Filter Results By:

Reset Filters

We have over 1000 essays for "International Organization"

View Full Essay

International Clinical Harmonisation Proper Systems in Place

Words: 1196 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10839935

International Clinical Harmonisation

PROPER SYSTEMS IN PLACE

The International Congress Harmonisation

WHO Principles of Good Clinical Practice

Clinical research is conducted to insure the safety and efficacy of health and medical products and practices (WHO 2002). In the past, randomized controlled trials gave most of the information about the safety and efficacy of these products and treatments. Randomized clinical trials were considered the foundation of evidence-based medicine but reliably only when conducted according to principles and standards. These principles and standards comprise good clinical research or GCP. The guidelines were created to help national regulatory authorities, sponsors, investigators and ethics committees to implement GCP for overall clinical research. These were based on the guidelines provided by major international organizations, such as the International Conference on Harmonization or ICH GCP, and used as reference (WHO).

GCP incorporates accepted and established ethical and scientific quality standards complied with for the design, conduct,…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Organizational Review of European Union

Words: 1306 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 79962429



A reduction in farm subsidies is stated to be necessary in order to improve access to market along with Common Agricultural Policy reforms, which should be "de-linked from production." Finally, stated as a requirement is that of a commitment for a 20% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, which may be achieved "through market mechanisms..." (OECD, 2007) the OECD additionally states that structural reforms are required in addressing the challenges that the EU faces and while there is an improvement in terms of the economic prospects of the EU, "there is no room for complacency." (OECD, 2007) the OECD survey relates that the EU has the potential to play a critical role in the provision of solid conditional framework and the ongoing enhancement of the internal market in the EU.

The provision of the single market includes the wider range of goods access for consumers as well as a wider range…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Economic Survey of the European Union (2007) OECD Policy Brief. Sep 2007. Online available at www.oecd.org.

The European Union (2008) Environmental Aspects of Regional Trade Agreements. (2000) United Nations Environment Programme. International Institute for Sustainable Development. Online available at  http://www.iisd.org/trade/handbook/7_2.htm 

Cini, Michelle (2007) European Union Politics. 2007. Oxford University Press. Online Google Scholar Books at  http://books.google.com/books?id=ZZf1839nw0gC&dq=European+Union:+Organizational+impact+on+market+and+trade&source=gbs_summary_s&cad=0 

Organizational Review of European Union
View Full Essay

Organizational Behavior Organizational Behaviour the

Words: 1545 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 26989835



4. Conclusions

ABC Aviation has managed to capture the attention of international organizations and NATO members due to the high quality of their helicopters. However, to be able to complete the signed contract, the organization must first resolve their internal disputes and must implement a strong organizational culture which embraces and promotes cultural diversity.

eference List

Aghazadeh, S. (2004). Managing workforce diversity as an essential resource for improving organizational performance. International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, 53, 521-531.

Ayoko, O.B. (2007). Communication openness, conflict events and reactions to conflict in culturally diverse workgroups. Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, 14, 105-124.

Chuang, Y.T., Church, ., & Zikic, J. (2004). Organizational culture, group diversity and intra-group conflict. Team Performance Management, 10, 26-34. etrieved February 28, 2008, from Emerald database.

Elmuti, D. (2001). Preliminary analysis of the relationship between cultural diversity and technology in corporate America. Equal Opportunities International, 20, 1-16.…… [Read More]

Reference List

Aghazadeh, S. (2004). Managing workforce diversity as an essential resource for improving organizational performance. International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, 53, 521-531.

Ayoko, O.B. (2007). Communication openness, conflict events and reactions to conflict in culturally diverse workgroups. Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, 14, 105-124.

Chuang, Y.T., Church, R., & Zikic, J. (2004). Organizational culture, group diversity and intra-group conflict. Team Performance Management, 10, 26-34. Retrieved February 28, 2008, from Emerald database.

Elmuti, D. (2001). Preliminary analysis of the relationship between cultural diversity and technology in corporate America. Equal Opportunities International, 20, 1-16. Retrieved February 28, 2008, from Emerald database.
View Full Essay

International Developments in Corporate Governance

Words: 8350 Length: 30 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 54002787

For example, Shu-Acquaye (2007) cites the basic differences in the legal systems in various parts of the world as contributing to the different approaches to corporate governance. Likewise, Shu-Acquaye cites these differences and adds, "The American corporate governance system adheres to the idea of shareholder primacy. Because the United Kingdom, Austria, and Canada share a legal system based on English common law and equity principles, they are similar to the United States -- shareholder primacy is the predominant norm in each of these countries."

By sharp contrast, other countries such as Japan and Germany are characterized by stronger protection for their employees, creditors, and other nonshareholder stakeholders in general, representing examples of a stakeholder-orientated system. In their book, the Control of Corporate Europe, Barca and Becht point out that, "Germany has always had a prominent place in the international corporate governance debate. The country is among the largest and richest…… [Read More]

References

Aaronson, Susan Ariel, 2002 (Fall), "Broadening Corporate Responsibility: Is Maximizing Shareholder Value Alone a Good Enough Long-Term Strategy?," the International Economy 16(4): 46

Ashby, Meredith D. And Stephen a. Miles, Leaders Talk Leadership: Top Executives Speak Their Minds (New York: Oxford University Press, 2002)

Barca, Fabrizio and Marco Becht, the Control of Corporate Europe (New York: Oxford University Press, 2002).

Brada, Josef C., Saul Estrin, Josef C. Brada et al. (eds.). Corporate Governance in Central Eastern Europe: Case Studies of Firms in Transition (Armonk, NY M.E. Sharpe, 1999).
View Full Essay

International Lending Implications International Lending

Words: 2293 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 71433049

Liquidity shocks on the international arena can have a strong negative impact on less developed countries whose access to funding sources is already reduced.

The clearing risk is a specific risk, which combines credit risk, in the sense that it results from a counterparty's inability to meet its liabilities, market risk in the sense that it is caused by market shifts (general and specific market risk) between the time a transaction is executed and the time it is cleared, as well as liquidity and systemic risk." (Casanova, 2000). The clearing risk is assumed by clearing houses, which guarantee the proper settlement of transactions done by the members. These institutions engage themselves to bear potential replacement costs if either one of the trade counterparties can't fulfill its obligations. In international markets this risk is increased as the international arena as mentioned before it more dynamic and volatile and the chance of…… [Read More]

Reference List

Casanova, J - F. 2000 - Role Played by Risk Management and Clearing Systems in the Economy of Future Exchanges and ECNs. UNCTAD, www.unctad.org

Eichengreen, B. 1990a. Trends and Cycles in Foreign Lending. CEPR - Center for Economic Policy Research. Working Paper N"451.

Eichengreen, B. 1990b, Economic Policy - International Lending, Center for Economic Policy Research. Working Paper N"452.

Investopedia, Accessed October 2008, www.investopedia.com
View Full Essay

International Law Traditionally International Law

Words: 1475 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 12836694

It has given a clear signal to unscrupulous tyrants and murderous dictators around the world that they have no place to hide. Earlier, they could escape prosecution for their crimes by brow-beating or manipulating the judicial system in their own country; the expanding reach of international law has now made it possible for them to be answerable for such universally unacceptable crimes (Kenneth Roth).

The benefits of international law are also recognized by private business. For example the U.S. Apparel Industry Partnership has voluntarily agreed to a standard code of conduct that prohibits forced labor, child labor, and workweeks exceeding 60 hours. This has had a significant effect on the operation of U.S. companies in poor countries and helped to prevent the cruel exploitation of cheap labor (Ratner 71). The signing of the "Sullivan Principles" by more than 100 U.S. companies in 1977 that call for desegregation in the workplace,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Hathaway, Oona a. "Two Cheers for International Law." The Wilson Quarterly Autumn 2003: 50+.

International law." The Free Dictionary. 2008. January 14, 2008.  http://legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/international+law 

Kissinger, Henry. "The Pitfalls of Universal Jurisdiction: Risking Judicial Tyranny." Foreign Affairs. July/August 2001. January 14, 2008.  http://www.globalpolicy.org/intljustice/general/2001/07kiss.htm 

Mcwhinney, Edward. "1. Shifting Paradigms of International Law and World Order in an Era of Historical Transition." International Law in the Post-Cold War World: Essays in Memory of Li Haopei. Ed. Sienho Yee and Wang Tieya. London: Routledge, 2001. 3-17.
View Full Essay

International Law the Objective of This Work

Words: 1866 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 86378846

International Law

The objective of this work in writing is to examine what it means to 'keep the peace' in the present age and the world facing challenges and threats of unprecedented scope, scale and complexity. The question addressed in this research is that which asks where in such endeavors are the existence of international institutions and legal doctrines likely to suffice and where are international institutions and legal doctrines likely to fall short?

The ole of International Law in the Modern World

In the National Strategy for Homeland Security it is stated that "virtually every community in America is connected to the global transportation network by the seaports, airports, highways pipelines, railroads, and waterways that move people and goods into, within, and out of the Nation. We must therefore promote the efficient and reliable flow of people, goods and services across borders, while preventing terrorists from using transportation conveyances…… [Read More]

References

Besson. S. And Tasioulas, J. (2010) The Philosophy of International Law. Oxford University Press. 2010.

Cassels, A. (1996) Ideology and International Relations in the Modern World. London and New York. Retrieved from; http://m.friendfeed-media.com/16091f1cfb5c64ee8145abc0116d37a065575b7d

Coleman, Katharina P. (2007) International Organizations and Peace Enforcement Operations: The Politics of International Legitimacy. Cambridge University Press 2007. Retrieved from: http://www.au.af.mil/au/ssq/bookreviews/coleman.pdfBrunnee, Jutta (2005) Enforcement Mechanisms in International Law and International Environmental Law. Ulrich Beyerlin et al., eds. Ensuring Compliance with Multilateral Environmental Agreements: A Dialogue Between Practitioners and Academia (2005) Environmental Law Network International Review 3-14]. Retrieved from:  http://www.law.utoronto.ca/documents/brunnee/BrunneeEnforcementMechanismsInt_lLaw.pdf 

Hathaway, Oona A. (2005) Between Power and Principle: An Integrated Theory of International Law. Chicago Law Review 2005.
View Full Essay

International Law Assess the Legality

Words: 2295 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Seminar Paper Paper #: 44073436



The case involving Milosevic was has different sub-plots, as he would claim that the actions he took were to prevent the country from being overrun by terrorists. Yet, at the same time, as some of these atrocities were being committed, NATO would attack Serbia in an effort to halt these violations. In this aspect, one could argue that the actions taken by NATO were in violation of international law. As they were not supported by a UN mandate, instead the actions were NATO countries working in concert with one another to go after Serbia. This is despite the fact that Serbia did not attack any of NATO allied nations.

When you look at the situations from the realist perspective, they would argue that the application of different international standards is an attempt to circumvent the power of the nation state over its people. Where, the ICC is unilaterally determining what…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Franck, Thomas. "What Happens Now?" American Society of International Law. 97, no. 3 (2003): 607 -- 620.

Goldsmith, Jack. "The Limits of Idealism." Daedulus. 132, no. 1. (2003): 47 -- 63.

Higgins, Rosalyn. "Policy and Impartiality." 915 -- 931.

Thomas Franck. "What Happens Now?" American Society of International Law. 97, no. 3 (2003): 607 -- 620.
View Full Essay

International Law and Human Trafficking

Words: 3756 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 59467640

The new law has prosecuted 426 traffickers in 203 cases. These traffickers had 844 victims in that year alone. This law imposes penalties from 10 years imprisonment to life imprisonment (Kyodo).

Myanmar: Effective or Not?

The capacity of the national government in fighting the problem of human trafficking has been limited (UNODC 2007). It is particularly limited in implementing policy changes in remote areas where traffickers operate. Anti-trafficking groups are looking into the situation. The UNODC addresses the issue by implementing projects and participating in partnership initiatives in the country. These projects and initiatives include increasing public awareness of the problem, provision of technical assistance for the law enforcement sector and the judiciary, greater and easier access to service providers and enhancing their capabilities (UNODC).

Cambodia

Reports say that Cambodia is a source, transit and destination country for human trafficking (HumanTrafficking.org 2009). Human traffickers consist of organized crime syndicates, parents,…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

CIA. Russia. The World Fact Book: Central Intelligence Agency, 2009. Retrieved on April 23, 2009 from  http://www.cia.gov/library/publications/2732.htm 

Gekht, Anna. Shared but Differentiated Responsibility Integration of International

Obligations in Fight against Trafficking in Human Beings. Denver Journal

International Law and Policy: University of Denver, 2008. Retrieved on April
View Full Essay

International Trade the International System

Words: 1645 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52303198

Given the high degree to which AIDS impedes global economic integration, in particular of sub-Saharan Africa, it would be reasonable to think that such a transnational issue would bring nations and institutions together to a much higher degree than we see.

Overall, the various aspects of the international system have enabled the expansion of global economic integration. Regimes, institutions, and regional interests bring nations together to meet common objectives. As rational actors, nations sometimes impede global integration, be it over a domestic issue or a transnational one. No aspect of the current international system, however, specifically impedes global economic integration. Only when a nation takes itself out of the international system, as has occurred in North Korea, Cuba, Zimbabwe and a handful of other countries, does economic integration become fully impeded. Therefore we can reasonably conclude that the international system, on balance and with a modicum of cooperation on the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Goldstein, Judith; Rivers, Douglas & Tomz, Michael. (2003). How does the Trade Regime Affect International Trade? Stanford University. Retrieved December 21, 2008 at  http://www.allacademic.com//meta/p_mla_apa_research_citation/0/6/4/3/7/pages64379/p64379-1.php 

Wayne, E. Anthony. (2004). NAFTA: Ten Years After. U.S. Department of State. Retrieved December 21, 2008 at  http://www.state.gov/e/eeb/rls/rm/31645.htm 

No author. (2003). Trade Reforms and Food Security: Conceptualizing the Linkages United Nations. Retrieved December 21, 2008 at http://www.fao.org/docrep/005/y4671e/y4671e00.htm#Contents

Capdevila, Gustavo. (2008). The Death of Doha. Asia Times. Retrieved December 21, 2008 at http://www.atimes.com/atimes/Global_Economy/JG31Dj02.html
View Full Essay

International Law and the Use

Words: 1984 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 63908669

And Article 25 of the Charter enjoins all members to "... accept and carry out the decisions of the Security Council (Turner)."

On the other hand, leading lawyers contended that ritain would violate international law if it also used armed force against Iraq like the U.S. (Waugh 2002). Two leading barristers Rabinder Singh QC and Alison MacDonald said that the use of force against Iraq would be justified only if its leaders directly attacked ritain or its allies or an attack was imminent. They added that the attack should not be one that could be averted except with the use of force. They required the UN Security Council to authorize the use of force in concrete and "clear terms." They believed that Security Council resolutions did not authorize such use of force against Iraq. The United Kingdom was not entitled to that last recourse. Another barrister said that the UK…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bush, G.W. (2002). Statement on signing the authorization for using of military force against Iraq resolution of 2002. 2 pages. Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents: U.S. Government Printing Office

Cook, M.L. (2002). The proper role of professional military advice in contemporary uses of force. 14 pages. Parameters: U.S. Army War College

Krieger, D. (2002). Law vs. force. 2 pages. Humanist: American Humanist Association

Rivkin Jr., D.B. And Casey, L.A. (2000). The rocky shoals of international law. The National Interest: The National Affairs, Inc.
View Full Essay

International Law Consists of Customs

Words: 1486 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 99213216

S. policymakers about the international consensus on questions and issues. The U.S. thus uses international law in its foreign policy and also contributes to its formation and development. This is why it formally recognizes and respects fundamental rules and principles as guide to its foreign policy (Joyner).

However, American foreign policy has not focused very much on international law (Rivkin and Casey 2000). Since the end of the Cold War, many international organization have struggled to modify the traditional law of nations governing the relationships between States into an international regulatory code. This intended and new international law would also govern the relationship between citizens and their government. It would regulate primary domestic issues, such as environmental protection and the rights of children. It would also virtually eradicate the use of military force, avoid all civilian casualties during combat, promote the equitable criminal prosecution of individual state leaders or officials…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Joyner, Christopher C. International Law. Encyclopedia of American Foreign Policy, 2002. Retrieved on January 1, 2008 at  http://findarticles.com/ p/articles/mi_qx5215/is_2002/ai_n19132421

Mitchell, Paul Andrew. Citizenship is a Term of Municipal Law. Supreme Law Firm:

Supreme Law Library, 2005. Retrieved on January 1, 2008 at http://www.supremelaw.org/rsrc/privlaw.htm

Rivkin, David. B., Jr. And Lee a. Casey. The Shoals of International Law. The National
View Full Essay

International Civil Aviation Organization What

Words: 1459 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 14462110

The Air Navigation Bureau has the responsibility of creating and developing technical studies for the Air Navigation Commissions, and also for developing recommendations that are meant to be used by the air navigation board. These recommendations, grouped under the heading Standards and ecommended Practices or SAPs are related to the efficiency, safety and the regularity of the International Aviation Council. The Air Transport Bureau, on the other hand, is charged with, by the Air Transport, Unlawful Interference and Joint Support Committees, for providing expert assistance for the Assembly, Council, Air Transport Committee or the ATC, the Committee on Unlawful Interference or the UIC, the Committee on Joint Support of Air Navigation Services or the JSC, and the specialized conference, divisional, panel and working group meetings that may be convened in the air transport field. The Legal Bureau would provide legal assistance and aid to the Secretary General, and through him,…… [Read More]

References

Kapteyn, P.J. (1984) "International Organization and Integration, Functional Organization"

Brill.

N.A. (2004, Feb) "International Civil Aviation Organization ICAO, History and present status"

Retrieved 4 December, 2007 at  http://www.dfa.gov.za/foreign/Multilateral/inter/icoa.htm
View Full Essay

International Labor Organization History and Feasibility of

Words: 756 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14853799

International Labor Organization: History And Feasibility of Standards

When it comes to the promotion of social justice and the enhancement of labor rights, the relevance of the International Labor Organization (ILO) cannot be overstated.

This text will concern itself with the history of this crucial organization and the feasibility of international labor standards. Further, the paper will address not only the advantages but also the disadvantages of standards.

The ILO describes itself as "the international organization responsible for drawing up and overseeing international labor standards" (ILO, 2012). On its Website, the ILO clearly defines its history from the time it was formed/created to its earlier days and recent times. Formed in 1919, the ILO was originally "part of the Treaty of Versailles that ended World War 1" (ILO, 2012). According to the organization, a number of considerations at the time led to its formation. These considerations were largely of a…… [Read More]

References

Budd, J.W. (2004). Employment with a Human Face: Balancing Efficiency, Equity, and Voice. New York: Cornell University Press.

McElrath, R.G. (Ed.). (2003). Monitoring International Labor Standards: Summary of Domestic Forums. Washington, DC: National Academic Press.

The International Labor Organization -- ILO (2012). International Labor Organization: Promoting Jobs, Protecting People. Retrieved July 19, 2012, from the International Labor Organization website: http://www.ilo.org/global/lang -- en/index.htm
View Full Essay

International Disputes When Business Internationally Issues Settling

Words: 1422 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84581346

International Disputes

When business internationally issues settling legal disputes international transactions. What practical consideration taking legal actions a foreign business partner-based country? Which laws precedence.

Dealing with conflict in the new global economy

The rise of the new global economy has generated profits for many enterprises because of the connections it has fostered. However, in addition to the positive benefits of international agreements, there has also been a rise in international disputes. "As international commerce increases, so does the volume of international business disputes…new inbound and outbound foreign investment surpassed previous levels. Some of these deals will fail, and not all contracts will be performed as planned" (A new way to resolve international business disputes in Illinois, 2013, CIDA). Two of the most common methods of dealing with international disputes between business entities are international litigation and international arbitration. Litigation has certain superficial advantages, from the point-of-view of a firm:…… [Read More]

References

Aliment, R. (2009). Alternative dispute resolution in international business transactions. The Brief, 38.4

Knop, K., Michaels, R. & Riles, A. (n.d.). International law in domestic courts: A conflict of laws approach. scholarship.law.duke.edu. Retrieved:

 http://scholarship.law.duke.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=2629&context=faculty_scholarship 

A new way to resolve international business disputes in Illinois (2013). Chicago International
View Full Essay

International Business Economics

Words: 2652 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Dissertation or Thesis complete Paper #: 42283241

International Networking and the Outcomes of Global Networking

The purpose of the research proposed is to examine international business economics and specifically the impact that global networking has had upon organizations and corporations that are global providers of products and/or services. Research questions in this proposed study include those which ask as the questions of: (1) What is the impact of global networking on international business economics both in the U.S. And in developing countries throughout the world? And (2) Does affiliation drive business growth and profit for international organizations?

International Networking and the Outcomes of Global Networking

According to the work of Contractor and Lorange (2002) entitled "Cooperative Strategies in International usiness: Joint Ventures and Technology Partnerships etween Firms" there is increasingly acknowledgement that alternative forms of international business operations involving "negotiated arrangements between two or more firms." (Contractor and Lorange, 2002) This model involves the collaboration and cooperation…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Changes in Global Organization (nd) World Bank report. Retrieved from:  http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTGEP/Resources/335315-1257200391829/gep2003chap2.pdf 

Contractor, FJ and Lorange, P (2002) Cooperative Strategies in International business: Joint Ventures and Technology Partnerships between firms. International business and management series. Vol. 2 Cooperative Strategies and Alliances in International business. Rutgers University. Graduate School of Management, Wharton School. Emerald Group Publishing 2002. Retrieved from:  http://books.google.com/books?id=BwfRrH5jEKgC&dq=International+Business+Economics&lr=&source=gbs_navlinks_s 

Heinsz, WJ (nd) The Institutional Environment for International business. The Wharton school, University of Pennsylvania. Philadelphia, PA. Retrieved from:  http://www-management.wharton.upenn.edu/henisz/papers/wiib.pdf 

Mataloni, Raymond J., and Daniel R. Yorgason (2002) Operations of U.S. Multinational Companies: Preliminary Results from the 1999 Benchmark Survey." Survey of Current Business. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Commerce. March.
View Full Essay

International Verizon Drivers of Globalization

Words: 2413 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 67152506



Labor influences vary from labor quality, quantity, labor unions, labor markets labor mobility and minorities. All these affect the international market differently. The quantity and quality of labor force are of great importance in the international business due to the profitability, efficacy and competition the employers should uphold and depict. Many countries want to purchase labor as cheaply as possible and also maximizing on the quality. Consequently, factors such as adaptability especially to new environments, managerial skills, ability to learn new things, and knowledge are highly considered when hiring candidates (Ball, 2006).

Labor quality can be termed as education, skills, and attitudes of potential employees which vary with regions and countries. It's an essential aspect and component to be considered in the planning stage. It should be considered to ensure that the right skill level is available to conduct business gainfully. In developing and poverty stricken areas where education and…… [Read More]

References

Aswathappa, K. (2008). International Business. Delhi: McGraw Hill.

Ball, Donald A. (2006). International business: the challenge of global competition. Columbus:

McGraw-Hill.

Bauernfeind, Markus. (2005). Drivers of Globalization: Integration of Theories and Models.
View Full Essay

International Firms Segment the Global

Words: 1374 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6756142

Starbucks succeeded in Asia specifically because it did not market the same way that it did in North America. Cultural differences made it difficult to market their primary product (coffee), so they shifted focus to their secondary product (the casual "third place"), something that is in high demand in Asia's densely populated cities and Asia's communal culture (Chang, 2010). Had Starbucks stuck with its focus on coffee, the message would have been lost on tea-drinking Asian consumers.

The notion that products can be marketed the same all the world over is a fanciful one. Even the world's most ubiquitous companies tailor their products, their distribution and their promotional strategies to the local conditions. The brand may be the same, but the marketing behind the brand is often very different.

4. There are a number of costs beyond the domestic price that must be considered when marketing abroad, including product-related costs,…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Johnson, J. & Arunthanes, W. (1995). Ideal and actual product adaptation in U.S. exporting firms: market-related determinants and impacts on performance. International Marketing Review. Vol. 12, 3, 31-46.

Chang, D (2010). In Asia, marketing 101 doesn't work. Harvard Business Review. Retrieved February 14, 2010 from  http://blogs.hbr.org/cs/2010/02/in_asia_marketing-101-doesnt-work.html 

No author. (1999). Pricing, quotations and terms. UNZCO. Retrieved February 14, 2010 from  http://www.unzco.com/basicguide/c11.html 

Rong, C. (2004). Feeding a behemoth. Far East Economic Review. ISSN: 0014-7591
View Full Essay

International Safety Management Ism Code Ism Safety

Words: 4136 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59405069

International Safety Management

ISM Code

ISM safety code

Acting as a mandatory regulation, ISM Code usually lays down standards of shipowner's responsibility for safe management of ships and pollution prevention accepted internationally. The obligation of the shipment owner is to establish, maintain as well as implement a Safety Management System that is to meet the ISM Code's requirements.

The aspects of civil liability's impact is to be focused on the impact on liability of shipowner for cargo loss or damage, in addition to shipowner's legal right to limit his liability for claims. Some of the concepts such as seaworthiness, actual fault and privity, crew's negligence, the role of the designated person and recklessness with knowledge are to be considered. There has already been a change in the conditions in terms of policies that meet the requirement of the ISM Code through Hull and Machinery (H & M) underwrites and protection…… [Read More]

References

Gold, E (1996). 'Lessons in Corporate Responsibility: Learn From Disaster?' The

ISM Code Implementation in Practice- Corporate Risk: BIMCO Shipping Courses

Copenhagen, Denmark). BIMCO. Copenhagen: BIMCO, pg 15-18.

Levy, H (1996). 'The P & I Club -- How do the clubs evaluate the ISM Code'. The ISM Code Implementation in Practice -Corporate Risk: BIMCO Shipping Courses: Copenhagen, Denmark). BIMCO. Copenhagen: BIMCO, 15-18).
View Full Essay

International Disasters and Humanitarian Law

Words: 638 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 19231916

International Disasters and Humanitarian Law

Great infrastructure damage and social dislocation have been common consequence of natural disasters and social disasters for example wars. The aims of relief and post-disaster reconstruction comprises of:

Instant physical relief of victims

eduction of social dislocation

estoration of a function of social organization and reparation of physical infrastructure

The major disaster or wars international actors are United Nations agencies and ed Cross Movement.

International policies and laws have played a greater impact in helping shift disaster relief and post-disaster reconstruction in that, whenever there is major disaster there is immediate establishment of a rescue and recovery command center under the body of the United Nations, ed Cross and affected governments; this aid in supervision of relief efforts participating foreign military such as U.S. forces being part of it. For example for the case where there was establishment of U.S. dominated command centre set at…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Jonathan Winters, (2009) combating Corruption in the Multilateral Development Banks'

Paul Wodlfowitz, (2006) press conference, U.S.Pacific command, Indonesia 16 January
View Full Essay

International Trade & Investment Good

Words: 2421 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 75153789

185). Components for these products may be manufactured and put together in branches in various countries throughout the world. Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, and Hong Kong were involved in the earliest types of production sharing, which included assembling electronic components manufactured in other countries. Production sharing, one World Bank study determined, currently contributes to approximately 30% of manufacturers' total global trade. Foreign affiliates' international exports approach over 7% of global GDP, approximately $2 trillion.

Conclusion

The World Trade Organization (WTO), which came into being in 1995, the only worldwide international organization that deals with rules of trade between countries, maintains their goal to be to assist producers and manufacturers of services; goods; exporters; importers in carry out business. ("What..., 2006, para. 1) "One of the youngest of the international organizations, the WTO is the successor to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) established in the wake of the Second…… [Read More]

References

Andrews, R., Biggs M., & Seidel, et al. M. (Eds.). (1996). The Columbia World of Quotations.

New York: Columbia University Press. Retrieved on June 7, 2006 at  http://www.bartleby.com/66/50/1950.html& ;

 http://www.bartleby.com/66/45/39445.html .

Barrera, A. (2004). "Who Benefits from Outsourcing?" Retrieved on June 7, 2006 at http://www.religion-online.org/showarticle.asp?title=3115.
View Full Essay

International Conflict Resolution for Policymakers

Words: 2740 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 34473124

States like Bangladesh, Egypt, and Indonesia have severe challenges due to the risks of flooding, drought, and deforestation. Recently Bangladesh was hit by a powerful Typhoon (same as a hurricane), which caused thousands of deaths and was so severe it was beyond the capability of its weak government to deal with the disaster.

The U.S. Department of State (DOS) has been working for many years to try and help with a solution for the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict. The violence between these two states has been going on for many years, and numerous previous attempts to find a lasting peaceful solution have failed. In a document called "A Performance-Based roadmap to a Permanent Two-State Solution to the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict," the DOS plan includes three phases. The first is the most crucial and pivotal - an end to the "terror and violence" and an attempt to normalize Palestinian life - in conjunction with…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Textbook Chapter 8 "Post-War Reconstruction."

Dixon, Robyn. (2007, Dec. 15). Zimbabwe may shatter, but Mugabe holds firm. The Los

Angeles Times, p. a-1 - a-5.

Foreign Policy. (2007). Failed States Index 2007. The Fund for Peace and Carnegie
View Full Essay

International Cooperation the Lessons of

Words: 864 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 290322

he author frequently stresses historical failings, including those he relates to international opinion polls of 'international actions" such as those taken by the U.S. In the invasion of Iraq. he purposes of the article are clearly stated as the author stresses that his work should be seen as a brief though not simplistic summary of the problems and solutions associated with the problem.

As this is not a traditional research-based work the article does not contain a review of literature, though it does pull from appropriate literature, mainly international opinion polls to stress points made by the author. he literature it does use is timely and very current and discusses real application of the validity of the argument that past practices of cooperation and lack there of have resulted in negative overall opinions of those entities in the international community, with regard to past actions.

his work also outlines no…… [Read More]

This work also outlines no particular methodology, as it is a synopsis of an expert opinion on the state of cooperation, at both a micro and macro level. Where research is stated it is in the form of a synopsis of post data from opinion polls. There is no true hypothesis being tested.

The summation of the article can be found in the final point, which is for change to occur in the need for counterterrorism the underlying problems that incite terrorism must be addressed. The author points out throughout the work that the historical failings of cooperation and lack of cooperation are in fact increasing the concerns that incite terrorist activity and feed the extremist ideals that further terrorist activities. Though the work is logical it is also clear that it is the opinion of one very well informed expert on the subject of counterterrorism and therefore there are many interpretations and conclusions that could run contrary to the opinions of this one expert. One possible conclusion is that the expert is seeking to summarize issues that are very complicated and therefore cannot logically draw conclusions about the connections between the growth of negative Middle Eastern opinion of national and international counterterrorism tactics and new terrorism or increased terrorist activities.

Cordesman, Anthony of the Center for Strategic and International Studies (January 18, 2006) "The Lessons of International Cooperation in Counterterrorism: Address to RUSI Conference in Transnational Terrorism, a Global Approach" available at  http://www.csis.org/component/option,com_csis_pubs/task , view/id,2707/type,1
View Full Essay

International Business Foreign Direct Investment

Words: 2198 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 91339318

For instance, McDonald's has a solid partnership with Starbucks that came as a natural solution to the increased consumption of coffee in its restaurants. Starbucks happens to be the world's leading specialty coffee retailer with a worldwide presence that matches that of the fast food producer.

4.

Other factors affecting decision

Vietnam is an Asian country with strong oriental cooking habits, which might not be very compatible with McDonald's typical menu of cheeseburgers and fries with a Coke on the side. Furthermore, the local food seems to be relatively healthy, which again is not something that cam be said by McDonald's food.

In 1990s, the company tried to enter this market, but didn't due to the lack of suitable business partners. A few years later, KFC and Lotteria entered the market and consolidated their position. Therefore, at this point the restaurant chain would need a couple of strong breakthrough strategies…… [Read More]

Reference list:

IMF -- International Monetary Fund, accessed June 09, World Economic Outlook - Vietnam.

Ministry of Foreign Affairs, accessed June 09, http://www.mofa.gov.vn/en/cs_doingoai/

Ministry of Planning and Investment:  http://fia.mpi.gov.vn/ 

Thuy, L.T. 2005. Technological Spillovers from Foreign Direct Investment: the Case of Vietnam. University of Tokyo, www.e.u-tokyo.ac.jp
View Full Essay

Organization Behavior Marketing on the Internet Target

Words: 3069 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40769140

Organization Behavior

Marketing on the Internet

Target Market and Audience

Factors affecting the Target Market and Internet Marketing Efforts

Internet Marketing Objectives

The Internet Marketing Process for Victoria University

How Victoria University can best utilize the Web 2.0 Marketing:

Other benefits of using Web 2.0 Marketing:

Marketing and promotional efforts are done to ensure a continuous growth of operations by creating awareness among the most potential customers and offering them the products or services in the most effective and efficient way (Millman & El-Gohary 2011). Like traditional electronic and print media, web 2.0 marketing has also emerged as a successful medium of promotion for the last few years. Web 2.0 marketing tools include all internet or inbound marketing mediums that are used by the general public for interaction and sharing information with their family members, friends, relatives, and other community members (Software and Information Industry Association 2011). This paper presents…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Beneke, J.H. 2011, Marketing the Institution to Prospective Students -- A Review of Brand (Reputation) Management in Higher Education, International Journal of Business and Management, 6 (1): 29-37.

Bulotaite, N. 2003, University heritage - an institutional tool for branding and marketing. Higher Education in Europe, 28 (4): 449-454.

Gallatin, C., 2009, Internet Marketing Techniques for Online Programs. Available from [Accessed September 28th, 2012]

Millman, C., & El-Gohary, H. 2011, New Digital Media Marketing and Micro Business: A UK Perspective. Available from
View Full Essay

International Relations Challenges in Approaching

Words: 3079 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 4328109

Conciliation seems to be more to the purpose, if opposing bodies are expected to work together to govern a country. Humphrey said in his study on From Victim to Victimhood, "By contrast, trials have played a much smaller role during political transition and thus have addressed far fewer victims. They have, however, been very important in re-establishing the authority of law and the state" (2003 184)

hat division of labor among states, international institutions and non-governmental organizations is likely to prove most effective in meeting the challenges of the post-Cold ar era in the future?

George . Bush, President of the United States of America, appears to believe that the United States must police the world, leading other nations into controlling what he considers dangerous policies in other countries, while taking preemptive action against them on his own. hile Bush knows that the laws of war are different from the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bass, Gary J., "Milosevic in the Hague." Foreign Affairs, 00157120, May/Jun2003, Vol. 82, Issue 3.

Decision on the Establishment of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission, Official Gazette of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, No. 15/2001. 30 March 2001.

Dickinson, Laura a. "The promise of hybrid courts." The American Journal of International Law, Vol 97(2) April 2003.

Freeman, Mark. "Case Study Series: Bosnia and Herzegovina: Selected Developments in Transitional Justice." International Center for Transitional Justice. Oct 2004.
View Full Essay

International Human Resource Similarity and Differences

Words: 2091 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 74463394

International Human esources. This project sheds light on an Indian company that has decided to adopt the international human resource management plan. In doing so will allow the Indian company to explore many new opportunities that once wasn't available.

The economy is in a struggle and hopes for a better tomorrow are fading away. As a result, Larsen and Toubro decided to expand internationally. Soren Kristian and Henning Larsen founded Larsen and Toubro in 1938. The value of the company sits at 8.5 billion. According to www.larsentoubro.com, the value of Larsen and Toubro sits at 11.7 billion. It specializes in manufacturing and engineering services. It's quite evident that the company has experienced much success in the international world. The company has made the following achievements:

• Implemented hydrocarbon projects In India, Middle East and South East Asia

• Implemented power projects in India, the Gulf, and Sri Lanka

• Has…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Robert, S. Pindyck., and Daniel, L.Rubinfeld, (2004). Micro Economics. 6th Edition. Pearsons Education International: New Jersey

Andrew, B.Abel. And Ben, S. Bernake., (2004). Macro Economics. 5th Edition. Addison- Wesley: United States

Desatnick, R.L. & Bennett, M.L. (1978). Human Resource Management in the Multinational Company. New York: Nichols

Jupp, V. (2006) "The sage dictionary of social research methods," Sage Publications, London, UK, pp. 110, 111
View Full Essay

Organizations With Administrative Offices in the United

Words: 2193 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 24003886

Organizations with administrative offices in the United States of America, China, Japan, and other regions of the world have set up operation bases in foreign nations. These organizations have various interest in oversees countries. Some of these interests include provision of security services, infrastructure development and provision of aid. The functions of these organizations are to satisfy foreign policies of nations. With emphasis on the United States of America, the U.S. Department of State's mandate is to implement and formulate the president's policy on foreign countries. The organization has a task documented in the constitution on foreign policy (Taylor, 2000). The organization representation includes the secretary of state who acts as the president's advisor. The objective of the organization is to promote a free, prosperous, and secure world through implementing the president's foreign policy.

Foreign affairs responsibilities in the U.S. are representing the United States of America government abroad. These…… [Read More]

References

Taylor, C.T. (2000). The impact of host country government policy on U.S. multinational investment decisions. The World Economy, 23(5), 635-647.

Dowling, P.J., Festing, M., & Engle Sr., A.D. (2008). International human resource

management: Managing people in a multinational context. London: Thomson learning

Ferner, A., Almond, P., & Colling, T. (2004). Institutional theory and the cross-national transfer of employment policy: The case of 'workforce diversity'in U.S. multinationals. Journal of International Business Studies, 36(3), 304-321.
View Full Essay

International Business Expansion Process International Recruitment and

Words: 11013 Length: 35 Pages Document Type: Dissertation Paper #: 67287537

international business expansion process.

International recruitment and selection brings a number of challenges for business organizations. They not only face difficulties in hiring the desired skillful staff from the host country, but may also have to deal with severe financial and cultural diversity issues. Through this research study, an effort has been made to highlight the major challenges and issues which make the international recruitment and selection process more complex and challenging for multinational organization.

The research report starts with an ample introduction to the esearch question and proceeds by highlighting the core objectives of the research study. The research question clearly states the major objective of this research study in a quite precise and succinct manner. The most important section of the research report is Literature review which has been written after a comprehensive research from a number of academic and industry journal articles and books; most of which…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Ashamalla, M.H. 1998, International Human Resource Management Practices: the Challenge of Expatriation. CR, 8 (2): 54-63.

Andeason, A.W. 2003, Expatriate Adjustment to Foreign Assignments. The International 6 tyJournal of Commerce and Management, 13 (1): 42-60.

Andersen, T.M., & Svarer, M. 2006, Flexicurity -- the Danish Labor Market Model. Available from [Accessed July 26th, 2012]

Baudler, C.R. 2011, Employee Engagement: Through Effective Performance Management by Edward M. Mone and Manuel London, Personnel Psychology, 64 (3): 813 -- 816.
View Full Essay

International Policies and Laws

Words: 1284 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 86323620

Chernobyl Nuclear disaster took place in 1986 in Ukraine which is a former Soviet State. This plant was built back in 1970 and consisted of 4 reactors. The plant was scheduled to undergo a scheduled and controlled shut down so as to test the generator's ability to produce electricity using the plant's safety system. eactor 4 of this plant exploded after interior energy increased beyond control discharging radioactive debris and smoke on close by cities and created a radioactive cloud that spread out to a big region of the U.S.S.. And Europe. This catastrophe involved over 500,000 workers, and over 18 million ubles. It was considered an International disaster due to the large area that it impacted negatively.

Immediately after the incident, firefighters arrived at the scene and tried to put off the fires. Lieutenant Pravik was among the first commandants to arrive at the scene and he died in…… [Read More]

References

Alexey V.Y.; Vassily B. Nesterenko; Alexey V. (2009). Chernobyl: Consequences of the Catastrophe for People and the Environment (Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences) Wiley-Blackwell.

Berger, E.M. (2010). The Chernobyl Disaster, Concern about the Environment, and Life Satisfaction. Kyklos, 63(1), 1-8

Davletbaev, R (2001). Last shift Chernobyl. Ten years later. Inevitability or chance? Moscow: Energoatomizdat.

Jargin, S. (2012). Debate on the Chernobyl disaster: on the causes of Chernobyl overestimation. International Journal Of Health Services: Planning, Administration, Evaluation, 42(1), 29-34
View Full Essay

International Human Resource Management Articles in This

Words: 3336 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95671175

International Human esource management Articles

In this paper, we will critically evaluate two separate journal articles related to international human resource management (IHM) and draw out their contribution to IHM in an integrated literature review. The topics of these two articles are Development and Globalization. First, we will overview both of the articles separately in this introductory phase and then in the literature review we will support our outline of concepts and ideas in the two articles. A critical analysis will then be done relevant to the articles which will examine the strengths and weaknesses of the articles. After the critical analysis we will advise how both of the subject matter discussed can be applied to multinational companies either large or small.

Finally, we will give a conclusion and recommendation in which the former will include summary of what we have found looking back at the overall paper and the…… [Read More]

References

Bizukov, P. 2005. Sluzhbi personala -- upravlencheskaya perfieriya, Moscow: ISITO

Tayeb, Monir. 2005. IHRM, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Keeley, Dean. 2001. International Human Resource Management in Japanese Firms, New York:

Palgrave.
View Full Essay

International Trade Participation

Words: 1848 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63665175

regional international institutions, International Monetary Fund, World Bank, United Nations, World Trade Organization, a financial institution. Select countries apply traditional international trade theories, absolute advantage, comparative advantage, factor endowment, enhance participation international trade.

International Trade Participation

The interaction between countries is a complex process that is strongly influenced by economic, political, and cultural factors. The need for this interaction is based on the resources that can be provided with smaller efforts by some countries to countries that need them. The need for resources has determined countries to involve in military, economic, and biological wars, or to involve in influence relationships where several countries support a larger community that can polarize greater power in the attempt to counteract the influence of other powerful countries. This is the case of the European Union that was developed in order to join the efforts of European countries so that they could balance the power…… [Read More]

Reference list:

1. Comparative Advantage (2014). Investopedia. Retrieved March 6, 2014 from  http://www.investopedia.com/terms/c/comparativeadvantage.asp .

2. Regional Trade Agreements (2011). OECD. Retrieved March 6, 2014 from  http://www.oecd.org/document/62/0,3746,en_2649_36442957_31839102_1_1_1_1,00.html .

3. Role of the World Trade Organization (2012). ICT. Retrieved March 6, 2014 from http://www.ictregulationtoolkit.org/en/section.1651.html.
View Full Essay

International Court of Justice and

Words: 3716 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32036491

" (Coleman, 2003)

Coleman states that by the very nature of international disputes and the states desiring to protect their national interest results in "all international disputes" becoming "inevitably political in nature..." (Coleman, 2003) Variation is noted in the 'degree of political volatility' that will exist and notes as well that "just how political a dispute will be extremely subjective." (Coleman, 2003) the dependent factors are stated to within a matrix of diverse factors affecting national interest and includes but is not limited to:

1) External economic pressures;

2) Domestic needs; and 3) National pride and prestige. (Coleman, 2003)

Coleman states that the suitability and capacity of the International Court of Justice has been questioned in regards to it 'comprehending and considering "...highly political matters or 'non-justiciable' issues." (Coleman, 2003) One example given is that of the "weapons embargo put in place by the Security Council during the conflict in…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Allee, Todd L. And Huth, Paul K. (2006) Legitimizing Dispute Settlement: International Legal Rulings as Domestic Political Cover. Vol. 100 No.2 May 2006. Online available at  http://journals.cambridge.org/download.php?file=%2FPSR%2FPSR100_02%2FS0003055406062125a.pdf&code=bc8c8108ed707d40bb451e4f5abcf862 

Coleman, Andrew (2003) the International Court of justice and Highly Political Matters. Melbourne Journal of International Law. 3 May 2003.

Muller, a.S., Raic, D. And Thuranszky, J.M. (1997) the International Court of Justice: Its Future Role After Fifty Years. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. Leiden Journal of International Law.

Merrills, J.G. (2005) International Dispute Settlement. Cambridge University Press 2005.
View Full Essay

International Relations Idealism vs Realism the Theories

Words: 1156 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42702682

international relations: idealism vs. realism

The theories of international relations have been seen as a mechanism thru which practitioners in the area of international politics as well as scholars tried to explain the way in which international politics function and how the behavior of states and actors on the international scene can be anticipated.

The beginning of the 20th century was a period of deep consideration for international politics, given the First World War and its aftermath. The idealistic approach on international politics tried to explain the behavior states had after the end of the war and also define the period between the two conflagrations. The realist theory on the other hand appeared as a result of the Second World War and its aftermath and, although it took into account similar elements, the points made in reference to these elements were somewhat in contrast. There are several key issues that…… [Read More]

References

Griffiths. M. 1999. Fifty key thinkers in international relations. Routledge, London.

Guzzini, S. 1998. Realism in international relations and international political economy: the continuing story of a death foretold. Routledge, London.

Kissinger, H. 1994. Diplomacy. Simon & Schuster, London.
View Full Essay

International Law on Overt and Covert Interventions

Words: 1504 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15008814

The international law is the universal rules and principles guiding the conducts and relations between nation-states, and international organizations. The modern concept of international law started in the 17th century, and has been accepted as the rules and conducts guiding the relations among nation states. In the contemporary international environment, rules and principles guiding the states' conducts have become critically important to maintain international peace and security, and preventing violation and aggression. However, the principle of the international law prohibits the use of force against other state actors except where the security council authorizes the use of military force to restore the international peace or where a state uses the force as a self-defence. In the international arena, nation states have been found using the overt and covert method to exercise military interventions against other states. However, a self-defense is one of the major factors that provokes a state to…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

International Relations Study The Field

Words: 1592 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 51759512

From this I would take advice from the history of the Swiss -- I would require all children were taught the use of weapons in adolescence, and that upper classes in school coincided with military training. After graduation, every citizen would be required to keep a weapon in the home, and asked to serve in their community guard, which would train a couple times a year. Defense plans would be built on a street-to-street basis, and every large metropolis would also have more advanced weaponry available to civil servants and block commanders in case of invasion. This training would both protect the future democracy of the country, and assure that any nation wishing to invade would face a true quagmire of house-to-house fighting in every city.

I would then focus on making the nation an economic asset to the larger world. I would first work to assure that the country…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

International Community in Convincing Developing

Words: 2173 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 98425643

" (McDonald-Gibson, 2007) Therefore, although the entire planet suffers the consequences, it is a limited part of its inhabitants that perpetuates the crisis. From this perspective, developing nations demanded, on a regular basis even, the right to speak out their intentions and to have a unified position in terms of promoting sustainable development and implicitly the general environmental policies promoted by the UN.

Yet another element is in fact in relation to the previous two. Developed nations, although somewhat reluctant to their limitation of economic practices that would increase the limit of emissions, promised strategies and results for succeeding in reducing the greenhouse effects and all the additional side remarks. In this sense, throughout the debates on environmental policies, states such as Canada, France, and the United States would sponsor any initiative with the precise target. Therefore, there are some proposals for developing nations to reduce their need for fuel.…… [Read More]

Bibliography

European Union. The Kyoto protocol - a brief summary. European Union web site, accessed 19 June 2007, at  http://ec.europa.eu/environment/climat/kyoto.htm 

Freestone, David, and Charlotte Strech. Legal aspects of implementing the Kyoto Protocol. Mechanisms. Making Kyoto work. Oxford: OUP.

Hohmann, Harald. Basic documents of international environmental law. International Environmental Law & Policy Series. Vol 1. London: Graham&Trotman, 1992.

Hollo, Erkki ed al. Legal aspects of climate change: Instrument choice and the Kyoto mechanisms. Retrieved 19 June 2007, at  http://www.sci.utu.fi/projects/maantiede/figare/UGS/UGS-177.pdf
View Full Essay

International and Local Human Resource Management

Words: 2306 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 96338672

HM in an MNE

Similarities and differences between domestic and international HM

International Human resource management is a process that involves the procurement, allocation and utilization of human resource within a multinational corporation or for at least three countries. While the H managers within these organizations are expected to integrate the H policies as well as the practices across various of their subsidiaries that have spread in several countries in order to realize the goals of the organization while at the same time making these policies and practices quite flexible In order to allow the significant policy differences that occur in the policies within the different countries. International HM is thus concerned with the identification and understanding of how Multinational Corporations are able to effectively manage their worked force which is geographically dispersed so as to leverage their H resources and through that be bale to create both a local…… [Read More]

References

Mir, X.(2010).HRM in the Host Country Context. Retrieved April 25, 2014 from  http://www.scribd.com/doc/57307030/Hrm-in-the-Host-Country-Context 

Harzing, A.(2005).Knowledge flows in MNCs: An Empirical Test and Extension of Gupta & Govindarajan's Typology of Subsidiary Roles. Retrieved April 25, 2014 from  http://aib.msu.edu/JIBS/BookReviews/HTML/2005-09.html 

O'Brien D., (2010).Subsidiary strategy and the Role of subsidiary Manager: Integrating the Middle Manager Perspective . Retrieved April 25, 2014 from
View Full Essay

Organizations Over the Last Several

Words: 1954 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63488801

A good example of this can be seen with the organization's program for addressing various health issues affecting families to include: the nutritional needs of mothers / newborns, preventing childhood obesity and vaccinating children against a number of diseases. This is significant, because it shows how Save the Children is playing a vital role, in helping to promote nutrition. Where, children are learning to maintain a balance between malnourishment and obesity, with these two challenges continuing to affect large numbers of children around the globe. ("Success Stories," 2010)

Clearly, UNICEF and Save the Children play a vital role in helping to support and promote various issues affecting them. Where, they will engage in similar activities such: as advocacy, education, health and nutrition. Yet, when you look a little further, it is clear that the mission of these two organizations will begin to deviate. As UNICEF will provide greater control to…… [Read More]

Bibliography

About UNICEF. (2010). UNICEF. Retrieved from:  http://www.unicef.org/about/who/index_history.html 

Annual Report 2008. (2009). UNICEF. Retrieved from:  http://www.unicef.org/publications/files/UNICEF_Annual_Report_2008_EN_072709.pdf 

History. (2010). Save the Children. Retrieved from:  http://www.savethechildren.org/site/c.8rKLIXMGIpI4E/b.6229507/k.C571/History.htm 

Success Stories. (2010). Save the Children. Retrieve from:  http://www.savethechildren.org/site/c.8rKLIXMGIpI4E/b.6153013/k.9328/Program_Areas.htm
View Full Essay

International Institutions Are No Longer

Words: 4839 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 37529

As a result, liberal international institutions broke down. Conversely, ineffective international institutions compounded national economic difficulties. (Holm & Sorensen, 1995, p. 148)

Following World War II, the United States assumed a leadership role in developing new types of international institutions. For example, the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) provided for a liberalization of international trade, the Bretton Woods framework created a fixed exchange-rate system (which lasted until 1971), and the International Monetary Fund controlled the flow of credits until the mid- 1970s and once again from the early 1980s thereafter; in addition, these authors note that the EEC institutionalized a free-trade area in the heart of Western Europe at this time (Holm & Sorensen, 1995). According to Mingst (2006) international institutions are defined as those they are comprised of membership from at least three states, having activities in several states, and whose members are held together by a…… [Read More]

References

Burke, T. (1997, June 20). The buck stops everywhere. New Statesman, 126(4339), 14.

Calestous, J. (2005, March). Biotechnology in a globalizing world: The coevolution of technology and social institutions. Bioscience, 55(3), 265.

Danks, C.J., & Kennedy, P. (2001). Globalization and national identities: Crisis or opportunity? New York: Palgrave.

Debrah, Y.A., & Smith, I.G. (2002). Globalization, employment, and the workplace: Diverse impacts. London: Routledge.
View Full Essay

International Accounting and Auditing Standards

Words: 1877 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 72735239

Accounting

International Accounting and Auditing Standards

International public sector accounting standards (IPSAS) are developed and put forth by the International Public Sector Accounting Standards Board of the International Federation of Accountants (IFAC). International private sector accounting standards are known as International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS). They are put together and put forth by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB), a self-governing standard generating body of the International Accounting Standards Committee Foundation. The IFRS for SME's is a self enclosed standard, intended to meet the requirements and abilities of small and medium-sized entities (SME's), which are anticipated to comprise over ninety five per cent of all corporations worldwide. It is constructed on the basis of full IFRSs, yet, a lot of the principles for distinguishing and gauging assets, liabilities, earnings and expenses have been cut down, subjects not relevant to SME's have been left out, and the amount of necessary revelations…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Barth, Mary E. "Global Financial Reporting: Implications for U.S. Academics." Accounting

Review 83.5 (2008): 1159-1179. Business Source Premier. EBSCO. Web. 6 July 2011.

Hail, Luzi, Christian Leuz, and Peter Wysocki. "Global Accounting Convergence and the Potential Adoption of IFRS by the U.S. (Part II): Political Factors and Future Scenarios

for U.S. Accounting Standards." Accounting Horizons 24.4 (2010): 567-588. Business