1000+ documents containing “international political economy”.
International Political Economy
After Capitalism by David Schweickart is a book targeting capitalism and promoting the advent of socialism in the economy today. Many say that the book might just be a small version of the book Against Capitalism that came out in 1996. It is easy to say that a socialist America might b a better one, but Schweickart thinks that the word keeps on being used over and over again merely to scare the American people. (Schweickart xvii)
In the book, the major target has been placed on capitalism and its negative impacts on the country. It has been stated that the capitalism has led to environmental degradation, unemployment, overwork, wars, hunger and poverty as well. Schweickart stated that the economic democracy is actually a community and worker oriented form of Market Socialism. According to him, the capitalistic outlook present in the economy today is not free from the shackles….
Ali, Abbas J.. "Rethinking Capitalism: Challenges and Possibilities ." Advances in Competitiveness Research 17.1-2 (2009): Print.
Frieden, Jeffry A, and David A. Lake. International Political Economy: Perspectives on Global Power and Wealth. London [etc.: Routledge, 2000. Print.
Schweickart, David. After Capitalism. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2002. Print.
Solidarity-us.org. "David Schweickart's "After Capitalism" | Solidarity." N.p., 2002. Web. 13 Dec 2012. [ http://www.solidarity-us.org/site/node/517 ].
The European Union also has its own version for corporate social responsibility. (Landau, 85) Thus the U.S. polity was forced to adapt international opinions and legislate both for the external and internal aspects of its economy. Human rights, labor laws and a host of international issues like global warming and the use of chemicals were all reflected in amendments of the local laws while some of the issues like terrorism and nuclear proliferation have conversely changed the international conventions as per the dictates of the U.S. policies. International accounting practices which has undergone more transparency checks is one such result.
Earlier in the divided world, the international trade related to trade surplus, and the maximization of foreign exchange. International financial responsibility is a result of the changes that came about in the world in the later part of this century, and the impact of financial decisions both of the….
Amoore, Louise. Globalization Contested: An International Political Economy of Work.
Manchester University Press. Manchester, England. 2002.
Dhamee, Yousuf. Adam Smith's Laissez-Faire Policies. 1996. http://www.victorianweb.org/economics/laissez.html
Fatemi, Khosrow. International Trade and Finance: A North American Perspective. Praeger Publishers. New York.1988.
International Political Economy
In recent years the presence of a global economy has become more apparent. Financial institutions throughout the world are now connected through a vast computerized network. As a result of this global economy issues associated with the international political economy has become an increasingly important issue. The purpose of this discussion is to explore the manner in which the three conceptions of the international political economy (Realism, Liberalism, Marxism) differ. The research will also focus on how the advocates of each assess the phenomenon of global integration. Finally the discussion will investigate the merits and the dangers of hegemonic stability in international trade? The discussion will begin with a description of international political economy.
International Political Economy
Political economy is defined as the "theory or study of the role of public policy in influencing the economic and social welfare of a political unit ("Political Economy")."
In a broader sense international political….
Bernanke Ben S. Chairman. Global Economic Integration: What's New and What's Not? At the Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City's Thirtieth Annual Economic Symposium, Jackson Hole, Wyoming August 25, 2006. Retrieved January 16, 2009 at http://www.federalreserve.gov/newsevents/speech/bernanke20060825a.htm
Fabienne, Peter. Rhetoric vs. realism in economic methodology: A critical assessment of recent contributions. Cambridge Journal of Economics 2001, 25, 571-589
Milner Helen V. International Political Economy: Beyond Hegemonic Stability Foreign Policy, No. 110, Special Edition: Frontiers of Knowledge (Spring, 1998), pp. 112-123
Prychitko. David L. Marxism. The Concise Encyclopedia of economics. Retrieved January 16, 2009 at http://www.econlib.org/library/Enc/Marxism.html
They are used to the existing state-based system of commercial regulation, and there are several reasons why they might wish to maintain it. The advantage of using this system is that the MNCs know the system well, and the system uses effective tools for managing and currently provides them with significant leverage. They have proved adept at using leverage: globalization has forced firms to raise efficiency and adopt cost-minimization strategies that both raise sustainability questions and arouse the ire of the NGO community. A growing number of MNCs acknowledge the need for sustainable production practices, but face considerable practical problems in implementing them." (Detomasi, 2006)
Multinational Corporations (MNCs) have been extended a large responsibility as well as authority as a matter of correction with regard to the responsibility and capacity these organizations hold to handle environmental issues and assist to combat the social problems inherently produced by neglecting environmental degradation.
Ahern, G. (2009). Implementing environmental sustainability in ten multinationals. Corporate Finance Review,13(6), 27-27-31. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/198836480?accountid=13044
Bohdanowicz, P. (2005). European hoteliers' environmental attitudes: Greening the business. Cornell Hospitality Quarterly, 46(2), 188-188-204. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/209707545?accountid=13044
Bond, G.G. (1996). Global product stewardship: A challenge for the multinational corporation. Environmental Management Today, 7(4), 26-26. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/229168503?accountid=13044
Borowski, J.F. (2001, Smoke and mirrors. Utne, (105), 17-17-19. Retrieved fromhttp://search.proquest.com/docview/217408044?accountid=13044
Investment in the "global economy" remains a domestic matter:
The fact is, the total amount of the world's capital formation that is generated from foreign direct investment (FDI) has been less than 10% for the last three years for which data are available (2003-2005). In other words, more than 90% of the fixed investment around the world is still domestic. And though merger waves can push the ratio higher, it has never reached 20%.
The benefits that were supposed to accrue from the world being brought closer together under the careful and judicious management of a single hegemon and single hegemonic system have certainly not been guided to the many in those parts of the world that do not participate in the system as active members. Developing nations continue to suffer as the already industrialized take advantage of them, using their people as convenient supplies of labor; populations who, in Marx's….
Ghemawat, Pankaj. "Why the World Isn't Flat." Foreign Policy, p.56 (DATE).
Gilpin, Robert. "Three Ideologies of Political Economy." IPE Perspectives, p.427 (DATE).
Lecture 6: "The Liberal Perspective and its Economic Contribution to Strategic Issues," IPE Perspectives, (DATE).
Lynch III, Thomas F. "Foundations of Radicalism." Understanding International Relations: The Values of Alternative Lenses. Kaufman, Parker, Howell, Doty, Eds. (DATE).
Lindsey gives an example of how the current President ush had made the improvement of the nation's schools as one of his top priorities in office. An educated American workforce means a sound human infrastructure, which will help secure foreign investments. The third aspect Lindsey points out is that the U.S. must make sure it engages in free trade with other nations. If there is no free trade environment there is no incentive for foreigners to invest in the U.S. currency. Therefore reciprocity must be maintained between nations during trade.
In contrast to Lindsey's defense of the strong dollar policy, ergsten attempts to attack this policy head on before defending his own. In attacking this policy, he initially points out that a strong dollar policy was useful during times of economic progress. ut now that the economy has significantly slowed down, it is no longer necessary to maintain anti-inflationary measures….
Bergsten points out that the strong dollar policy has led to America's enormous trade deficit, which led to U.S. manufacturers not competing well in the global market. This could force the U.S. To create domestic safe goods, which would involve momentarily suspending certain concessions made towards promoting free trade due to its slackening economy. One other adverse effect that the strong dollar policy would ultimately have upon the U.S. economy, according to Bergsten, is that it would inevitably cause the dollar to experience a sudden depreciation in value. This would lead to a dramatic drop in interest rates and to the plummeting of the stock market, which would spell trouble for the U.S. economy.
Bergsten mentions about two aspects of the sound dollar policy that should be implemented in order for it to work, which is similar to the way Lindsey listed three aspects of his policy. The first aspect he mentions is that the U.S. And its G7 partners should influence foreign currency markets by helping to prevent both the euro and the yen from depreciating any further. This would keep the dollar in balance, thus preventing it from becoming stronger than other major currencies. The second aspect is that the U.S. And its partners could work to bring about the gradual reduction in the dollar's value so that it does not experience a "hard landing." Finally, he believes that his policy should not be labeled as a mercantilist policy because, even though it helps to endorse the manufacturing sector, it would prevent trade barriers from being set up by allowing American exports to compete effectively in world markets.
Of the two authors and their views, it seems that Bergsten has made a stronger argument. He was able to provide more facts to support the notion that the strong dollar policy would not be beneficial for the U.S. economy, especially in the dismal state it is currently in. He presented the problems that America's trade deficit and sudden dollar depreciation would cause to the economy if left untreated. He pointed out some of the flaws in Lindsey's statements, such as when the latter stated that foreign investment helped the U.S. To build its military in the 1980's, thereby causing the collapse of Communism. Bergsten rightfully pointed out that through Reagan's military buildup, the U.S. incurred deficits and became dependent on foreign capital through its extensive borrowing. He was also able to provide a clearer method of implementing his policy, when he stated that the U.S. could slowly lower the dollar's value while strengthening the value of other major currencies.
It states that in order for this meeting to produce a successful outcome, America would have to play a leading role in making those difficult concessions. Towards the end of the article, a sense of optimism is displayed when it mentions about some of the minor breakthroughs that recently occurred, such as the narrow decrease in America's trade deficit in March 2005 and the May 4, 2005 agreement between America, the EU, India, Brazil, and Australia over the new calculations of tariffs. It is hoped that such small endeavors will lead to major breakthroughs in trade at the Hong Kong meeting.
The major concept that is emphasized throughout this article is the way the TO functions as an international government organization. Its characteristics are akin to those of IGO's. For example, TO members are only states and the purpose of this organization is to develop rules of trade between nations.….
Gelvin (2005) notes how many Islamic groups that developed in this part of the world did not have political aspirations at all but only wanted to provide service to their communities. Islamic political movements all seek to expand the reach of Islamic law and to impose Islamic values on society. Gelvin also stats that the "relationship between Islamism... And nationalism is a complex one" (Gelvin, 2005, p. 291) and cites Hamas as showing this, on the one hand emphasizing the Islamic way of life, while also taking a political stance on nationalism as part of its religious creed. The PLO is another such organization, though this one with a greater nationalist element than a religious one.
5. Much of the Muslim resurgence that has taken place since 1945 is attributable first to the increased interest given to the Middle East by the West and notably by the United States, to the….
Marxist political economy looked more like critics on classical political economy proposed by liberalists, yet it didn't give any definite solution to the problem of political regulation of economics. Socialist theories of political economics which were derived from Marxist concept failed to effectively function on the territory of the certain state, and the economical situation in such countries as ex-USSR, Cuba, Vietnam and North Korea prove it perfectly.
Now it would be difficult to find the country were the concepts of political economy mentioned above would be clearly realized in daily practices. The processes of globalization, goods exchange, industrialization and development of social infrastructure within one country and within the world economic community in general, had proved that only integral model of economical development has the right to be applied in our realities. From this point different factors have to be taken into consideration and they are not limited only….
International Law and International Political Economy in South America The modern world is characterized by considerable political, social, economic and environmental changes. These changes are attributable to various factors including globalization, increased urbanization, and climate changes. Every region across the globe will continually be affected by these changes. According to a publication by the Office of the Director of National Intelligence (n.d.), many societies worldwide will be unable to achieve complete success in initiatives to realize developmental goals of the past two years. In addition, its predicted that the world will continue experiencing continued instability and rising tensions. Tensions continue to rise between citizens due to concerns regarding what they can expect from their governments given the constant changes that characterize the modern world. One of the critical factors that will shape the future is international law and international political economy. This paper examines how international law and international political economy….
Great Depression and the end of orld ar II marked a major shift in economic ideas that transformed not only the international economic order, but domestic policies within most countries of the world as well. The shift of ideas occurred primarily in the United States, arguably one of the hardest hit nations by the depression. The shift was representative of a movement away from the very liberal economic policies of the nineteenth and early twentieth century towards collective economic cooperation between public and private sectors. The result was a "cushion" that served to prevent economic and social breakdown in society.
It has been argued that the catalyst behind the depression was the lack of governmental regulation of the stock market, and other important economic activities. In the early twentieth century, the markets of the world, especially those of the United States, were relatively free of regulation. Unlike today, there were….
Nash, Gerald. World War II and the West. Lincoln; Nebraska UP. 1990.
Great Depression and New Deal of the 1920s and 1930s." History Searchbeat
Website. Accessed 2 June 2003. http://history.searchbeat.com/greatdepression.htm .
India." Encarta Online Encyclopedia. Accessed 2 June 2003. http://encarta.msn.com/encnet/refpages/SRPage.aspx?search=India
International Political Economy and Globalization
1- Exercise your reasoning skills by using clear points and illustrations from Global Trade and Economy Industries, give two or more reasons which justify the definitions of Globalization. Use a reasonable meaning regardless of its rigidity and typical nature.
Globalization refers to the growing international dependency of worldwide nations and organizations as a result of cross-border trading of amenities, cultures, technological concepts as well as information. (Mingst and Arreguin 2011. 161)
Furthermore, the basic principle of globalization originates from the comparative advantage model. This model is of the notion that nations that are renowned globally to produce certain commodities are at an advantage of exporting those commodities to nations that are not capable of generating such goods. On the other hand, the less capable nation is also able to trade what it is best able to produce to the former nations. This results in trade exchanges between nations….
Socialist states use a command and control management structure as a substitute for the profit motive. This structure is less efficient, so production levels cannot match those of capitalist states. Ultimately, the lack of productivity and the large number of distortions lead to economic collapse (Tesche, 1993).
Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, the pace and nature of economic reforms has differed greatly in the former Soviet states. These range from regions with a virtual continuation of communist dictatorship (Belarus, Transnistria) to full-scale embrace of the free market (Estonia in particular). Russia's economy has only opened somewhat, and only to small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs). For the most part, the major firms in the economy are controlled by powerful businessmen with close ties to government. Freedom of capital flows has improved slightly, but the Russian economy overall remains under significant government control. The economy has grown substantially since….
No author. (2009). Smithsonian agreement. Investopedia. Retrieved December 13, 2009 from http://www.investopedia.com/terms/s/smithsonian-agreement.asp
Eichengreen, B. (2004). Capital flows and crises. MIT Press. Retrieved December 13, 2009 from http://mitpress.mit.edu/catalog/item/default.asp?tid=10369&ttype=2
Pollard, P. (2001). The creation of the euro and the role of the dollar in international markets. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis. Retrieved December 13, 2009 from http://research.stlouisfed.org/publications/review/01/09/0109pp.pdf
Sheppard, M. (2004). The politics of the oversight of OTC derivatives markets: Is there any evidence of systemic risk? Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Studies Association, Le Centre Sheraton Hotel, Montreal, March 17, 2004. Retrieved December 13, 2009 from http://www.allacademic.com/meta/p_mla_apa_research_citation/0/7/3/4/2/p73424_index.html
International Political Economy of East Asia
As growth of the economy is something most governments in most developing countries would like to have, the interplay between the politics and economics of such growth-oriented policies becomes all-important.
The East Asian region is one of the most diversified regions in the world where neighboring countries can be so different economically, politically, and culturally that it is impossible to draw any common factors that can be used to explain the patterns of their lives or livelihood. One thing is quite common; however, most of the countries in East Asia gained their independence after the Second World War, and started to develop their countries in their own separate ways.
Despite all these adverse effects and undesirable consequences, the Second
World War combined with the intrusion of Japanese military power into Southeast
Asia had helped shatter both the mystique and the institutions of Western Colonialism. Not only that, the occupation….
The dependency interactions were sustained by the cooperation of ranks and elites in the periphery who benefited from their economic associations with the core states.
On the other hand, the problem of underdevelopment was basically diagnosed on the basis of weaknesses of domestic ranks in poor countries. While these diagnoses recognized the exploitative global interactions between rich and poor states, they were conducted on the basis that poor countries failed to play a historic role in overhauling conventional elites and practices as well as leading political and economic development.
While the concepts developed by dependency theories were adopted by several developing countries, they were condemned for being too deterministic through an overemphasis on the role of global forces on nations in the South. This criticism included the fact that dependency theories were efficient in explaining why countries didn't develop as compared to their explanations on how some nations really developed.
Dyck, R. (n.d.). The Politics of Development and Underdevelopment. In Studying Politics: An
Introduction to Political Science (pp. 372-400).
Dyck, R. (n.d.). WORLD POLITICS: Global Anarchy, Global Governance. In Studying Politics:
An Introduction to Political Science (pp. 434-452).
International Political Economy After Capitalism by David Schweickart is a book targeting capitalism and promoting the advent of socialism in the economy today. Many say that the book might just…Read Full Paper ❯
The European Union also has its own version for corporate social responsibility. (Landau, 85) Thus the U.S. polity was forced to adapt international opinions and legislate both for…Read Full Paper ❯
International Political Economy In recent years the presence of a global economy has become more apparent. Financial institutions throughout the world are now connected through a vast computerized network. As…Read Full Paper ❯
They are used to the existing state-based system of commercial regulation, and there are several reasons why they might wish to maintain it. The advantage of using this…Read Full Paper ❯
Investment in the "global economy" remains a domestic matter: The fact is, the total amount of the world's capital formation that is generated from foreign direct investment (FDI) has…Read Full Paper ❯
Lindsey gives an example of how the current President ush had made the improvement of the nation's schools as one of his top priorities in office. An educated…Read Full Paper ❯
It states that in order for this meeting to produce a successful outcome, America would have to play a leading role in making those difficult concessions. Towards the…Read Full Paper ❯
History - Israel
Gelvin (2005) notes how many Islamic groups that developed in this part of the world did not have political aspirations at all but only wanted to provide service to…Read Full Paper ❯
Marxist political economy looked more like critics on classical political economy proposed by liberalists, yet it didn't give any definite solution to the problem of political regulation of…Read Full Paper ❯
International Law and International Political Economy in South America The modern world is characterized by considerable political, social, economic and environmental changes. These changes are attributable to various factors including…Read Full Paper ❯
Great Depression and the end of orld ar II marked a major shift in economic ideas that transformed not only the international economic order, but domestic policies within…Read Full Paper ❯
Political Science / Politics
International Political Economy and Globalization 1- Exercise your reasoning skills by using clear points and illustrations from Global Trade and Economy Industries, give two or more reasons which justify the…Read Full Paper ❯
Socialist states use a command and control management structure as a substitute for the profit motive. This structure is less efficient, so production levels cannot match those of…Read Full Paper ❯
History - Asian
International Political Economy of East Asia As growth of the economy is something most governments in most developing countries would like to have, the interplay between the politics and economics…Read Full Paper ❯
The dependency interactions were sustained by the cooperation of ranks and elites in the periphery who benefited from their economic associations with the core states. On the other hand,…Read Full Paper ❯