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The European Union is "a unique economic and political partnership between 27 European countries" (EU, 2012). The European Union describes its objectives are relating to the idea that "countries who trade with one another become economically interdependent and so more likely to avoid conflict" (Ibid). There are a number of stated objectives. The first is "to promote human rights both internally and around the world," including human dignity, freedom, democracy, equality, the rule of law and respect for human rights" (Ibid). Economically, the EU has the objective of "enabling most goods, services, money and people to move freely" and to "develop this resource to ensure that Europeans can draw the maximum benefit" (Ibid). The EU also seeks to make its own governance more transparent and democratic.
For its flaws and missteps, the EU has largely been successful. Economically, the nations of Europe face far fewer trade barriers than…
Brenton, P., DiMauro, F. & Lucke, M., 1999. Economic integration and FDI: An empirical analysis of foreign investment in the EU and in Central and Eastern Europe. Empirica. 26 (2) 95-121.
EU., 2012. Basic information on the European Union. European Union. Available online at http://europa.eu/about-eu/basic-information/index_en.htm Accessed May 5, 2012.
Gert, B. (2011). The definition of morality. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Available online at http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/morality-definition / Accessed May 5, 2012.
Luthans, F. & Doh, J., 2008. International management: Culture, strategy and behavior. New York: McGraw-Hill.
International Management: Managing Global Virtual Teams
The global fiber optic network and the internet have played a key role in the development of long-distance communication, which has facilitated work interactions among people from all over the world. It offers global platforms through which people can, at the touch of a button, share work and knowledge, compete, play and collaborate with colleagues across national borders. The creation of virtual teams is one of the most significant developments of these new communication technologies. This allows employees to form working teams with colleagues across national borders. For large organizations, such as MNCs whose operations are cross-continental, these teams are referred to as global teams, and are made up of employees located in different continents, with different cultural beliefs, practices, and functionalities. Global teams are able to take advantage of the different time zones in areas in which different team members are located so…
Chavaren, O., 2013. Trust within Global Virtual Teams: Antecedents, Facilitators and Sustainability Factors. Lincoln, NE: iUniverse.
Connolly, A.J., 2013. Cultural Difference on Trial: the Nature and Limits of Judicial Understanding. Surrey: Ashgate Publishing Ltd.
Hawkins, P., 2011. Leadership Team Coaching: Developing Collective Transformational Leaders. Philadelphia, PA: Kogan Page Publishers.
Information Resources Management Association (IRMA)., 2001. Managing Information Technology in a Global Economy. Hershey, PA: Idea Group Publishing.
Global organizations occasionally put forth great labors to administer their expatriate workers while on an overseas job, but show modest concern for their repatriation, which should at all times be part of the entire course (Trudel, 2009).
Coping with matters that are not related to work is a characteristic of Human esource Management (HM) that is more pertinent to expatriate H function rather than domestic H functions. In a study done by Suutari and Burch (2001), in regards to on- location training and support for global workers, the authors found from their research that welcoming; lodging; shopping; transportation; public systems; local laws; medical care; schools; free time opportunities; spouse work provisions; and family social actions were all importation areas that should be addressed. Spouse adjustment and contentment was shown to influence expatriates contentment outside of work. In addition, spouse happiness and living circumstances had an effect on interface and cultural…
Chew, J. 2004. "Managing MNC Expatriates through Crises: A Challenge for International Human Resource Management," Research and Practice in Human Resource Management, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 1-30.
du Plessis, a.J. 2010, "International Human Resource Management: an Overview of its Effect on Managers in Global Organisations," Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research in Business, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 178-192, viewed 23 May 2012.
Gomez-Mejia, L.R., Balkin, D.B. & Cardy, R.L. 2012, "Managing Human Resources." Boston, MA: Pearson.
Howe-Walsh, L, & Schyns, B 2010, 'Self-initiated expatriation: implications for HRM', International Journal of Human Resource Management, 21, 2, pp. 260-273, Business Source Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 23 May 2012.
Differences in international orientation include ethnocentric, polycentric, geocentric, and regiocentric. Each of these has varying levels of recognition of how diverse one culture is relative to another with the ethnocentric mindset being the most biased towards ones' own culture being the best. The one that sees a more accurate view of globalization is polycentric which sees the unique values of each culture on its own merits. Globalization has also seen the growth of geocentric and regoicentric mindsets as companies expand faster than people can assimilate to new cultures.
b. Give an example of a truly global/transnational company. Explain why this company fits in that category.
Coca-Cola is an ideal example of a company that is global and transnational given its presence in over 160 nations and the use of regional and in-country bottlers. Coca-Cola also has a significant supply chain across each of the countries it operates in globally as…
When businesses go international, they have to face a number of issues and challenges from their external environment. The international business environment is much more complex and multifaceted than local environment. Business organizations have to deal with a number of environmental forces that directly or indirectly affect their business operations. These forces include political forces, economic forces, social, cultural, and demographical factors, technological forces, and competitive forces (Loudon, Stevens, & Wrenn, 2004). The international business expansion strategies also require the business organizations to analyze the local cultures, the kind of reception they anticipate from the local government, suppliers, distributors, and the community, control issues, and leadership, motivation, and communication issues and problems which their managers may face at the workplace (Hill & Jones, 2007).
This report acquaints the readers with an example of international business expansion strategy pursued by an American business organization into India as its new…
Cherunilam, F. (2007). International business: text and cases. India: PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd. Deresky, H. (2010). International Management, 7th Edition. U.S.: Prentice Hall
Hill, C., & Jones, G. (2007). Strategic management: an integrated approach, 1st Edition. U.S. Cengage Learning
Kotler, P., & Armstrong, G. (2008). Principles of marketing. 11th Edition. U.S.: Pearson/Prentice Hall
Lambin, J.J. (2007). Entry Strategies in the Foreign market, Palgrave Macmillan, Retrieved on December 18th, 2012, from
The cultural tourism is a part of cultural industry and it promotes cultural products of travelers as cultural practice (Craik, 1995; 87; Prentice, 2001). This tourism format is well thought-out as an organization which covers diverging activities.
Traditional building or sites are of attraction for the tourists and this is used as an incentive by the cultural tourism industry. These buildings had their own distinct past but nowadays it is presented in totally different manner for the means of tourism, so that more tourists are attracted. Therefore, these traditional spots are used as entertainment spots for those people who are out on vacations, thus giving a boost to the cultural tourism (Herbert, 1995: 1). But these traditional spots are taken differently by every cultural tourist. Like for instance, a historic monument might be a very interesting factor for a few tourists while others may regard it as a…
Beerli, A. And Martin, J.D. (2003) 'Tourists' characteristics and the perceived image of tourist destinations: A quantitative analysis - a case study of Lanzarote, Spain'. Tourism Management, 25, 5, 623-626.
Craik, J. (1995) 'Are there cultural limits to tourism?' Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 3, 87-98.
Herbert, D.T. (ed.) (1995) 'Heritage, Tourism and Society', Mansel, London.
Hughes, H.L. (2002) 'Culture and tourism: A framework for further analysis', Managing Leisure, 7, 3, 164-175.
International Management: Effect of egional and National Culture on MNCs
Culture refers to the institutions, folklore, history, customs, beliefs and traditions shared by a group of people. People who belong to the same religion, nationality, language or ethnic group share a common culture (University of Kansas, 2013). Organizational culture refers to the customs, assumptions, beliefs, values, procedures and policies that govern the way an organization is run and managed (University of Kansas, 2013). MNCs operate in different countries, and therefore, encounter diverse, distant cultures in their international operations. Cross-cultural relations are inevitable and MNCs have to develop organizational cultures that can effectively manage such relationships, so as to establish good relations both within and without the organization (ozkwitalska, 2013).
The Effect of the Parent Country's Culture
It has been found that the operations of MNCs' subsidiaries are largely influenced by the culture of the parent company (George, 2011). MNCs are…
George, O.J., 2011. Impact of Culture on the Transfer of Management Practices in Former British Colonies. Bloomington, IN: Xlibris Corporation.
Hofstede, G., 1992. Cultural Constraints in Management Theories. Academy of Management, 7 (1), pp. 81-94.
Rozkwitalska, M., 2013. Effective Cross-Cultural Relationships in Multi-National Corporations: Foreign Subsidiaries' Viewpoint. Academia. Available at http://www.academia.edu/3732624/Effective_cross-cultural_relationships_in_multinational_corporations._Foreign_subsidiaries_viewpoint [Accessed 8 Jan 2014].
University of Kansas., 2014. Section 7: Building Culturally Competent Organizations. University of Kansas. Available at http://ctb.ku.edu/en//tablecontents/sub_section_main_1176.htm [Accessed 8 Jan 2014].
International Management Is Affected by Cultural and Traditional Differences in Communication
This paper presents an examination of communication on an international level when it comes to business management. The writer takes the reader on an exploratory journey through the reasons it is important to be able to manage such communication. There were 12 sources used to complete this paper.
As the world continues to globalize, the art of communication on an international level is becoming an increasingly important skill to attain. Communication in any type of venture, whether it is a business deal, a non-profit situation, or personal use, is the key to success or failure. The ability to communicate well holds the key to providing the participants with satisfactory solutions or leaving them with confusion and frustration. International management duties include the developed ability to handle and oversee communication on an international level. This means much more than the…
____(1997). Business communication across borders. (barriers to pan-European business)., The European, pp 41(1).
____(1999). A once-in-a-lifetime Apec opportunity., Sunday Star Times (New Zealand), pp 8.
____(1996). CHIRAC SETS BUILDING OF EQUALITY IN CULTURE A PRIORITY. Xinhua News Agency.
____(2001). Daewoo Motor Staff Engrossed in English Learning., The Korea Times (Seoul, S. Korea.
Each and every member is respected in a productive global business environment with multicultural or diverse teams. Positive thinking is the constant habit of good teams in the global market environment with multicultural teams. It will be impossible for a global multicultural organization to function properly without good team attributes because of the wide acceptance of teams as well as multicultural teams in the global business environment (Qualities of Leading Global Multicultural Teams, 2009).
Issues of Concern
In atan Tata's plan to go global he believed that the biggest challenge they faced was finding the right talent which retaining the Group's value systems as the company grew bigger and more diverse. He thought that in order to be successful they had to expand their managerial perspective while retaining the same moral and ethical standards that they had before.
Another issue seen by others was the fact that the Group still…
Bhattacharya, C., Korschun, D., & Sen, S. (2012). What really drives value in corporate responsibility? Mckinsey Quarterly, (1), 14-16.
DeMarco, M., Lesser, E. & O'Driscoll, T. (2007). Leadership in a Distributed World.
Retrieved from http://www.ibm.com/ibm/gio/media/pdf/ibm_gio_ibv_gaming_and_leadership.pdf
Deresky, Helen. (2011). International Management: Managing Across Borders and Cultures,
) in addition, the number of bribe requests can be taken as a proxy for the external communication of Conoco's ethical standards. Internally, the quality of the competition in future years can be used as an indicator of success. As well, the number of incidents reported where Conoco employees have exhibited questionable ethics is another measure that can be used to evaluate the success of this program. Also, calls to ethical hotlines can be another measure (Ruthford, 2006).
It is unreasonable, however, in a company the size of Conoco, to expect a complete elimination of unethical practices. A significant decline, however, is not unreasonable. This has been achieved on a smaller scale by some of the managers who have been nominated for this first year.
6) I believe that the committee should limit the award to one winner. If multiple winners are allowed, other potential winners could feel slightly in…
No author. (2000). Nigeria tops corruption chart. BBC. Retrieved November 2, 2009 from http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/923570.stm
Barnett, T. (2003). Ethics code awareness, perceived ethical values and organizational commitment. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management. Retrieved November 2, 2009 from http://www.allbusiness.com/sales/759402-1.html
Ruthford, C. (2006). Why measure ethical effectiveness. Ethics Resource Center. Retrieved November 2, 2009 from http://www.ethics.org/resource/why-measure-ethical-effectiveness
Also, a businessperson must be made aware of the different families who control the various regions that make up the united UAE.
Unlike some other nations within the region, the United Arab Emirates has shown notable trends in modernizing its attitudes. For example, the government maintains an organization called the omen's Federation and promotes training, education, and the advancement of the status of women. In 1988, it was estimated that women constituted 6.2% of the workforce in 1988, high in comparison with Saudi Arabia, for example, even though discrimination against women remains common in a more liberalized UAE ("United Arab Emirates," 2006, Library of Congress: Country Studies). However, anecdotally, this discrimination against women has not always extended to foreigners, and many women have reported 'using' their gender in negotiations within the region to disarm their opponent, by showing unexpected strength during a meeting -- although this technique must obviously be…
Beer, Jennifer. (2003) "High and low context." Culture at Work. Retrieved Aug 24, 2008 at http://www.culture-at-work.com/highlow.html
Lagace, Martha. (4 Feb 2002). "How to do business in Islamic countries." Harvard Business
United Arab Emirates." (26 Jun 2006). Library of Congress: Country Studies. Retrieved Aug 24
The latter was to be measured against both high culture distance destinations and low culture distance destinations. The specific attributes being measured were extroversion, spouse support, job and community tenure and company relocation policy.
Different tests were used for each measure, which enhances the effectiveness of the survey because the questions reflected the type of answers that may be given. Such customization submits the paper to bias in the choice of measurement method. Because the four attributes being tested against one another were subject to different measurement techniques, it is more difficult to accurately compare these attributes against one another.
The first measure, that of the likelihood of respondents to accept postings in high culture difference countries vs. low culture difference countries, yielded definitive results. The respondents were far more likely to accept posts to low culture distance countries, although this result had a higher standard deviation compared to the…
Wan, D., Hui, T. & Tiang, L. (2002). Factors affecting Singaporeans' acceptance of international postings. Personnel Review. Vol. 32,6, 711-732.
No author. (2009). Literature Review. University of Toronto. Retrieved November 27, 2009 from http://www.engineering.utoronto.ca/about/programs/communication/Online_Handbook/Components_of_Documents/Literature_Review.htm
No author. (2009). Selection of a sample. Statistics Canada. Retrieved November 27, 2009 from http://www.statcan.gc.ca/edu/power-pouvoir/ch13/sample-echantillon/5214900-eng.htm
No author. (2009). Population Trends 2009. Singapore Department of Statistics. Retrieved November 27, 2009 from http://www.singstat.gov.sg/pubn/popn/population2009.pdf
Source: Hofstede Cultural Dimensions Model website comparison
B2E Violations of Child Labor -- Making the ight Choice
Donna needs to stop the negotiations and write a code of conduct for all suppliers before proceeding with any further supplier or joint venture qualification in Asia. The code of conduct will be required for every supplier to sign, and any violation of them is grounds for immediate dismissal from the B2E supply chain and strategic sourcing strategies and initiatives. She also needs to report Chenggong Corporation to the local and national government and also make it very clear that B2E will not tolerate the exploitation of children in production centers -- ever. To just slough it off and still go forward is to contribute to many children's lives being irreparably damaged -- all due to a lack of ethics on managements' part.
Ethically B2E needs to take a hard line on child…
Hofstede, G., & Minkov, M.. (2010). Long- versus short-term orientation: new perspectives. Asia Pacific Business Review, 16(4), 493.
Maurer-Fazio, M., Connelly, R., Chen, L., & Tang, L.. (2011). Childcare, Eldercare, and Labor Force Participation of Married Women in Urban China, 1982-2000. The Journal of Human Resources, 46(2), 261.
Venaik, S., & Brewer, P.. (2010). Avoiding uncertainty in Hofstede and GLOBE. Journal of International Business Studies, 41(8), 1294-1315.
As one analyst points out: "it owns neither content nor the delivery mechanism. Though a global business, it has no geographical control anywhere in the world. Since nearly all its consumer services are free, it doesn't have the power to raise prices and has no ability to exclude competitors or somehow block access to competing services. It operates in an environment of healthy competition" (Ulanoff 2009). On the other hand, it is difficult to conceive of a company being large enough, at this point in time, to provide the services Google can provide, with such a mammoth scope, and with such ease. By becoming a relative first-mover in the search engine informational technology industry, Google has shut out the ability for others to truly compete with it on the informational marketplace, its critics allege. The fact that its major competitor is clunky behemoth Microsoft tends to belie the image of…
"Benefits." Google Corporation. August 23, 2009.
"Company Overview." Google Corporation. August 23, 2009.
Business communications are official and face-to-face meetings are always preferred to indirect communications.
At the specific level of negotiations, it is important to note that, during negotiations, only the seniors in the team will speak. The negotiation process is slow and advancements are made in an unhurried rhythm. The Chinese people are non-confrontational individuals and they will avoid saying "No." They will, instead, promise to think about the proposition, see about it and so on.
In China, the negotiations do not focus on specific and measurable goals, but their emphasis falls on assessing the negotiation partner and seeing whether the relationship can be further developed. Since the Chinese are calculated people, decision making will often take a lot of time, until the locals are convinced of their future actions. The American counterparts are advised to always remain calm, or they will lose "face" and irremediably damage the relationship. The foreigners…
Feenstra, R.C., Hanson, G.H., (2003). Ownership and control in outsourcing to China: estimating the property-rights theory of the firm. National Bureau of Economic Research.
Hira, R., Hira, a. (2008), Outsourcing America: the true cost of shipping jobs overseas and what can be done about it. AMACOM Div American Mgmt Assn.
(2011). World report 2012: China. Human Rights Report. http://www.hrw.org/world-report-2012/world-report-2012-china accessed on September 25, 2012
(2012). The world factbook -- China. Central Intelligence Agency. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ch.html accessed on September 25, 2012
He should never had traded the stock if he was not prepared to accept the risk, or did not personally have belief in the stock's prospects. It is irresponsible to trade stock based on the recommendations of television analysts.
In a moral sense, Rick Stedman, if he was indeed committing a pump-and-dump, knew that some viewers may suffer adverse consequences. However, the limits of his moral responsibility are with his responsibility to the network. He is not morally responsible for the actions of any individual viewer. Likewise, the network is in the news and commentary business. That viewers may trade based on things that they hear or see on the network is a given. The network's oversight with respect to controls on its analysts does not amount to a moral responsibility.
No matter the set of events that lead to the unfortunate loss suffered by James Lee, the final decision…
As many forms of live donation do not cause harm to others, and as we allow the donation of blood for payment, we violate the categorical imperative by banning the sale of human organs.
It has been argued by some that banning organ donation is within the bounds of Kantian ethics because we have collectively agreed to the conviction that "such a practice would diminish human dignity and our sense of solidarity" (Cohen, 2002). Yet, we do not prohibit the donation of blood or of bone marrow. Indeed, most among us would agree that such donations are necessary and beneficial. Lives are saved. There is nothing morally wrong about saving lives -- indeed live donations today are conducted voluntarily and without any moral consequence.
Allowing live organ donations is ethically consistent with our established principles regarding blood donation and voluntary, unpaid live organ donation. It will increase the supply of…
Holcberg, David. (2008). Allow the Sale of Human Organs. Chicago Sun-Times. April 18, 2008.
Cohen, Cynthia B. (2002). Public Policy and the Sale of Human Organs. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal. Vol. 12, No. 1, March 2002, pp. 47-64.
Mullen, Shannon. (2009). Sale of Human Organs in New Jersey a Worldwide Scandal. Asbury Park Press. Retrieved August 3, 2009 from http://www.app.com/article/20090726/NEWS/907260350/1004/NEWS01
MacDonald, Nikki. (2005). Live Donors the Key to Organ Shortage. Give Life NZ. Retrieved August 3, 2009 from http://www.givelife.org.nz/latest_news_and_press_cuttings/live_donors_the_key_to_organ_shortage.cfm
Spain's culture will be different from the U.S. culture in almost every way, but particularly in three of these areas. First, Spain's culture is diffuse, as compared to the U.S. specific type of relationship between individuals. Spanish individuals tend to be more generous in blending their personal space with the working environment, while in the U.S. these are generally better separated.
Second, Spain's culture favors particularism to the U.S. universalism, by which we understand that, in Spain's case, relationships are more important than rules and regulations. In the case of the U.S., obviously, rules and regulations form the backbone of the system and are part of the success of the American society. Finally, according to figure 4-5, Spain is neutral, while the U.S. has a more emotional culture, which means that the Americans tend to display their emotions more often than Spanish people.
I believe that some of…
1. In a perfect world, a marketer wants to understand the target market as much as possible. Typically, only knowing one type of information about the target market is necessitated by data deficiency in the other areas.
Demographic information has the most obvious use cases, such as when the product is designed specifically for a target group, and would be relatively useless for others. An example of this might be if you are selling something that is specifically targeted at seniors – you want to know that seniors are buying, but also where and how to reach them. Products that target specific ethnic groups are another good example – if you import an unusual spice from West Africa that nobody else knows what to do with, the ideal scenario is to target an area with a lot of West African people. Another use case would be products like…
Flexibility on the International Management of Human Resources
The continued trend towards increased globalization is facilitated, in part, by the need for organizations to remain competitive, as well as increase their market share. ith this trend comes a variety of considerations in regards to developing and implementing human resource policies, in an effort to remain competitive in an increasingly competitive marketplace. One strategy human resources utilizes to enhance their flexibility in today's business environment is outsourcing. According to Fitz-enz (2009) outsourcing has been the first, true structural change to human resource management. This has several implications for the international management of human resources. To understand this topic further, this paper will give an overview of outsourcing as a business strategy. This is followed by the implications for international human resource management. The specific disadvantages of outsourcing, in regards to human resource management, will then be discussed.
Outsourcing as a Business…
Fisher, S., Wasserman, M., Wolf, P., and Wears, K. (Fall 2008). Human resource issues in outsourcing: Integrating research and practice. Human Resource Management. 47(3), 501-523.
Fitz-enz, J. (Winter 2009). Disruptive technology for human resources. Employment Relations Today. 35.4, 1-10.
Haines, L. (4 Aug 1997). Outsourcing human resources pays off handsomely for growing firms. Business Journal Serving Fresno & the Central San Joaquin Valley. 322181, 12-13.
Klaas, B. (Aug 2008). Outsourcing and the HR function: An examination of trends and developments within North American firms. International Journal of Human Resource Management. 19.8, 1500-1514.
e. Nutra Sweet). At the same time, they also had a number of failures, like when they company replaced the original formula for their soft drink with a new one. This led to a massive revolt among consumers, who did not want this product. Instead, they demanded something that could bring both of these elements together. At which point, Coke would begin utilizing the original formula, with the understanding that consumer tastes were very fickle. (Lamb 2008, pp. 255 -- 257)
This forced management to slow down on: how they are introducing new products to the market and concentrate on their core business model. During the 1990's this structure became challenging for Coke as: they had bottlers and distributors around the world (with no way to effectively collaborate on a host of different issues). This was problematic, because Pepsi was continuing to introduce products that were in demand. As they…
Benefits of Doing Business in India, 2010, Cross Cultural Training. Available from: [3 May 2011].
Code of Conduct, 2011, ITCILO. Available from: [3 May 2011].
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Mindsets of Successful Expats
Companies compete in a global environment; the increasing participation in the global environment has seen a rise in the need for international managers who can work in overseas operations in an effective manner. Firms have been selecting expatriate for many years, often using well established processes, which focus on skills and knowledge of the job, but not the issues associated with cultural adaptability (Deresky, 2011). esearch undertaken by Mansour Javidan focuses on the mindset characteristics that are likely to indicate success as an expatriate worker; these are divided into three sets of attributes; intellectual capital, psychological capital and social capital (Dereksky, 2011).
Intellectual capital refers to knowledge, skills and cognitive attributes, allowing them to deal with the changes in culture by understanding how and why attitudes and practices maybe different. Those individuals how are likely to be successful as expatriate workers have a greater…
Deresky, H. (2011). International management: Managing across borders and cultures (7th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall
Javidan M; Teagarden M; Basbrinde, F; Walch, K; Lynton, N; Pearson, K; Bowen, D; Cabbera, A, (2005), Global Mindsets Defined, Expat Success Strategy, [online] accessed http://www.worldwideerc.org/foundation/documents/global_mindset.pdf 28th July 2013
Uncertainty Avoidance, according to Hofstede's model, refers to how comfortable the people of a certain culture are with structure as opposed to flexibility. Notable disparities in negotiating styles between those nations scoring high and low on the uncertainty avoidance index have been known to cause significant conflict. This conflict is mostly likely to occur when people who prefer structured activities because they entail less risk encounter people from a culture with a more spontaneous style. Those with a structured mindset are likely to regard a lack of structure as a form of disrespect -- as if the culture does not care about risk because the deal or the negotiation is not as important to them. According to Goodwin "Uncertainty avoidance concerns planning and stability as a way of dealing with life's uncertainties: those high on uncertainty avoidance have a strong desire for consensus, and deviant behavior is unacceptable. Because high…
Buckley, P.J. (1994) International business vs. international management? International strategic management from the view of point of Internalisation Theory. International Journal of the Economics of Business 1, 95-104.
Evans, P., Pucik, V., & Barsouxs, J.L. (2002). The global challenge: Frameworks for international human resource management. New York: McGraw-Hill
Freedland, B. (2003, August) Market research in Japan: it's one of the world's biggest consumer markets, but when it comes to market research, Japan is way behind. Japan, Inc. Retrieved from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0NTN/is_46/ai_108722588/
Goodwin, R. (1999), Personal relationships across cultures. London: Routledge,
International Human Resources
Culture, Political, Economic and ocial Contexts of Nigeria Under the ubject of International Human Resource Management.
This paper is solely related to the International human resources practices, the uses of international human resources aspects as well as implementation within Nigeria. The paper has been explored several positive and negative aspects of Nigeria related to IHRM and whether it is feasible for global companies to operate and use the labor of Nigeria for making higher profits over there.
International HRM growth and significance
After attaining global scale, any company may be bound to utilize numerous resources and opportunities like global scale, scope, local differences adaptation and tap into best resources and locations associated with global presence in Nigeria and other countries. These are important opportunities in Nigeria because after exploiting such opportunities, the global image can be transformed into top global image (Hollinshead 2010, pp.233-262).
The opportunities can…
Schuler, R., Dowling, P., & De Cieri, H. 1993, 'An integrative framework of strategic international human resource management', deciding An IHRM Approach 449 International Journal of Human Resourc Management, Vol.1, pp.717 -- 764.
Taylor, S., Beechler, S., & Napier, N. 1996, 'Toward an integrative model of strategic international human resource management', Academy of Management Review,, vol21, pp. 959 -- 985.
Tomkins, R. Battered 1997, PepsiCo licks its wounds. The Financial Times, vol.26.
Competitive strategy is the bedrock on which companies base business decisions to reach their targets and achieve profitability. Formulating and implementing strategies in international business is much more complicated and difficult task than doing so in home or familiar markets. Competitive strategy deals with the development of abilities by a firm to keep ahead of competitors in the fields in which it operates. Firms develop competitive edge in global markets by possessing certain assets, abilities or characteristics. The primary elements of competitive advantage are the critical offer, the significant operating factors and the firm's strategic resources. (ennett and lythe, 2002) Corporate strategies and international marketing strategies are linked closely and have a bearing on business performance. (rown, 1994)
While some companies focus on a single source of competitive advantage, it is common for many firms to opt for a combination of options to be flexible and attain the…
Ahlberg, J; Garemo, N; Naucler, T. (1999) 'The Euro: How to keep your Prices Up and your Competitors Down', The Mclliney Quarterly, Volume: 2
Bennett, R. (1996) 'Relationship formation and governance in consumer markets: Transactional analysis vs. The behaviorist approach', Journal of Marketing Management, Volume: 12; No: 6
Bennett, R. (1999) 'International Business Frameworks', Second Edition, London: Financial Times/Pitman
Bennett, R and Blythe, J. (2002) 'International Marketing: Strategic Planning, Market Entry and Implementation', London: Kogan Page
international business expansion process.
International recruitment and selection brings a number of challenges for business organizations. They not only face difficulties in hiring the desired skillful staff from the host country, but may also have to deal with severe financial and cultural diversity issues. Through this research study, an effort has been made to highlight the major challenges and issues which make the international recruitment and selection process more complex and challenging for multinational organization.
The research report starts with an ample introduction to the esearch question and proceeds by highlighting the core objectives of the research study. The research question clearly states the major objective of this research study in a quite precise and succinct manner. The most important section of the research report is Literature review which has been written after a comprehensive research from a number of academic and industry journal articles and books; most of which…
Ashamalla, M.H. 1998, International Human Resource Management Practices: the Challenge of Expatriation. CR, 8 (2): 54-63.
Andeason, A.W. 2003, Expatriate Adjustment to Foreign Assignments. The International 6 tyJournal of Commerce and Management, 13 (1): 42-60.
Andersen, T.M., & Svarer, M. 2006, Flexicurity -- the Danish Labor Market Model. Available from [Accessed July 26th, 2012]
Baudler, C.R. 2011, Employee Engagement: Through Effective Performance Management by Edward M. Mone and Manuel London, Personnel Psychology, 64 (3): 813 -- 816.
Managing the Modern Workforce
Date Here (Day, Month, Year)
When an organization expands its operations into international markets, it hires individuals from different nations and cultures. These individuals are culturally diverse and need to be managed effectively. Numerous researches have been conducted to elucidate this important issue of the business world; each of them has some application for the modern management practices. Although workforce diversity is more an issue of the 21st Century, but massive of researches have been conducted in the late 80's and 90's.
The literature has some limitations which entice the modern researches to work on this issue and broaden the basis of knowledge for the future studies. The biggest limitation is the unclear definition of workforce diversity. Every researcher has given his own definition for this concept; however the most common definition is explained in the context of 'culture'. Most of the…
Darmadi, S., 2010, Do Women in Top Management Affect Firm Performance? Evidence from Indonesia. Indonesian Capital Market and Financial Institution Supervisory Agency (Bapepam-LK), pp. 2-5 Available at
Ferro, N., 2004, Cross-Country Ethical Dilemmas in Business: A Descriptive Framework. Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei, Working Paper No. 28, pp. 16-22. Available at
Guidroz, A., M., Kotrba, L., M., & Denison, D., R., 2009, Workplace Diversity: Is National or Organizational Culture Predominant? Linkage, Denison Consulting, LLC, pp. 1-5
Huckman, R., S., & B., R., Staats, 2010, Fluid Tasks and Fluid Teams: The Impact of Diversity in Experience and Team Familiarity on Team Performance, Harvard Business School Technology & Operations Management. Unit Working Paper No. 09-145, pp. 2-10. Available at
Integrating Total Quality Environmental Management Systems - a Critical Study of TQEM
Relevance of TQM to Environmental Management
Scope of Dissertation
Moving from Reactive to Proactive Management
Understanding TQM in Relation to TQEM
History of TQM
Operation of TQM
Quality and Environmental Management Standards
Environmental Management Systems
Weaknesses of EMS Standards
Total Quality Environmental Management
Comparing ISO 9000 and ISO 14000
Integrating the ISO 14000 Environmental Management System
Impact of certification on economic and ecological performances
Research Design and Nature
Integrating a Sustainable EMS with TQM
Steps to Implementing an Effective TQEM Strategy
INTEGRATING QUALITY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ManagementS SYSTEMS - A CRITICAL STUDY
ackground and Overview of Study
For decades economic growth has been considered the main indicator of a healthy society (Oliver, 1996). However, only recently has society begun to recognize the environmental cost of this growth. As a result, there is now an…
Bibliography working paper. Winnipeg, MB: International Institute for Sustainable Development, 1996. 58
Bisang, O. (2000), Green Banking - The Value of ISO 14001 Certification
Chattopadhyay, S.P. (2001), "Improving the Speed of ISO 14000 Implementation: A Framework for Increasing Productivity," Managerial Auditing Journal, 16/1, pp. 36-39.
Chinn, R. (March 21, 2001). Roadmap to Realization -- "Getting Started with Your QMS/EMS Integration Process. Alamo Learning Systems.
Clark, D. (1999), What Drives Companies to Seek ISO 14000 Certification, Pollution Engineering, Summer, pp. 14.
Chernobyl Nuclear disaster took place in 1986 in Ukraine which is a former Soviet State. This plant was built back in 1970 and consisted of 4 reactors. The plant was scheduled to undergo a scheduled and controlled shut down so as to test the generator's ability to produce electricity using the plant's safety system. eactor 4 of this plant exploded after interior energy increased beyond control discharging radioactive debris and smoke on close by cities and created a radioactive cloud that spread out to a big region of the U.S.S.. And Europe. This catastrophe involved over 500,000 workers, and over 18 million ubles. It was considered an International disaster due to the large area that it impacted negatively.
Immediately after the incident, firefighters arrived at the scene and tried to put off the fires. Lieutenant Pravik was among the first commandants to arrive at the scene and he died in…
Alexey V.Y.; Vassily B. Nesterenko; Alexey V. (2009). Chernobyl: Consequences of the Catastrophe for People and the Environment (Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences) Wiley-Blackwell.
Berger, E.M. (2010). The Chernobyl Disaster, Concern about the Environment, and Life Satisfaction. Kyklos, 63(1), 1-8
Davletbaev, R (2001). Last shift Chernobyl. Ten years later. Inevitability or chance? Moscow: Energoatomizdat.
Jargin, S. (2012). Debate on the Chernobyl disaster: on the causes of Chernobyl overestimation. International Journal Of Health Services: Planning, Administration, Evaluation, 42(1), 29-34
Marriott International is one of the largest hotel chains worldwide. With its headquarters in Bethesda, Maryland, the organisation has over 5,700 properties spread across more than 100 countries around the world. Throughout its nine decades of operation, the organisation has undergone numerous changes in terms of management, processes, as well as corporate and business strategy. This paper discusses a number of change aspects relating to the organisation. These include two key changes in the organisation's management style, role of senior management in preparing the organisation for its most recent change, use of vendors and spokespersons, an innovation that could positively impact on the organisation's employees and customers, as well as the organisation's ability to adapt to the changing needs of customers and the market environment.
Changes in Management Style
Marriott has been in operation since 1927. Though the organisation has undergone several changes in management style over its operational history,…
China - United States Trade Analysis
Chinese Economic Development
China's Growing Resource Needs
China and Globalization
Protecting Intellectual Property
orking with Government Bureaucracy
International Management Considerations
Modes of Market Entry into China
Recommendations for International Expansions
China financial integration has significantly developed over the past three decades. The total of U.S.-China trade balances grew from $5 billion in 1980 to $409 billion in 2008. Both economies were significantly affected by the global financial crisis and the 2008 balance was reduced by a little over ten percent in 2009. However, the United States is still the world biggest importer of Chinese goods and the Chinese market as represent the third largest importer of U.S. exports. The total amount of trade between these two financial powerhouses is enormous. Furthermore, the Chinese population is already staggering and it is developing economically in historical rates. Thus China also represents a key strategic…
Asia Water Project. "Water supply and demand gap." The Asia Water Project. December 2009. http://www.asiawaterproject.org/water-crises/why-water/water-gap / (accessed August 29, 2011).
Gallagher, P. "CHINESE TRADE GROWTH IN HISTORICAL, REGIONAL CONTEXT." Trade & Public Policy . June 14, 2005. http://petergallagher.com.au/index.php/site/article/chinese-trade-growth-in-historical-regional-context (accessed August 30, 2011 ).
Inocencio, R. "The 'American Age' to end in 2016?" CNN Business. April 27, 2011. http://business.blogs.cnn.com/2011/04/27/the-american-age-ends-in-2016 / (accessed August 29, 2011).
Mankiw, G. "China's Trade and U.S. Manufacturing Jobs." Havard Economics. October 2003, 2003. http://www.economics.harvard.edu/files/faculty/40_testi_hcwm.pdf (accessed August 29, 2011).
Singapore's Socio-Cultural Environment stephv73
The Socio-Cultural Environment of Singapore Compared to That of the United States
For anyone wishing to do business in Singapore, it must be remembered that the socio-cultural environment in Singapore is very different from that of the United States. In order to conduct business in Singapore successfully, these differences need to be learned and accounted for in all business transactions, in customer care, and in employee management. Otherwise, one runs the risk of offending someone, of breaking the law, or of alienating potential and current customers. This paper gives a brief overview of the socio-cultural environment of Singapore, and touches on the things that are important for an American businessperson to know before doing business in that nation.
One of the first things that should be remembered about Singapore is that education is extremely important to people there. The academic approach in Singapore is very precise.…
Aglionby, John. "Singapore's Fine Culture Keeps People in Line." Guardian Unlimited. 2002. http://society.guardian.co.uk/localgovt/story/0,7890,824572,00.html .
Maysami, Ramin Cooper and Valerie Priscilla Goby. "Creating a Conducive Environment for Small Businesses Operating in Singapore." Nanyang Business School. n.d. http://www.sbaer.uca.edu/Research/1998/ICSB/g003.htm>.
Management of a Culturally Diverse Workforce
Diversity refers to the demographic variations of one form or another among the members of a particular group (Podsiadlowski, Groschke, Kogler, Springer & van der Zeec, 2013). Scholars have come up with different ways of categorizing demographic differences, often predicting the outcomes for different work groups based on the degree and nature of diversity in the workforce. In addition, the culture of a company heavily influences its decisions and outcomes. An organization's prevailing beliefs, attitudes, values and ideas guide the way that its staffers feel, think and conduct themselves. This often occurs subconsciously (Hernandez & O'Connor, 2010).
Determination of Organizational Culture
Organizational culture is one of the best theoretical principles required for understanding how companies work. To verify and use organizational theories, one has to compare the different cultures between different organizations, which mean the identification of common perspectives for evaluating organizational culture. Organizational…
Boddy, C. R. (2011) Corporate Psychopaths: Organizational Destroyers, Palgrave Macmillan.
Hernandez, S. R. & O'Connor, S. J. (2010). Strategic human resources management in health services organizations. 3rd ed. Clifton Park, NY: Delmar Cengage Learning.
Luthans, F. & Doh Jonathan, P. (2015). International Management, Culture, Strategy and Behavior (9th ed.). Mc Graw Hill
Papa, M.J., Daniels, T.D. & Spiker, B.K. (2008). Organizational Communication Perspectives and Trends (4th Ed.). Sage Publications.
Managing Diversity and Equal Opportunity
With the turn of the 21st century, a dramatic increase is being witnessed in the international flow of labor with repercussion for domestic labor supply and management. The native, racial and emigre mixture of the employees is predominantly important for the workplace. The importance of this domestic cultural multiplicity in the labor force, highlighted by worldwide influences and necessities, has lately encouraged the researchers to focus on the companies' and managers' response to diversity, be it of any form (Watson, Spoonley, & Fitzgerald, 2009).
If the workforce of the present times is compared with the one that was found 20 years ago, it will be easy to observe that there are "more white women, people of color, disabled persons, new and recent immigrants, gays and lesbians, and intergenerational mixes (i.e., baby boomers, Generation Xers, and Generation Nexters)" (iccucci, 2002) today. This situation has given birth…
Hemphills, H., & Hayne, R. (1997). Discrimination, Harassment, and the Failure of Diversity Training: What to Do Now. Westport, CT: Quorum Book. Retrieved December 15, 2012, from http://www.questia.com/read/23366693/discrimination-harassment-and-the-failure-of-diversity
King, A.S. (1995, December). Capacity for Empathy: Confronting Discrimination in Managing Multicultural WorkForce Diversity. Business Communication Quarterly, 58(4), 46+. Retrieved December 14, 2012, from http://www.questia.com/read/1G1-18023663/capacity-for-empathy-confronting-discrimination-in
Ollapally, A., & Bhatnagar, J. The Holistic Approach to Diversity Management: HR Implications. Indian Journal of Industrial Relations, 44(3), 454+. Retrieved December 15, 2012, from http://www.questia.com/read/1G1-210224380/the-holistic-approach-to-diversity-management-hr
Riccucci, N.M. (2002). Managing Diversity in Public Sector Workforces. Boulder, CO: Westview Press. Retrieved December 14, 2012, from http://www.questia.com/read/100875091/managing-diversity-in-public-sector-workforces
The use of managerial accounting to keep profit margins where they need to be and make sure that individual product offerings are not a net drain on the company is not the only thing that Thai Airlines can and must do to keep a competitive edge and to protect themselves from things like corporate malfeasance and terrorists attacks, but it is certainly a major thing that should be take into account and otherwise dealt with in a timely and complete nature. It will not be easy for Thai Airlines to keep their competitive edge largely because other firms will be doing the exact same calculations and measurements. However, not doing so would be ceding progress and adeptness to their competitors. As such, not doing managerial accounting should be a non-starter for Thai Airlines.
AccountingExplained.com. (2013, May 12). Managerial Accounting Introduction | Accounting Explained. Accounting Explained | Financial and Managerial…
AccountingExplained.com. (2013, May 12). Managerial Accounting Introduction | Accounting Explained. Accounting Explained | Financial and Managerial Accounting Notes. Retrieved May 12, 2013, from http://accountingexplained.com/managerial/introduction/
CEIBS. (2013, May 12). Managerial Accounting for Decision-makers_CEIBS. China Europe International Business School. Retrieved May 12, 2013, from http://www.ceibs.edu/execed/index/8079.shtml
CSUN. (2013, May 12). Managerial Accounting. California State University, Northridge. Retrieved May 12, 2013, from http://www.csun.edu/~hfact004/Managerial.html
McGraw-Hill. (2013, May 12). The Work of Management and the Need for Managerial Accounting Information. McGraw-Hill. Retrieved May 12, 2013, from http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0073526703/student_view0/ebook/chapter1/chbody1/the_work_of_management_and_the_need_for_managerial_accounting_information.html
The two basics to keep in mind is that managerial accounting should be used early and often and not just internal stakeholders should be heeded and listened to (Tutor2U.net, 2013).
In conclusion, Thai Airlines would benefit greatly from an entrenched and well-managed managerial accounting framework. It should supplement and complement both the financial accounting mechanisms of Thai Airlines as well as general process management, general product management, marketing, other accounting matters and general business decision making for Thai Airlines. Part and parcel of all of that is integrating stakeholder's expectations and conversely managing the expectations and perceptions of those same stakeholders is also vital on a number of levels. However, if all of the above is managed and managed well, then the outcomes for firms like Thai Airlines that use managerial accounting effectively will tend to be very good.
Holtzman, M. (2013, May 12). Managerial Accounting for Dummies…
Holtzman, M. (2013, May 12). Managerial Accounting for Dummies Cheat Sheet - for Dummies . How-to Help and Videos - for Dummies. Retrieved May 12, 2013, from http://www.dummies.com/how-to/content/managerial-accounting-for-dummies-cheat-sheet.html
Money-Zine.com. (2013, May 12). Financial vs. Managerial Accounting. Money-zine.com Home Page. Retrieved May 12, 2013, from http://www.money-zine.com/investing/investing/financial-versus-managerial-accounting/
Singha Beer International. (2013, May 14). Singha Beer International. Singha Beer International. Retrieved May 14, 2013, from http://www.singhabeer.com/
Tutor2u.net. (2013, May 12). Accounting - Introduction to Stakeholders. tutor2u | Economics | Business Studies | Politics | Sociology | History | Law | Marketing | Accounting | Business Strategy. Retrieved May 12, 2013, from http://www.tutor2u.net/business/accounts/stakeholder_theory.htm
The document states the plan of an organization in different phases. For each phase there will be a different management strategy. The document has described the management strategy and the effects that they will have on the performance of the business and why that particular management strategy has been chosen.
Management structure needs to be examined carefully when a new business venture is setup. In order to develop and build on the business plan a compact management structure is necessary. The managers are the people who are responsible for steering an organization towards achieving the business objectives. In the second phase the business plan will be implemented on the basis of geographical region and the management structure will be based accordingly.
The four key functions of management are planning, organizing, leading and controlling the business. The type of managers which are selected for the business venture must be…
Gomez-Mejia, Luis R.; David B. Balkin and Robert L. Cardy (2008). Management: People, Performance, Change, 3rd edition. New York, New York USA: McGraw-Hill. pp. 19.
Kleiman, Lawrence S. (2010). " Management and Executive Development" Reference for Business: Encyclopedia of Business
Manfred F.R. Kets de Vries (2003). The Dark Side of Leadership - Business Strategy Review 14(3), Autumn Page 26
Richard Barrett (2003). Vocational Business: Training, Developing and Motivating People, - Business & Economics - 2003. - Page 51
The History of Apple Corporation
Strategy Development and Implementation
The History of Apple Corporation
The corporation has an exciting history, as it has transformed to the biggest and most successful technology firms in the world, under the best managers of time. Both the employees of the firm, the management and the product consumers have been linked to the firm's success. The firm was started with the two Steves, who from their early lives had shown considerable interest in electronics. Steve Jobs and Steve Woznlak were former employees at Atari and HP respectively. However, in April 1976, the two conceptualized the Apple computer, which was among the first personal computers at that time. The company has focused on products that are innovative and new in the market ever since it was started. It is Job that started developed the legendary Macintosh, which is known to many as 'Mac'. There…
Lamb, C.W., Hair, J.F. & McDaniel, C. (2011). Essentials of Marketing. New York: Cengage Learning.
Quelch, J.A. & Deshpande, R. (2004). The Global Market: Developing a Strategy to Manage Across Borders. New York: John Wiley and Sons.
Schermerhorn, J.R. (2011). Exploring Management. New York: John Wiley and Sons.
International Channel Management
The Japanese Distribution System has been under a lot of scrutiny and assessment and analyses by foreigners, and these analyses have attempted to find out the reason behind the absolute 'no go' principle that they find when they attempt to export any product to Japan. In a basic comparison between Japan and the United States of America, for example, while there is one single retail store for every 68 persons in Japan, in America, there is one retail store for every 120 persons. (Japanese Business Environment) The Japanese Distribution is virtually in the midst of a big controversy today, wherein the distributive structure and the various trade practices followed by the Japanese are under question. (A new perspective on the Japanese distribution system: structure and trade practices) The fact is that the Japanese Distribution System came into being during the early years of the seventeenth century, when…
Auckerman, William. Japan Net Penetration doubles in past year. Retrieved From
http://isp-planet.com/research/japan_net_grows.html Accessed on 18 March, 2005
Bilateral Trade Relations: Japan. Retrieved From
http://europa.eu.int/comm/trade/issues/bilateral/countries/japan/index_en.htm Accessed on 18 March, 2005
International Cooperation During Disasters
Discuss how leaders of nations and the international community can strengthen the framework for international cooperation and collaboration in response to disasters
In the contemporary world, there seem be increasing trends of the global weather events or scenarios. This makes it critical for governments to focus significantly on activities that can provide a lasting solution to the problem at hand. This would involve majoring in activities that aid disaster management within the nation. In order to tackle the prospective disasters facing the globe, it is essential to have measures in place to enable organizations to be ready in case of any hit. This notion calls for crucial involvement of leaders of the nations and international communities to strengthen the framework for international cooperation and collaboration in response to disasters.
The first approach by the leaders of the nation to strengthen the framework for international cooperation and…
Asimakopoulou, E. (2010). Advanced ICTs for disaster management and threat detection:
Collaborative and distributed frameworks. Hershey, PA: Information Science Reference.
Murphy, R. (2009). Leadership in disaster: Learning for a future with global climate change.
Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press.
Management possesses a broad range of international experience. Decisions may be made at head office or at the subsidiary level, but in either case management is familiar with both outlooks.
The rationale behind the ethnocentric approach is that the home office will deliver consistent decisions that are always in line with core values and objectives. The local managers are directly and specifically oriented towards corporate-wide objectives. The polycentric approach reflects the belief that the local managers will do what is best for the local subsidiary, which in turn will be what is best for the head office. The geocentric approach believes that the best management teams will be able to fuse local and global perspectives and that the other two approaches to do not achieve this.
4. Management development programs are systems for developing managers with specific skills and traits that are consistent with the corporation's strategic objectives. Managers are…
' The researchers did include one anecdote of a South African woman of Indian ancestry, and how she dealt with the unconscious racism of her colleagues, drawing upon a positive sense of community solidarity and avoiding some of the negative emotions such conflicts spawned in others. But other than her comment that professionalism and a strong sense of family identity was helpful in emotionally coping with racism, her remarks were not specifically insightful about working in a global, international organization in a formerly segregated area of the world.
The conclusions of the article regarding what organizational forces positively impact and do not impact identity seem fairly vague and generalized, despite the advantage that a case study format can have in terms of studying a highly specific context. Communication is suggested as the key to broaching identity conflicts, as well as having formal sensitivity training and grievance procedures. Although these…
Mayer, Claude H. (2009). Managing conflicts through strength of identity. Management Revue.
Retrieved through FindArticles.com on January 21, 2011. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa5454/is_200907/ai_n42039398/
Managing Offshoring Software Projects From U.S.-based Locations
In the article and research cited in An Empirical Investigation of Client Managers esponsibilities on Managing Offshore Outsourcing of Software-Testing Projects (Jain, Poston, Simon, 2011) the dynamics of outsourcing alliances with American companies and Indian service providers' shows signs of becoming more efficient through the use of collaboration technologies and more effective quality management techniques. The cultural, ethical and financial implications of Indian outsourcers becoming more efficient in working with American companies are having a risk reduction effect in the short-term and an acceleration of innovation in the long-term (Zhao, Watanabe, 2010). From a social perspective, Indian outsourcers are finding strategies for attaining a higher level of customer satisfaction level not attainable in previous iterations of their business models (Bairi, Manohar, 2011).
The cumulative effect of ethical, cultural and financial factors on the operations of Indian outsourcers throughout the United…
Bairi, J., & Manohar, B.M. (2011). Critical success factors in gaining user customer satisfaction in outsourced IT services. Journal of Enterprise Information Management, 24(6), 475-493.
Hofstede, G. (1983). The cultural relativity of organizational practices and theories. Journal of International Business Studies, 14(2), 75-75.
Jain, R.P., Poston, R.S., & Simon, J.C. (2011). An empirical investigation of client managers' responsibilities in managing offshore outsourcing of software-testing projects. IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, 58(4), 743.
Zhao, W., & Watanabe, C. (2010). Risk management in software outsourcing -- a portfolio analysis of India's case based on software export market constitution. Journal of Services Research, 10(1), 143-155.
Stakeholder management is also defined through a series of escalation processes to ensure that GE senior management at the subsidiary, regional and global levels stay consistent with each other from a policy standpoint as well. GE relies on cross-functional teams within their strategy planning process that also enables greater stakeholder communication as well (Thomas, Bollapragada, 2010).
GE also has extensive sustainability and "green" initiatives in place that also provide for a foundation of Corporate Social esponsibility (CS) programs. In many nations CS programs are required before Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) will be allowed. This is certainly the case in India where GE had to invest in the local school systems to ensure the quality of life increased based on their reliance on local labor and resources (Ocasio, Joseph, 2008). Nations are now holding corporations accountable for CS investments more than ever before.
G.E. is a very metric-driven and measurement-oriented…
Alwerfalli, D., & Schaaf, J.. (1 January 2010). Creating Value in Organizations Through the Use of Value Management. IIE Annual Conference. Proceedings,1-7.
Ferrari, B.. (2010). Competition and collaboration in General Electric's Global Research Group. The McKinsey Quarterly,(3), 105.
Galindo, L.. (2010). The POWER of ACCOUNTABILITY. Leader to Leader, 2010(56), 17.
Thomas, B., & Bollapragada, S.. (2010). General Electric Uses an Integrated Framework for Product Costing, Demand Forecasting, and Capacity Planning of New Photovoltaic Technology Products. Interfaces: Special Issue: The 2009 Daniel H. Wagner Prize for..., 40(5), 353-367,417-418.
g. In U.K.), organizations are tempted to use positive discrimination for corresponding to contemporary requirements. This implies hiring disadvantaged applicants regardless of their professional competency. For instance, last year, UK's Gloucestershire Police and Avon and Somerset police confessed to have rejected white men for hiring women and ethnic minorities in order to meet Government requirements (http://www.workplacelaw.net/display.php?resource_id=8292&keywords).This is an extremely negative phenomenon as it succeeds in increasing the gap among different groups. Therefore, when encouraging such a strategy, authorities should pinpoint the rationale behind it and should organize conferences and workshops debating this issue.
Piturro, Marlene. 2007. Recruiting and Managing a Diverse Workforce. http://www.vault.com/nr/newsmain.jsp?nr_page=3&ch_id=402&article_id=19018&listelement=3&cat_id=1102 (Accessed March 8, 2007).
Price Eboni, Gozu Aysegul, Kern David, Powe Neil, Wand Gary, Golden Sherita, and Cooper Lisa. 2005. The Role of Cultural Diversity Climate in Recruitment, Promotion, and Retention of Faculty in Academic Medicine. http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1490155#N0x914e898.0x9306d20 (Accessed March 8, 2007).
usinesses doubt the benefits of…
Piturro, Marlene. 2007. Recruiting and Managing a Diverse Workforce. http://www.vault.com/nr/newsmain.jsp?nr_page=3&ch_id=402&article_id=19018&listelement=3&cat_id=1102 (Accessed March 8, 2007).
Price Eboni, Gozu Aysegul, Kern David, Powe Neil, Wand Gary, Golden Sherita, and Cooper Lisa. 2005. The Role of Cultural Diversity Climate in Recruitment, Promotion, and Retention of Faculty in Academic Medicine. http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1490155#N0x914e898.0x9306d20 (Accessed March 8, 2007).
Businesses doubt the benefits of an ethnically diverse workforce. 2007. http://www.workplacelaw.net/display.php?resource_id=8292&keywords (Accessed March 8, 2007).
Cendant embraces diversity as a corporate way of life: Company aims to achieve a workforce that reflects its customers and markets. 2003. Human Resource Management International Digest 11: 12-15.
In my opinion, valuable organizational change is a process. It is nothing that comes from one day to the other. It requires the combined efforts of the organization as a whole: Skilled managers and the commitment of an organization's workforce alike.
Discussion of the paper's results: What are the key findings? What does it add to the body of knowledge?
The key findings of the paper are threefold.
First, the current management of organizational change tends to be reactive in its response to the pace of change that has never been greater than today. Second, successful management of change within organizations is a highly required skill. Third, further research into the nature of change management needs to be conducted and a new and pragmatic framework for change management is needed as a critical success factor for the management of change. It adds to the body of knowledge, that managerial skills…
One of the strengths of this article is the fact that the author provides several different ways to successfully expand one's companies across international borders. His case studies, which pertain to companies such as IM, Procter & Gamble, TCS and other reputed organizations explain the various factors that influenced which particular strategy or strategies was necessary for these companies to succeed. In that sense, he has effectively produced a blueprint for success that other organizations in similar industries to those discussed in the article can follow.
As such, it is difficult to argue with the Ghemawat's claim that AAA Triangle is required for international expansion, since he offers so many real life examples that follow this model. That is why it is all the more interesting to note the degree of difficulty the author states is involved in attempting to utilize all three strategies simultaneously. It appears that this limitation…
Ghemawat, Pankaj. "Managing Differences: The Central Challenge of Global Strategy." Harvard Business Review, (2007): 1-14.
It is not that managers do not see the benefit in conflict that they eschew it; it is that conflict is high-risk and can have significant negative externalities, some of which linger with the organization for a long time. Managers are less enthusiastic about conflict because they are taking into account a longer time frame and the totality of externalities, which makes their views a reflection of better information and therefore more accurate than the views of academic researchers.
Recommendations. Carefully manage conflict -- do not use it wantonly. Conflict does not always create positive outcomes sufficient to outweigh the negative ones that are certain to accrue. Take steps to ensure that the conflict is task-focused and not personal. This will limit the amount of damage that accrues from conflict. Create conflict only when necessary -- large scale conflict for small scale problems is dangerous. Conflict is a powerful tool…
Vazquez, E. (2008). Managing conflict across generations in the workplace. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Retrieved May 30, 2010 from http://dspace.mit.edu/bitstream/handle/1721.1/50103/462996891.pdf?sequence=1
Rahim, M. (2001,a). Managing conflict in organizations. Westport, CT: Quorum Books.
Cohen, C., Birkin, S., Cohen, M., Garfield, M. & Webb, H. (2006). Managing conflict during an organizational acquisition. Conflict Resolution Quarterly. Vol. 23 (3) 317-331.
Rahim, M. (2001, b) Towards a theory of managing organizational conflict. The International Journal of Conflict Management. Vol. 13 (3) 206-235.
A second problem can be seen in the differences in cultures. This is especially apparent when looking at management styles. What might be considered acceptable in the United States might often be a cultural nightmare in another country. Trying to manage personnel in other parts of the world also brings about issues with communication. The ways in which people communicate is very different around the world. Again, something that would be perfectly acceptable here may often be seen as offensive in another part of the world.
A leader and manager must evaluate organizational competencies and intellectual capital and create and integrate models in order to establish a framework for application of duties to the employees so as to create a good healthy working condition. This will help to motivate all the employees to do their best at the work that they perform. An organization has to focus on determining different…
Globalization. (2010). Retrieved from Answers.com Web site:
Leadership vs. Management. (2010). Retrieved February 28, 2010, from Changing Minds Web
The performance of each team member depends on the performance of all others, this being a team project. Constraints include time and financial resources; as such improvement requires permanent improvement effort.
isk Management. No risk has been identified related to the project's completion.
Monitoring and Controlling Mechanisms. The data analysts will develop a metric system to measure each member's performance on a weekly basis. This weekly performance will be submitted to the project manager for potential adjustments.
V. Operations management plan
Operations Strategy. An easy way to understand the meaning of operations strategy is to break the word into the two separate words: operations and strategy - these words being the opposite of each other (Slack & Lewis, 2002). 'Operations' is about the functions and procedures regarding the day-to-day processes, while 'strategy' is about the direction and scope of an organisation over a long period of time. The operations strategy…
Aberdeen Group. 2008. Operational KPIs and Performance Management -- Are Your Daily Decisions Based on Fact?, http://www.aberdeen.com/
Cooper, M. & Lambert D. 2000. Issues in Supply Chain Management. Industrial Marketing Management, vol. 29: pp. 65-83.
Johnson, J. C. And Wood, D.F. 1996. Contemporary Logistics, N.J.: Prentice Hall Upper Saddle Creek.
Keah C.R.K. And Handfield, R.B. 1998 .Supply Chain Management: Supplier Performance and Firm Performance. International Journal of Purchasing and Materials Management: pp.2-9.
S. DHS "Strategic Plan," 2008, http://www.dhs.gov/xabout/strategicplan/) ealistically acts of terrorism, domestic or foreign are exceedingly rare, though slightly more common than they have been in the past and at least marginally more violent in nature, they occur very, very rarely. (Lewis, 2000, p. 201) Though maintaining serious preparedness the mitigation of natural disasters, most which cannot be avoided is an issue needed to be addressed almost yearly, on both small and large scales, across the nation and is much more likely to directly effect people and resources on an intimate level and should be the Emergency Management system's first and primary concern! Though worst possible case scenarios, regarding the use of WMDs is important it is not where all the resources should go.
(5. In the course, you have been introduced to the various responsibilities of different levels of government in the homeland security effort. What level of government do…
Daniels, R.S. (2007). Revitalizing Emergency Management after Katrina: A Recent Survey of Emergency Managers Urges Improved Response, Planning, and Leadership and a Reinvigorated FEMA -- the Federal Government Has Responded by Making Most of the Recommended Changes. The Public Manager, 36(3), 16.
Department of Homeland Security Website www.dhs.gov
Depoorter, B. (2006). Horizontal Political Externalities: The Supply and Demand of Disaster Management. Duke Law Journal, 56(1), 101.
Hulnick, a.S. (2004). Keeping Us Safe: Secret Intelligence and Homeland Security. Westport, CT: Praeger.
He wished to build the happiest place on the planet and this message continues to be handed over to the new recruits who join the organization presently also. Disney exists to give a guarantee to the Americans that are there for real. Disneyland is not just unreal, rather it is hyper-real. As a result it is possible to express of the corporate culture of Disney as being created. ("eading Organizations from behavior and experience to representation and experience," n. d.)
4) Explain how the four functions of management support the creation and maintenance of a healthy organizational culture
The four functions of management support the creation and maintenance of a healthy organizational culture as it leads to planning, organizing, leading and coordinating of resources and it is these 4 activities which recur across the institution and are extremely unified. Present features relating to management cover claims leading are distinct from…
Arnold, Paul. V. (2002) "Fixing manufacturing" MRO Today Magazine, Retrieved at http://www.progressivedistributor.com/mro/archives/mro%20coach/Lynch/FixingJJ02.htm
Bryman, Alan. (1995) "Disney and His World"
N.A. (2007) "Disney Institute Homepage" Retrieved at http://www.disneyinstitute.com/index.cfm
A cheap product will not be able to survive in this rapidly changing business environment. Organization is another extremely important aspect of the necessary managerial skills for any manager desiring guaranteed success at their individual Verizon location. Organization can be as simple as instituting training at work in a pattern that overlooks no single employee. A good manager cannot expect employees to train themselves or improve their work manners without additional help. A strong organized training program is sure to enhance even the most successful company.
A strong leadership team is another necessary important aspect for businesses engaged in the phone industry. Verizon's leadership team must be instituted and adopted without fear at the workplace, because employees who fear their supervisors simply cannot evolve into successful employees interested in the growth of the company. A strong leadership team will effectively manage the business with the overall objective of accomplishing the…
Bass, B.M. (1996). A new paradigm of leadership: An inquiry into transformational leadership. Alexandria: U.S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences.
Oak, C. & Schoeffler, B. (2002). Management for the 21st Century. Retrieved March 13, 2007, from Insurance Journal Web site: http://www.insurancejournal.com/magzines/southcentral/2002/03/11/mindyourbiz/18984 .
Verizon. (2007). Verizon. Retrieved March 17, 2007, at http://www.verizon.com .
.. every employee must become an operational strategist.... Strategic planning must no longer be considered an elitist activity that happens behind closed doors.... Rather, planning must be viewed as a continuous, interactive, and democratic process that empowers managers and employees together to create the future of the firm." (Purser & Cabana)
Lear (1992) blames the downfall of General Motors and IM in the early 1990s to their reliance on hierarchical management. He recommends banishing the dinosaur. General Motors did just that and transformed its organization into a matrix (Prewitt, 2003). Today the company is on the brink of bankruptcy indicating that the company's performance can't be totally related to its organizational structure.
5. Give a clear and convincing logical argument why this structure is best for Hybrid
Motors. In this argument, you need to also argue that other possible structures are not as good. It is absolutely essential that you…
Heiss, M, Stoeckl, S, and Hausknotz, C. (2004, October 18-21). The bottom-up/top-down pattern: an organizational pattern for a balanced management system. Engineering Management Conference, 2004. Proceedings.2004 IEEE International. Vol. 1, pp 317-323
Lear, R.W. (1992, April). Going, going, gone - changing nature of business management - Speaking Out. The Chief Executive. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m4070/is_n75/ai_12289893
Prewitt, E. (2003, September 1). GM's Matrix Reloads. CIO. http://www.cio.com/archive/090103/hs_reload.html
Purser, R.E. And Cabana, S. (1997, May). Involve employees at every level of strategic planning. Quality Progress.
Evaluate the impact of globalization and management across borders
After its retrenchment in the U.S., Starbucks is still considering expanding its operations China. "Despite its long presence in the Chinese market -- Starbucks opened its first shop in Beijing in 1999 -- the Seattle coffee giant only has 376 stores on the China mainland, compared with 878 in Japan" (Sanchanta 2011). Starbucks has tried to learn from some of its mistakes domestically in the U.S., such as its super-saturation of certain marketplaces, while incorporating many of the successful lessons of its other ventures, such as its ability to tailor product offerings to local needs. "Cracking the code in China for any company is not an easy task -- there will be a number of winners and lots of losers of people who go there and rush to judgment and don't succeed…The thing I am most interested in when I go…
Clark, Taylor. (2008). How Starbucks colonized the world. The Sunday Times. Retrieved July
21, 2011 at http://business.timesonline.co.uk/tol/business/industry_sectors/leisure/article3381092.ece
Leadership and management. (2011). Team Technology. Retrieved July 21, 2011 at Retrieved July 21, 2011 at http://www.teamtechnology.co.uk/leadership-basics.html
Sanchanta, Mariko (2011). Starbucks plans major China expansion. The Wall Street Journal.
If one takes the broad generalization of the mega-environment (general environment); one finds the conditions and trends that make up the organizational culture or even the society in which one operates. This term actually encompasses a number of similar and disparate factors. The technological part of the environment tends to focus on knowledge; the economic element the means of production, distribution and consumption of wealth; the legal-political element focuses on the governmental or rule-based systems to organize the society; the international element the external relationships, and the socio-cultural environment the attitudes, values, norms, believes and behaviors of a particular group or organization (Organizational Environment and Culture, 2008). All these forces are a sum total of how organizations act and react -- whether regionally or internationally.
The legal-political element of the environment is the systems that organize that environment, the rules that are enforced, and the overall manner in…
Organizational Environment and Culture. (2008). Zainbooks.com. Retrieved from:
Bendell, T. (2005). Structuring Business Process Improvement Methodologies. Total Quality Management, 16(8-9): 969-78.
Brown, L.M. And B.Z. Posner. (2001). "Exploring the Relationship Between Learning and Leadership," Leadership and Organizational Development. May, 2001: 274-80.
Managing Quality in Practice Settings: Six Sigma at Floyd Medical Center
By examining an organization's approach to establishing, measuring, and evaluating performance and outcomes, it is possible to develop a firmer grasp on how the quality control process functions in practice. To this end, this paper provides a review of the literature concerning quality management practices at Floyd Medical Center in ome, Georgia, followed by a summary of the research and important findings concerning these issues in the conclusion.
Meaning of "managing quality" and what it means at Floyd Medical Center
Managing quality at Floyd Medical Center is the responsibility of all staff members and the hospital's stated goal in this regard is to "provide excellent care while ensuring the comfort, privacy and safety of our patients and visitors"; the medical center adds that its healthcare teams are "dedicated to continually improving your experience by providing quality health care that…
Cohen, J. (2008, May). CHAP and the Department of Veterans Affairs. Nursing and Health Care
Perspectives, 21(3), 151.
Gowen, C.R., Stock, G.N. & McFadden, K.L. (2008). Simultaneous implementation of Six
Sigma and knowledge management in hospitals. International Journal of Production
Management Approach That Offers the Best Outcomes
for Knowledge Development
Understanding business, and what that process contains, is extremely complex. It takes years of study and focus to gain even a rudimentary idea of all a company has to do to remain viable. A company has to have employees who understand their jobs, clear work goals for all concerned in the business, accounting practices that tell the actual financial workings of the company and keep government agencies happy, along with many other processes among the strata. Threads run through all of the working practices of an organization which tend to bind it together. These can be tangible communication channels (email, phone lines, other forms of information technology), or they can be intangible. These intangible communication lines are another layer of complexity which the organizations managers have to control and mold. How people deal with one another is the way an…
Cohen, Debra J. "Knowledge Development -- Future Focus: Emerging Issues -- in Human Resource Management." HR Magazine (2003). Web.
de Dreu, Carsten K.W., and Evert van de Vliert. Using Conflict in Organizations. New York: Sage Publications, 1997. Print.
Fischler, Michael L. "From Crisis to Growth…Race, Culture, Ethnicity, Conflict and Change." Education 124.2 (2003): 396-398. Print.
"Knowledge." Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. 2011.
Management - Is it an Art or a Science?
Management is Art
Management has a lot more closely attached to art than it is to science. usiness management is about working with, as well as influencing other people to fulfill the goals of both the corporations and its associates (2).
Managing in the New Era
Quick transformations that are far-reaching all through each and every feature of business today prompts the corporations to reorganize the method they do things. Even though the customary management replica has developed quite a bit, it is still geared to an unbending composition and command -- and manage state of mind (3). This replica is well modified to an atmosphere where transformation is sluggish and evolutionary rather than fast and radical. It helps put in order procedures and promote a sense of responsibility, order, and discipline (4).
What it is short of is elasticity making…
1) Bjrn Bjerke. Business Leadership and Culture: National Management Styles in the Global. Edward Elgar, 1999.
2) Floyd Norris. A Climb to Riches, One Merger at a Time. New York Times. 2003.
3) Hal R. Varian. Can markets be used to help people make nonmarket decisions? New York Times. 2003.
4) Jeff Madrick. Looking beyond free trade as a solution to helping the developing world. New York Times. 2003.
Undercover Boss is a great show for illustrating core management concepts. A season five episode features the CEO of the Larry H. Miller Company, owner of the Utah Jazz along with eighty other concerns. This episode features issues related to occupational health and safety, customer service and marketing. In the episode about Modell's Sporting Goods, a family-owned business that has been around since 1889, issues related to logistics, wages, and social justice come to the fore. In the first season episode featuring the CEO and president of 7-11, issues related to management and corporate structure, customer service, and quality assurance are brought to light. These three episodes can all be used to better understand textbook concepts, from the particular skills managers need to succeed to ethics and social responsibility. Of these three episodes, the most engaging was the one about Modell's because of the way the owner came to…
Schermerhorn, J.R. (2012). Exploring Management. 3rd edition.
Undercover Boss Utah Jazz: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=f_Tc3qCOj68&feature=youtu.be
Undercover Boss Modell's: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8jadl9usH3s&feature=youtu.be
Undercover Boss 7-11: