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International Monetary System Essays (Examples)

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Foreign Monetary System
Words: 1423 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 85828963
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Foreign Monetary System

A monetary system is any structure initiated by the government and mandated to issue currency, acknowledged as the medium of exchange by its citizens and governments of other nations. The central bank manages the monetary system of a country; this same bank has the responsibility of printing money and controlling the economy. Since the colonial period, coins from the European colonies had circulated in all the colonies. The Spanish coins gained dominance due to the scarcity of coins, during this time; the main form of trade was barter trade. The trade-involved items such as rice, tobacco, or animal skins, which took the form of money paper and notes, had varying rates of discount in different colonies rendering them of very low value (onald & Wright, 2006).

The high population in the U.S. called for increased trade and commerce. This forced the United States government to look for…

References

Ronald, M. & Wright, R.E. (2006). Development of the U.S. Monetary Union. Journal of Financial History Review, 13(1), 19-41.

Anonymous, (2011). Challenges and risks of the International Monetary System. Journal of Economic Review, 22(5), 768.

Eichengreen, B.J. (2008). Globalizing capital: A history of the international monetary system.

Princeton: Princeton University Press.

International Monetary Economics
Words: 2932 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 90325702
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Barry Eichengreen (2011) has speculated that the U.S. dollar may be on the decline as the world's vehicle currency. The dollar has performed this role since at least Bretton oods, when the financial and political might of the United States allowed it to take the lead in the global financial system from Great Britain. However, that lead is being challenged today by two other currencies. One is the euro, which derives from the Eurozone, a basket of nations that has an economy around the same size as the United States. The other is from the Chinese yuan, a currency that is pegged to some degree to the U.S. dollar, but which is backed by the world's third-largest economy (behind the U.S. And Eurozone) and one that is growing rapidly. The creation of the euro immediately fuelled speculation that it would overtake the dollar as the world's vehicle currency, and the…

Works Cited:

Devereux, M. & Shi, S. (2008). Vehicle currency. University of Toronto working papers. Retrieved November 29, 2011 from  http://ideas.repec.org/p/tor/tecipa/tecipa-315.html 

Eichengreen, B. (2011). Why the dollar's reign is near an end. Wall Street Journal. Retrieved November 30, 2011 from  http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052748703313304576132170181013248.html 

Goldberg, L. & Tille, C. (2005). Vehicle currency use in international trade. Federal Reserve Bank of New York, staff report #200.

Lim, B. & Qing, K. (2011). China to step up ASEAN yuan trade settlement. Reuters. Retrieved November 29, 2011 from  http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/10/20/us-china-economy-yuan-idUSTRE79J2JR20111020

1979 the European Monetary System
Words: 4332 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 32315421
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What kind of regional and international cooperation is needed to respond to emigration pressures in many low and medium income countries within EU? In addition to the existing EU standards on migration, what other measures could be taken at the national, regional, and international levels to better protect migrants? Answers to these questions inexplicitly have direct implications for the growth environment and have become more pressing issues as the enlargement continues.

A balanced budget exists when tax revenues equal government spending. Within the EU, economic policy dictates that efficiency is achieved when the amount of revenue collected by the government is what is spent in a given period. Hence budget deficits and/or surpluses represent a misallocation that can lead to macroeconomic stability within an economy. As the growth cycle within Europe continued and deepened in 2008/2009, it was clear that macroeconomic objectives for all member states became misaligned and inefficiencies…

REFERENCES

Barro, R., (2000). Rule of Law, Democracy, and Economic Performance. Index of Economic Freedom, Chapter II.

Basu, K., (1991). The international debt problem, Credit Rationing and Loan Pushing: Theory and Experience. Princeton Studies in International Finance, 70.

Bulow, J. And Rogoff, K., (1990). Cleaning up Third World Debt Without Getting Taken to the Cleaners. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 4, 1.

Cole, H., and Kehoe, T., (1996). A Self-Fulfilling Model of Mexico's 94-95 Debt Crisis. Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis, Paper 210.

International Visit General Electric's Corporate
Words: 3646 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74622565
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Other tools frequently used in this approach are positioning surveys and moving-average trend following trading rules. Fund managers regularly use these patterns to take informed decisions for short-term investments (Exchange ate Forecast, 2010).

Exchange rate risk affects both revenues and costs, which in turn affects a company's marketing, production, and financial decisions (Shapiro, n.d.). If a company's revenues are down then they might find themselves with less money to produce and market their product or service. If a company cannot produce or market their product or service they will probably not remain in business for very long. This is why it is so important to make financial decisions based upon a good model for forecasting exchange rates. A company's bottom line and ultimately their continued success rely heavily on their capability to have enough money to produce products and market them. A company that has no money to manufacture and…

References

2011 New design solar water heater. (2011). Retreived from  http://www.alibaba.com/product -

gs/504296912/2011_New_design_solar_water_heater.html

Boyabatl, O. & Toktay, L.B. (2004). Operational Hedging: A Review with Discussion.

Retrieved from  http://www.prism.gatech.edu/~bt71/articles/pompaper.pdf

International Business Report on the
Words: 3009 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 1879006
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The main advantage of this association is that you will get to control the production process and both collaborators will have the right to question and manage everything. It will require high negotiation skills, primary high investments, but the market is full of potential. By joint venture we will have the possibility to interfere in the recruitment process, deciding who the best people for the jobs are. For India, there will also be an important gain. Not only do we stimulate intern, national production but we also give new job opportunities to citizens. Moreover, due to the fact that India has highly trained people in the technological domain, we might improve our product's characteristics or even come up with new ways of reducing the costs. Moreover, the assembling parts will be less expensive as their transportation costs will be lower.

ecommendations

When choosing a country for expansion, one has to…

References

Alibaba.com, 2007, Who is the leader in software.. china or India?, [Online] Available at  http://resources.alibaba.com/topic/23730/Who_is_the_leader_in_software_china_Or_India_.htm 

BBC News, 2007, Country Profile: India, [Online] Available at  http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/south_asia/country_profiles/1154019.stm 

Directory of Official Websites of the Government of India, 2007, [Online] Available at  http://goidirectory.nic.in/ 

Farlex, 2007, the Free Dictionary, [Online] Available at  http://www.thefreedictionary.com

International Financial Markets and Institutions
Words: 3339 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65472909
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27-29) This provoked financial demands and awareness of the people in different parts of the world. People and businesses are dissatisfied with the traditional financial systems due to lack of opportunities for investors. Businesses today require more diversified portfolios for investments because this will reduce their investment risks and increase the probability of future capital flows.

Increased capital mobility has increased the importance of exchange rates which is serving as a monetary policy channel in some industrialized economies. In mid 2000s, there was a sharp shift in the flow of international investments and savings (geographic pattern) resulting in the segmentation of current account imbalances. This was also a major contributing factor. Additionally, the domestic financial markets were also affected by the change in regulatory environment. The two important factors for this are as follows:

1. apid growth of OTC (over-the-counter) markets of derivatives in terms of complexity as well as…

References

Bekaert, G., Harvey, C. And Lundblad, C. 2005. Does financial liberalization spur growth? Journal of Financial Economics 77, 3 -- 55.

Edison, H., Klein, M., Ricci, L. And Slok, T. 2004. Capital account liberalization and economic performance: survey and synthesis. IMF Staff Papers 51, 111 -- 115.

Kaminsky, G. And Reinhart, C. 1999. The twin crises: the causes of banking and balance-of payments problems. American Economic Review 89, 473 -- 500.

Klein, M. 2005. Capital account liberalization, institutional quality and economic growth: theory and evidence. Working Paper No. 11112. Cambridge, MA: NBER, pp.19-21.

International Lending Implications International Lending
Words: 2293 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 71433049
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Liquidity shocks on the international arena can have a strong negative impact on less developed countries whose access to funding sources is already reduced.

The clearing risk is a specific risk, which combines credit risk, in the sense that it results from a counterparty's inability to meet its liabilities, market risk in the sense that it is caused by market shifts (general and specific market risk) between the time a transaction is executed and the time it is cleared, as well as liquidity and systemic risk." (Casanova, 2000). The clearing risk is assumed by clearing houses, which guarantee the proper settlement of transactions done by the members. These institutions engage themselves to bear potential replacement costs if either one of the trade counterparties can't fulfill its obligations. In international markets this risk is increased as the international arena as mentioned before it more dynamic and volatile and the chance of…

Reference List

Casanova, J - F. 2000 - Role Played by Risk Management and Clearing Systems in the Economy of Future Exchanges and ECNs. UNCTAD, www.unctad.org

Eichengreen, B. 1990a. Trends and Cycles in Foreign Lending. CEPR - Center for Economic Policy Research. Working Paper N"451.

Eichengreen, B. 1990b, Economic Policy - International Lending, Center for Economic Policy Research. Working Paper N"452.

Investopedia, Accessed October 2008, www.investopedia.com

International Trade the International System
Words: 1645 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52303198
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Given the high degree to which AIDS impedes global economic integration, in particular of sub-Saharan Africa, it would be reasonable to think that such a transnational issue would bring nations and institutions together to a much higher degree than we see.

Overall, the various aspects of the international system have enabled the expansion of global economic integration. Regimes, institutions, and regional interests bring nations together to meet common objectives. As rational actors, nations sometimes impede global integration, be it over a domestic issue or a transnational one. No aspect of the current international system, however, specifically impedes global economic integration. Only when a nation takes itself out of the international system, as has occurred in North Korea, Cuba, Zimbabwe and a handful of other countries, does economic integration become fully impeded. Therefore we can reasonably conclude that the international system, on balance and with a modicum of cooperation on the…

Works Cited

Goldstein, Judith; Rivers, Douglas & Tomz, Michael. (2003). How does the Trade Regime Affect International Trade? Stanford University. Retrieved December 21, 2008 at  http://www.allacademic.com//meta/p_mla_apa_research_citation/0/6/4/3/7/pages64379/p64379-1.php 

Wayne, E. Anthony. (2004). NAFTA: Ten Years After. U.S. Department of State. Retrieved December 21, 2008 at  http://www.state.gov/e/eeb/rls/rm/31645.htm 

No author. (2003). Trade Reforms and Food Security: Conceptualizing the Linkages United Nations. Retrieved December 21, 2008 at http://www.fao.org/docrep/005/y4671e/y4671e00.htm#Contents

Capdevila, Gustavo. (2008). The Death of Doha. Asia Times. Retrieved December 21, 2008 at http://www.atimes.com/atimes/Global_Economy/JG31Dj02.html

International Conflict Resolution for Policymakers
Words: 2740 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 34473124
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States like Bangladesh, Egypt, and Indonesia have severe challenges due to the risks of flooding, drought, and deforestation. Recently Bangladesh was hit by a powerful Typhoon (same as a hurricane), which caused thousands of deaths and was so severe it was beyond the capability of its weak government to deal with the disaster.

The U.S. Department of State (DOS) has been working for many years to try and help with a solution for the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict. The violence between these two states has been going on for many years, and numerous previous attempts to find a lasting peaceful solution have failed. In a document called "A Performance-Based roadmap to a Permanent Two-State Solution to the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict," the DOS plan includes three phases. The first is the most crucial and pivotal - an end to the "terror and violence" and an attempt to normalize Palestinian life - in conjunction with…

Works Cited

Textbook Chapter 8 "Post-War Reconstruction."

Dixon, Robyn. (2007, Dec. 15). Zimbabwe may shatter, but Mugabe holds firm. The Los

Angeles Times, p. a-1 - a-5.

Foreign Policy. (2007). Failed States Index 2007. The Fund for Peace and Carnegie

International Business Foreign Direct Investment
Words: 2198 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 91339318
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For instance, McDonald's has a solid partnership with Starbucks that came as a natural solution to the increased consumption of coffee in its restaurants. Starbucks happens to be the world's leading specialty coffee retailer with a worldwide presence that matches that of the fast food producer.

4.

Other factors affecting decision

Vietnam is an Asian country with strong oriental cooking habits, which might not be very compatible with McDonald's typical menu of cheeseburgers and fries with a Coke on the side. Furthermore, the local food seems to be relatively healthy, which again is not something that cam be said by McDonald's food.

In 1990s, the company tried to enter this market, but didn't due to the lack of suitable business partners. A few years later, KFC and Lotteria entered the market and consolidated their position. Therefore, at this point the restaurant chain would need a couple of strong breakthrough strategies…

Reference list:

IMF -- International Monetary Fund, accessed June 09, World Economic Outlook - Vietnam.

Ministry of Foreign Affairs, accessed June 09, http://www.mofa.gov.vn/en/cs_doingoai/

Ministry of Planning and Investment:  http://fia.mpi.gov.vn/ 

Thuy, L.T. 2005. Technological Spillovers from Foreign Direct Investment: the Case of Vietnam. University of Tokyo, www.e.u-tokyo.ac.jp

International Lending and Financial Crisis
Words: 2001 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 35269295
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International Lending and Financial Crisis

One of the major global financial crises is the financial crisis of 2007-2009. The financial recession that occurred between 2007 and 2009, encompasses the housing bubble that instigated the financial crisis, federal expenditure, and foreign exchange rates. Also, referred to as the 'Great recession', this global financial crisis had adverse impacts not only on the financial markets but also on the economies of nations across the globe, being the worst financial crisis in history. The financial crisis emanating from the U.S. affected other nations owing to financial globalization and led to discussions regarding restructuring of the international financial system (Ozkan, 2012). In particular, the global financial crisis originally started in and adversely impacted the financial sector of developed nations, especially in the United States, and subsequently had a detrimental impact of the real sector of affected nations as the financial institutions in the United States…

References

Ahid, M., & Augustine, A. (2012, August). The impact of global financial crisis on Jordan.

 http://www.ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/ijbm/article/view/16475/13021 

Argandona, A. (2012). Three ethical dimensions of the financial crisis. Retrieved from:  http://www.iese.edu/research/pdfs/di-0944-e.pdf 

Boundless. (2016). Limitations of Monetary Policy. Retrieved from: https://www.boundless.com/economics/textbooks/boundless-economics-textbook/monetary-policy-28/impacts-of-federal-reserve-policies-119/limitations-of-monetary-policy-473-12569/

International Trade Theory the Decision
Words: 1058 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 21801155
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"Policy issues attract a substantial attention from both economists and policymakers in the recent years" (Obsteldt). ith such attention being focused on the policy issues, it makes more than a little sense, to focus the attention there as well in order to have a higher likelihood of success than without the same attention. In order to focus attention on those policy issues it must be understood what those policy issues entail.

Those issues can include such items as exchange rates, currency crises and other financial events taking place in either country. The MIT study stated other components should also be addressed. "These include theory and evidence of exchange rate-based stabilizations....sovereign debt management and reform of the international financial system" (Obsteldt). Since there is currently no major problems between the two countries, both countries participate in the orld Monetary Fund as active members, and neither country is mismanage their debt management,…

Works Cited

Bloomfield AI, (1994), Essays in the History of International Trade Theory, Aldershot, England: Edward Elgar Publishing

 http://emlab.berkeley.edu/users/visfac/e280a_sp02/syllabus280a.pdf ., Accessed July 11, 2006

James AM, (1994), Books - Reviews; Essays in the History of International Trade Theory (Book), European Journal of the History of Economic Thought, Vol 1 Issue 3, pg 606

Obstfeld M, Rogoff K, Foundations of International Macroeconomics, The MIT Press

International Conflict Between U S and
Words: 2046 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 60891914
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It is necessary to underscore this importance given the current fragility of the international trading system amid a global resurgence of protectionist pressures due to the deepening economic crisis (Bown, 2009).

In 2006, and in response to increased political pressure by the U.S. Congress, Washington initiated the current U.S. strategy of using the judicial forum of the WTO to manage bilateral trade frictions with Beijing. In March 2006, Canada and the European Community (EC) joined the United States in the first dispute by challenging China's discriminatory treatment of imported automobile parts. In 2007, the United States and Mexico disputed China's system of subsidizing domestic industries. Also in 2007, the United States initiated two complementary disputes over China's treatment of imported movies, music, and books, both Beijing's failure to enforce American intellectual property rights protection and its creation of regulatory hurdles that impede Hollywood film studios and other media and publishing…

References

Bown, Chad P. (2009). U.S. -- China Trade Conflicts and the Future of the WTO. Retrieved April

0, 2010 from Web site:  http://fletcher.tufts.edu/forum/archives/pdfs/33-1pdfs/Bown.pdf 

Gross, Daniel. (2009). Chicken Feet and Chump Change. Retrieved April 20, 2010, from Newsweek Web site: http://www.newsweek.com/id/216754

Lum, Thomas and Nanto, Dick K. (2007). China's Trade with the United States and the World.

Bank for International Settlements Bis
Words: 3026 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75432570
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From its creation to 1988 it undertook banking functions and opined generally on the international banking system.

2. Starting in 1988 it began to assume the role of an unofficial international bank regulator. Although it had no official international status, its members -- central banks of the major banking countries -- were obligated by the nature of their membership to abide by its edicts and the rest of the world took them seriously.

3. Starting in the late 1990s, it began to consider itself the equivalent of an international bank regulator. Every subject of significance was within its jurisdiction and, although its legal powers were no greater, it assumed that it had a right to make rules for local banks to observe in the conduct of their businesses.

4. Sometime in the future there is a widespread anticipation that it will be given, through some treaty mechanism, the power to…

Bibliography

Baker, James Calvin. The Bank for International Settlements: Evolution and Evaluation. Santa Barbara, CA: Greenwood Publishing Group, 2002.

Birdsall, Nancy. "Whither the IMF in the Current Crisis? Invite the Big Emerging Economies to the Table." 2 October 2008. Center for Global Development. 26 February 2009 http://blogs.cgdev.org/globaldevelopment/2008/10/whither_the_imf_in_the_current.php.

BIS. Bank for International Settlements (BIS). n.d. 25 February 2009  http://www.bis.org/about/index.htm .

Carl Felsenfeld, Genci Bilali. "The Role of the Bank for International Settlements in Shaping the World Financial System." January 2004. Social Science Research Network Electronic Library. 26 February 2009  http://ssrn.com/abstract=496022 .

Global Business International Trade Has
Words: 1719 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14738072
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Combined with the increasing prevalence of regional trading blocs, higher transportation costs may result in a move towards regional production rather than global. In other respects, however, Lonely Planet's business will remain essentially unchanged over the coming years.

Conclusion

The globalization of international trade has had a profound impact on Lonely Planet's operations. It has allowed the company to use offshore production centers that are capable of serving the global market. The monetary flows even at a relatively simple, one-product firm like LPP illustrate the degree to which economies around the world are intertwined. The company receives monetary inflows from dozens of nations, and disperses monetary flows to dozens more. Including small flows, the operations of Lonely Planet contribute to the economy of nearly every nation on earth.

The recent changes with respect to the global economy will continue to impact operations into the coming years, affecting the firm's ability…

Works Cited:

Das, Dilip K. (2003). Financial Flows and Global Integration. Centre for the Study of Globalization and Regionalization. Retrieved April 1, 2009 fromhttp://www2.warwick.ac.uk/fac/soc/csgr/research/workingpapers/2004/wp13204.pdf

Steil, Benn. (2007). The end of National Currency. Foreign Affairs. Retrieved April 1, 2009 from  http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/62614/benn-steil/the-end-of-national-currency

International Human Resource Management Articles in This
Words: 3336 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95671175
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International Human esource management Articles

In this paper, we will critically evaluate two separate journal articles related to international human resource management (IHM) and draw out their contribution to IHM in an integrated literature review. The topics of these two articles are Development and Globalization. First, we will overview both of the articles separately in this introductory phase and then in the literature review we will support our outline of concepts and ideas in the two articles. A critical analysis will then be done relevant to the articles which will examine the strengths and weaknesses of the articles. After the critical analysis we will advise how both of the subject matter discussed can be applied to multinational companies either large or small.

Finally, we will give a conclusion and recommendation in which the former will include summary of what we have found looking back at the overall paper and the…

References

Bizukov, P. 2005. Sluzhbi personala -- upravlencheskaya perfieriya, Moscow: ISITO

Tayeb, Monir. 2005. IHRM, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Keeley, Dean. 2001. International Human Resource Management in Japanese Firms, New York:

Palgrave.

International Trade Ever Since Adam Smith Demonstrated
Words: 3419 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 58679961
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International Trade

Ever since Adam Smith demonstrated in The Wealth of Nations (1776) that individuals would be better off if they specialize, instead of trying to be economically self-sufficient, countries across the world have tried to apply the same principle to international trade. It is argued that all countries would be better off if they exchange the products and services that they are relatively good at producing for those things that other countries are relatively better at producing. David icardo (1772-1823), British economist and businessman, through his theory of Comparative Advantage went on to "prove" that it can be beneficial for two countries to trade, even if one of them is able to produce each item more cheaply than the other.

The colonialist powers, particularly Britain, had realized the benefits of international trade after its industrial revolution although it is highly debatable whether such trade was beneficial for the colonies…

References

Dollar, D. And Kraay, A. (2001). "Trade, Growth, and Poverty." Development Research Group: The World Bank. [Available online] Accessed on November 05, 2004 from http://econ.worldbank.org/files/2207_wps2615.pdf

Moore, Richard K. (1999). "Achieving a Livable, Peaceful World." Part I - Corporate rule and global ruin. Introduction. [Available online] Accessed on November 05, 2004 from http://cyberjournal.org/cj/rkm/alpw/p1.intro.html

Nordstrom, H. And Vaughan, S. (1999) "Trade and Environment." Special Study: World Trade Organization. [Available online] Accessed on November 05, 2004 from  http://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/envir_e/environment.pdf 

'The Rural Poverty Trap." (2004). Oxfam Briefing Paper # 59. [Available online] Accessed on November 05, 2004 from http://www.maketradefair.com/en/assets/bp59_The_Rural_Poverty_Trap.pdf

International Institutions Are No Longer
Words: 4839 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 37529
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As a result, liberal international institutions broke down. Conversely, ineffective international institutions compounded national economic difficulties. (Holm & Sorensen, 1995, p. 148)

Following World War II, the United States assumed a leadership role in developing new types of international institutions. For example, the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) provided for a liberalization of international trade, the Bretton Woods framework created a fixed exchange-rate system (which lasted until 1971), and the International Monetary Fund controlled the flow of credits until the mid- 1970s and once again from the early 1980s thereafter; in addition, these authors note that the EEC institutionalized a free-trade area in the heart of Western Europe at this time (Holm & Sorensen, 1995). According to Mingst (2006) international institutions are defined as those they are comprised of membership from at least three states, having activities in several states, and whose members are held together by a…

References

Burke, T. (1997, June 20). The buck stops everywhere. New Statesman, 126(4339), 14.

Calestous, J. (2005, March). Biotechnology in a globalizing world: The coevolution of technology and social institutions. Bioscience, 55(3), 265.

Danks, C.J., & Kennedy, P. (2001). Globalization and national identities: Crisis or opportunity? New York: Palgrave.

Debrah, Y.A., & Smith, I.G. (2002). Globalization, employment, and the workplace: Diverse impacts. London: Routledge.

International Business Basic Business
Words: 1361 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28203148
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Business: International Business

International Business: Business

The IMF often provides financial assistance to ailing economies after a crisis to enable them return to their pre-crisis levels of income. However, whether or not these bailout programs are able to achieve this objective is dependent on a number of factors. This text reviews the recovery processes of four European countries to obtain a view of what these factors are.

Currency Conversion

dollar = 102.28 Japanese Yen (¥); 0.75 Euros (€); and 0.6 British pounds (£)

Converting $1,500 into:

Japanese Yen

=$1,500 X 102.28

= ¥153,420

Euros

= $1,500 X

= € 1,125

British Pounds

= $1,500 X

=£ 900

What is the price in U.S. Dollars of purchasing:

A computer costing ¥167,000

= ¥ 167, 000/¥102.28

= $1, 632

Euro desks/chairs costing €1, 125

= €1,125/€0.75

=$1, 500

iii) Printer costing 575 Pounds

= £575/£0.6

=$958

Part Two: Effects of the Global…

References

Dapontas, D. (2011). Currency Crises: The Case of Hungary (2008-2009) Using Two Stage Least Squares. The Bank of Greece. Retrieved January 4, 2016 from  http://www.bankofgreece.gr/BogEkdoseis/SCP201113.pdf 

Hammar, K. (2015). Iceland Makes Strong Recovery from 2008 Financial Crisis. The International Monetary Fund. Retrieved January 4, 2016 from  http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/survey/so/2015/car031315a.htm 

IMF. (2015). IMF Executive Board Concludes Article IV Consultation with Hungary. The International Monetary Fund. Retrieved January 4, 2016 from  https://www.imf.org/external/np/sec/pr/2015/pr15156.htm 

Lipton, D. (2015). The Case for Supporting Ukrainian Economic Reforms. The International Monetary Fund. Retrieved January 4, 2016 from  https://www.imf.org/external/np/speeches/2015/040715.htm

International Accounting and Auditing Standards
Words: 1877 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 72735239
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Accounting

International Accounting and Auditing Standards

International public sector accounting standards (IPSAS) are developed and put forth by the International Public Sector Accounting Standards Board of the International Federation of Accountants (IFAC). International private sector accounting standards are known as International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS). They are put together and put forth by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB), a self-governing standard generating body of the International Accounting Standards Committee Foundation. The IFRS for SME's is a self enclosed standard, intended to meet the requirements and abilities of small and medium-sized entities (SME's), which are anticipated to comprise over ninety five per cent of all corporations worldwide. It is constructed on the basis of full IFRSs, yet, a lot of the principles for distinguishing and gauging assets, liabilities, earnings and expenses have been cut down, subjects not relevant to SME's have been left out, and the amount of necessary revelations…

Works Cited

Barth, Mary E. "Global Financial Reporting: Implications for U.S. Academics." Accounting

Review 83.5 (2008): 1159-1179. Business Source Premier. EBSCO. Web. 6 July 2011.

Hail, Luzi, Christian Leuz, and Peter Wysocki. "Global Accounting Convergence and the Potential Adoption of IFRS by the U.S. (Part II): Political Factors and Future Scenarios

for U.S. Accounting Standards." Accounting Horizons 24.4 (2010): 567-588. Business

International Business Environment Ireland Was
Words: 1558 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 30731914
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Additionally, its taxation advatantages may erode due to pressure from EU and implicitly its wages will increase as taxes increase. Competition from emerging countries, namely Eastern Europe will become stronger as Ireland allings its strong points to EU standards. Moreover, the country's inflationary problem persistance may strengthen EU pressure on the authorities to reduce it through its fiscal policy.

eference List

BBC news channel. 2004. Ireland is Named 'Best Country', published on Nov 17, http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/4020523.stm.

Barry, F. And Bradley, J. 1997. FDI and Trade: The Irish Host-Country Experience. The Economic Journal, vol. 107(445): pp. 1798-1811, http://www.res.org.uk/

Berry, . 2001. U.S. Foreign Direct Investment in Ireland: Making the Most of Other's People Money. Perspectives on Business and Economics, vol. 19.

Cassidy, Mark, 2002. The Irish Economy: ecent Experience and Prospects. in: Aronson, ., Munley, V., Thornton, . (Eds.). The Irish Economy in Transition: Successes, Problems and Prospects. Elsevier Science, Amsterdam: pp.…

Reference List

BBC news channel. 2004. Ireland is Named 'Best Country', published on Nov 17,  http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/4020523.stm .

Barry, F. And Bradley, J. 1997. FDI and Trade: The Irish Host-Country Experience. The Economic Journal, vol. 107(445): pp. 1798-1811,  http://www.res.org.uk/ 

Berry, R. 2001. U.S. Foreign Direct Investment in Ireland: Making the Most of Other's People Money. Perspectives on Business and Economics, vol. 19.

Cassidy, Mark, 2002. The Irish Economy: Recent Experience and Prospects. in: Aronson, R., Munley, V., Thornton, R. (Eds.). The Irish Economy in Transition: Successes, Problems and Prospects. Elsevier Science, Amsterdam: pp. 5-30.

International Trade Is an Important
Words: 4173 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 34868399
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Only a few decades ago, China was a struggling economy. It is much newer in the free market economy system as compared to the already established economical giants, given the country's communist history. China, a country with an extremely high population, put its resources to its best possible advantage and that was something which contributed towards the country's rapid growth. China has one of the cheapest labor and energy and power resources available for its production. As a result, the industries can achieve economies of scale and thus can cut down on their cost of production. As a result, China enjoys a greater absolute advantage over its competitors. Importers around the world have realized the fact that importing goods from China is relatively much cheaper as compared to imports from other developed economies. These cheaper imports allow them a greater profit margin. Moreover, given the fragile economic conditions and declining…

References

Kreh, W. (2008). Money, Debt and Wealth of Nations. Canada: COMER publications

Lipsey, R. & Chrystal, K. (1997). An Introduction to Positive Economics. London: Oxford University Press.

Zweig, D. & Jianhai, B. (2005). China's global hunt for energy. Foreign Affairs, 84(5), 25-38.

Hale, D. & Hale, L. (2003). China takes off. Foreign Affairs, 82(36).

International Business Identify the Risks
Words: 2009 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9312730
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Another reason why corporations choose to hold cash balances in a centralized repository is that the variety of accounts can be better managed as a mutual fund more complex investment structure than would be the case if the subsidiary alone managed the funds. A greater quality of information is available for example in the leading financial centers globally that would otherwise not be the case in more remote regions, making it possible to make more informed and correct decisions (Mitsos, 1997). The accuracy, efficiency and speed of decision-making based on more efficient use of information has led to more advanced forms of cash management than would have been the case on a per-subsidiary level (Fresard, Salva, 2010). Lastly, by having a centralized depository of cash for all subsidiaries, firms can hold less accumulated total cash, freeing up financial resources for other investments (Fresard, Salva, 2010). Companies become more efficient at…

References

Elliott, Graham, & Bewley, Ronald. (1994). The transmission of monetary policy: The relationship between centralized depositories and Monetary policy. Economic Record, 70(208), 19.

Fresard, L., & Salva, C.. (2010). The value of excess cash and corporate governance: Evidence from U.S. cross-listings. Journal of Financial Economics, 98(2), 359.

Hill, C.W.L. (2011). International business: Competing in the global marketplace (8th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill/Irwin.

Nicholas Mitsos. (1997, November). Virtual Group Treasury. TMA Journal, 17(6), 24-30.

International Human Resources From the
Words: 2779 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 43032842
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Uncertainty Avoidance, according to Hofstede's model, refers to how comfortable the people of a certain culture are with structure as opposed to flexibility. Notable disparities in negotiating styles between those nations scoring high and low on the uncertainty avoidance index have been known to cause significant conflict. This conflict is mostly likely to occur when people who prefer structured activities because they entail less risk encounter people from a culture with a more spontaneous style. Those with a structured mindset are likely to regard a lack of structure as a form of disrespect -- as if the culture does not care about risk because the deal or the negotiation is not as important to them. According to Goodwin "Uncertainty avoidance concerns planning and stability as a way of dealing with life's uncertainties: those high on uncertainty avoidance have a strong desire for consensus, and deviant behavior is unacceptable. Because high…

References

Buckley, P.J. (1994) International business vs. international management? International strategic management from the view of point of Internalisation Theory. International Journal of the Economics of Business 1, 95-104.

Evans, P., Pucik, V., & Barsouxs, J.L. (2002). The global challenge: Frameworks for international human resource management. New York: McGraw-Hill

Freedland, B. (2003, August) Market research in Japan: it's one of the world's biggest consumer markets, but when it comes to market research, Japan is way behind. Japan, Inc. Retrieved from  http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0NTN/is_46/ai_108722588/ 

Goodwin, R. (1999), Personal relationships across cultures. London: Routledge,

International Corporate Finance
Words: 2623 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 45939351
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International Business

hat information would you require to assess the options which are open to ABH Electronic (15 Marks)

In order to properly assess the options that are available to ABH electronics I would need additional information pertaining to the economic conditions of the three countries seeking to attract ABH. Specifically I would need to know the Gross Domestic Product, the overall market index, the consumer price index (inflation), the annual per capita income of residents and the overall economic viability of the various countries. I would need to assess this information because knowing the economic condition of a country will enable the chief financial officer to create a strategy that is beneficial to ABH electronics. It will also allow the CFO to examine the risks associated with doing business in that particular country. I would also need to know the size of the market, the demographics, social issues and…

Works Cited

About Hedge Funds. http://www.magnum.com/hedgefunds/strategies.asp

How Partnerships Work. National Council for Public-Private Partnership.  http://ncppp.org/howpart/index.html 

Mitigating Risks for Foreign Investments in Least developed countries" 2000. Ministry for Foreign Affairs.

What is hedging? Why do companies hedge?.  http://www.finpipe.com/hedge.htm

System of Inquiry for the
Words: 1886 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86002585
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The model consists of five phases:

1. Perception of the ethical problem

2. Description the situation and objective definition of the ethical issue

3. Identification of alternatives

4. Selection of an alternative

5. esolution (Cooper, 2006).

This model has been implemented successfully in both the public and private sectors. The goals of the model are to create a management team consisting of responsible individuals that promote high standards, ethical decision-making practices on behalf of their code of ethics, transparency and accountability (Cooper, 2006). Ultimately, according to Cooper's model, ethical decision making is the process of identifying a problem, generating alternatives, and choosing among them so that the alternatives selected maximize the most important ethical values while also achieving the intended goal.

Conclusion

Most work-related decisions have an ethical component. With few exceptions, problems that involve people also involve ethical issues. Decisions that affect people's jobs and careers have an ethical…

References

Business Dictionary (2009) "Conflict of Interest"  http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/conflict-of-interest.html 

Cooper, T. (2006). The responsible administrator: An approach to ethics for the administrative role (5th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Jossey-Bass.

Olsen, a. (2009). Authoring a code of ethics: Observations on process and organization. Center for the study of ethics in the professions. Illinois Institute of Technology. http://ethics.iit.edu/index1.php/Programs/Codes%20of%20Ethics/Authoring%20a%20Code%20of%20Ethics.html

Schnebel, E., & Bienert, M.A. (2004). Implementing ethics in business organizations. Journal of Business Ethics, 53, 203-211.

International Capital Movements
Words: 1931 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 36045174
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International Capital Movements

In accordance to Milton Friedman, one of the downsides of activist monetary policy was the transmission of lengthy and variable lags. What is more, Friedman considered the effects of this monetary policy to be unpredictable. On the other hand, contemporary consensus is that the effective conduct of monetary policy ought to be done because of the perspective that the integrity of the central bank is essential and pivotal. This is for the reason that solely methodical central bank behavior in line with an interpretable imperative that exemplifies a dedication to price stability can offer a dependable security for private sector prospects. The article by Mishra et al. (2012) examines the manner in which the different conventional channels of monetary transmission are expected to operate in the financial setting that is disposed to portray low-income countries.

The emphasis of the article lies on the impact of the financial…

References

Adam, A. (2012, February). New approaches for monetary policy.

 http://proxy1.ncu.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=72525988&site=ehost-live 

Curdia, V. (2009). Optimal monetary policy under sudden stops. FRB of New York Staff Report, (323).

Genetski, R. (2014). Monetary Policy and the Financial Crisis of 2007-2008. Classical Principles.

International Businesss PESTEL Analysis of
Words: 1290 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 28400466
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CAGE Analysis

Cultural. Ireland tends to be culturally close to the United Kingdom and Europe and this explains why the main trading partners are represented by the UK, the EU and the United States. First of all, Ireland, the UK and the U.S. share a common language, English, which makes trade and commercial cooperation easier than, say, between Ireland and Japan. The ease of communication also encourages companies from the mentioned countries to invest in Ireland and one can notice that the main foreign investors are also the U.S. And the UK. On the other hand, Ireland, similarly to the U.S. And the UK, is an Anglo-Saxon country, with Anglo-Saxon traditions and social norms. It shares similar customs with the UK. Further more, the significant wave of Irish emigres to the United States had an important impact on the evolution of the U.S. And the development of society took account…

International Supply Chain Management the
Words: 2161 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 13077624
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(Ghemawat, 2001)

Ghemawat states that administrative distance in relation to 'preferential trading agreements' involves gold, electricity, coffee, tea, cocoa spices, textiles fibers as well as sugar, sugar preparations and honey. Also included are gas and travel goods such as handbags as well as footwear and sanitary, plumbing, heating and lighting fixtures and furniture parts. Geographic distance factors impact products such as electricity current transfer over long distances, gas transfer, paper, paperboard and live animals as well as sugar, sugar preparations and honey. Included as well are other numerous products. Economic distance is derived through wealth differences and distance in economics results in a decrease in trade. Linguistic distance is the most severe in the range of distance impacts with second in sensitivity being administrative distance followed by geographic and then finally economic distance being the less in the range of sensitivity to impact on product because of existing distance.

Distance…

Bibliography

Boerner, Beatrice Barbara (2008) Flat or Not: World Economies, Here Comes Business! Oxford Business & Economics Conference Program. Online available at  http://www.gcbe.us/2008_OBEC/data/Beatrice%20Barbara%20Boerner.doc 

Ghemawat, Pankaj (2001) Distance Still Matters: The Hard Reality of Global Expansion. Sept 2001. The Tool Kit.

Lavie, Dovev; and Miller, Stewart (nd) the Performance Implications of Alliance Portfolio Internationalization Learning within and Across Organizational Boundaries.

International Supply Chain Management

International Mexico Local Currency Bond
Words: 1324 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 86883650
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Nevertheless, the heavy reliance on such debt led in some cases to severe difficulties, as illustrated by the Mexican tequila crisis of late 1994 and the Brazilian crisis of 2001. In Mexico the problem happened when investors became increasingly reluctant to roll over their short-term peso-denominated cetes and instead shifted their funds to short-term dollar-indexed tesobonos. This shift to dollar-indexed liabilities supplied a temporary respite for the government but the short-term nature of outstanding securities also meant that the transformation in the structure of debt towards tesobonos was extremely quick. The rapid withdrawal of foreign investment from the domestic market at the end of 1994 and the resulting sharp drop in the Mexican peso resulted in an explosive growth in the peso value of dollar-indexed government liabilities, thereby adding a fiscal dimension to the external crisis (Jeanneau and Tovar, n.d.).

The local government bond market has expanded rapidly in Mexico…

References

Dalla, Ismail and Hesse, Heiko. (2009). Rapidly growing local-currency bond markets offer a viable alternative funding source for emerging-market issuers. Retrieved April 9, 2010,

from Vox Web site:  http://www.voxeu.org/index.php?q=node/4081 

Jeanneau, Serge and Tovar, Camilo E. (n.d.). Financial stability implications of local currency bond markets: an overview of the risks. Retrieved April 9, 2010, from Web site:

 http://www.bis.org/publ/bppdf/bispap36e.pdf

International Relations - Cold War
Words: 1402 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 77851493
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The same access to formerly secret information from the Cold War era also revealed the extent to which Soviet infiltration of the highest level of American military projects had served to further exhaust the American economy by necessitating continual development of strategic and tactical weapon systems to counter escalating technological improvements in Soviet military systems. The first successful test of a Soviet nuclear weapon in 1949 was directly attributable to Soviet infiltration of the top secret Manhattan Project; American pilots flew combat missions against Soviet Mig fighters developed with information stolen from American weapon designs through espionage; and that dynamic persisted virtually throughout the Cold War (Langewiesche 2007).

The financial strain of continuous nuclear deterrence and the perpetual modernization and updating of sophisticated strategic weapon systems was among the principle causes of the eventual collapse of the former Soviet Union. By 1989, the protracted war in Afghanistan had all but…

REFERENCES

Allison, G. (2004) Nuclear Terrorism: The Ultimate Preventable Catastrophe.

New York: Henry Holt & Co.

Langewiesche, W. (2007) the Atomic Bazaar: The Rise of the Nuclear Poor. New York: Farrar, Straus, and Girouh.

McNamara, R. (1995) in Retrospect: The Tragedy and Lessons of Vietnam. New York: Random House.

International Trade Economics Trade Between
Words: 1604 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 49878155
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S. markets are listed as being:

Import Licensing

Services arriers

Also is concern in the presence of the government in the telecommunications market sector. U.S. exporters need to know that shipping of foods and agricultural products must be done to meet Italian requirements whether sealed and bonded or not. Italy has also banned the commercialization of four corn varieties approved by the EU. The biotech corn ban may be in violation of EU regulations. The United States and the European Union are the two regions with the largest amounts of imports in Textile and Clothing as well as in terms of their GDP and power of purchase. There are also investment barriers in place making it a lengthy process and investors are prohibited from the airlines and aircraft manufacturing markets. Government procurement is also a problem as it is fragmented in Italy and there are problems with Conclusion:

There are…

Bibliography

Italy: Economy [Online] located at  http://www.geographyiq.com/countries/it/Italy_economy_summary.htm 

The World Textile and Clothing Trade: Globalization vs. Regionlization [Online] at  http://64.233.161.104/search?q=cache:RhDXwbnGQ6KJ:blake.montclair.edu/ 'cibconf/co

2001 Country Reports on Economic Policy and Trade Practices; Bureau of Economic and Business Affairs U.S. Department of State, February 2002

Italy in the World Economy ICE Report 2003-2004

IMF Few International Organizations Have
Words: 676 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 8442797
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There have been important controversies also related to the austerity programs that the IMF supports as a condition of giving financial loans. Joseph Stiglitz was an important opponent of such programs, underlying that increasing taxes in a weak economy destabilizes the economy even further and that this was a Monetarist approach aimed at supporting Western interests rather than those of the developing countries. To some degree, this is true and some of the failures of the IMF, including the Argentinean crisis are good arguments in this sense.

Argentina has been cited as one of the failures of the IMF, mainly because the budgetary restrictions that were imposed under the IMF programs did not allow the government to develop its own projects and affected economic growth. Countries like the Philippines have argued that the IMF program has helped their economy significantly, while Turkey's rebound at the beginning of 2000s is also…

Bibliography

1. Hanlon, Joseph. November 1998. Dictators and Debt. On the Internet at http://www.jubileeresearch.org/analysis/reports/dictatorsreport.htm.Last retrieved on October 30, 2008

2. Budhoo, Davidson. 1990. Enough is Enough: Dear Mr. Camdessus... Open Letter to the Managing Director of the International Monetary Fund. New York: New Horizons Press.

3. Stiglitz, Joseph. 2002. Globalization and its Discontents. New York: WW Norton & Company

4. Ramos, Fidel. An IMF Success Story. On the Internet at http://www.geocities.com/CollegePark/Pool/1644/ramos2.html.Last retrieved on October 30, 2008

Legitimacy of International Institutions
Words: 3173 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 65492874
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Legitimacy of International Institutions

International institutions are based on the multilateral treaties or the agreements among multiple states. States generally enter in the treaties to promote their common aims, and law recognizes the existence of international institutions. Typically, international institutions are established based on the charters that bind the member states together. "International institutions are the set of rules means to govern international behaviours" (Simmons & Martin 2001 P. 194). This definition is very important because international institutions have established set of rules guiding the conduct of member states. Based on the definitions of international institutions, it is revealed that member states are subject to abide by the decision of international institutions. However, there are hot debates among scholars and political actors whether international institutions posses legitimacy on the member states. (D'Amato,2007, Zurn, & Stephen 2010).

The objective of this paper is to investigate the legitimacy of international institutions.

Legitimacy…

References

BBC News (2011).Libya: UN Security Council votes sanctions on Gaddafi. BBC News Africa.27 February 2011.

Bodansky, D. (2011). International Relations and Legitimacy in International Law.

Sandra Day O'Connor College of Law Arizona State University.

Buchanan, A & Keohane, R.O. (2006). The Legitimacy of Global Governance Institutions. Ethics & International Affairs, 20(4): 405-437.

Globalization International Organizations the Commonly
Words: 330 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 31545760
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The focus of the U.N. later this year in their global summit in Copenhagen will focus on the role of women in emerging economies and the contribution their businesses make. To illustrate how strongly the UN sees their mission about helping underprivileged nations, UN undersecretary -general for humanitarian affairs, Jan Egeland called developed nations "stingy" when it came to their contributions to 3rd world nations' welfare (Sharma, 2005). The bottom line is that these organizations are all focused more on the humanitarian missions they cooperate on and less on selfish strategies for gain.

eferences

Graham Bird & Dane owlands. (2007). The IMF and the Mobilisation of Foreign Aid. The Journal of Development Studies, 43(5), 856-870.

Capling, a., & Higgott, . (2009). Introduction: The Future of the Multilateral Trade System-What ole for the World Trade Organization? Global Governance, 15(3), 313-325.

Shalendra Sharma. (2005). The…

References

Graham Bird & Dane Rowlands. (2007). The IMF and the Mobilisation of Foreign Aid. The Journal of Development Studies, 43(5), 856-870.

Capling, a., & Higgott, R. (2009). Introduction: The Future of the Multilateral Trade System-What Role for the World Trade Organization? Global Governance, 15(3), 313-325.

Shalendra Sharma. (2005). The Encouraging Truth About Foreign Aid. Challenge, 48(4), 11-25.

Bretton Woods System vs The Economic and Monetary Union Emu
Words: 2561 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70344045
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ules and Institutions of the Bretton Woods System

The increasing popularity of the importance of monetary unions has gained much focus in the recent past. Most states consider forming monetary unions a solution to most of their financial problems. However, they fail to realize the challenges associated with its establishment and sustainability. Therefore, this research paper analyzes two different monetary unions, their policies, failures and successes and lessons learnt from their experiences for future success of the monetary unions.

The key design features of the System

The system was designed with the fundamental aim of establishing an international financial system to overcome the real and perceived financial problems. Among the problems included the competitive devaluation, subordination of the monetary policy in relation to the external bane and the need for the establishment of a system that facilitated exchange rates for different foreign transactions (Eichengreen, 2004). The design of the system…

References

Ardy, B., 2000. Economic and monetary union: A review article. JCMS: Journal of Common

Market Studies, 38 (7), p.667.

Avgouleas, E. 2010. The governance of global financial markets and international financial regulation: Legal framework and policy directions. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press.

Bernstein, E.M., and Kirshner, O. 1996. The Bretton Woods GATT system: Retrospect and prospect after fifty years. Armonk, NY [u.a.: Sharpe.

Trace Reasoning Monetary Policy Enhanced a Flexible
Words: 1291 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18703457
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Trace Reasoning Monetary Policy Enhanced a Flexible Exchange System

The paper will attempt to analyze why monetary policy tend to be more effective under flexible exchange rate system and less effective under fixed exchange system. Flexible exchange rates occurs when the exchange rate is allowed to move freely based on the demand and supply and the vice versa is true. The main argument in this case is flexible exchange rate is important because it allows forces of demand and supply to play their role without government interventions in situations where the monetary system is running well

It is laudable to note that monetary policy is an effective tool for policy makers in stabilizing the economy and for many countries this is such an important tool than the fiscal policies. In a flexible rate system, as we have mentioned above, the exchange rate is determined directly by market forces, and it…

Works Cited

Ching-Chong Lai, Chau- Nan Chen, Flexible Exchange Rates, Tight Money Effects, and Macroeconomic Policy, Journal of Post Keynesian Economics Vol 7, No.1 1984, pp 128-133

Dallas S.Batten & Mack Ott, The Interrelationship of Monetary Policy under Floating Exchange, Journal of Money, Credit and Banking. Vol 17, No.1. 1985, pp103-110

Francisco R. Casa, 1997. Capital Mobility and Stabilization policy under flexible exchange rates; Revised Analysis.

Southern Economic Journal Vol 43, No.4. pp, 1-10

Financial and Monetary Economics Since
Words: 3006 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 31835742
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During times of extreme pressure from the supply or demand side, the central bank is prepared to go in and support the currency, to help provide stability. This is significant because traders around the world; will use the major currencies as a way to hedge themselves against different risks. Where, they will view the weakness of one country's currency as a sign that they could be facing a number of different economic challenges. (Fixed vs. Floating Exchange Rate, 2007) a good example of this can be seen with the ritish pound, where the ank of England decided to keep interest rates at .5%. This is important, because the increase in rates could be seen as a sign that economic stability could be returning to the country, which would help to reverse the downward pressure on the pound. However, the fact that they decided to keep interest rates unchanged, means that…

Bibliography

12 Myths of International Trade, 1999, Meti, viewed 3 May 2010,

Bank of England's Decision Affects Pounds Performance, 2010, to Forex News, view 3 May 2010,

Bretton Woods Agreement, 2010, Investopedia, viewed 2 May 2010, .

Fixed vs. Floating Exchange Rate, 2007, Article Base, view 3 May 2010,

UK Join the European Monetary
Words: 2939 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27654606
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(Minford; Walters, 2004, p. 306)

(xii) Competition to the U.S. dollar: In the likelihood of UK joining the EMU and adopting the single currency, the threat posed by the only international competitor to the U.S. dollar, the euro, would become real. Therefore, the U.S., at least would not encourage such a move and witness a downturn to its currency, the only true international currency. (Minford; Walters, 2004, p. 306) However, not all economic issues go against UK's joining the currency union. There are several factors which may benefit the UK if it joins the EMU.

Arguments in favor of joining the EMU

Some of the factors which support UK's joining the EMU are:

(i) A unified Europe where trade barriers are abolished and specialization and economic transactions occur as per the "Law of Comparative Advantage" will result in enhanced production and increase in the level of living standards. Increase in…

References

De Grauwe, Paul. 2007. Economics of Monetary Union. Oxford University Press.

El-Agraa, A.M. 2007. The European Union. Cambridge University Press.

Harris, Neil. 2001. Business economics. Butterworth-Heinemann.

Mankiw, N. Gregory; Taylor, Mark P. 2006. Economics. Cengage Learning EMEA.

Sweden Economy International Business Sweden the World
Words: 4560 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99701775
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Sweden Economy

International business: Sweden

The world economic powers have controlled the world economies for the longest time. Sweden is a remarkably small nation, yet it has developed to become among the best and wealth endowed nations in the world. It is a historically established nation that has been existence as early as the 7th century. From these early centuries, Sweden has been known for the level of involvement and development in trade.

Geographic, demographic and natural resources information of Sweden

The geography of Sweden makes it a nation of envy by many others. Sweden has a small area of total coverage of about 449,964 sq km. The area that is dry land is about 410, 934 sq km, and the rest is water. This in comparison to the United States is just slightly larger than the state of California by about land total 2,233 km. Sweden has a coastline…

References

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. (2012). OECD Territorial Reviews:

Sma-land-Blekinge, Sweden 2012: (Swedish version). Vaxjo: Regional council of Southern Smaland, Sweden.

Development, O.E.C. (2013). OECD Economic Surveys. Paris: OECD Pub.

Kent, N. (2008). A concise history of Sweden. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

History Sama Saudi Arabian Monetary Agency
Words: 837 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20800732
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SAMA

Historical evolution of functional responsibilities of SAMA

History of SAMA (Saudi Arabian Monetary Agency)

The Saudi Arabian Monetary Agency (SAMA) was established on October 4th, 1952 and is headquartered at iyadh, Saudi Arabia. SAMA operates as the central bank of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Before setting up the Saudi Arabian Monetary Agency, KSA utilized the service of Saudi Hollandi Bank as the central agency to keep the governments gold reserves. The idea of setting up SAMA as the central government operated agency was materialized by Abdallah Sulaiman, the then finance minister of KSA. The currency that SAMA regulates and prints is the Saudi iyal, the official currency of KSA. The establishment of SAMA was decreed by King Abdul Aziz on 25/7/1371H, 20th of March, 1952 (SAMA, 2013).

Historical perspective

SAMA is currently the official agency charged with management of financial system. With the evolution and development of…

References

Ramady, M.A. (2010). The Saudi Arabian economy: policies, achievements, and challenges. Springer.

SAMA. (2013). Historical Preview. Saudi Arabian Monetary Agency. Retrieved from: [ http://www.sama.gov.sa/sites/samaen/AboutSAMA/Pages/SAMAHistory.aspx ]

Country Study China International Trade and Finance
Words: 2462 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28415886
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Country Study: China

International trade and finance

Exports

Imports

China Economic Issues with Trade

Suggestions for improving trading practices

COUNTY STUDY: CHINA

COUNTY STUDY: CHINA

COUNTY STUDY: CHINA

China, officially the People's epublic of China (PC), is considered to be a sovereign state located in East Asia. It is the world's most populous country, with a population that has over 1.35 billion. The People epublic of China is a single-party state which is supervised by the Communist Party, with its seat of government in the capital city of Beijing (Naughton, 2012). It handles a regions that is over some 22 provinces, five of them are autonomous districts, four are direct-regulated cities (Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai, and Chongqing), and two typically self-governing special administrative districts (Macau and Hong Kong ). (Snyder, 2011)The PC People epublic of China likewise makes the claim that Taiwan -- which is mostly controlled by the epublic of…

References:

Lin, Cai and Li, The China Miracle. (2003, September 26). Retrieved from Chinese University Press:  http://books.google.com/books?id=_OEwbLZ2vYwC&printsec=frontcover&dq=Lin,+Cai+and+Li,+The+China+Miracle,+Chinese+University+Press,+2003&hl=en&sa=X&ei=8CRCUqmkFaTx2QX01oGwDg&ved=0CDEQuwUwAA#v=onepage&q&f=false 

Penn World Tables. (2013, September 7). Long run time series of comparable main economic aggregates for many countries in the world. https://pwt.sas.upenn.edu/.

World bank World Development Indicators. (2013, September). Time series of economic and social indicators for every country in the world (annual frequency).  http://databank.worldbank.org/data/home.aspx .

Assem Reda, A.H. (2012). Exploring egypt-china bilateral trade: Dynamics and prospects. Journal of Economic Studies, 39(3), 314-326.

Demand for Money the International Community Is
Words: 2898 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63889892
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Demand for Money

The international community is currently facing the most severe crisis since the Great Depression of 1929 -- 1933. It started within the American real estate sector and soon expanded to the rest of the sectors, as well as to the rest of the global economies.

The causes and impacts of the crisis have often been discussed in the media and within the specialized literature, and the discussion is far from over. Still, this approach to the crisis is more descriptive and reflective. At this stage nonetheless, it is necessary to implement a proactive approach through which to promote solutions to overcoming the crisis.

Governments across the globe have each developed and implemented their own solutions to the crisis, ranging primarily from injecting capitals in the troubled industry sectors and companies, to efforts aimed at reducing federal costs. In the completion of these efforts, a crucial role is…

References:

Bae, Y., De Jong, R.M., 2005, Money demand function estimation by non-linear conintegration, Ohio State University,  http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/wp/1999/wp9964.pdf  last accessed on January 17, 2012

Balnaves, M., Caputi, P., 2001, Introduction to quantitative research methods: an investigative approach, SAGE

Barth, R.C., Hemphill, W.L., Aganina, I., 2000, Financial programming and policy: the case of Turkey, Vol. 1, International Monetary Fund

Canova, L., 2006, Estimating demand for money in Jamaica, Munich Personal RePEc Archive,  http://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/1023/1/MPRA_paper_1023.pdf  last accessed on January 17, 2012

SLP and International Business Analysis
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political scenario illustrated that governments all over the globe are making their immigration rules more stringent because of the rise in terrorism; the implication of this phenomenon is a decrease in international traveling, which endangers continuance of a number of airlines, including Nigeria's Arik Air (Eze, 2010). Hofstede's power distance dimension denotes the degree to which unequal distribution of power is anticipated and accepted by the lower ranking members (in terms of authority), of organizations and institutions in the nation under consideration. UA's score on this dimension is relatively low (40). Power distance deals with members of a society not being on an equal footing with one another; the dimension conveys a particular culture's outlook towards power imbalances among countries, as well. Furthermore, the inequality that prevails in a given society is equally approved of by its leaders and followers. Nigeria demonstrates a high power distance score (80), signifying its…

Shih, S. C. (2010). Network Process Model for Group Choice of a Multinational Enterprises' Entry Mode. Contemporary Management Research, 6(3).

Stewart, M. R., & Maughn, R. D. (2011). International joint ventures, a practical approach. Davis Wright Tremaine LLP, Available at http://www. dwt. com/files/Publication/Article_Stewart.pdf

Venkateswaran, N. (2012). Chapter 8. Country evaluation and selection. International Business Management. New Age International. Daryaganj, IND. [Ebrary]

Cross-Country Capital Flows and Currency International Project
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Cross-Country Capital Flows and Currency

International Project

overseas investment .

GLOBAL INSTITUTES IN INTERNATIONAL FINANCE .

INTERNATIONAL FINANCE CORPORATION .

ORLD BANK .

ORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION

INTERNATIONAL MONTARY FUND .

INTERNATIONAL FINANCE IN CHINA .

BANKING INSTITUTES

NON-BANKING INSTITUTES

THE EXCHANGE RATE FIASCO

FINANCIAL CRISIS IMPACTS ON SINO-AMERICAN RELATIONSHIP

RECESSION'S AFFECT ON CHINA .

ASIAN MONETARY FUND .

CHINA'S TRADE POLICIES AND THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO THE FINANCIAL CRISIS

Monetary policy is the study of circulation of money, the granting of credit, the making of investments and the provision of banking facilities and international finance is studying it on an international level.[footnoteRef:2] Usually the affect can be seen in exchange rate and foreign investment and international trade. This includes the analysis of global financial markets, cross-country capital flows and currency, international projects, and overseas investments. [2: Merriam-ebster Online Dictionary: http://www.merriam-webster.com/]

US Monetary Policies have a far reaching effect on the other…

Works Cited

Alta villa, Carlo, and Matteo Ciccarelli. "The Effects of Monetary Policy on Unemployment Dynamics under Model Uncertainty: Evidence from the United States and the Euro Area." Journal of Money, Credit & Banking 41.7 (2009): 1265+. Questia. Web. 18 Mar. 2011.

Auerbach, Robert D. Deception and Abuse at the Fed: Henry B. Gonzalez Battles Alan Greenspan's Bank. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, 2008. Questia. Web. 18 Mar. 2011.

Barron, Jacob. "Jobs, Exports and the Yuan: Pressure Builds on China for Currency Reform." Business Credit May 2010: 30+. Questia. Web. 18 Mar. 2011.

Bi, Jianhai. "An Asian Monetary Fund? Jianhai Bi Outlines Asian Efforts to Protect Their Economies during the Global Financial Crisis and Predicts Long and Difficult Negotiations." New Zealand International Review 34.6 (2009): 8+. Questia. Web. 18 Mar. 2011.

European Economic and Monetary Union Emu and
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European Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) and the euro. Included is a critical assessment of the sources used.

All of the sources used for this report were well written, concise, and understandable. The European Union and the Euro are difficult topics to understand on a first reading, but the authors had a real understanding of their topics, and explained the issues clearly.

For example, Taylor gives the background that makes the forming of the European Union more understandable. "This Summit produced a communique which supported the idea of European Union by 1980, and proposed a great push towards a European Great Society, illustrated by the efforts made to push the European social programme forward at that time, which no member government opposed" (Taylor 10).

The subject could be considered dry, but Taylor gives it life, making his book interesting to read, and right to the point. He writes with authority,…

References

Barclays Capital. "Barclays Capital says new Poll Showing Depth of Opposition to Euro Suggests Gilts to Decouple from European Bonds." 30 Nov. 2001. 6 Dec. 2001.  http://www.barcap.com/cgi-bin/pressreleases/public/newsView2.pl?item=2001113001 

Bartlett, Patrick. "Problems' Threaten Euro Launch." BBC News. 4 Dec. 2001.  http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/world/europe/newsid_1691000/1691635.stm 

Euro Web Site. "Questions & Answers on the Euro and European Economic and Monetary Union." 9 Sept. 1998. 5 Dec. 2001. http://europa.eu.int/euro/quest/

Europe Yes, Euro No! "Opposition to Euro Remains at Record Levels - Six Cut of Ten Labour Voters Say No." 3 Sept. 2000. 6 Dec. 2001.  http://www.no-euro.com/release.cfm?IDNO=8Feld,Werner  J. The Integration of the European Union and Domestic Political Issues. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1998.

Bank for International Settlement
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Bank for International Settlements

The inception of the Bank for International Settlements

The Bank for International Settlements was created in 1930 pursuant to the Young Plan, also known as the Dawes Plan under the Hague Agreement (Baker 2). At its inception, the Bank for International Settlements (BIS) was to assume the responsibilities of the Agent General for Reparations in Berlin which consisted of collecting, administrating and distributing the annuities that were payable as reparations (BIS History -- Overview 1). These original responsibilities were the source of the BIS' name (BIS History- Overview 1). According to the BIS eb site, "The BIS was also created to act as a trustee for the Dawes and Young Loans (international loans issued to finance reparations) and to promote central bank cooperation in general" (BIS History -- Overview 2). As these original responsibilities were satisfied, the purpose of the BIS has also changed as discussed…

Works Cited

About BIS. (2014). The Bank for International Settlements. [online] available: http://www.bis.

org/about/index.htm.

Baker, James C. The Bank for International Settlements: Evolution and Evaluation. Westport,

CT: Quorum Books, 2002.

Negotiation the Implementation of International
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Accordingly, it is important for international negotiators to possess characteristics of communicational dexterity, cultural acuity and a certain amount of charisma. It is necessary to command sufficient respect as a representative of one's firm and its cultural identity without trespassing the cultural proclivities of a potential host nation or trade partner. That said, it is also frequently the case that parties in negotiation will exist on different planes of authority. Negotiators must be characteristically attuned to power dynamics and the impact that these are likely to have on the avenue and outcome of trade engagements. So reports the text by Lall (1966), which notes that "a difference in the power levels of the countries concerned is one of the factors of prime importance which affect movement toward negotiation." (p. 132)

Tactics in such contexts and the resultant effectiveness will often be a direct function of the selectivity and judiciousness exhibited…

Works Cited:

Crump, L. (2003). Multiparty Negotiation and the Management of Complexity. International Negotiation, 8(2).

Lall, a.S. (1966). Modern International Negotiation. Columbia University Press.

Starkey, B.; Boyer, M.A. & Wilkenfeld, J. (2005). Negotiating a Complex World: An Introduction to International Negotiation. Rowman & Littlefield.

Team Project International Trade in
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Balance of trade is being more impacted by currency re-valuations in China, the declining value of the British pound and the reconsideration of indexing the Euro (Altman, 2009). What emerges as a result of these conditions that the decision on the part of the G-20, or ministers and central bank governors of the world's largest economies is to continually increase the International Monetary Fund (IMF) over time (Altman, 2009). This is going to have an immediate effect of increasing inflation globally and also fuel more of an unstable region in Pakistan and Afghanistan (Altman, 2009). Never before has the balance of trade had direct implications on the relative political stability of nations as they do today (Altman, 2009). This tight link of international trade and political stability is projected to become more prevalent through African nations whose economies were just beginning to gains stability as well. In summary, the current…

References

Altman, R. (2009). Globalization in Retreat. Foreign Affairs, 88(4), 2-0_5.

Globalization in Retreat

Roger C. Altman. Foreign Affairs. New York: Jul/Aug 2009. Vol. 88, Iss. 4; pg. 2

Abstract (Summary)

Bank for International Settlements 2010
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The increase in profits (at certain points) highlights the overall risks vs. rewards, as they can see substantial growth of 5% each year. Moreover, the performance of various strategies used in management of hedge funds experienced a greater feat, despite having less asset classes to choose from.

Over the years, the hedge fund industry has shown consistent growth and increase in its regulatory issues. This is because managers are using strategies that: increase the overall amounts of risk, while offering the possibility of greater financial rewards. As a result, the odds improve that investors could experience significant losses in these areas (which increases the overall amounts of regulatory scrutiny).

Hedge funds will experience more changes that will lessen its variance in comparison with mutual funds. Where, it will determine its investors and techniques of management without being greatly influenced by: institutionalization or regulation of the finance industry. In 2005, Ibbotson…

Bibliography

Hedge and Pension Funds, 2011.

Ackermann, C, McEnally R. & Ravenscraft, D 1999, "The performance of hedge funds: Risk, return and incentives." Journal of Finance, 54 (June), pp. 833-874.

Adrian, T 2007, "Measuring risk in the hedge fund sector," Current Issues in Economics and Finance, 13, Federal

Reserve Bank of New York, pp. 1 -- 7.

Effecting Justice Through the System
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Criminal Justice System Thoughts

One of the core values of the American criminal justice system is that people have a right to it. Specifically, this value denotes the fact that there should be a due process of the law for everybody -- regardless of how guilty or how allegedly guilty they are. In this respect one of the values of the U.S. criminal justice system is the fact that they system itself is above the individual. There are many countries -- paritcualrly7 those ruled by dictators or which have been ruled by dictators -- in which there are certain people and organizations that are above the underlying system of government. Such a tenet does not apply to the U.S., in which the system is more important than the individuals being tried through it. Thus, there are additional values such as the fact that people are inherently innocent until proven guilty,…

Marketing Strategy for American International
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Two approved bodies of insurance brokers exist in ong Kong: (1) the ong Kong Confederation of Insurance Brokers and (2) Professional Insurance Brokers Association Limited. There are a stated 2,558 insurance agencies, 29,937 individual agents and 2.58 responsible officers as well as 14,064 registered technical representatives.

The OCI Annual Report of September 30, 2001 states in regards to reinsurers that "the gross premium of the pure reinsurers' business is K$1,530 million, a modest 3.2% increase, reversing the downward trend since 1996. The pure reinsurers attained an underwriting profit of K$72 million in 2000 after having suffered loss for the last 3 years. The top three active foreign reinsurers in ong Kong are Munich Re, Swiss Re, and General & Cologne Re." (Source: The OCI Annual Report 2001) In regards to 'captive insurers' it is related that the government "provides a suitable and favorable business environment for captive insurers. The regulatory…

HSBC Life (International) Ltd., and The Prudential Assurance Co. Ltd. (Source: The OCI Annual Report 2001)

In regards to Intermediaries in the insurance industry it is stated that the IARB provided statistics of November 30, 2001, shows that there were 396 insurance brokers in Hong Kong that were authorized in Hong Kong and that 2,937 individuals registered as chief executives/technical representatives of the authorized brokers. Two approved bodies of insurance brokers exist in Hong Kong: (1) the Hong Kong Confederation of Insurance Brokers and (2) Professional Insurance Brokers Association Limited. There are a stated 2,558 insurance agencies, 29,937 individual agents and 2.58 responsible officers as well as 14,064 registered technical representatives.

The OCI Annual Report of September 30, 2001 states in regards to reinsurers that "the gross premium of the pure reinsurers' business is HK$1,530 million, a modest 3.2% increase, reversing the downward trend since 1996. The pure reinsurers attained an underwriting profit of HK$72 million in 2000 after having suffered loss for the last 3 years. The top three active foreign reinsurers in Hong Kong are Munich Re, Swiss Re, and General & Cologne Re." (Source: The OCI Annual Report 2001) In regards to 'captive insurers' it is related that the government "provides a suitable and favorable business environment for captive insurers. The regulatory concessions offered by government include reduced minimum capital and solvency margin requirements, exemption from the requirement for maintaining assets in Hong Kong to match local liabilities, and exemption from the requirement for valuing assets and liabilities in accordance with the statutory basis. A captive insurer is restricted to accepting insurance business from its own group of companies only. It is also not allowed to carry on statutory business (i.e., motor

Risks of International Expansion Given
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Administrative and political distance risk is most seen from the standpoint
of legal and financial institutions, the monetary systems and political
associations and the role of foreign governments in defining the barriers
to entry for foreign businesses. Geographic distance risks have more to do
with the physical distance and varying climates. The geographic distance
set of risks also capture the lack of potential infrastructure due to
remoteness. The economic distance risk assessments include the different
information or knowledge process workflows throughout a culture and the
blind-spots this causes for many companies in creating the strategies to
move into another company. There are many risks also present in the
economic distance of given foreign nation, emanating from the differences
in consumer incomes and wide variations in costs and quality of natural,
financial, and human resources.
In assessing the risks of global expansion, it is critical to consider the
use of analytical…

References:
Ghemawat (2001) - Distance Still Matters: The Hard Reality of Global
Expansion. Harvard Business Review. Pankaj Ghemawat. Harvard Business
School Press. Cambridge, MA September, 2001.

International Business Expansion Process International Recruitment and
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international business expansion process.

International recruitment and selection brings a number of challenges for business organizations. They not only face difficulties in hiring the desired skillful staff from the host country, but may also have to deal with severe financial and cultural diversity issues. Through this research study, an effort has been made to highlight the major challenges and issues which make the international recruitment and selection process more complex and challenging for multinational organization.

The research report starts with an ample introduction to the esearch question and proceeds by highlighting the core objectives of the research study. The research question clearly states the major objective of this research study in a quite precise and succinct manner. The most important section of the research report is Literature review which has been written after a comprehensive research from a number of academic and industry journal articles and books; most of which…

REFERENCES

Ashamalla, M.H. 1998, International Human Resource Management Practices: the Challenge of Expatriation. CR, 8 (2): 54-63.

Andeason, A.W. 2003, Expatriate Adjustment to Foreign Assignments. The International 6 tyJournal of Commerce and Management, 13 (1): 42-60.

Andersen, T.M., & Svarer, M. 2006, Flexicurity -- the Danish Labor Market Model. Available from [Accessed July 26th, 2012]

Baudler, C.R. 2011, Employee Engagement: Through Effective Performance Management by Edward M. Mone and Manuel London, Personnel Psychology, 64 (3): 813 -- 816.