1994). The transmission of monetary policy: The relationship between centralized depositories and Monetary policy. Economic Record, 70(208), 19.

Fresard, L., & Salva, C.. (2010). The value of excess cash and corporate governance: Evidence from U.S. cross-listings. Journal of Financial Economics, 98(2), 359.

Hill, C.W.L. (2011). International business: Competing in the global marketplace (8th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill/Irwin.

Nicholas Mitsos. (1997, November). Virtual Group Treasury. TMA Journal, 17(6), 24-30.
View Full Essay

International Business the Aftermath of

Words: 1509 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48604943

Over the course of time, assertive laws are evolving which are supposed to deal with any issues quickly. This means that all financial firms will face higher costs and greater amounts of time in complying with these new guidelines. ("Dodd Frank")

Conclusion

Clearly, the Bernard Madoff scandal reshaped investor confidence and the regulatory environment. This is because many of his clients suffered tremendously from the firm's activities. In some cases, individuals were forced to sell their homes. While at other times, many nonprofits were forced into bankruptcy from being overly exposed. This resulted in the trustee utilizing aggressive tactics in recovering assets.

These actions set the stage for regulators, actuaries and fiduciaries to begin taking a more assertive stance when protecting the interests of the public. As a result, much stricter guidelines are being imposed. These areas are impacting the operating procedures of firms and how they are accounting for…… [Read More]

References

"$2.48 Billion." Daily Mail, 2012. Web. 4 Dec. 2012

"Dodd Frank." SEC, 2012. Web. 4 Dec. 2012

"The Securities and Exchange Commission." SEC, 2012. Web. 4 Dec. 2012

Kirtzman, Andrew. Betrayal. New York: Harper, 2010. Print.
View Full Essay

Finance Managing Exchange Rate Risk Can Be

Words: 1166 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48275278

Finance

Managing exchange rate risk can be a daunting task for many international firms attempting to expand overseas, acquire new companies, or simply manage its cash flows. Globalization has created a dynamic environment in which competition can arise to disrupt entire industries. Aspects such as technology, pharmaceuticals, banking, and automobiles have all experienced rapid change as a result of globalization and the competitive forces that underline it. As a result, companies, particularly smaller firms, have a higher propensity to experience volatile earnings overtime. Aspects that impact one sector of the globe can have a residual impact on other areas of the individual firm or industry. Managing exchange rates is therefore a viable option for firms to reduce volatility in earnings while subsequently managing its cash flows from operations. Below, is a 5 step program which could be implemented by a firm attempting to manage its exchange rate risk after an…… [Read More]

References

1. Jorion, Philippe (2009). Financial Risk Manager Handbook (5 ed.). John Wiley and Sons. p. 287. ISBN 978-0-470-47961-2.

2. Bartram, Sohnke M. (2006). "The Use of Options in Corporate Risk Management." Managerial Finance 32 (2): 160 -- 181
View Full Essay

Finance Question 1 A Bond Ratings Encompass a

Words: 1218 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87720726

Finance

Question 1.a) Bond ratings encompass a wide range of elements related to the credit risk of the firm. Moody's notes that bond ratings include elements of default probability, loss severity, "financial strength" and "transition risk" (Cantor & Fons, 1999). The authors note that within the same sector, bonds of the same rating tend to be comparable both with respect to overall credit quality and specific credit quality characteristics. Over different segments of the bond market, this is not necessarily the case. Bond ratings tend to take in factors like the balance sheet strength of the firm, as well as the expected loss in the event of a default. Thus, the type of assets that the firm holds is an important characteristic. The transition risk reflects the likelihood that the firm will experience outright default without transitioning down through the different risk categories. Firms that are almost assuredly going to…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Cantor, R. & Fons, J. (1999). Rating methodology: The evolving meaning of Moody's bond ratings. Moody's. Retrieved April 27, 2012 from http://www.moodys.com/sites/products/AboutMoodysRatingsAttachments/2000400000300541.pdf?frameOfRef=corporate

Investopedia. (2012). Net present value. Investopedia. Retrieved April 27, 2012 from  http://www.investopedia.com/terms/n/npv.asp#axzz1tFv4YkMI
View Full Essay

International Corporation Walmart Because of the Abilities

Words: 1148 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30031237

International Corporation Walmart

Because of the abilities of the internet and the expansion of global interests, there are many more international corporations today than there were in the past. One of the largest and most recognized of those corporations is Walmart. It operates in nearly all developed countries in the world, and is one of the largest retailers on the planet (Fishman, 2006; Zook & Graham, 2006). While it started out small, the company has grown to enormous proportions. It has become so large that some countries and some communities have taken strong and significant steps to keep the company out. Not everyone is a fan of the company, and not all countries think Walmart is good for business. The way the company comes in and "takes over" is sometimes a problem for much smaller, "mom and pop" businesses that are not able to sell as inexpensively as Walmart. For…… [Read More]

References

Fishman, C. (2006). The Wal-Mart Effect: How the World's Most Powerful Company Really Works -- and How It's Transforming the American Economy. NY: Penguin.

Ingram, P., Yue, L.Q., & Rao, H. (2010). Trouble in Store: Probes, Protests, and Store Openings by Wal-Mart, 1998 -- 2007. American Journal of Sociology, 116(1): pp 53 -- 92.

Lichtenstein, N. (2009). The Retail Revolution: How Wal-Mart Created a Brave New World of Business. NY: Macmillan.

Vance, S.S. & Scott, R.V. (1997). Wal-Mart: A History of Sam Walton's Retail Phenomenon (Twayne's Evolution of Modern Business Series). NY: Twayne Publishers.
View Full Essay

International Capital Flow Why Is

Words: 765 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72997980



Historical Trends and Developments. Eichengreen (2004) argues that there have been several major historical "regimes" that have had differentiated approaches to international capital flows. Prior to I, the free flow of capital across borders reached heights never seen before of since. This was followed by effort in the 1920s to establish international controls for the international flow of capital. The financial disaster of the 1930s began a period of tight regulation of international transactions. In the 1970s another period of free-flowing capital was begun, culminating in the boom of international capital flows of the 1990s (4).

In the 1990s, financial crises in Asia, Mexico, Turkey, and Russia led to a period of increased interest in international controls, as the level of global economic development was shown to be effected by problems in different regions of the world and the shockwaves these crises sent to other regions (Taskin and Muradoglu, 2003).…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Eichengreen, B. (2004). Capital flows and crises. Cambridge, MA: MIT.

Feldstein, M. (1997). International capital flows. National Bureau of Economic Research. 12 December 2009. Retrieved from  http://www.nber.org/feldstein/woodstock_intro.html .

Ott, M. (2008). International capital flows. Library of Economics and Liberty. 12 December 2009. Retrieved from  http://www.econlib.org/index.html .

Taskin, F., and Muradoglu, G. (2003, September-December). Financial liberalisation: from segmented to integrated economies. Journal of Economics and Business, 55 (5-6): 529-555.
View Full Essay

International Trade Navigating the Seas

Words: 1188 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50105524

Mercantilism as a philosophy may be dead, but special interests that lead to trade controls are alive and well (Mercantilism today: how a dead philosophy comes back to life, 2003). Trade controls that affect price and indirectly quantity include tariffs, subsidies, arbitrary customs-valuation and special fees (Daniels, Radebaugh, and Sullivan, 2007). Trade controls that directly affect quantity and indirectly affect price include quotas, voluntary export restrictions, "buy local" legislation, arbitrary standards, licensing arrangements, foreign-exchange controls, administrative delays and requirements to take goods in exchange for selling (Daniels, Radebaugh, and Sullivan, 2007).

Finally, businesses must also consider trade organizations and regional economic integration when deciding where to conduct business. The World Trade Organization promotes trade liberalization and mediates trade disputes and enforcing agreements (Daniels, Radebaugh, and Sullivan, 2007). Major regional trading groups include the European Union, the North American Free Trade Agreement, the Central American Common Market, the Caribbean Community and…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Daniels, J.D., Radebaugh, L.H., & Sullivan, D.P. (2007) International business: Environments and operations. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall. ISBN: 0131869426.

Kokko, a., Matha, T., and Gustavsson, P. (2006). Regional integration and trade diversion in Europe. http://ideas.repec.org/p/hhs/eijswp/0231.html

Mercantilism. http://www.economicexpert.com/a/Mercantilism.html

Mercantilism today: how a dead philosophy comes back to life (2003, September 19). National Review. http://www.policynetwork.net/main/article.php?article_id=584
View Full Essay

International Business According to Daniels

Words: 887 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38572460

Comparative advantage states that mutually beneficial exchange is possible whenever relative production costs differ prior to trade. Nations gain by producing goods at relatively low costs and exchanging their outputs for different goods produced by others at relatively low cost. Thus, consumers can gain enormously through appropriate specialization and exchange. A country has an absolute advantage in producing a good if production of the good absorbs fewer resources than are required in other countries or by other individuals or firms.

Specialization leads to economies of scale (Globalization) where more units of a good or a service can be produced on a larger scale, yet with (on average) less input costs. An increasingly competitive global economy drives companies to gain larger global market shares so that they can exploit the benefits of economies of scale (Daniels, Radebaugh, and Sullivan, 2007).

Of course, a harmonious political climate and international embracement of free…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Comparative advantage and absolute advantage. EconomicsInteractive.com. Retrieved from http://www.unc.edu/depts/econ/byrns_web/Economicae/Essays/ABS_Comp_Adv.htm

Daniels, J.D., Radebaugh, L.H., & Sullivan, D.P. (2007) International business: Environments and operations. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall. ISBN: 0131869426

Fergusson, I.F. (2007, May 9). The World Trade Organization: Background and issues. http://www.nationalaglawcenter.org/assets/crs/98-928.pdf

Globalization. http://bovination.com/cbs/globalization.jsp
View Full Essay

International Trade the International System

Words: 1645 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52303198

Given the high degree to which AIDS impedes global economic integration, in particular of sub-Saharan Africa, it would be reasonable to think that such a transnational issue would bring nations and institutions together to a much higher degree than we see.

Overall, the various aspects of the international system have enabled the expansion of global economic integration. Regimes, institutions, and regional interests bring nations together to meet common objectives. As rational actors, nations sometimes impede global integration, be it over a domestic issue or a transnational one. No aspect of the current international system, however, specifically impedes global economic integration. Only when a nation takes itself out of the international system, as has occurred in North Korea, Cuba, Zimbabwe and a handful of other countries, does economic integration become fully impeded. Therefore we can reasonably conclude that the international system, on balance and with a modicum of cooperation on the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Goldstein, Judith; Rivers, Douglas & Tomz, Michael. (2003). How does the Trade Regime Affect International Trade? Stanford University. Retrieved December 21, 2008 at http://www.allacademic.com//meta/p_mla_apa_research_citation/0/6/4/3/7/pages64379/p64379-1.php

Wayne, E. Anthony. (2004). NAFTA: Ten Years After. U.S. Department of State. Retrieved December 21, 2008 at http://www.state.gov/e/eeb/rls/rm/31645.htm

No author. (2003). Trade Reforms and Food Security: Conceptualizing the Linkages United Nations. Retrieved December 21, 2008 at  http://www.fao.org/docrep/005/y4671e/y4671e00.htm#Contents 

Capdevila, Gustavo. (2008). The Death of Doha. Asia Times. Retrieved December 21, 2008 at  http://www.atimes.com/atimes/Global_Economy/JG31Dj02.html
View Full Essay

International Trade Pros and Cons in Our

Words: 509 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49077007

International Trade: Pros and Cons

In our globally interconnected world in which it seems that every possible pairing of trading partners is occurring at all times, the idea that international trade is anything but the best system for supporting the global economy can seem quaint if not absolutely absurd. But simply because the world now exists as an increasingly integrated market in which fewer and fewer tariffs or sanctions have significant power does not mean that it is not significant to examine on a continuous basis the advantages and disadvantages of international trade.

Of course, there is no single assessment as to whether international trade is advantageous or disadvantageous because international trade affects different nations (and even different regions within the same nations) differentially. For the purposes of this paper, I shall focus on the effects of international trade on the United States as representative of the ways in which…… [Read More]

References

Hubbard, R. & O'Brien, A. (2010). Applying International Trade Concepts simulation Economics (3rd ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson Hall.
View Full Essay

International Trade Advantages and Disadvantages

Words: 368 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94509659

The same effect can occur for import industry. The prices of imported goods and commodities depend on how much the export market sells the commodities.

Applying the Situations in International Trade

As an administrative assistant, it is important to watch the international trading and market to gather enough information as to when it is ideal to invest or buy office goods and commodities for the company. An administrative assistant who has the responsibility to maintain proper conditions in an office environment always involves himself in buying of products for his company's use. Thus, applying knowledge in the current situations in international trade can benefit the company in terms of financial resources.

eferences

Trade Advantages and Disadvantages

etrieved on September 13, 2005, from Online. http://floti.bell.ac.uk/intee/Comparative%20advantage/tsld010.htm

The World Trade Organization (WTO). Advantages and Disadvantages.

etrieved on September 13, 2005, from Online. http://www.yementimes.com/article.shtml?i=875&p=opinion&a=2… [Read More]

References

Trade Advantages and Disadvantages

Retrieved on September 13, 2005, from Online. http://floti.bell.ac.uk/intee/Comparative%20advantage/tsld010.htm

The World Trade Organization (WTO). Advantages and Disadvantages.

Retrieved on September 13, 2005, from Online. http://www.yementimes.com/article.shtml?i=875&p=opinion&a=2
View Full Essay

International Labor Organization History and Feasibility of

Words: 756 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14853799

International Labor Organization: History And Feasibility of Standards

When it comes to the promotion of social justice and the enhancement of labor rights, the relevance of the International Labor Organization (ILO) cannot be overstated.

This text will concern itself with the history of this crucial organization and the feasibility of international labor standards. Further, the paper will address not only the advantages but also the disadvantages of standards.

The ILO describes itself as "the international organization responsible for drawing up and overseeing international labor standards" (ILO, 2012). On its Website, the ILO clearly defines its history from the time it was formed/created to its earlier days and recent times. Formed in 1919, the ILO was originally "part of the Treaty of Versailles that ended World War 1" (ILO, 2012). According to the organization, a number of considerations at the time led to its formation. These considerations were largely of a…… [Read More]

References

Budd, J.W. (2004). Employment with a Human Face: Balancing Efficiency, Equity, and Voice. New York: Cornell University Press.

McElrath, R.G. (Ed.). (2003). Monitoring International Labor Standards: Summary of Domestic Forums. Washington, DC: National Academic Press.

The International Labor Organization -- ILO (2012). International Labor Organization: Promoting Jobs, Protecting People. Retrieved July 19, 2012, from the International Labor Organization website: http://www.ilo.org/global/lang -- en/index.htm
View Full Essay

International Trade How Do International

Words: 421 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9876042

Thus, free trade keeps costs lower for consumers and leads to more efficient production. However, there are exceptions to unabated free trade. Most notably, national security dictates restrictions on the sale of military goods to unfriendly countries. Also, one needs to consider appropriate responses to other countries who do not engage in fair trading policies. Recently, the U.S. has seen huge losses of jobs and a redistribution of wealth to Asian countries such as China and India. Perhaps some form of protectionism might be useful to give time for the U.S. time to make plans to deal with the situation.

ibliography

Comparative advantage and absolute advantage. EconomicsInteractive.com. Retrieved at http://www.unc.edu/depts/econ/byrns_web/Economicae/Essays/AS_Comp_Adv.htm

Wallenius, H. International economics. http://www.tuta.hut.fi/studies/Courses_and_schedules/Isib/TU-91.2011/lecturenotes/Lecture_4.ppt#256,1,3INTERNATIONAL TRADE POLICY… [Read More]

Bibliography

Comparative advantage and absolute advantage. EconomicsInteractive.com. Retrieved at http://www.unc.edu/depts/econ/byrns_web/Economicae/Essays/ABS_Comp_Adv.htm

Wallenius, H. International economics. http://www.tuta.hut.fi/studies/Courses_and_schedules/Isib/TU-91.2011/lecturenotes/Lecture_4.ppt#256,1,3INTERNATIONAL TRADE POLICY
View Full Essay

International Business Marketing Laker's 2012

Words: 1437 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68443484

The stricter immigration laws that have recently been adopted have kept many willing immigrants with large reserves of intellectual capital out of the country. ather, America is still relying on the more fundamental mercantilist idea of dominance. The situations of China and ussia are also explained and related to the theme of elevator assets and the importance of intellectual capital before the author concludes.

Article # 4: WTO

Matthews' (2013) recent article about the World Trade Organization (WTO) previewed their General Council's selection to head its organization by reviewing nine of the most probable candidates to fill that role.

The article begins by noting the deceptive power that this organization still holds. The author used the example of the WTO's ruling that the United States had violated international trade law in 2002 in dealing with steel tariffs. The article then transitions into identifying Pascal Lamy, the current head of the…… [Read More]

References

Cohen, M. & Arkhipov, I. (2013). BRICS Nations Plan New Bank to Bypass World Bank, IMF. Bloomberg, 26 Mar 2013. Retrieved from http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2013-03- 25/brics-nations-plan-new-bank-to-bypass-world-bank-imf.html

Goldberg, E. (2013). Elevator Assets and the Rules for the New Mercantilism-- Israel, Russia, China and the United States. Huffington Post, 7 April, 2013. Retrieved from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/edward-goldberg/elevator-assets-the- rules_b_3034608.html

Heath, M. (2013). Last Hawk Stevens Faces Currency War Fallout in New Term. Bloomberg, 3 April 2013. Retrieved from http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2013-04-03/-last-hawk- stevens-faces-currency-war-fallout-in-new-rba-term.html

Laker, F. (2012). Five Challenges for Tomorrow's Global Marketing Leaders: Study. Forbes, 21 Aug 2012. Retrieved from http://www.forbes.com/sites/onmarketing/2012/08/21/five- challenges-for-tomorrows-global-marketing-leaders-study/
View Full Essay

International Labor Economics Programme Title

Words: 2169 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40651466

This being the key player in the economy of the country, it is crucial to revive it as the priority towards reduction of unemployment in the economy. Structural reforms within the export sector involve the introduction of multinationals to supplement efforts of inward investment or revolution. The rate of impact differs in attempts to alleviate unemployment incidences (OECD 2011, pg 91-131). This is because multinationals proves to deliver an increase in the levels of output while inward organizations and entities still struggle to emerge from the effects of the economic recession. In order to reduce the levels of unemployment in the republic of Ireland, it is critical to adopt the three-pillar strategy to address the persistent problem in relation to the Irish labour market. Within the three pillars, the first motive should be welfare reforms. This should ensure that workers obtain better payment for their skills and services within the…… [Read More]

References

Perry, LJ 2008, 'A Comparison of Labour Market Reforms in Ireland, New Zealand and Australia', Journal of Economic and Social Policy, 12, 2, pp. 1-27, EconLit with Full Text,

EBSCOhost, viewed 2 July 2012.

'Structural reforms to reduce unemployment and restore competitiveness' 2011, OECD

Economic Surveys: Ireland, 2011, 15, pp. 91-131, Business Source Complete,
View Full Essay

International Equity Markets

Words: 657 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44256934

International Equity Markets

esidential investment property performed better than all investments in the last decade. Australian bonds were the second best performing asset class returning 6.4% p.a. Australian shares were the third highest with 6.1% p.a (Australian Securities Exchange, 2012). Within the same period, the Global eal Estate Investment Trust (EITS) outperformed the Australian EITs. Unhedged oversea shares achieved the lowest return of any asset class over the 10-year period. Had any investor hedged his overseas shares investment he would have received 3.7% p.a. And 6.7% p.a. over the past 10 and 20 years (Australian Securities Exchange, 2012). These were the results before tax but after costs. The results after tax and after costs for the past decade indicated that the residential property outperformed all other asset classes at the lowest and highest marginal tax rates with returns of 7.2% and 5.8% p.a. respectively (Australian Securities Exchange, 2012). Within that…… [Read More]

References List

Australian Securities Exchange (2012). Long-Term Investing Report. Retrieved from  http://www.asx.com.au/documents/products/ASX_Report_2012.pdf 

Dwinnel, T. (2007). Self-Directed Portfolio Advantages/Disadvantages. Retrieved from http://selfinvestors.com/tradingstocks/news/self-directed-portfolio-advantagesdisadvantages/

Piotrowski, T. (2013). Australian Stock Market. Retrieved from http://www.comsec.com.au/Public/NewsAndResearch/AusStockMarketreports.aspx
View Full Essay

International Monetary Relations in Order

Words: 531 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5807386

This means that the investor might lose part of his investment because the currency his investment was in devalued over the period of time as regards to the currency he will eventually change the money into.

In order to avoid such a risk (or to minimize the risk) or to increase the profits, the investor is likely to use covered interest arbitrage. When the investor purchases a financial instrument in a foreign currency, he will sell, at the same time, a forward contract in an estimated amount, which would change the foreign currency back into the reference currency at the time the operations are completed (over the respective timeframe). The investor will either see the initial investment protected against currency risks or the profits from the investment will actually increase.

5. The link between the inflation and exchange rates comes from the definition of the purchasing power parity theory, according…… [Read More]

Bibliography

1. Moffatt, Mike. A Beginner's Guide to Purchasing Power Parity Theory. On the Internet at http://economics.about.com/cs/money/a/purchasingpower.htm. Last retrieved on February 2, 2010

Moffatt, Mike. A Beginner's Guide to Purchasing Power Parity Theory. On the Internet at http://economics.about.com/cs/money/a/purchasingpower.htm. Last retrieved on February 2, 2010
View Full Essay

International Business Discuss the Primary

Words: 762 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52278594

If a person wishes to become a lawyer, rather than a farmer like his father, or if a person wants to move far away from his hometown and to start anew in a new city -- these dreams are only possible in societies with high degrees of social mobility. Social mobility allows for individual choice and creative thinking.

Free trade occurs when a government does not attempt to influence through quotas or duties what its citizens can buy from another country or what they can produce and sell to another country. Present and describe a current example.

An excellent example of unfettered free trade may be found in the current example of the European Community, where goods and services may pass unrestricted through borders. Free trade has been greatly beneficial to consumers and producers within the EU. The EU has become one of the most powerful economic entities in the…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

International Monetary Economics

Words: 605 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31494374

International Monetary Econ

The price of a Big Mac varies around the world, and has been used (albeit not seriously) as a means of testing currency exchange rate parity. The prices of a Big Mac around the world are gathered in the Big Mac Index found on Oanda. The price of a Big Mac in U.S. dollar terms using current spot rates and July 28, 2011 Big Mac prices are as follows:

Country

Local Price

USD Price

USA

China

¥14.7

Brazil

R$9.50

Germany

€3.44

India

Japan

¥320

Russia

p

Switzerland

To calculate the predicted exchange rate, the local currency price should be divided by dollars. Thus the exchange rate implied by the price of a Big Mac is as follows:

Country

Implied Exchange Rate

USA

1.000

China

3.612

Brazil

Germany

0.8452

India

20.6388

Japan

78.624

Russia

1.658

Switzerland

1.597

According to the Big Mac parity theory, currencies whose values diverge…… [Read More]