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The three companies that will be evaluated for purchase are LG, Sony and Xiaomi. Some of the report will discuss the individual companies, but a large portion of this report will go into discussing the country situations of these companies. They hail from South Korea, Japan and the People's epublic of China respectively. The differences between these Northeast Asian countries can be significant, and it is these differences that should capture the attention of the executive evaluating the decisions. There are two elements of risk that are the most important in this report -- political risk and financial risk. The former reflects the risk that the value of the investment could change based on changes in the political environment in the target country (Investopedia, 2014). Any evaluation of a major purchase overseas will include political risk as a factor, so when the political risk changes, that should increase…… [Read More]
It is also reported that the companies and banks are hurting in all economies that are "dollarized" economies" or those in which devaluation of the Dollar is occurring in recent years. While high Dollar inflows first drive growth and production, the capital inflows tend to hurt banking profitability when governments try to "mop up" excessive liquidity and sterilize Dollar inflows in exchange for low-yielding government bonds. China's banks, for example, are already getting a raw deal on their Dollar assets because the government forces them to accept low-yielding, negative real interest government bonds in exchange. When recession strikes, these banks will become even more unwilling to provide credit to their ailing (export industry) customers. Unfortunately, even if the Dollar gets stronger, as is often the case during a global crisis, falling domestic currencies might easily deepen a looming crisis of confidence - as they did during the Asian…… [Read More]
By suggesting that increased amounts of free trade promote a conflict-free international market, McDonald makes a revolutionary argument that may bolster not only the international financial market, but also political and strategic alliances between states.
Both unique and significant, McDonald's argument that increased amounts of free trade between states lead to decreased amounts of conflict has strong implications not only for the field of international finance, but also for a variety of other areas of social science scholarship. Backing up his argument with statistical data, McDonald makes a convincing case that free trade does, indeed, lead to lower instances of conflict between states. Similarly, the logical organization and flow of McDonald's argument -- as he posses that the removal of trade barriers not only decreases the confidence in the state but also improves the interconnectedness between states -- lends credence to his position. A rather important study, McDonald's research attempt…… [Read More]
The size of the market and its characteristics must be considered, to ensure that there is ample opportunity in the market. The expertise of the firm should be a factor, since expertise in a given market, or type of market, can play a significant role in organizational success.
The governmental/legal environment must be carefully considered. Each country has its own approach to FDI, some being more open than others. In many cases, the form of the FDI will be dictated by government policy. For example in many countries governments strongly favor joint ventures with local firms.
The type of investment is perhaps the most important decision that needs to be made. There are a number of options. Some include licensing/technology transfer, where the investing firm hires a local firm to produce the product or service. Reciprocal distribution agreements allow for the firm to have its products sold abroad, typically in…… [Read More]
The risk associated with acquisition is higher, as this includes the price paid for the acquisition and then the cost of managing the operations. However, the acquisition is likely to result in the greatest revenue growth in the short-term.
Question 2 - Size and International Opportunities
There are certain circumstances in which the size of a firm is not affected by intentional opportunities. If a firm uses strategies such as licensing of franchising there is a great potential to undertake international growth without the actual size of the firm increasing. For example, many firms such as KFC, McDonalds and Starbucks will use the franchise model to expand internationally, as this requires only minimal support from the firm and the size increases only slightly. Operations in a virtual environment (the internet) may also facilitate increased access to international markets without the need to increase the size of the firm, this is…… [Read More]
Islamic Financing - Sukuk Al Murabaha, Sukuk Al Musharaka and Sukuk Al-Wakala
Islamic Finance is financing which is compliant with the requirements of the Shari'ah. While the concepts are centuries old, the foundations of Islamic banking and the modern financial tools which have been developed as compliant with Islamic law are relativity recent; early development seen to start in earnest in Egypt in the 1960's (Khan and Mirakhorv, 2005). The evolution of Islamic finance has resulted in numerous instruments for both commercial and consumer purposes, structured to be fully compliant with the Shari'ah. Three of these are Sukuk al murabaha, Sukuk al musharaka and Sukuk al-Wakala. The aim of this paper is to examine these three different tool, looking first at the common characteristics and then at the differences and uses of the tools.
Sukuk translates as a legal instrument or deed and refers to financial certificates (El-Gamal,…… [Read More]
S. dollars will still be cheapest. If we sign a forward today we will lock in a rate of 6% if we need to refinance; if we wait that rate could be higher in a year's time. Thus, the forward rate today locks in today's expected rate for that time period.
The forward contract would be for two years, to deliver sufficient USD to pay for the loan in two years' time. The amount would be $604 million USD, given 6% interest in the second year.
Task 3. There are a number of types of bonds that could be issued by Development Unlimited. These include straight fixed debt, zero coupon bonds and floating rate notes. Straight fixed debt is also known as plain vanilla bonds. These come with a fixed rate of interest on the debt. They are typically bearer bonds as well. The company will simply pay a coupon…… [Read More]
An upside in the European market Dec. 14: BAE defense systems rose 6.9% after UK prosecutors dropped a "long-term inquiry into defense contracts between BAE and Saudi Arabia." A downside: TUI fell 2.7% after the German tourism and shipping company announced it would cut 2,600 jobs in the UK.
ARTICLE THREE: Japan Tobacco, Inc. On Friday Dec. 15 announced the largest acquisition of a foreign company in Japan's history. Japan Tobacco will pay $14.8 billion to acquire Gallaher Group PLC of the UK. That means, according to The all Street Journal, that "Japan is back as a global buyer" (Morse, et al., 2006) after a financial slump of about ten years.
Ferguson, Tim. (2006, December 15). Eastern European Outsourcing to Triple. Businesseek. Retrieved 15 Dec. 2006 at http://www.businessweek.com.
Morse, Andrew, & Singer, Jason. (2006, December 16). Japan Returns To Global State As an Acquirer. The all Street Journal.…… [Read More]
Apart from strategic planning, focus on good quality performance information is important through creation of alternatives as well as the means to implement them. Good quality information is needed for both strategic and operational decisions. Companies waste time trying to obtain and reconcile numbers from different systems, which means they lack integrated view about where the value is being created or destroyed in the business. This leads to speculation instead of coming up with strategic choices. Instead of having confidence in what is undoubtedly the determining factor of their success or failure, companies strategic planning as dogged by the uncertainty, this is the main reason many companies in FTSE, fail to achieve shareholder value. A great number of these companies have accepted that maximizing shareholder value as the principal objective in the market place. Strategic planning is there to replace wavering by many companies as they hope something good will…… [Read More]
Businesses and other establishments have now turned to fraud detection as a way to address their fraud issues. "In contrast fraud detection involves identifying fraud as quickly as possible once it has been perpetrated. In practice it must be used continuously as one does not always realize when fraud protection has failed." For instance, if credit card information has been stolen the best response is early detection so that the card can be cancelled.
"Fraud detection is a continuously evolving discipline. When it becomes known that one detection method is in place, criminals will adapt their strategy and try others." Detection tools do not lose their effectiveness, however, because new criminals are constantly entering the field unaware of prevention methods used to date by an organization attempting to protect itself against fraud. Growth in the field of fraud detection has skyrocketed as company after company has sprung up to meet…… [Read More]
DeMarzo and Duffie, (1995), also argue that the presence of hedging may be utilized by shareholders as a way of interpreting the quality of management, with hedging generally deemed to be a beneficial strategy. The perceived lower risk profile may also aid in other areas, such as increasing the ease with which capital raising may take place.
It is also speculated that large organizations may be able to benefit from the tax impact of hedging. A number of theorists argue that tax structures of western countries encourage companies to provide a smooth performance, avoiding peaks and troughs (oss, 1996). Therefore, there will also be some tax advantages to utilizing hedging resulting from hedging potentially delaying losses and smoothing financial performance (oss, 1996).
Morrell and Swan, (2006) argue that whatever the motivations, when the performance of a firm is assessed in the long-term the impact will be null, as the hedging…… [Read More]
This process of investors selling U.S. assets may have already begun, as the dollar's value has declined significantly in the past year (Bivens, 2003).
b) Does it appear that the Asian currencies move in the same direction relative to the dollar? Explain.
A new study released from the Peterson Institute for International Economics concluded that the dollar is still considerably overvalued against a number of Asian currencies, most significantly the Chinese renminbi and the Japanese yen. It is thought that the renminbi needs to go up by about 30% against the dollar and the yen should strengthen by about 20%. A number of other Asian currencies also need to appreciate substantially so the desired increases amount to much less on a trade-weighted average basis which is under 20% for the renminbi and only about 5% for the yen (Lien, 2009).
This study also found that the euro and the pound…… [Read More]
Purchasing power parity dictates competitive advantages within international finance. According to the theory of purchasing power parity, "the exchange rate between currencies of two countries should be equal to the ratio of the countries' price levels" (Eun & esnick, 2012). Essentially, this sets the concept that price levels of currency have an impact on purchasing power and competitive advantage of countries within the international market environment. In this sense, "PPP requires that the price of the standard commodity basket be the same across countries when measured in a common currency" (Eun & esnick, 2012). For countries to achieve parity, there needs to be an equality met within these two common factors.
Changes in the exchange rate ultimately have an impact on the competitiveness of countries within the larger international market. In this case, if a currency of a country depreciates more than what is justified through the purchasing power parity…… [Read More]
firm's finance team aspect international finance lead a discussion team. This briefing important global financial crisis began 2007. The briefing needed provide foundation finance team versed international aspects finance.
Describe when and why central banks buy either their own currency or the currency of another nation in an effort to control exchange rates.
A central bank can influence the value of its national currency by raising or lowering interest rates, thereby encouraging borrowing and spending by other banks, businesses, and consumers. It can also affect other nations' currency values by buying or selling its reserves of another nation's currency, thereby raising or lowering the value of that currency. A central bank may wish to depreciate its own currency by selling it on the open market to encourage foreign investment and tourism or to encourage purchase of its exported goods abroad (Floating vs. fixed exchanges, 2011, CMSFX). However, a currency that…… [Read More]
Monetary Policy & International Finance and Exchange ate
If the central bank has an interest rate target, why would an increase in the demand for bank reserves lead to a rise in the money supply? (Use demand & supply graph)
A rise in the demand for reserves will increase the federal funds target. So as to preclude this, the central bank will purchase bonds, in so doing, increasing the amount of non-borrowed reserves, which in turn shifts the supply curve for reserves to the right, and in so doing, maintaining the funds rate of the central bank from rising. The open market purchase will as a result cause the monetary base and the money supply to rise (Schwartz, 2008).
Interest ate (4%) L2 (Y1)
As indicated in the diagram, the assumption is that the central bank targets an interest rate of 4% per…… [Read More]
Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is a way to assess the strength of an economy. Basically, it is the end value of all the things produced in our country. For example, the end value of a bushel of wheat (i.e. The amount of money, in USD, that a bushel of wheat 'converts to' when purchased as bread, or cereal, etc., by consumers), probably multiplied by how many of bushels of wheat were produced in that year, would be used in factoring GDP. While GDP is certainly a method of assessing the strength of the economy, it is not without its pitfalls.
GDP is calculated by simply adding a number of other calculations together: the value of all the things we have consumed (including foreign goods), the value of all investments by private domestic businesses, the value of government expenditures (i.e. government worker salaries), and exports. Imports are subtracted from this list.…… [Read More]
The experience has proven to be a real world confirmation of what I want to do in my professional life. I was charged with handling financial computations, modeling, forecasting and transactions. While doing so, I knew I have found my niche in life and need only gain both theoretical training and further real world experiences to become the best I can be in my chosen field. Once I have completed my graduate studies in Finance, I intend to apply for work at leading firms specializing in international finance and trade. This will enable me to apply knowledge learnt in undergraduate and graduate studies. Graduating from two prestigious institutions in the United States will accord me the opportunity to practice anywhere in the world since I have had the global education necessary. It will be a different world since I would have left the secure confines of the academe and enter…… [Read More]
International financial manager at Apple Inc. is the Senior Financial Analyst who has been serving in this department since October 2005. This individual works in close partnership with the Operations, IS&T and Merchandising departments in launching support, prices and planning changes of the various products of Apple Inc. Currently, Greg Gingo is the Senior Financial Analyst at Apple Inc. And has created and executed system expected commissions through the use of POS systems testing and contract review ("Greg Gingo," n.d.).
Additionally, Greg partners with the store operations on a daily basis in order to identify and understand the transactional behavior resulting in counteractive training. The Senior Financial Analyst also partners with the store operations on a day-to-day basis for the purpose of lessening future outstanding receivables. During his time as the international financial manager at Apple Inc., Greg Gingo has been able to review the carrier level contracts and recognized…… [Read More]
According to Chancellor Helmut chmidt the interest rates of the developed countries in the post1990 era were higher than they had ever been "at any time since Jesus Christ" (http://hdr.undp.org/external/HDR_papers/oc3b.htm). In 1983, in Latin America, whose devaluations were enormous, it was recorded that in one year "the effect on the individual private sector, which in [some] cases had been encouraged by the policies of the authorities to borrow, has been devastating...the amount needed in local currency to service external debt has increased three or four times" (Kuczynski,1983, p. 22). The situation in these countries is such: with the decrease of their currency value, more goods must be sold to pay back their debt plus interest, and since their export prices have been steadily declining in the post war years, their accumulated interest swells to a rate that is higher than the nominal dues stipulated in the original contract (http://hdr.undp.org/external/HDR_papers/oc3b.htm). In…… [Read More]
regional international institutions, International Monetary Fund, World Bank, United Nations, World Trade Organization, a financial institution. Select countries apply traditional international trade theories, absolute advantage, comparative advantage, factor endowment, enhance participation international trade.
International Trade Participation
The interaction between countries is a complex process that is strongly influenced by economic, political, and cultural factors. The need for this interaction is based on the resources that can be provided with smaller efforts by some countries to countries that need them. The need for resources has determined countries to involve in military, economic, and biological wars, or to involve in influence relationships where several countries support a larger community that can polarize greater power in the attempt to counteract the influence of other powerful countries. This is the case of the European Union that was developed in order to join the efforts of European countries so that they could balance the power…… [Read More]
Ever since Adam Smith demonstrated in The Wealth of Nations (1776) that individuals would be better off if they specialize, instead of trying to be economically self-sufficient, countries across the world have tried to apply the same principle to international trade. It is argued that all countries would be better off if they exchange the products and services that they are relatively good at producing for those things that other countries are relatively better at producing. David icardo (1772-1823), British economist and businessman, through his theory of Comparative Advantage went on to "prove" that it can be beneficial for two countries to trade, even if one of them is able to produce each item more cheaply than the other.
The colonialist powers, particularly Britain, had realized the benefits of international trade after its industrial revolution although it is highly debatable whether such trade was beneficial for the colonies…… [Read More]
The performance of stock market indices is subject to a wide number of variables. In the past six months, one of the more interesting international markets to watch has been India. In late May, Narendra Modi ascended to the Prime Minister office in India, the highest position. His election campaign was controversial, being viewed by many as overtly nationalist, something that threatened to destabilize multicultural India. This, combined with India's status as a major emerging economy, has made India's stock market an interesting study. The BSE Sens, referring to the Bombay Stock Market, today sits at 26459. Six months ago, it was at below 23,000. The gain has been around 17% in the past six months, versus around 6% in the S&P 500.
It would appear that the Indian stock market has specifically gained a boost from the political environment. The Modi government was feared by many observers…… [Read More]
International Risk Management
No profit was ever made without taking some financial risk. However, economists such as John Eatwell and Lance Taylor have argued in their text Global Finance at Risk: The Case for International Regulation that international financial markets are intrinsically and particularly apt to pose the threat of risk to potential investors on an individual and a corporate level. Investors in finance base their decisions on guesses, not only about how other investors within a nation will behave, but also about national stability, which affects the stability of the currency. As markets have grown more global in scope, industrialized countries often have pursued a more cautious monetary policy regarding other nations. However, too much caution can be risky too, Ultimately hesitancy in investment results not only in lost opportunities, but a climate of fear that can at its extremes generates international deflation, a depression in economic growth, and…… [Read More]
International Monetary System and Exchange ate Policies
A report/essay: chapter 17, multinational companies. select topic research write: Multinational vs. domestic financial management exchange rates international trade international monetary system exchange rate policies trading foreign exchange european monetary union interest
rate parity/purchasing power parity international capital structures.
The international monetary system and exchange rate policies
International Monetary systems
These are a set of rules and that regulate how international trade and payments are handled. It facilitates the exchange of capital, goods and services among countries. However, this system does not have a physical presence but, it consists of interlacing rules and procedures and is influenced by the market of foreign exchange. An example of an international monetary system is the International monetary fund. These interlacing rules and procedures are referred to as exchange rate Policies.
Exchange rate policies
These are rules that officials of public finance from different nations have developed…… [Read More]
Socialist states use a command and control management structure as a substitute for the profit motive. This structure is less efficient, so production levels cannot match those of capitalist states. Ultimately, the lack of productivity and the large number of distortions lead to economic collapse (Tesche, 1993).
Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, the pace and nature of economic reforms has differed greatly in the former Soviet states. These range from regions with a virtual continuation of communist dictatorship (Belarus, Transnistria) to full-scale embrace of the free market (Estonia in particular). Russia's economy has only opened somewhat, and only to small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs). For the most part, the major firms in the economy are controlled by powerful businessmen with close ties to government. Freedom of capital flows has improved slightly, but the Russian economy overall remains under significant government control. The economy has grown substantially since…… [Read More]
International Financial Markets and Institutions:
Throughout the globe, today's landscape of international financial market and institutions has continued to experience several changes that require practitioners to examine new models. The need for practitioners to examine new models that are relevant to the state of these markets and institutions has also been necessitated by the recent events that contribute to financial crises, which have been very dramatic. Actually, the recent financial crisis has had significant impacts on the financial institutions and markets resulting in the need for changes. International financial markets and institutions have become an important aspect of economies because they affect daily life. This is primarily because they involve the huge flow of different types of funds in the entire economy that in turn impact the profits of businesses, production of goods and services, and economic well-being of countries. In some cases, the events in these institutions and markets…… [Read More]
This paper provides further illustration of trade barrier to provide greater understanding on the method barrier to trade hurts economy. Fig 1 reveals the effects of international trade without trade barrier. From the graph, DD refers to domestic demand and DS means domestic supply, and the price of good is found at P, and the world price is found at P. However, domestic consumer will consume at Qw because the home country could only produce Qd. Thus, the home country must import Qw-Qd worth of goods to enhance efficiency in the economy.
Figure 1. Price without Trade Barrier
However, Fig 2 reveals the economy with trade barrier. It is revealed that the economy will not achieve maximum allocation of scarce resources because trade barriers reduce efficiencies because it would allow companies that would not have existed in a more competitive market environment to exist.
Figure 2. Price with the…… [Read More]
"Opening up the financial system to foreign capital flows can lead, and has led, to disastrous financial crises, which have resulted in great pain, suffering and even violence" (Mishkin, 2006, p.9).
Directly linked to the previous disadvantage and the basic definition of globalization, is the fact that the interdependence of sectors and institutions increases in a global market. In this instance then, a financial crisis within one country or within one institution is likely to generate negative effects upon its partners. The most relevant example of chain reaction to a financial crisis is the current situation, in which the global community is threatened with economic collapse due to the financial difficulties of the United States. The situation is similar in terms of politics or the social environment.
Globalization has often been assimilated with Americanization, meaning by this the desire of the American corporations to transcend boundaries and get access to…… [Read More]
Additionally, its taxation advatantages may erode due to pressure from EU and implicitly its wages will increase as taxes increase. Competition from emerging countries, namely Eastern Europe will become stronger as Ireland allings its strong points to EU standards. Moreover, the country's inflationary problem persistance may strengthen EU pressure on the authorities to reduce it through its fiscal policy.
BBC news channel. 2004. Ireland is Named 'Best Country', published on Nov 17, http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/4020523.stm.
Barry, F. And Bradley, J. 1997. FDI and Trade: The Irish Host-Country Experience. The Economic Journal, vol. 107(445): pp. 1798-1811, http://www.res.org.uk/
Berry, . 2001. U.S. Foreign Direct Investment in Ireland: Making the Most of Other's People Money. Perspectives on Business and Economics, vol. 19.
Cassidy, Mark, 2002. The Irish Economy: ecent Experience and Prospects. in: Aronson, ., Munley, V., Thornton, . (Eds.). The Irish Economy in Transition: Successes, Problems and Prospects. Elsevier Science, Amsterdam: pp.…… [Read More]
International Pol. Ec.
The four different scenarios laid out by the orld Economic Forum in 2009 paint distinctly different visions of the development of global financial markets. The four scenarios are financial regionalism, re-engineered estern centralism, fragmented protectionism and rebalanced multilateralism (yman, 2009). Of these four different scenarios, there is evidence late in 2010 that would support the evolution of two of these different scenarios. These scenarios, in particular the one with the most support, will be given primary consideration in this paper. The implications for these scenarios for my chosen company, an IT firm with a local focus, will also be discussed in this paper.
The EF scenario that fits the world best as of late 2010 is the first scenario, financial regionalism. This scenario relies on post-crisis blame-shifting, something that can be seen in the global political environment at present. The United States has raised serious issues about…… [Read More]
In the case of United States, Article 9 of the Uniform Commercial Code provides for practically all types of security agreements for owned property that are both for own use as also for commercial purposes. This type of agreements includes fixtures which mean personal property that is attached to the property, and the ready example can be a water heater. This does not include other liens taken on the property like the lien of a mechanic are not covered by this act, but are covered by the individual laws that govern them. There is also a statute of frauds and that requires a security agreement to be in writing for it to be valid, unless the property has been pledged for getting the loan. This sort of a pledge takes place when the borrowing party shifts the collateral to the lender of money in exchange for the loan that he…… [Read More]
Liquidity shocks on the international arena can have a strong negative impact on less developed countries whose access to funding sources is already reduced.
The clearing risk is a specific risk, which combines credit risk, in the sense that it results from a counterparty's inability to meet its liabilities, market risk in the sense that it is caused by market shifts (general and specific market risk) between the time a transaction is executed and the time it is cleared, as well as liquidity and systemic risk." (Casanova, 2000). The clearing risk is assumed by clearing houses, which guarantee the proper settlement of transactions done by the members. These institutions engage themselves to bear potential replacement costs if either one of the trade counterparties can't fulfill its obligations. In international markets this risk is increased as the international arena as mentioned before it more dynamic and volatile and the chance of…… [Read More]
Discuss some of the motivations firms have for setting up production facilities in other countries. Will the effect on the host country differ depending upon the motivation? Explain. Will the effect on the source country differ depending upon the motivation? Explain. What relationship might trade barriers (or the lack of trade barriers) have in determining a company's primary motivation for producing abroad?
The reasons for the foreign investment are high profit returns, and the rate of return is dependent upon the capital invested, the tax reductions and employees' fund. The foreign investment or production company is highly welcomed by the government because the company is expected to bring in foreign exchange. THz enhances the purchasing power of the country in international currency; thereby the nation has to rely minimum on loans and international borrowing.
The major motivation that the international investor has towards foreign investment is that cheap labor…… [Read More]
Only a few decades ago, China was a struggling economy. It is much newer in the free market economy system as compared to the already established economical giants, given the country's communist history. China, a country with an extremely high population, put its resources to its best possible advantage and that was something which contributed towards the country's rapid growth. China has one of the cheapest labor and energy and power resources available for its production. As a result, the industries can achieve economies of scale and thus can cut down on their cost of production. As a result, China enjoys a greater absolute advantage over its competitors. Importers around the world have realized the fact that importing goods from China is relatively much cheaper as compared to imports from other developed economies. These cheaper imports allow them a greater profit margin. Moreover, given the fragile economic conditions and declining…… [Read More]
27-29) This provoked financial demands and awareness of the people in different parts of the world. People and businesses are dissatisfied with the traditional financial systems due to lack of opportunities for investors. Businesses today require more diversified portfolios for investments because this will reduce their investment risks and increase the probability of future capital flows.
Increased capital mobility has increased the importance of exchange rates which is serving as a monetary policy channel in some industrialized economies. In mid 2000s, there was a sharp shift in the flow of international investments and savings (geographic pattern) resulting in the segmentation of current account imbalances. This was also a major contributing factor. Additionally, the domestic financial markets were also affected by the change in regulatory environment. The two important factors for this are as follows:
1. apid growth of OTC (over-the-counter) markets of derivatives in terms of complexity as well as…… [Read More]
International Business in South Florida
Premise and Conclusion
The location of any business entity, but especially one engaged in international commerce, is a complex and critical pre-condition for serving customers, providing a nurturing and productive environment for employees, and achieving profitable operations. Of the many factors management must consider, the following are generally thought to be the most influential: access to capital, favorable tax advantages, excellent transportation and technological infrastructure, and a skilled multilingual and multicultural workforce. (web eFlorida 2010)
South Florida, comprising Miami-Dade, Broward, and Palm Beach counties, does not present a perfect record on any of the success factors, but a close examination of the efforts made and the resulting accomplishments leads to a favorable recommendation for the formation or expansion of international business functions in the region.
Access to Capital
Depending on the stage of company development, a business may need venture capital, commercial bank lenders, or…… [Read More]
The structural issues that underlie the crisis remain unresolved. The austerity measures that have been implemented have failed miserably to restore business confidence -- they are crippling any economic recovery and have not given investors any reason to be confident about resolving the long-run debt problems faced by any of the peripheral Eurozone nations. The specter of increased Eurozone interest rates to meet the needs of Germany will only hurt the recovery of the peripheral economies further. As a result, a resolution of the sovereign debt crisis in the Eurozone does not appear to be on the horizon. Economists have made a number of proposals for the resolution of the crisis, none of which appear to have any political traction: a single Eurobond (De Grauwe & Moesen, 2009); addressing the divergence between Euro-level monetary policy and sovereign-level fiscal policy…… [Read More]
International Equity Markets
Advantages and disadvantages of cross listing on stock exchanges
When a company lists its stock exchange on many stock exchanges in different countries, it is referred to as cross listing. It entails exchanging in more than one country. However, a company can list its stocks on two stock exchanges in the same country. The administration is likely to be widened besides the generation of great pool of possible investors. In most cases, companies employ the common form of cross listing whereby they launch a primary listing in the country of origin before initiating a secondary listing in a foreign country. This happens when a business is pursuing to go global. For instance, an Australian firm expanding in the U.S. And seeks to reflect this in the best way (Dobbs & Goedhart, 2010).
The major reason of cross listing is to avail stock to many people across the…… [Read More]
International Lending and Financial Crisis
One of the major global financial crises is the financial crisis of 2007-2009. The financial recession that occurred between 2007 and 2009, encompasses the housing bubble that instigated the financial crisis, federal expenditure, and foreign exchange rates. Also, referred to as the 'Great recession', this global financial crisis had adverse impacts not only on the financial markets but also on the economies of nations across the globe, being the worst financial crisis in history. The financial crisis emanating from the U.S. affected other nations owing to financial globalization and led to discussions regarding restructuring of the international financial system (Ozkan, 2012). In particular, the global financial crisis originally started in and adversely impacted the financial sector of developed nations, especially in the United States, and subsequently had a detrimental impact of the real sector of affected nations as the financial institutions in the United States…… [Read More]
International Monetary System
In world trade, varied national currencies are swapped for each other by means of rules and procedures set by a system called the international monetary system. To delineate a general standard of value for the world's currencies, such a system is believed to be necessary.
The global monetary structure has always adhered to the organizational framework of the international discipline. In each stage of the financial capitalism there exists a corresponding monetary approach. The monetary structure during the postwar periods catered to the dominance of the United States. This was applied as a tool during the period to enforce the U.S. dominance over all its allies and the developing countries, irrespective of the socialist countries isolated themselves being unconnected from the influence of the financial and monetary disciplines of the global capitalism.
Gold standard was the first contemporary international monetary system. The gold standard contributed for the…… [Read More]
Another reason why corporations choose to hold cash balances in a centralized repository is that the variety of accounts can be better managed as a mutual fund more complex investment structure than would be the case if the subsidiary alone managed the funds. A greater quality of information is available for example in the leading financial centers globally that would otherwise not be the case in more remote regions, making it possible to make more informed and correct decisions (Mitsos, 1997). The accuracy, efficiency and speed of decision-making based on more efficient use of information has led to more advanced forms of cash management than would have been the case on a per-subsidiary level (Fresard, Salva, 2010). Lastly, by having a centralized depository of cash for all subsidiaries, firms can hold less accumulated total cash, freeing up financial resources for other investments (Fresard, Salva, 2010). Companies become more efficient at…… [Read More]
Over the course of time, assertive laws are evolving which are supposed to deal with any issues quickly. This means that all financial firms will face higher costs and greater amounts of time in complying with these new guidelines. ("Dodd Frank")
Clearly, the Bernard Madoff scandal reshaped investor confidence and the regulatory environment. This is because many of his clients suffered tremendously from the firm's activities. In some cases, individuals were forced to sell their homes. While at other times, many nonprofits were forced into bankruptcy from being overly exposed. This resulted in the trustee utilizing aggressive tactics in recovering assets.
These actions set the stage for regulators, actuaries and fiduciaries to begin taking a more assertive stance when protecting the interests of the public. As a result, much stricter guidelines are being imposed. These areas are impacting the operating procedures of firms and how they are accounting for…… [Read More]
This type of international fraud occurs due to a desire to develop a climate that allows investors to benefit from the comparative advantages of countries such as Mali and Senegal (Barney and Hunt). These countries generally compete against other African states in order to attract more investors and, when the resources are insufficient to convince these foreigners, state officials engage in frauds.
4. Impact on International Business Setting
The increased levels of fraud generate a series of chain reactions upon the business setting within Senegal and Mali. First of all, they reduce general trust in the economic and political systems. This then means that foreign investors are not attracted to the region and that developmental opportunities are reduced. This in turn materializes in the lack of new jobs. It means as such that the federal authorities are unable to cash in taxes from foreign investors conducting business operations within Senegal…… [Read More]
Managing exchange rate risk can be a daunting task for many international firms attempting to expand overseas, acquire new companies, or simply manage its cash flows. Globalization has created a dynamic environment in which competition can arise to disrupt entire industries. Aspects such as technology, pharmaceuticals, banking, and automobiles have all experienced rapid change as a result of globalization and the competitive forces that underline it. As a result, companies, particularly smaller firms, have a higher propensity to experience volatile earnings overtime. Aspects that impact one sector of the globe can have a residual impact on other areas of the individual firm or industry. Managing exchange rates is therefore a viable option for firms to reduce volatility in earnings while subsequently managing its cash flows from operations. Below, is a 5 step program which could be implemented by a firm attempting to manage its exchange rate risk after an…… [Read More]
Question 1.a) Bond ratings encompass a wide range of elements related to the credit risk of the firm. Moody's notes that bond ratings include elements of default probability, loss severity, "financial strength" and "transition risk" (Cantor & Fons, 1999). The authors note that within the same sector, bonds of the same rating tend to be comparable both with respect to overall credit quality and specific credit quality characteristics. Over different segments of the bond market, this is not necessarily the case. Bond ratings tend to take in factors like the balance sheet strength of the firm, as well as the expected loss in the event of a default. Thus, the type of assets that the firm holds is an important characteristic. The transition risk reflects the likelihood that the firm will experience outright default without transitioning down through the different risk categories. Firms that are almost assuredly going to…… [Read More]
International Corporation Walmart
Because of the abilities of the internet and the expansion of global interests, there are many more international corporations today than there were in the past. One of the largest and most recognized of those corporations is Walmart. It operates in nearly all developed countries in the world, and is one of the largest retailers on the planet (Fishman, 2006; Zook & Graham, 2006). While it started out small, the company has grown to enormous proportions. It has become so large that some countries and some communities have taken strong and significant steps to keep the company out. Not everyone is a fan of the company, and not all countries think Walmart is good for business. The way the company comes in and "takes over" is sometimes a problem for much smaller, "mom and pop" businesses that are not able to sell as inexpensively as Walmart. For…… [Read More]
Historical Trends and Developments. Eichengreen (2004) argues that there have been several major historical "regimes" that have had differentiated approaches to international capital flows. Prior to I, the free flow of capital across borders reached heights never seen before of since. This was followed by effort in the 1920s to establish international controls for the international flow of capital. The financial disaster of the 1930s began a period of tight regulation of international transactions. In the 1970s another period of free-flowing capital was begun, culminating in the boom of international capital flows of the 1990s (4).
In the 1990s, financial crises in Asia, Mexico, Turkey, and Russia led to a period of increased interest in international controls, as the level of global economic development was shown to be effected by problems in different regions of the world and the shockwaves these crises sent to other regions (Taskin and Muradoglu, 2003).…… [Read More]
Comparative advantage states that mutually beneficial exchange is possible whenever relative production costs differ prior to trade. Nations gain by producing goods at relatively low costs and exchanging their outputs for different goods produced by others at relatively low cost. Thus, consumers can gain enormously through appropriate specialization and exchange. A country has an absolute advantage in producing a good if production of the good absorbs fewer resources than are required in other countries or by other individuals or firms.
Specialization leads to economies of scale (Globalization) where more units of a good or a service can be produced on a larger scale, yet with (on average) less input costs. An increasingly competitive global economy drives companies to gain larger global market shares so that they can exploit the benefits of economies of scale (Daniels, Radebaugh, and Sullivan, 2007).
Of course, a harmonious political climate and international embracement of free…… [Read More]
Given the high degree to which AIDS impedes global economic integration, in particular of sub-Saharan Africa, it would be reasonable to think that such a transnational issue would bring nations and institutions together to a much higher degree than we see.
Overall, the various aspects of the international system have enabled the expansion of global economic integration. Regimes, institutions, and regional interests bring nations together to meet common objectives. As rational actors, nations sometimes impede global integration, be it over a domestic issue or a transnational one. No aspect of the current international system, however, specifically impedes global economic integration. Only when a nation takes itself out of the international system, as has occurred in North Korea, Cuba, Zimbabwe and a handful of other countries, does economic integration become fully impeded. Therefore we can reasonably conclude that the international system, on balance and with a modicum of cooperation on the…… [Read More]
International Trade: Pros and Cons
In our globally interconnected world in which it seems that every possible pairing of trading partners is occurring at all times, the idea that international trade is anything but the best system for supporting the global economy can seem quaint if not absolutely absurd. But simply because the world now exists as an increasingly integrated market in which fewer and fewer tariffs or sanctions have significant power does not mean that it is not significant to examine on a continuous basis the advantages and disadvantages of international trade.
Of course, there is no single assessment as to whether international trade is advantageous or disadvantageous because international trade affects different nations (and even different regions within the same nations) differentially. For the purposes of this paper, I shall focus on the effects of international trade on the United States as representative of the ways in which…… [Read More]
The same effect can occur for import industry. The prices of imported goods and commodities depend on how much the export market sells the commodities.
Applying the Situations in International Trade
As an administrative assistant, it is important to watch the international trading and market to gather enough information as to when it is ideal to invest or buy office goods and commodities for the company. An administrative assistant who has the responsibility to maintain proper conditions in an office environment always involves himself in buying of products for his company's use. Thus, applying knowledge in the current situations in international trade can benefit the company in terms of financial resources.
Trade Advantages and Disadvantages
etrieved on September 13, 2005, from Online. http://floti.bell.ac.uk/intee/Comparative%20advantage/tsld010.htm
The World Trade Organization (WTO). Advantages and Disadvantages.
etrieved on September 13, 2005, from Online. http://www.yementimes.com/article.shtml?i=875&p=opinion&a=2… [Read More]
International Labor Organization: History And Feasibility of Standards
When it comes to the promotion of social justice and the enhancement of labor rights, the relevance of the International Labor Organization (ILO) cannot be overstated.
This text will concern itself with the history of this crucial organization and the feasibility of international labor standards. Further, the paper will address not only the advantages but also the disadvantages of standards.
The ILO describes itself as "the international organization responsible for drawing up and overseeing international labor standards" (ILO, 2012). On its Website, the ILO clearly defines its history from the time it was formed/created to its earlier days and recent times. Formed in 1919, the ILO was originally "part of the Treaty of Versailles that ended World War 1" (ILO, 2012). According to the organization, a number of considerations at the time led to its formation. These considerations were largely of a…… [Read More]
Mercantilism as a philosophy may be dead, but special interests that lead to trade controls are alive and well (Mercantilism today: how a dead philosophy comes back to life, 2003). Trade controls that affect price and indirectly quantity include tariffs, subsidies, arbitrary customs-valuation and special fees (Daniels, Radebaugh, and Sullivan, 2007). Trade controls that directly affect quantity and indirectly affect price include quotas, voluntary export restrictions, "buy local" legislation, arbitrary standards, licensing arrangements, foreign-exchange controls, administrative delays and requirements to take goods in exchange for selling (Daniels, Radebaugh, and Sullivan, 2007).
Finally, businesses must also consider trade organizations and regional economic integration when deciding where to conduct business. The World Trade Organization promotes trade liberalization and mediates trade disputes and enforcing agreements (Daniels, Radebaugh, and Sullivan, 2007). Major regional trading groups include the European Union, the North American Free Trade Agreement, the Central American Common Market, the Caribbean Community and…… [Read More]
Thus, free trade keeps costs lower for consumers and leads to more efficient production. However, there are exceptions to unabated free trade. Most notably, national security dictates restrictions on the sale of military goods to unfriendly countries. Also, one needs to consider appropriate responses to other countries who do not engage in fair trading policies. Recently, the U.S. has seen huge losses of jobs and a redistribution of wealth to Asian countries such as China and India. Perhaps some form of protectionism might be useful to give time for the U.S. time to make plans to deal with the situation.
Comparative advantage and absolute advantage. EconomicsInteractive.com. Retrieved at http://www.unc.edu/depts/econ/byrns_web/Economicae/Essays/AS_Comp_Adv.htm
Wallenius, H. International economics. http://www.tuta.hut.fi/studies/Courses_and_schedules/Isib/TU-91.2011/lecturenotes/Lecture_4.ppt#256,1,3INTERNATIONAL TRADE POLICY… [Read More]
The stricter immigration laws that have recently been adopted have kept many willing immigrants with large reserves of intellectual capital out of the country. ather, America is still relying on the more fundamental mercantilist idea of dominance. The situations of China and ussia are also explained and related to the theme of elevator assets and the importance of intellectual capital before the author concludes.
Article # 4: WTO
Matthews' (2013) recent article about the World Trade Organization (WTO) previewed their General Council's selection to head its organization by reviewing nine of the most probable candidates to fill that role.
The article begins by noting the deceptive power that this organization still holds. The author used the example of the WTO's ruling that the United States had violated international trade law in 2002 in dealing with steel tariffs. The article then transitions into identifying Pascal Lamy, the current head of the…… [Read More]
International Equity Markets
esidential investment property performed better than all investments in the last decade. Australian bonds were the second best performing asset class returning 6.4% p.a. Australian shares were the third highest with 6.1% p.a (Australian Securities Exchange, 2012). Within the same period, the Global eal Estate Investment Trust (EITS) outperformed the Australian EITs. Unhedged oversea shares achieved the lowest return of any asset class over the 10-year period. Had any investor hedged his overseas shares investment he would have received 3.7% p.a. And 6.7% p.a. over the past 10 and 20 years (Australian Securities Exchange, 2012). These were the results before tax but after costs. The results after tax and after costs for the past decade indicated that the residential property outperformed all other asset classes at the lowest and highest marginal tax rates with returns of 7.2% and 5.8% p.a. respectively (Australian Securities Exchange, 2012). Within that…… [Read More]
This means that the investor might lose part of his investment because the currency his investment was in devalued over the period of time as regards to the currency he will eventually change the money into.
In order to avoid such a risk (or to minimize the risk) or to increase the profits, the investor is likely to use covered interest arbitrage. When the investor purchases a financial instrument in a foreign currency, he will sell, at the same time, a forward contract in an estimated amount, which would change the foreign currency back into the reference currency at the time the operations are completed (over the respective timeframe). The investor will either see the initial investment protected against currency risks or the profits from the investment will actually increase.
5. The link between the inflation and exchange rates comes from the definition of the purchasing power parity theory, according…… [Read More]
If a person wishes to become a lawyer, rather than a farmer like his father, or if a person wants to move far away from his hometown and to start anew in a new city -- these dreams are only possible in societies with high degrees of social mobility. Social mobility allows for individual choice and creative thinking.
Free trade occurs when a government does not attempt to influence through quotas or duties what its citizens can buy from another country or what they can produce and sell to another country. Present and describe a current example.
An excellent example of unfettered free trade may be found in the current example of the European Community, where goods and services may pass unrestricted through borders. Free trade has been greatly beneficial to consumers and producers within the EU. The EU has become one of the most powerful economic entities in the…… [Read More]
International Monetary Econ
The price of a Big Mac varies around the world, and has been used (albeit not seriously) as a means of testing currency exchange rate parity. The prices of a Big Mac around the world are gathered in the Big Mac Index found on Oanda. The price of a Big Mac in U.S. dollar terms using current spot rates and July 28, 2011 Big Mac prices are as follows:
To calculate the predicted exchange rate, the local currency price should be divided by dollars. Thus the exchange rate implied by the price of a Big Mac is as follows:
Implied Exchange Rate
According to the Big Mac parity theory, currencies whose values diverge…… [Read More]
The primary advantage of trade, he argued, was that it opened up new markets for surplus goods and also provided some commodities at less cost from abroad than at home.
Mass perception of free trade in the United States is rarely positive. Immediately, people think of lost jobs and our growing trade deficit instead of the free trade promises of a higher standard of living brought about by the theory of comparative advantage and economies of scale. Therefore, many feel that free trade makes this country worse off.
Adam Smith (1723-90)." The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics. Available:
http://www.econlib.org/library/Enc/bios/Smith.html (Accessed 19 Feb. 2005).
David Hume (1711-76)." The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics. Available: http://www.econlib.org/library/Enc/bios/Hume.html (Accessed 19 Feb. 2005).
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mercantilist (Accessed 19 Feb. 2005)
David Hume (1711-76)." The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics. Available: http://www.econlib.org/library/Enc/bios/Hume.html (Accessed 19 Feb. 2005).
Adam Smith (1723-90)." The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics. Available:
http://www.econlib.org/library/Enc/bios/Smith.html (Accessed 19…… [Read More]