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Nonetheless these actions and missions had to have the agreement of the national states. Therefore, the strategy implied a complex relation between the transnational and the national levels. At the same time however, the health problems that could have arisen in the area demanded cooperation between the Ministry of Health and the World Health Organization. Therefore it is obvious that such situations as a national disaster or a war related result determined the consideration of an approach that established particular relations not with the entire national government, but rather to the precise segment that deals with the respective issue.
Although Slaughter's article was written prior to the 9/11 events, the acts which followed the terrorist attacks tend to underline the viability of the theory she discussed in 1997. More precisely, after the terrorist phenomenon was labeled as a worldwide threat that cannot be addressed without the cooperation of all the…
Russbach, O. 1994. ONU contre ONU. Le droit international confisque. Edition La Decouverte. Paris.
Slaughter, a. 1997. 'The real new world order'. Foreign Affairs. vol. 76, no. 3, pp 183-197.
The effect of these sanctions can range from the alterations in the foreign policy to the declining export of oil for the country. One domain that has been exposed to restricted development is the oil industry. However it is also noteworthy that the economy of Iran is not entirely dependent on the export of oil for its growth (Momeni, Najafi, & Fathollahi, 2012). Moreover, the sanctions had a negative impact on the potential influx of foreign investors while Iran has also contested these sanctions on various grounds in different organizations. Such a situation has influenced the pace of development of the country. Nevertheless other researchers have persuasively argued that these sanctions have targeted the oil and gas industry, but other businesses embedded in the traditional industries of Iran had trivial effects from such sanctions. Therefore, it has been concluded that the business related to small firms have displayed no significant…
Abbott, K.W., & Snidal, D. (1998). Why states act through formal international organizations. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 42(1), 3-32.
Momeni, F., Najafi, S.M.B., & Fathollahi, J. (2012). The Necessity of Economic Structural Transformation in Developing Countries toward a Knowledge-based Economy Case Study: Iran.
There are a number of difficulties involved in developing international organizations. These can include a lack of internationalization, poor economic growth, and relationships with other associations. Most international organizations have largely rejected the American federal model of institutional organization. It is likely that internationalization and globalization trends will continue to grow, contributing to the rise of the global citizen and the demise of the nation, as well as a continued rise in the power and scope of international organizations.
Since the end of WWII, there has been a strong growth of international non-governmental organizations (NGOs). Today, there are tens of thousands of NGOs worldwide that act to shape international affairs and the lives of individuals (Iriye).
The development of international organizations has had a profound impact on today's world. Today, international organizations can include environmental organizations, religious organizations, multinational corporations, regional communities, and transnational private associations, among others.…
Iriye, Akira. 2002. Global Community: The Role of International Organizations in the Making of the Contemporary World. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.
Judge, Anthony. 1971. Significance of the World Network of Organizations. Part G of: Next Step in Inter-organizational Relationships. Laetus in Praesens. 15 July 2004. http://www.laetusinpraesens.org/docs70s/71next/nextg.php
Union of International Associations. 5.1 Borderline categories. 5. Problems of classifying international organizations. 15 July 2004. http://www.uia.org/organizations/orgtypes/orgtypef.php
However, although the institutionalist perspective may marginally be the more persuasive, it too has a flaw in the sense that it does not allow for sufficient diversity of interests that may transcend borders and impede international cooperation -- a Jewish supporter of Israel in the U.S. may not support his or her nation's attempt to facilitate economic and political cooperation with Saudi Arabia, and an unemployed American factory worker may support protectionism, even though many Americans may want to buy cheaper cars from Japan, and Japanese manufactures may be eager to meet this demand.
Are you convinced by the argument that states have lost a significant measure of their sovereignty to supranational institutions like the TO, the UN or the IMF?
The answer to this question is likely dependant upon what state you are a member of -- a nation opposed to the U.S. invasion of Iraq might state that…
Theories of IR." PowerPoint Lecture. PSC 124. Syracuse University. 10 May 2007. http://faculty.maxwell.syr.edu/hpschmitz/PSC124/PSC124Institutionalism.ppt#347,8,Rationalcooperation
For example, many within Mexico complain that the agenda of the United States, and secondarily, Canada overshadows any legitimate concerns that Mexico may have. One of the best examples of this was the recent NAFTA meeting in Texas between the three nations -- not only did the United States agenda hold center stage despite legitimate and serious Mexican concerns, but Mexico had literally no choice but to go along with the meeting, knowing full well that it had no alternative (Economist, 2005). Although Mexico is currently taking steps to form other trade agreements with non-NAFTA member nations, this does not lessen the ineffective nature or the imbalance of international organizations like NAFTA.
Finally, and perhaps most famously, the United Nations, supposedly one of the most influential international organizations on earth, has repeatedly been stymied in its efforts to accomplish important international tasks. One of the best examples of this is…
CPJ. Center for Public Justice. "Rebalancing NATO." Web site. 2004. Retrieved on May 2, 2005 http://www.cpjustice.org/stories/storyReader$1170Rebalancing NATO
Economist.com. "Country Briefings: Mexico." The Economist Online. 22 March, 2005. Retrieved from Web site on March 29, 2005 http://www.economist.com/countries/Mexico/profile.cfm?folder=Profile%2DPolitical%20Structure
McMahon, Janet. "Hague Conference Considers Ways to Implement ICJ Ruling on Israel's Wall." Washington Report. 2005. January/February, pages 12-14.
NATO.org. (Staff). "What is NATO?" Web site. 2005. Retrieved on May 2, 2005 http://www.nato.int/#
As to the Korean businessmen, they are more paricularists as they confer a personal meaning even to business acts: for instance the business cards that need to be answered in public, the drinking that welcomes one into the group. Their openness to confessions towards performance is another sign of this dimension.
With respect to the affective-neutral dimension, the U.S. is representative of the affective dimension as consultants in the case (e.g. Andrew raising his voice to the Korean management representative) express emotions freely. aising the voice denotes anger, a very strong emotion that in Korean environment is not freely expressed. The attitude of the Koreans towards such outbursts is of understanding and patience. (Scott's confrontational meeting with one of the Korean consultants concerning this issue of how organizational processes should be flowcharted). The Koreans consider the expression of emotions improper and avoid such emotional outbursts. Moreover, neutrality is a characteristic…
Rao, Pramila, Teegen, H., "Human Resource Issues: U.S.-Mexico Joint Ventures," retrieved from www.solutionsabroad.com/d_jointventuremexico.asp
Barkema, H. & F. Vermeulen (1997). "What differences in the cultural backgrounds of partners are detrimental for international joint ventures?" Journal of International Business Studies 28:4, 845-864.
Schneider, S.C. & A. De Meyer (1991). "Interpreting and responding to strategic issues: The impact of national culture." Strategic Management Journal 12, 307 -320.
Hofstede, G. (1994). "Business Cultures." The UNESCO Courier, 30(4): 12-14.
" If no major problems are found, or an improvement plan from the management showing how any problems will be resolved is received, the certification body will issue an ISO 9001 certificate for each geographical site of the company it has visited. Certification is offered on a "pass/fail" basis only and must be renewed at regular intervals, usually every three years.
The ISO 9001:2000 is a revised version of the quality standard management system which incorporates three previous versions used by the ISO. The 2000 revision brought to light the importance of a company's process management, especially in those companies who produce a physical final product. The 2000 version also specifically requires involvement by upper executives to maintain quality, the numerical measurements for the effectiveness of tasks and activities, planning of continual process improvement and customer satisfaction tracking. Future revisions of the ISO 9000 are also expected since feedback between…
International Organization Negotiations & Governance
Good morning. The principal big-picture question for us today is how we protect people worldwide from the continuing slaughter of war. Can international organizations help to prevent war? An appalling amount of blood has been spilled over the course of history. ar has caused millions of people to be killed. Innocent people and others engaged in fighting are gone. Can this carnage be slowed down, or even stopped, through the involvement of international organizations? Diplomacy is a wonderful concept and leaders rely on the use of the word -- but why has diplomacy failed in so many instances? e will delve into this issue with reference to the Gulf ar and the UN's power in conjunction with America's power.
hat causes war? In the past most wars have been fought over land, territory, resources like oil or gold. These are tangible reasons for fighting. A…
Security. Case Study 1: Iraq
Propriety of International Organizations Instituting Awards or Prizes Funded by Corrupt Dictators Like Theodoro Obriang of Guinea Equatorial
It defies convention that, in this modern era, powerful and autocratic dictators come into power and cling on to their seats with military backings and continue to rule their countries without any legal impediments. Their wish is the rule of the law in their countries, and many have been accused of creating Auschwitz like camps, torturing their opponents into submission, and some say there are those who even indulge in cannibalism to seek black power supposedly to enhance their staying power and for protection against attempts on their lives.
One such dictator who ideally fits all the description enumerated above and has been a continuous ruler of his country for the past 32 years is Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo, dictator and president of Equatorial Guinea who came into power in a bloody…
Joshua, N. (2011). News Article Topic: The world's enduring dictators: Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo, Equatorial Guinea, Published date: May 22, 2011, Retrieved from http://www.cbsnews.com/8301-503543_162-20065072-503543.html .
Robert, P. (2011). News Article: Son of Equatorial Guinea's dictator plans one of the world's most expensive yachts, Published date: 28th February 2011, Retrieved from http://www.globalwitness.org /library/son-equatorial-guineas-dictator-plans-one-worlds-most-expensive-yachts' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
International Organizations Impact Incarceration and Prison Management in Brazil
People incarcerated in prisons from developing countries like Brazil face long years of confinement in dirty and cramped quarters. Some of the harsh conditions the prisons present include inadequate hygiene, insufficient food allocations, and no clothing or other basic amenities. Even as the conditions do not form a pattern across the continent, the prevalence hits higher concerns requiring intervention from international organizations. The interactions allow resident prison managers to address inadequacies through prison reform and increased attention towards human rights. Various barriers include state secrecy, absence of public interest, and weak civil society inhibiting collection of sustainable information on the deplorable prisons. The veil of ignorance on the kinds of prison conditions that fuel abuse and neglect of people incarcerated makes it imperative for investigation of prison trends. International organizations generate information regarding issues that affect the penal system of the…
Adetula, G. A, Adetula, A., & Fatusin, A. (2010). The prison subsystem culture: Its attitudinal effects on operatives, convicts and the free society. Ife Psychologia. 18(1): 232-251
Austin, J.E. (2008). Strategic Management In Developing Countries. New York: Simon and Schuster
Baer, L.D., & Ravneberg, B. (2008). The outside and inside in Norwegian and English prisons. Geografiska Annaler Series B: Human Geography, 90(2), 205-216.
Friedman, A., & Parenti, C., (2013). Capitalist Punishment: Prison Privatization and Human Rights. New York: SCB Distributors
The focus of the U.N. later this year in their global summit in Copenhagen will focus on the role of women in emerging economies and the contribution their businesses make. To illustrate how strongly the UN sees their mission about helping underprivileged nations, UN undersecretary -general for humanitarian affairs, Jan Egeland called developed nations "stingy" when it came to their contributions to 3rd world nations' welfare (Sharma, 2005). The bottom line is that these organizations are all focused more on the humanitarian missions they cooperate on and less on selfish strategies for gain.
Graham Bird & Dane owlands. (2007). The IMF and the Mobilisation of Foreign Aid. The Journal of Development Studies, 43(5), 856-870.
Capling, a., & Higgott, . (2009). Introduction: The Future of the Multilateral Trade System-What ole for the World Trade Organization? Global Governance, 15(3), 313-325.
Shalendra Sharma. (2005). The…
Graham Bird & Dane Rowlands. (2007). The IMF and the Mobilisation of Foreign Aid. The Journal of Development Studies, 43(5), 856-870.
Capling, a., & Higgott, R. (2009). Introduction: The Future of the Multilateral Trade System-What Role for the World Trade Organization? Global Governance, 15(3), 313-325.
Shalendra Sharma. (2005). The Encouraging Truth About Foreign Aid. Challenge, 48(4), 11-25.
("ISO 14025 Published," 2006.)
ISO 14040: ISO 14040 describes the principles and framework for life cycle assessment (LCA). It covers LCA studies and life cycle inventory (LCI) studies but does not describe the LCA technique in detail, nor does it specify methodologies for the individual phases of the LCA. The standard allows a company to make reliable and reusable Life Cycle Assessments.
ISO 14044: While 14040 describes the principles and framework of LCA, 14044 provides the requirements and guidelines for life cycle assessment (LCA). ISO 14044 complements ISO 14040 described above and the two standards are usually used in conjunction.
ISO 9000: ISO 9000 is a family of standards for quality management systems. ISO 9000: 2005 by itself covers just the basics of what quality management systems are and includes the core language of the ISO 9000 series of standards. It is a guidance document, not used for certification purposes,…
Governance and operations." (2008). ISO: Official Website. Retrieved on November 24, 2008 at http://www.iso.org/iso/about/governance_and_operations.htm
ISO 14025 Published." (2006). GEDNET. Retrieved on November 24, 2008 at http://www.gednet.org/?p=22
ISO Code of Ethics." (2004). ISO: Official Website. Retrieved on November 24, 2008 at http://www.iso.org/iso/codeethics_2004.pdf
ISO Strategic Plan 2005-2015." (2004). ISO: Official Website. Retrieved on November 24, 2008 at http://www.iso.org/iso/isostrategies_2004-en.pdf
As it applies specifically to the ISO 9001:2008 which replaced the ISO9002: 1994, the ISO 9001 concerns itself with quality management. In fact it is a quality management system that establishes various requirements ("ISO 9001:2008"). In order to gain certification the organization must:
1. Demonstrate its capacity to consistently offer product that meets customer and applicable statutory and regulatory requirements ("ISO 9001:2008").
2. Plan to improve customer satisfaction through the effective application of the system ("ISO 9001:2008"). This plan will include procedures that enforce continual improvement of the system and the pledge of conformity to customer and proper statutory and regulatory requirements ("ISO 9001:2008").
It is also the case that all the provisions established by the ISO 9001:2008 are universal and intended to be pertinent to all organizations, despite their nature, size or product manufactured ("ISO 9001:2008"). Additionally
"Where any requirement(s) of ISO 9001:2008 cannot be applied due to…
Benner, M.J., F.M. Veloso. 2008. ISO 9000 practices and financial performance: A technology coherence perspective. Journal of Operations Management 26: 611 -- 629.
Corbett, C., Luca, A., Pan, J. (2003), "Global perspectives on global standards," ISO Management Systems, No.January-February, .
"ISO 9001:2008." http://www.iso.org/iso/iso_catalogue/catalogue_tc/catalogue_detail.htm?csnumber=46486
International disaster management organizations help states that are hit by major disaster or faced with serious repercussions due to environmental conditions. They are also involved in mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery of disasters around the world. The organizations work closely with agencies and programs to help countries in reducing hazard vulnerability. They reduce these hazards by, increasing capacity of nations and their citizens. The motivating concepts guiding disaster management are the reduction of harm to life, environment and property, and are largely the same throughout the world. Capacity to carry out this mission is different due to cultural, economic, social and political reasons. International organizations in the course of their workface different concerns, and they always remain under the control of their countries.
Socio-economic and political concerns
Adoption of disaster management policies is difficult in developing countries due to lack of funds. There has also been a problem with…
Damon, P. (2011). Introduction to International Disaster Management. Atlanata: Elsevier.
Rodriguea, H.E. (2007)(Handbook of Disaster Research). London: Springer.
There have been important controversies also related to the austerity programs that the IMF supports as a condition of giving financial loans. Joseph Stiglitz was an important opponent of such programs, underlying that increasing taxes in a weak economy destabilizes the economy even further and that this was a Monetarist approach aimed at supporting Western interests rather than those of the developing countries. To some degree, this is true and some of the failures of the IMF, including the Argentinean crisis are good arguments in this sense.
Argentina has been cited as one of the failures of the IMF, mainly because the budgetary restrictions that were imposed under the IMF programs did not allow the government to develop its own projects and affected economic growth. Countries like the Philippines have argued that the IMF program has helped their economy significantly, while Turkey's rebound at the beginning of 2000s is also…
1. Hanlon, Joseph. November 1998. Dictators and Debt. On the Internet at http://www.jubileeresearch.org/analysis/reports/dictatorsreport.htm.Last retrieved on October 30, 2008
2. Budhoo, Davidson. 1990. Enough is Enough: Dear Mr. Camdessus... Open Letter to the Managing Director of the International Monetary Fund. New York: New Horizons Press.
3. Stiglitz, Joseph. 2002. Globalization and its Discontents. New York: WW Norton & Company
4. Ramos, Fidel. An IMF Success Story. On the Internet at http://www.geocities.com/CollegePark/Pool/1644/ramos2.html.Last retrieved on October 30, 2008
European Union a state, or what else distinguishes it from other International Organizations
The primary question concerning global organizations as a medium of global governance relates towards the quantity and excellence of this governance within an era where we now have an overdeveloped global economy as well as an under-developed global polity (Ougaard and Higgott, 2002). There's a powerful disconnect amid governance, being an efficient and effective collective solution-seeking process within a given problem-area, and governance being the democratic legitimacy of policy formation. It has made possible the debate regarding 'legitimacy shortfalls' in main global organizations. Furthermore, governance has turned into a hosting analogy determining non-traditional performers (non-condition performers for example NGOs and their local and international associations) that participate as portable agents extending and expanding policy understanding, which is far more advanced and sophisticated than the traditional, elitist, government activities. The interest in global (as well as the regional)…
Andersen, S., Eliassen, K. ( 1996) Introduction: dilemmas, contradictions and the future of European democracy, in: Andersen, S., Eliassen, K. (eds.) The European Union: how democratic is it?, London: Sage, 1-11.
Aziz, M (2006) 'Chinese whispers: the citizen, the law and the constitution', Chapter 10 in D. Castiglione et al.: The Convention Moment: An Experiment in European Constitutional Politics, Basingstoke: Palgrave-MacMillan, forthcoming.
Aziz, M. (2004) 'Mainstreaming the Duty of clarity and Transparency as part of Good Administrative Practice in the EU', European Law Journal, Vol. 10, No. 3, pp. 282-95.
Bacchus, James (2005). A Few Thoughts on Legitimacy, Democracy, and the WTO: in Ernst-Ulrich Petersmann (ed.), Reforming the World Trading System. Legitimacy, Efficiency, and Democratic Governance (Oxford: Oxford University Press), 429-436.
After the end of the cold war, the experts are of the opinion that the United Nations has escaped from the influence of the super powers, and every member country has realized their potential, interests and priorities. The forum of United Nations is expected to offer substantial relieve to the countries, and has the capability to offer protection, security and stability to the respective countries, which are vulnerable to the threat of aggression (Hans, 2001).
One of the regional examples of the Collective Security has been the forum of Collective Security Treaty Organization, which comprises of Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, ussia, Tajikistan, Azerbaijan, Moldova, Ukraine and Uzbekistan as its member countries (Ademola, 2004). The organization was established in May, 1992. However Azerbaijan, Georgia, Ukraine, Moldova and Uzbekistan cancelled their membership, once their realized that threat of military aggression was not imminent, and therefore the concept of the military integration…
Hans Kelsen. Collective Security under International Law. 2001. The Law book Exchange Ltd. pp. 187-198.
Ramesh Chandra Thakur. The United Nations, Peace and Security: From Collective Security to the Responsibility to Protect. 2006. Cambridge University Press. pp. 97-108.
Ademola Abass. Regional Organizations and the Development of Collective Security. 2004. Hart Publishing. pp. 198-209.
Operations of International Law and Organizations
eason MNCs have become important in International elations and Law
International law is defined as a set of rules and customs governing the relationships among nation-states. Traditionally, nation-states are considered the principal actors of international law, however, there are an increasing number of other actors that influence the conduct of international relations. MNCs (multinational corporations), international organizations, domestic actors and individuals are increasingly influencing the conduct of international relations. Along with nation-states, MNCs are very important actors in international relations because their activities can influence the international affairs. A multinational corporation is a business entity that has sales operations and productions in several countries. In the contemporary business environment, many MNCs have immense financial resources, which are more than the annual budgets of many countries in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. With their huge financial resources, they have the power to influence a conduct…
Henderson, C.W. (2009). Understanding International Law. London. John Wiley & Sons.
International Clinical Harmonisation
PROPER SYSTEMS IN PLACE
The International Congress Harmonisation
WHO Principles of Good Clinical Practice
Clinical research is conducted to insure the safety and efficacy of health and medical products and practices (WHO 2002). In the past, randomized controlled trials gave most of the information about the safety and efficacy of these products and treatments. Randomized clinical trials were considered the foundation of evidence-based medicine but reliably only when conducted according to principles and standards. These principles and standards comprise good clinical research or GCP. The guidelines were created to help national regulatory authorities, sponsors, investigators and ethics committees to implement GCP for overall clinical research. These were based on the guidelines provided by major international organizations, such as the International Conference on Harmonization or ICH GCP, and used as reference (WHO).
GCP incorporates accepted and established ethical and scientific quality standards complied with for the design, conduct,…
A reduction in farm subsidies is stated to be necessary in order to improve access to market along with Common Agricultural Policy reforms, which should be "de-linked from production." Finally, stated as a requirement is that of a commitment for a 20% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, which may be achieved "through market mechanisms..." (OECD, 2007) the OECD additionally states that structural reforms are required in addressing the challenges that the EU faces and while there is an improvement in terms of the economic prospects of the EU, "there is no room for complacency." (OECD, 2007) the OECD survey relates that the EU has the potential to play a critical role in the provision of solid conditional framework and the ongoing enhancement of the internal market in the EU.
The provision of the single market includes the wider range of goods access for consumers as well as a wider range…
Economic Survey of the European Union (2007) OECD Policy Brief. Sep 2007. Online available at www.oecd.org.
The European Union (2008) Environmental Aspects of Regional Trade Agreements. (2000) United Nations Environment Programme. International Institute for Sustainable Development. Online available at http://www.iisd.org/trade/handbook/7_2.htm
Cini, Michelle (2007) European Union Politics. 2007. Oxford University Press. Online Google Scholar Books at http://books.google.com/books?id=ZZf1839nw0gC&dq=European+Union:+Organizational+impact+on+market+and+trade&source=gbs_summary_s&cad=0
Organizational Review of European Union
ABC Aviation has managed to capture the attention of international organizations and NATO members due to the high quality of their helicopters. However, to be able to complete the signed contract, the organization must first resolve their internal disputes and must implement a strong organizational culture which embraces and promotes cultural diversity.
Aghazadeh, S. (2004). Managing workforce diversity as an essential resource for improving organizational performance. International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, 53, 521-531.
Ayoko, O.B. (2007). Communication openness, conflict events and reactions to conflict in culturally diverse workgroups. Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, 14, 105-124.
Chuang, Y.T., Church, ., & Zikic, J. (2004). Organizational culture, group diversity and intra-group conflict. Team Performance Management, 10, 26-34. etrieved February 28, 2008, from Emerald database.
Elmuti, D. (2001). Preliminary analysis of the relationship between cultural diversity and technology in corporate America. Equal Opportunities International, 20, 1-16.…
Aghazadeh, S. (2004). Managing workforce diversity as an essential resource for improving organizational performance. International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, 53, 521-531.
Ayoko, O.B. (2007). Communication openness, conflict events and reactions to conflict in culturally diverse workgroups. Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, 14, 105-124.
Chuang, Y.T., Church, R., & Zikic, J. (2004). Organizational culture, group diversity and intra-group conflict. Team Performance Management, 10, 26-34. Retrieved February 28, 2008, from Emerald database.
Elmuti, D. (2001). Preliminary analysis of the relationship between cultural diversity and technology in corporate America. Equal Opportunities International, 20, 1-16. Retrieved February 28, 2008, from Emerald database.
For example, Shu-Acquaye (2007) cites the basic differences in the legal systems in various parts of the world as contributing to the different approaches to corporate governance. Likewise, Shu-Acquaye cites these differences and adds, "The American corporate governance system adheres to the idea of shareholder primacy. Because the United Kingdom, Austria, and Canada share a legal system based on English common law and equity principles, they are similar to the United States -- shareholder primacy is the predominant norm in each of these countries."
By sharp contrast, other countries such as Japan and Germany are characterized by stronger protection for their employees, creditors, and other nonshareholder stakeholders in general, representing examples of a stakeholder-orientated system. In their book, the Control of Corporate Europe, Barca and Becht point out that, "Germany has always had a prominent place in the international corporate governance debate. The country is among the largest and richest…
Aaronson, Susan Ariel, 2002 (Fall), "Broadening Corporate Responsibility: Is Maximizing Shareholder Value Alone a Good Enough Long-Term Strategy?," the International Economy 16(4): 46
Ashby, Meredith D. And Stephen a. Miles, Leaders Talk Leadership: Top Executives Speak Their Minds (New York: Oxford University Press, 2002)
Barca, Fabrizio and Marco Becht, the Control of Corporate Europe (New York: Oxford University Press, 2002).
Brada, Josef C., Saul Estrin, Josef C. Brada et al. (eds.). Corporate Governance in Central Eastern Europe: Case Studies of Firms in Transition (Armonk, NY M.E. Sharpe, 1999).
The case involving Milosevic was has different sub-plots, as he would claim that the actions he took were to prevent the country from being overrun by terrorists. Yet, at the same time, as some of these atrocities were being committed, NATO would attack Serbia in an effort to halt these violations. In this aspect, one could argue that the actions taken by NATO were in violation of international law. As they were not supported by a UN mandate, instead the actions were NATO countries working in concert with one another to go after Serbia. This is despite the fact that Serbia did not attack any of NATO allied nations.
When you look at the situations from the realist perspective, they would argue that the application of different international standards is an attempt to circumvent the power of the nation state over its people. Where, the ICC is unilaterally determining what…
Franck, Thomas. "What Happens Now?" American Society of International Law. 97, no. 3 (2003): 607 -- 620.
Goldsmith, Jack. "The Limits of Idealism." Daedulus. 132, no. 1. (2003): 47 -- 63.
Higgins, Rosalyn. "Policy and Impartiality." 915 -- 931.
Thomas Franck. "What Happens Now?" American Society of International Law. 97, no. 3 (2003): 607 -- 620.
The new law has prosecuted 426 traffickers in 203 cases. These traffickers had 844 victims in that year alone. This law imposes penalties from 10 years imprisonment to life imprisonment (Kyodo).
Myanmar: Effective or Not?
The capacity of the national government in fighting the problem of human trafficking has been limited (UNODC 2007). It is particularly limited in implementing policy changes in remote areas where traffickers operate. Anti-trafficking groups are looking into the situation. The UNODC addresses the issue by implementing projects and participating in partnership initiatives in the country. These projects and initiatives include increasing public awareness of the problem, provision of technical assistance for the law enforcement sector and the judiciary, greater and easier access to service providers and enhancing their capabilities (UNODC).
Reports say that Cambodia is a source, transit and destination country for human trafficking (HumanTrafficking.org 2009). Human traffickers consist of organized crime syndicates, parents,…
CIA. Russia. The World Fact Book: Central Intelligence Agency, 2009. Retrieved on April 23, 2009 from http://www.cia.gov/library/publications/2732.htm
Gekht, Anna. Shared but Differentiated Responsibility Integration of International
Obligations in Fight against Trafficking in Human Beings. Denver Journal
International Law and Policy: University of Denver, 2008. Retrieved on April
Liquidity shocks on the international arena can have a strong negative impact on less developed countries whose access to funding sources is already reduced.
The clearing risk is a specific risk, which combines credit risk, in the sense that it results from a counterparty's inability to meet its liabilities, market risk in the sense that it is caused by market shifts (general and specific market risk) between the time a transaction is executed and the time it is cleared, as well as liquidity and systemic risk." (Casanova, 2000). The clearing risk is assumed by clearing houses, which guarantee the proper settlement of transactions done by the members. These institutions engage themselves to bear potential replacement costs if either one of the trade counterparties can't fulfill its obligations. In international markets this risk is increased as the international arena as mentioned before it more dynamic and volatile and the chance of…
Casanova, J - F. 2000 - Role Played by Risk Management and Clearing Systems in the Economy of Future Exchanges and ECNs. UNCTAD, www.unctad.org
Eichengreen, B. 1990a. Trends and Cycles in Foreign Lending. CEPR - Center for Economic Policy Research. Working Paper N"451.
Eichengreen, B. 1990b, Economic Policy - International Lending, Center for Economic Policy Research. Working Paper N"452.
Investopedia, Accessed October 2008, www.investopedia.com
And Article 25 of the Charter enjoins all members to "... accept and carry out the decisions of the Security Council (Turner)."
On the other hand, leading lawyers contended that ritain would violate international law if it also used armed force against Iraq like the U.S. (Waugh 2002). Two leading barristers Rabinder Singh QC and Alison MacDonald said that the use of force against Iraq would be justified only if its leaders directly attacked ritain or its allies or an attack was imminent. They added that the attack should not be one that could be averted except with the use of force. They required the UN Security Council to authorize the use of force in concrete and "clear terms." They believed that Security Council resolutions did not authorize such use of force against Iraq. The United Kingdom was not entitled to that last recourse. Another barrister said that the UK…
Bush, G.W. (2002). Statement on signing the authorization for using of military force against Iraq resolution of 2002. 2 pages. Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents: U.S. Government Printing Office
Cook, M.L. (2002). The proper role of professional military advice in contemporary uses of force. 14 pages. Parameters: U.S. Army War College
Krieger, D. (2002). Law vs. force. 2 pages. Humanist: American Humanist Association
Rivkin Jr., D.B. And Casey, L.A. (2000). The rocky shoals of international law. The National Interest: The National Affairs, Inc.
It has given a clear signal to unscrupulous tyrants and murderous dictators around the world that they have no place to hide. Earlier, they could escape prosecution for their crimes by brow-beating or manipulating the judicial system in their own country; the expanding reach of international law has now made it possible for them to be answerable for such universally unacceptable crimes (Kenneth Roth).
The benefits of international law are also recognized by private business. For example the U.S. Apparel Industry Partnership has voluntarily agreed to a standard code of conduct that prohibits forced labor, child labor, and workweeks exceeding 60 hours. This has had a significant effect on the operation of U.S. companies in poor countries and helped to prevent the cruel exploitation of cheap labor (Ratner 71). The signing of the "Sullivan Principles" by more than 100 U.S. companies in 1977 that call for desegregation in the workplace,…
Hathaway, Oona a. "Two Cheers for International Law." The Wilson Quarterly Autumn 2003: 50+.
International law." The Free Dictionary. 2008. January 14, 2008. http://legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/international+law
Kissinger, Henry. "The Pitfalls of Universal Jurisdiction: Risking Judicial Tyranny." Foreign Affairs. July/August 2001. January 14, 2008. http://www.globalpolicy.org/intljustice/general/2001/07kiss.htm
Mcwhinney, Edward. "1. Shifting Paradigms of International Law and World Order in an Era of Historical Transition." International Law in the Post-Cold War World: Essays in Memory of Li Haopei. Ed. Sienho Yee and Wang Tieya. London: Routledge, 2001. 3-17.
S. policymakers about the international consensus on questions and issues. The U.S. thus uses international law in its foreign policy and also contributes to its formation and development. This is why it formally recognizes and respects fundamental rules and principles as guide to its foreign policy (Joyner).
However, American foreign policy has not focused very much on international law (Rivkin and Casey 2000). Since the end of the Cold War, many international organization have struggled to modify the traditional law of nations governing the relationships between States into an international regulatory code. This intended and new international law would also govern the relationship between citizens and their government. It would regulate primary domestic issues, such as environmental protection and the rights of children. It would also virtually eradicate the use of military force, avoid all civilian casualties during combat, promote the equitable criminal prosecution of individual state leaders or officials…
Joyner, Christopher C. International Law. Encyclopedia of American Foreign Policy, 2002. Retrieved on January 1, 2008 at http://findarticles.com/ p/articles/mi_qx5215/is_2002/ai_n19132421
Mitchell, Paul Andrew. Citizenship is a Term of Municipal Law. Supreme Law Firm:
Supreme Law Library, 2005. Retrieved on January 1, 2008 at http://www.supremelaw.org/rsrc/privlaw.htm
Rivkin, David. B., Jr. And Lee a. Casey. The Shoals of International Law. The National
The Air Navigation Bureau has the responsibility of creating and developing technical studies for the Air Navigation Commissions, and also for developing recommendations that are meant to be used by the air navigation board. These recommendations, grouped under the heading Standards and ecommended Practices or SAPs are related to the efficiency, safety and the regularity of the International Aviation Council. The Air Transport Bureau, on the other hand, is charged with, by the Air Transport, Unlawful Interference and Joint Support Committees, for providing expert assistance for the Assembly, Council, Air Transport Committee or the ATC, the Committee on Unlawful Interference or the UIC, the Committee on Joint Support of Air Navigation Services or the JSC, and the specialized conference, divisional, panel and working group meetings that may be convened in the air transport field. The Legal Bureau would provide legal assistance and aid to the Secretary General, and through him,…
Kapteyn, P.J. (1984) "International Organization and Integration, Functional Organization"
N.A. (2004, Feb) "International Civil Aviation Organization ICAO, History and present status"
Retrieved 4 December, 2007 at http://www.dfa.gov.za/foreign/Multilateral/inter/icoa.htm
When business internationally issues settling legal disputes international transactions. What practical consideration taking legal actions a foreign business partner-based country? Which laws precedence.
Dealing with conflict in the new global economy
The rise of the new global economy has generated profits for many enterprises because of the connections it has fostered. However, in addition to the positive benefits of international agreements, there has also been a rise in international disputes. "As international commerce increases, so does the volume of international business disputes…new inbound and outbound foreign investment surpassed previous levels. Some of these deals will fail, and not all contracts will be performed as planned" (A new way to resolve international business disputes in Illinois, 2013, CIDA). Two of the most common methods of dealing with international disputes between business entities are international litigation and international arbitration. Litigation has certain superficial advantages, from the point-of-view of a firm:…
Aliment, R. (2009). Alternative dispute resolution in international business transactions. The Brief, 38.4
Knop, K., Michaels, R. & Riles, A. (n.d.). International law in domestic courts: A conflict of laws approach. scholarship.law.duke.edu. Retrieved:
A new way to resolve international business disputes in Illinois (2013). Chicago International
International Networking and the Outcomes of Global Networking
The purpose of the research proposed is to examine international business economics and specifically the impact that global networking has had upon organizations and corporations that are global providers of products and/or services. Research questions in this proposed study include those which ask as the questions of: (1) What is the impact of global networking on international business economics both in the U.S. And in developing countries throughout the world? And (2) Does affiliation drive business growth and profit for international organizations?
International Networking and the Outcomes of Global Networking
According to the work of Contractor and Lorange (2002) entitled "Cooperative Strategies in International usiness: Joint Ventures and Technology Partnerships etween Firms" there is increasingly acknowledgement that alternative forms of international business operations involving "negotiated arrangements between two or more firms." (Contractor and Lorange, 2002) This model involves the collaboration and cooperation…
Changes in Global Organization (nd) World Bank report. Retrieved from: http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTGEP/Resources/335315-1257200391829/gep2003chap2.pdf
Contractor, FJ and Lorange, P (2002) Cooperative Strategies in International business: Joint Ventures and Technology Partnerships between firms. International business and management series. Vol. 2 Cooperative Strategies and Alliances in International business. Rutgers University. Graduate School of Management, Wharton School. Emerald Group Publishing 2002. Retrieved from: http://books.google.com/books?id=BwfRrH5jEKgC&dq=International+Business+Economics&lr=&source=gbs_navlinks_s
Heinsz, WJ (nd) The Institutional Environment for International business. The Wharton school, University of Pennsylvania. Philadelphia, PA. Retrieved from: http://www-management.wharton.upenn.edu/henisz/papers/wiib.pdf
Mataloni, Raymond J., and Daniel R. Yorgason (2002) Operations of U.S. Multinational Companies: Preliminary Results from the 1999 Benchmark Survey." Survey of Current Business. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Commerce. March.
The objective of this work in writing is to examine what it means to 'keep the peace' in the present age and the world facing challenges and threats of unprecedented scope, scale and complexity. The question addressed in this research is that which asks where in such endeavors are the existence of international institutions and legal doctrines likely to suffice and where are international institutions and legal doctrines likely to fall short?
The ole of International Law in the Modern World
In the National Strategy for Homeland Security it is stated that "virtually every community in America is connected to the global transportation network by the seaports, airports, highways pipelines, railroads, and waterways that move people and goods into, within, and out of the Nation. We must therefore promote the efficient and reliable flow of people, goods and services across borders, while preventing terrorists from using transportation conveyances…
Besson. S. And Tasioulas, J. (2010) The Philosophy of International Law. Oxford University Press. 2010.
Cassels, A. (1996) Ideology and International Relations in the Modern World. London and New York. Retrieved from; http://m.friendfeed-media.com/16091f1cfb5c64ee8145abc0116d37a065575b7d
Coleman, Katharina P. (2007) International Organizations and Peace Enforcement Operations: The Politics of International Legitimacy. Cambridge University Press 2007. Retrieved from: http://www.au.af.mil/au/ssq/bookreviews/coleman.pdfBrunnee, Jutta (2005) Enforcement Mechanisms in International Law and International Environmental Law. Ulrich Beyerlin et al., eds. Ensuring Compliance with Multilateral Environmental Agreements: A Dialogue Between Practitioners and Academia (2005) Environmental Law Network International Review 3-14]. Retrieved from: http://www.law.utoronto.ca/documents/brunnee/BrunneeEnforcementMechanismsInt_lLaw.pdf
Hathaway, Oona A. (2005) Between Power and Principle: An Integrated Theory of International Law. Chicago Law Review 2005.
Labor influences vary from labor quality, quantity, labor unions, labor markets labor mobility and minorities. All these affect the international market differently. The quantity and quality of labor force are of great importance in the international business due to the profitability, efficacy and competition the employers should uphold and depict. Many countries want to purchase labor as cheaply as possible and also maximizing on the quality. Consequently, factors such as adaptability especially to new environments, managerial skills, ability to learn new things, and knowledge are highly considered when hiring candidates (Ball, 2006).
Labor quality can be termed as education, skills, and attitudes of potential employees which vary with regions and countries. It's an essential aspect and component to be considered in the planning stage. It should be considered to ensure that the right skill level is available to conduct business gainfully. In developing and poverty stricken areas where education and…
Aswathappa, K. (2008). International Business. Delhi: McGraw Hill.
Ball, Donald A. (2006). International business: the challenge of global competition. Columbus:
Bauernfeind, Markus. (2005). Drivers of Globalization: Integration of Theories and Models.
Starbucks succeeded in Asia specifically because it did not market the same way that it did in North America. Cultural differences made it difficult to market their primary product (coffee), so they shifted focus to their secondary product (the casual "third place"), something that is in high demand in Asia's densely populated cities and Asia's communal culture (Chang, 2010). Had Starbucks stuck with its focus on coffee, the message would have been lost on tea-drinking Asian consumers.
The notion that products can be marketed the same all the world over is a fanciful one. Even the world's most ubiquitous companies tailor their products, their distribution and their promotional strategies to the local conditions. The brand may be the same, but the marketing behind the brand is often very different.
4. There are a number of costs beyond the domestic price that must be considered when marketing abroad, including product-related costs,…
Johnson, J. & Arunthanes, W. (1995). Ideal and actual product adaptation in U.S. exporting firms: market-related determinants and impacts on performance. International Marketing Review. Vol. 12, 3, 31-46.
Chang, D (2010). In Asia, marketing 101 doesn't work. Harvard Business Review. Retrieved February 14, 2010 from http://blogs.hbr.org/cs/2010/02/in_asia_marketing-101-doesnt-work.html
No author. (1999). Pricing, quotations and terms. UNZCO. Retrieved February 14, 2010 from http://www.unzco.com/basicguide/c11.html
Rong, C. (2004). Feeding a behemoth. Far East Economic Review. ISSN: 0014-7591
Given the high degree to which AIDS impedes global economic integration, in particular of sub-Saharan Africa, it would be reasonable to think that such a transnational issue would bring nations and institutions together to a much higher degree than we see.
Overall, the various aspects of the international system have enabled the expansion of global economic integration. Regimes, institutions, and regional interests bring nations together to meet common objectives. As rational actors, nations sometimes impede global integration, be it over a domestic issue or a transnational one. No aspect of the current international system, however, specifically impedes global economic integration. Only when a nation takes itself out of the international system, as has occurred in North Korea, Cuba, Zimbabwe and a handful of other countries, does economic integration become fully impeded. Therefore we can reasonably conclude that the international system, on balance and with a modicum of cooperation on the…
Goldstein, Judith; Rivers, Douglas & Tomz, Michael. (2003). How does the Trade Regime Affect International Trade? Stanford University. Retrieved December 21, 2008 at http://www.allacademic.com//meta/p_mla_apa_research_citation/0/6/4/3/7/pages64379/p64379-1.php
Wayne, E. Anthony. (2004). NAFTA: Ten Years After. U.S. Department of State. Retrieved December 21, 2008 at http://www.state.gov/e/eeb/rls/rm/31645.htm
No author. (2003). Trade Reforms and Food Security: Conceptualizing the Linkages United Nations. Retrieved December 21, 2008 at http://www.fao.org/docrep/005/y4671e/y4671e00.htm#Contents
Capdevila, Gustavo. (2008). The Death of Doha. Asia Times. Retrieved December 21, 2008 at http://www.atimes.com/atimes/Global_Economy/JG31Dj02.html
International Labor Organization: History And Feasibility of Standards
When it comes to the promotion of social justice and the enhancement of labor rights, the relevance of the International Labor Organization (ILO) cannot be overstated.
This text will concern itself with the history of this crucial organization and the feasibility of international labor standards. Further, the paper will address not only the advantages but also the disadvantages of standards.
The ILO describes itself as "the international organization responsible for drawing up and overseeing international labor standards" (ILO, 2012). On its Website, the ILO clearly defines its history from the time it was formed/created to its earlier days and recent times. Formed in 1919, the ILO was originally "part of the Treaty of Versailles that ended World War 1" (ILO, 2012). According to the organization, a number of considerations at the time led to its formation. These considerations were largely of a…
Budd, J.W. (2004). Employment with a Human Face: Balancing Efficiency, Equity, and Voice. New York: Cornell University Press.
McElrath, R.G. (Ed.). (2003). Monitoring International Labor Standards: Summary of Domestic Forums. Washington, DC: National Academic Press.
The International Labor Organization -- ILO (2012). International Labor Organization: Promoting Jobs, Protecting People. Retrieved July 19, 2012, from the International Labor Organization website: http://www.ilo.org/global/lang -- en/index.htm
International Safety Management
ISM safety code
Acting as a mandatory regulation, ISM Code usually lays down standards of shipowner's responsibility for safe management of ships and pollution prevention accepted internationally. The obligation of the shipment owner is to establish, maintain as well as implement a Safety Management System that is to meet the ISM Code's requirements.
The aspects of civil liability's impact is to be focused on the impact on liability of shipowner for cargo loss or damage, in addition to shipowner's legal right to limit his liability for claims. Some of the concepts such as seaworthiness, actual fault and privity, crew's negligence, the role of the designated person and recklessness with knowledge are to be considered. There has already been a change in the conditions in terms of policies that meet the requirement of the ISM Code through Hull and Machinery (H & M) underwrites and protection…
Gold, E (1996). 'Lessons in Corporate Responsibility: Learn From Disaster?' The
ISM Code Implementation in Practice- Corporate Risk: BIMCO Shipping Courses
Copenhagen, Denmark). BIMCO. Copenhagen: BIMCO, pg 15-18.
Levy, H (1996). 'The P & I Club -- How do the clubs evaluate the ISM Code'. The ISM Code Implementation in Practice -Corporate Risk: BIMCO Shipping Courses: Copenhagen, Denmark). BIMCO. Copenhagen: BIMCO, 15-18).
International Disasters and Humanitarian Law
Great infrastructure damage and social dislocation have been common consequence of natural disasters and social disasters for example wars. The aims of relief and post-disaster reconstruction comprises of:
Instant physical relief of victims
eduction of social dislocation
estoration of a function of social organization and reparation of physical infrastructure
The major disaster or wars international actors are United Nations agencies and ed Cross Movement.
International policies and laws have played a greater impact in helping shift disaster relief and post-disaster reconstruction in that, whenever there is major disaster there is immediate establishment of a rescue and recovery command center under the body of the United Nations, ed Cross and affected governments; this aid in supervision of relief efforts participating foreign military such as U.S. forces being part of it. For example for the case where there was establishment of U.S. dominated command centre set at…
Jonathan Winters, (2009) combating Corruption in the Multilateral Development Banks'
Paul Wodlfowitz, (2006) press conference, U.S.Pacific command, Indonesia 16 January
185). Components for these products may be manufactured and put together in branches in various countries throughout the world. Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, and Hong Kong were involved in the earliest types of production sharing, which included assembling electronic components manufactured in other countries. Production sharing, one World Bank study determined, currently contributes to approximately 30% of manufacturers' total global trade. Foreign affiliates' international exports approach over 7% of global GDP, approximately $2 trillion.
The World Trade Organization (WTO), which came into being in 1995, the only worldwide international organization that deals with rules of trade between countries, maintains their goal to be to assist producers and manufacturers of services; goods; exporters; importers in carry out business. ("What..., 2006, para. 1) "One of the youngest of the international organizations, the WTO is the successor to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) established in the wake of the Second…
Andrews, R., Biggs M., & Seidel, et al. M. (Eds.). (1996). The Columbia World of Quotations.
New York: Columbia University Press. Retrieved on June 7, 2006 at http://www.bartleby.com/66/50/1950.html& ;
Barrera, A. (2004). "Who Benefits from Outsourcing?" Retrieved on June 7, 2006 at http://www.religion-online.org/showarticle.asp?title=3115.
States like Bangladesh, Egypt, and Indonesia have severe challenges due to the risks of flooding, drought, and deforestation. Recently Bangladesh was hit by a powerful Typhoon (same as a hurricane), which caused thousands of deaths and was so severe it was beyond the capability of its weak government to deal with the disaster.
The U.S. Department of State (DOS) has been working for many years to try and help with a solution for the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict. The violence between these two states has been going on for many years, and numerous previous attempts to find a lasting peaceful solution have failed. In a document called "A Performance-Based roadmap to a Permanent Two-State Solution to the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict," the DOS plan includes three phases. The first is the most crucial and pivotal - an end to the "terror and violence" and an attempt to normalize Palestinian life - in conjunction with…
Textbook Chapter 8 "Post-War Reconstruction."
Dixon, Robyn. (2007, Dec. 15). Zimbabwe may shatter, but Mugabe holds firm. The Los
Angeles Times, p. a-1 - a-5.
Foreign Policy. (2007). Failed States Index 2007. The Fund for Peace and Carnegie
he author frequently stresses historical failings, including those he relates to international opinion polls of 'international actions" such as those taken by the U.S. In the invasion of Iraq. he purposes of the article are clearly stated as the author stresses that his work should be seen as a brief though not simplistic summary of the problems and solutions associated with the problem.
As this is not a traditional research-based work the article does not contain a review of literature, though it does pull from appropriate literature, mainly international opinion polls to stress points made by the author. he literature it does use is timely and very current and discusses real application of the validity of the argument that past practices of cooperation and lack there of have resulted in negative overall opinions of those entities in the international community, with regard to past actions.
his work also outlines no…
This work also outlines no particular methodology, as it is a synopsis of an expert opinion on the state of cooperation, at both a micro and macro level. Where research is stated it is in the form of a synopsis of post data from opinion polls. There is no true hypothesis being tested.
The summation of the article can be found in the final point, which is for change to occur in the need for counterterrorism the underlying problems that incite terrorism must be addressed. The author points out throughout the work that the historical failings of cooperation and lack of cooperation are in fact increasing the concerns that incite terrorist activity and feed the extremist ideals that further terrorist activities. Though the work is logical it is also clear that it is the opinion of one very well informed expert on the subject of counterterrorism and therefore there are many interpretations and conclusions that could run contrary to the opinions of this one expert. One possible conclusion is that the expert is seeking to summarize issues that are very complicated and therefore cannot logically draw conclusions about the connections between the growth of negative Middle Eastern opinion of national and international counterterrorism tactics and new terrorism or increased terrorist activities.
Cordesman, Anthony of the Center for Strategic and International Studies (January 18, 2006) "The Lessons of International Cooperation in Counterterrorism: Address to RUSI Conference in Transnational Terrorism, a Global Approach" available at http://www.csis.org/component/option,com_csis_pubs/task , view/id,2707/type,1
For instance, McDonald's has a solid partnership with Starbucks that came as a natural solution to the increased consumption of coffee in its restaurants. Starbucks happens to be the world's leading specialty coffee retailer with a worldwide presence that matches that of the fast food producer.
Other factors affecting decision
Vietnam is an Asian country with strong oriental cooking habits, which might not be very compatible with McDonald's typical menu of cheeseburgers and fries with a Coke on the side. Furthermore, the local food seems to be relatively healthy, which again is not something that cam be said by McDonald's food.
In 1990s, the company tried to enter this market, but didn't due to the lack of suitable business partners. A few years later, KFC and Lotteria entered the market and consolidated their position. Therefore, at this point the restaurant chain would need a couple of strong breakthrough strategies…
IMF -- International Monetary Fund, accessed June 09, World Economic Outlook - Vietnam.
Ministry of Foreign Affairs, accessed June 09, http://www.mofa.gov.vn/en/cs_doingoai/
Ministry of Planning and Investment: http://fia.mpi.gov.vn/
Thuy, L.T. 2005. Technological Spillovers from Foreign Direct Investment: the Case of Vietnam. University of Tokyo, www.e.u-tokyo.ac.jp
Marketing on the Internet
Target Market and Audience
Factors affecting the Target Market and Internet Marketing Efforts
Internet Marketing Objectives
The Internet Marketing Process for Victoria University
How Victoria University can best utilize the Web 2.0 Marketing:
Other benefits of using Web 2.0 Marketing:
Marketing and promotional efforts are done to ensure a continuous growth of operations by creating awareness among the most potential customers and offering them the products or services in the most effective and efficient way (Millman & El-Gohary 2011). Like traditional electronic and print media, web 2.0 marketing has also emerged as a successful medium of promotion for the last few years. Web 2.0 marketing tools include all internet or inbound marketing mediums that are used by the general public for interaction and sharing information with their family members, friends, relatives, and other community members (Software and Information Industry Association 2011). This paper presents…
Beneke, J.H. 2011, Marketing the Institution to Prospective Students -- A Review of Brand (Reputation) Management in Higher Education, International Journal of Business and Management, 6 (1): 29-37.
Bulotaite, N. 2003, University heritage - an institutional tool for branding and marketing. Higher Education in Europe, 28 (4): 449-454.
Gallatin, C., 2009, Internet Marketing Techniques for Online Programs. Available from [Accessed September 28th, 2012]
Millman, C., & El-Gohary, H. 2011, New Digital Media Marketing and Micro Business: A UK Perspective. Available from
Conciliation seems to be more to the purpose, if opposing bodies are expected to work together to govern a country. Humphrey said in his study on From Victim to Victimhood, "By contrast, trials have played a much smaller role during political transition and thus have addressed far fewer victims. They have, however, been very important in re-establishing the authority of law and the state" (2003 184)
hat division of labor among states, international institutions and non-governmental organizations is likely to prove most effective in meeting the challenges of the post-Cold ar era in the future?
George . Bush, President of the United States of America, appears to believe that the United States must police the world, leading other nations into controlling what he considers dangerous policies in other countries, while taking preemptive action against them on his own. hile Bush knows that the laws of war are different from the…
Bass, Gary J., "Milosevic in the Hague." Foreign Affairs, 00157120, May/Jun2003, Vol. 82, Issue 3.
Decision on the Establishment of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission, Official Gazette of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, No. 15/2001. 30 March 2001.
Dickinson, Laura a. "The promise of hybrid courts." The American Journal of International Law, Vol 97(2) April 2003.
Freeman, Mark. "Case Study Series: Bosnia and Herzegovina: Selected Developments in Transitional Justice." International Center for Transitional Justice. Oct 2004.
The ole of the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs and their Involvement in the elief Efforts Following the 2002 Nyirangongo Eruption
The United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) operates under the remit of the United Nations Secretariat, with 35 global offices and approximately 1,900 staff (OCHA, 2012). The organization has four principle roles which are stated as being a part of its' mission (OCHA, 2012). The first role is as an inter-agency body; involved in the mobilization and coordinating of actors that respond to humanitarian emergencies, which it aims to perform in a principled manner to help alleviate the suffering caused by disasters and emergencies (OCHA, 2012). The actors that are mobilized and coordinated by the OCHA include United Nations (UN) actors and non-governmental organizations (NGO's) at both national and international levels (OCHA, 2012). The second role of the OCHA…
OCHA, (2012), retrieved 12th August 2012 from http://www.unocha.org/
O'Malley, Stephen, (2002, Sept 16), The role of OCHA in the emergency operations following the eruption of the Nyiragongo Volcano in Goma, Democratic Republic of Congo, report for the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, retrieved 12th August 2012 from http://reliefweb.int/report/democratic-republic-congo/role-ocha-emergency-operations-following-eruption-nyiragongo
International Human esources. This project sheds light on an Indian company that has decided to adopt the international human resource management plan. In doing so will allow the Indian company to explore many new opportunities that once wasn't available.
The economy is in a struggle and hopes for a better tomorrow are fading away. As a result, Larsen and Toubro decided to expand internationally. Soren Kristian and Henning Larsen founded Larsen and Toubro in 1938. The value of the company sits at 8.5 billion. According to www.larsentoubro.com, the value of Larsen and Toubro sits at 11.7 billion. It specializes in manufacturing and engineering services. It's quite evident that the company has experienced much success in the international world. The company has made the following achievements:
• Implemented hydrocarbon projects In India, Middle East and South East Asia
• Implemented power projects in India, the Gulf, and Sri Lanka
Robert, S. Pindyck., and Daniel, L.Rubinfeld, (2004). Micro Economics. 6th Edition. Pearsons Education International: New Jersey
Andrew, B.Abel. And Ben, S. Bernake., (2004). Macro Economics. 5th Edition. Addison- Wesley: United States
Desatnick, R.L. & Bennett, M.L. (1978). Human Resource Management in the Multinational Company. New York: Nichols
Jupp, V. (2006) "The sage dictionary of social research methods," Sage Publications, London, UK, pp. 110, 111
Organizations with administrative offices in the United States of America, China, Japan, and other regions of the world have set up operation bases in foreign nations. These organizations have various interest in oversees countries. Some of these interests include provision of security services, infrastructure development and provision of aid. The functions of these organizations are to satisfy foreign policies of nations. With emphasis on the United States of America, the U.S. Department of State's mandate is to implement and formulate the president's policy on foreign countries. The organization has a task documented in the constitution on foreign policy (Taylor, 2000). The organization representation includes the secretary of state who acts as the president's advisor. The objective of the organization is to promote a free, prosperous, and secure world through implementing the president's foreign policy.
Foreign affairs responsibilities in the U.S. are representing the United States of America government abroad. These…
Taylor, C.T. (2000). The impact of host country government policy on U.S. multinational investment decisions. The World Economy, 23(5), 635-647.
Dowling, P.J., Festing, M., & Engle Sr., A.D. (2008). International human resource
management: Managing people in a multinational context. London: Thomson learning
Ferner, A., Almond, P., & Colling, T. (2004). Institutional theory and the cross-national transfer of employment policy: The case of 'workforce diversity'in U.S. multinationals. Journal of International Business Studies, 36(3), 304-321.
international business expansion process.
International recruitment and selection brings a number of challenges for business organizations. They not only face difficulties in hiring the desired skillful staff from the host country, but may also have to deal with severe financial and cultural diversity issues. Through this research study, an effort has been made to highlight the major challenges and issues which make the international recruitment and selection process more complex and challenging for multinational organization.
The research report starts with an ample introduction to the esearch question and proceeds by highlighting the core objectives of the research study. The research question clearly states the major objective of this research study in a quite precise and succinct manner. The most important section of the research report is Literature review which has been written after a comprehensive research from a number of academic and industry journal articles and books; most of which…
Ashamalla, M.H. 1998, International Human Resource Management Practices: the Challenge of Expatriation. CR, 8 (2): 54-63.
Andeason, A.W. 2003, Expatriate Adjustment to Foreign Assignments. The International 6 tyJournal of Commerce and Management, 13 (1): 42-60.
Andersen, T.M., & Svarer, M. 2006, Flexicurity -- the Danish Labor Market Model. Available from [Accessed July 26th, 2012]
Baudler, C.R. 2011, Employee Engagement: Through Effective Performance Management by Edward M. Mone and Manuel London, Personnel Psychology, 64 (3): 813 -- 816.
Chernobyl Nuclear disaster took place in 1986 in Ukraine which is a former Soviet State. This plant was built back in 1970 and consisted of 4 reactors. The plant was scheduled to undergo a scheduled and controlled shut down so as to test the generator's ability to produce electricity using the plant's safety system. eactor 4 of this plant exploded after interior energy increased beyond control discharging radioactive debris and smoke on close by cities and created a radioactive cloud that spread out to a big region of the U.S.S.. And Europe. This catastrophe involved over 500,000 workers, and over 18 million ubles. It was considered an International disaster due to the large area that it impacted negatively.
Immediately after the incident, firefighters arrived at the scene and tried to put off the fires. Lieutenant Pravik was among the first commandants to arrive at the scene and he died in…
Alexey V.Y.; Vassily B. Nesterenko; Alexey V. (2009). Chernobyl: Consequences of the Catastrophe for People and the Environment (Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences) Wiley-Blackwell.
Berger, E.M. (2010). The Chernobyl Disaster, Concern about the Environment, and Life Satisfaction. Kyklos, 63(1), 1-8
Davletbaev, R (2001). Last shift Chernobyl. Ten years later. Inevitability or chance? Moscow: Energoatomizdat.
Jargin, S. (2012). Debate on the Chernobyl disaster: on the causes of Chernobyl overestimation. International Journal Of Health Services: Planning, Administration, Evaluation, 42(1), 29-34
International Human esource management Articles
In this paper, we will critically evaluate two separate journal articles related to international human resource management (IHM) and draw out their contribution to IHM in an integrated literature review. The topics of these two articles are Development and Globalization. First, we will overview both of the articles separately in this introductory phase and then in the literature review we will support our outline of concepts and ideas in the two articles. A critical analysis will then be done relevant to the articles which will examine the strengths and weaknesses of the articles. After the critical analysis we will advise how both of the subject matter discussed can be applied to multinational companies either large or small.
Finally, we will give a conclusion and recommendation in which the former will include summary of what we have found looking back at the overall paper and the…
Bizukov, P. 2005. Sluzhbi personala -- upravlencheskaya perfieriya, Moscow: ISITO
Tayeb, Monir. 2005. IHRM, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Keeley, Dean. 2001. International Human Resource Management in Japanese Firms, New York:
regional international institutions, International Monetary Fund, World Bank, United Nations, World Trade Organization, a financial institution. Select countries apply traditional international trade theories, absolute advantage, comparative advantage, factor endowment, enhance participation international trade.
International Trade Participation
The interaction between countries is a complex process that is strongly influenced by economic, political, and cultural factors. The need for this interaction is based on the resources that can be provided with smaller efforts by some countries to countries that need them. The need for resources has determined countries to involve in military, economic, and biological wars, or to involve in influence relationships where several countries support a larger community that can polarize greater power in the attempt to counteract the influence of other powerful countries. This is the case of the European Union that was developed in order to join the efforts of European countries so that they could balance the power…
1. Comparative Advantage (2014). Investopedia. Retrieved March 6, 2014 from http://www.investopedia.com/terms/c/comparativeadvantage.asp .
2. Regional Trade Agreements (2011). OECD. Retrieved March 6, 2014 from http://www.oecd.org/document/62/0,3746,en_2649_36442957_31839102_1_1_1_1,00.html .
3. Role of the World Trade Organization (2012). ICT. Retrieved March 6, 2014 from http://www.ictregulationtoolkit.org/en/section.1651.html.
" (Coleman, 2003)
Coleman states that by the very nature of international disputes and the states desiring to protect their national interest results in "all international disputes" becoming "inevitably political in nature..." (Coleman, 2003) Variation is noted in the 'degree of political volatility' that will exist and notes as well that "just how political a dispute will be extremely subjective." (Coleman, 2003) the dependent factors are stated to within a matrix of diverse factors affecting national interest and includes but is not limited to:
1) External economic pressures;
2) Domestic needs; and 3) National pride and prestige. (Coleman, 2003)
Coleman states that the suitability and capacity of the International Court of Justice has been questioned in regards to it 'comprehending and considering "...highly political matters or 'non-justiciable' issues." (Coleman, 2003) One example given is that of the "weapons embargo put in place by the Security Council during the conflict in…
Allee, Todd L. And Huth, Paul K. (2006) Legitimizing Dispute Settlement: International Legal Rulings as Domestic Political Cover. Vol. 100 No.2 May 2006. Online available at http://journals.cambridge.org/download.php?file=%2FPSR%2FPSR100_02%2FS0003055406062125a.pdf&code=bc8c8108ed707d40bb451e4f5abcf862
Coleman, Andrew (2003) the International Court of justice and Highly Political Matters. Melbourne Journal of International Law. 3 May 2003.
Muller, a.S., Raic, D. And Thuranszky, J.M. (1997) the International Court of Justice: Its Future Role After Fifty Years. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. Leiden Journal of International Law.
Merrills, J.G. (2005) International Dispute Settlement. Cambridge University Press 2005.
international relations: idealism vs. realism
The theories of international relations have been seen as a mechanism thru which practitioners in the area of international politics as well as scholars tried to explain the way in which international politics function and how the behavior of states and actors on the international scene can be anticipated.
The beginning of the 20th century was a period of deep consideration for international politics, given the First World War and its aftermath. The idealistic approach on international politics tried to explain the behavior states had after the end of the war and also define the period between the two conflagrations. The realist theory on the other hand appeared as a result of the Second World War and its aftermath and, although it took into account similar elements, the points made in reference to these elements were somewhat in contrast. There are several key issues that…
Griffiths. M. 1999. Fifty key thinkers in international relations. Routledge, London.
Guzzini, S. 1998. Realism in international relations and international political economy: the continuing story of a death foretold. Routledge, London.
Kissinger, H. 1994. Diplomacy. Simon & Schuster, London.
The international law is the universal rules and principles guiding the conducts and relations between nation-states, and international organizations. The modern concept of international law started in the 17th century, and has been accepted as the rules and conducts guiding the relations among nation states. In the contemporary international environment, rules and principles guiding the states' conducts have become critically important to maintain international peace and security, and preventing violation and aggression. However, the principle of the international law prohibits the use of force against other state actors except where the security council authorizes the use of military force to restore the international peace or where a state uses the force as a self-defence. In the international arena, nation states have been found using the overt and covert method to exercise military interventions against other states. However, a self-defense is one of the major factors that provokes a state to…
From this I would take advice from the history of the Swiss -- I would require all children were taught the use of weapons in adolescence, and that upper classes in school coincided with military training. After graduation, every citizen would be required to keep a weapon in the home, and asked to serve in their community guard, which would train a couple times a year. Defense plans would be built on a street-to-street basis, and every large metropolis would also have more advanced weaponry available to civil servants and block commanders in case of invasion. This training would both protect the future democracy of the country, and assure that any nation wishing to invade would face a true quagmire of house-to-house fighting in every city.
I would then focus on making the nation an economic asset to the larger world. I would first work to assure that the country…
" (McDonald-Gibson, 2007) Therefore, although the entire planet suffers the consequences, it is a limited part of its inhabitants that perpetuates the crisis. From this perspective, developing nations demanded, on a regular basis even, the right to speak out their intentions and to have a unified position in terms of promoting sustainable development and implicitly the general environmental policies promoted by the UN.
Yet another element is in fact in relation to the previous two. Developed nations, although somewhat reluctant to their limitation of economic practices that would increase the limit of emissions, promised strategies and results for succeeding in reducing the greenhouse effects and all the additional side remarks. In this sense, throughout the debates on environmental policies, states such as Canada, France, and the United States would sponsor any initiative with the precise target. Therefore, there are some proposals for developing nations to reduce their need for fuel.…
European Union. The Kyoto protocol - a brief summary. European Union web site, accessed 19 June 2007, at http://ec.europa.eu/environment/climat/kyoto.htm
Freestone, David, and Charlotte Strech. Legal aspects of implementing the Kyoto Protocol. Mechanisms. Making Kyoto work. Oxford: OUP.
Hohmann, Harald. Basic documents of international environmental law. International Environmental Law & Policy Series. Vol 1. London: Graham&Trotman, 1992.
Hollo, Erkki ed al. Legal aspects of climate change: Instrument choice and the Kyoto mechanisms. Retrieved 19 June 2007, at http://www.sci.utu.fi/projects/maantiede/figare/UGS/UGS-177.pdf
HM in an MNE
Similarities and differences between domestic and international HM
International Human resource management is a process that involves the procurement, allocation and utilization of human resource within a multinational corporation or for at least three countries. While the H managers within these organizations are expected to integrate the H policies as well as the practices across various of their subsidiaries that have spread in several countries in order to realize the goals of the organization while at the same time making these policies and practices quite flexible In order to allow the significant policy differences that occur in the policies within the different countries. International HM is thus concerned with the identification and understanding of how Multinational Corporations are able to effectively manage their worked force which is geographically dispersed so as to leverage their H resources and through that be bale to create both a local…
Mir, X.(2010).HRM in the Host Country Context. Retrieved April 25, 2014 from http://www.scribd.com/doc/57307030/Hrm-in-the-Host-Country-Context
Harzing, A.(2005).Knowledge flows in MNCs: An Empirical Test and Extension of Gupta & Govindarajan's Typology of Subsidiary Roles. Retrieved April 25, 2014 from http://aib.msu.edu/JIBS/BookReviews/HTML/2005-09.html
O'Brien D., (2010).Subsidiary strategy and the Role of subsidiary Manager: Integrating the Middle Manager Perspective . Retrieved April 25, 2014 from
A good example of this can be seen with the organization's program for addressing various health issues affecting families to include: the nutritional needs of mothers / newborns, preventing childhood obesity and vaccinating children against a number of diseases. This is significant, because it shows how Save the Children is playing a vital role, in helping to promote nutrition. Where, children are learning to maintain a balance between malnourishment and obesity, with these two challenges continuing to affect large numbers of children around the globe. ("Success Stories," 2010)
Clearly, UNICEF and Save the Children play a vital role in helping to support and promote various issues affecting them. Where, they will engage in similar activities such: as advocacy, education, health and nutrition. Yet, when you look a little further, it is clear that the mission of these two organizations will begin to deviate. As UNICEF will provide greater control to…
About UNICEF. (2010). UNICEF. Retrieved from: http://www.unicef.org/about/who/index_history.html
Annual Report 2008. (2009). UNICEF. Retrieved from: http://www.unicef.org/publications/files/UNICEF_Annual_Report_2008_EN_072709.pdf
History. (2010). Save the Children. Retrieved from: http://www.savethechildren.org/site/c.8rKLIXMGIpI4E/b.6229507/k.C571/History.htm
Success Stories. (2010). Save the Children. Retrieve from: http://www.savethechildren.org/site/c.8rKLIXMGIpI4E/b.6153013/k.9328/Program_Areas.htm
As a result, liberal international institutions broke down. Conversely, ineffective international institutions compounded national economic difficulties. (Holm & Sorensen, 1995, p. 148)
Following World War II, the United States assumed a leadership role in developing new types of international institutions. For example, the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) provided for a liberalization of international trade, the Bretton Woods framework created a fixed exchange-rate system (which lasted until 1971), and the International Monetary Fund controlled the flow of credits until the mid- 1970s and once again from the early 1980s thereafter; in addition, these authors note that the EEC institutionalized a free-trade area in the heart of Western Europe at this time (Holm & Sorensen, 1995). According to Mingst (2006) international institutions are defined as those they are comprised of membership from at least three states, having activities in several states, and whose members are held together by a…
Burke, T. (1997, June 20). The buck stops everywhere. New Statesman, 126(4339), 14.
Calestous, J. (2005, March). Biotechnology in a globalizing world: The coevolution of technology and social institutions. Bioscience, 55(3), 265.
Danks, C.J., & Kennedy, P. (2001). Globalization and national identities: Crisis or opportunity? New York: Palgrave.
Debrah, Y.A., & Smith, I.G. (2002). Globalization, employment, and the workplace: Diverse impacts. London: Routledge.
International Accounting and Auditing Standards
International public sector accounting standards (IPSAS) are developed and put forth by the International Public Sector Accounting Standards Board of the International Federation of Accountants (IFAC). International private sector accounting standards are known as International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS). They are put together and put forth by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB), a self-governing standard generating body of the International Accounting Standards Committee Foundation. The IFRS for SME's is a self enclosed standard, intended to meet the requirements and abilities of small and medium-sized entities (SME's), which are anticipated to comprise over ninety five per cent of all corporations worldwide. It is constructed on the basis of full IFRSs, yet, a lot of the principles for distinguishing and gauging assets, liabilities, earnings and expenses have been cut down, subjects not relevant to SME's have been left out, and the amount of necessary revelations…
Barth, Mary E. "Global Financial Reporting: Implications for U.S. Academics." Accounting
Review 83.5 (2008): 1159-1179. Business Source Premier. EBSCO. Web. 6 July 2011.
Hail, Luzi, Christian Leuz, and Peter Wysocki. "Global Accounting Convergence and the Potential Adoption of IFRS by the U.S. (Part II): Political Factors and Future Scenarios
for U.S. Accounting Standards." Accounting Horizons 24.4 (2010): 567-588. Business