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Why? ecause, for the most part, LJ ignored them. He would invite the leadership and even critics to the White House quite frequently and listen as they offered suggestions. Usually, however, he would end up lecturing them about the wisdom of the decisions he had already predetermined.
It is interesting to note, that, throughout the war, LJ actually received far more support from Republicans than he did his own party. In February, 1965, Johnson said to Republican Senate minority leader Everett Dirksen: "I'm getting kicked around by my own party in the Senate and getting my support from your side of the aisle" (Small, at the Water's Edge:).
The Vietnam War and President Nixon
Nixon's policies toward the war can be summed up in two words: politics and secrecy. It was the man, his obsession with secrecy, and his need to successfully seek re-election in 1972 that drove all of…… [Read More]
Politics of Information Management
The art of information management is widely known as the tactic of policy makers guiding the policy followers into doing so. Therein comes the practice of politics and it is known that politics portends power; consequently understanding power and its application to the art of information management is both appropriate and timely. Organizations now have been proliferated by computers to an extent that they control the entire operations and relationship between suppliers and customers in a business transaction. They also shape how the public institutions deal and communicate with individuals and private organizations (Strassman Inc., 1997).
In the process of communication and outside relations, a CIO is frequently found among the most visible executive managers in an organization or corporation. One of the reasons for this frequent appearance in public of the CIO as compared to the other managers is due to the fact that the…… [Read More]
Politics has never reached the importance in people's daily lives as it has any time before in history. In today's world, the globalization trend has made all of our lives interconnect whether we are aware of these connections or not. Furthermore, our world population has become so large that the competition for natural resources, especially non-renewable ones, has become an intense rivalry among many different nations and even some of the global corporations. In his 1936 book, Harold Lasswell stated that "politics is who gets what, when, and how[footnoteRef:1]." There is a clash of cultures and ideologies that accompany the ongoing struggle for economic activities and industrialization. All of these forces are interconnect as the world faces some of its greatest challenges that civilization has had to face. The only way that these challenges are going to be overcome peacefully is through knowledge of these environments and finding creative solutions…… [Read More]
This remained true until the assassination of President John F. Kennedy, which symbolizes a shift in American political life. After Kennedy's assassination, party politics once again raised its head and, due to the cultural effect of the Vietnam War, dominated American political life.
Although at first the war caused the parties to scramble to find their identity, with the election of Richard Nixon it was quickly established that the Democrats were the anti-war party and the Republicans were the party tough on Communism. There was no in between and these were the two choices given to the American people. This general alignment continued through the Reagan years and the subsequent collapse of the Soviet Union and the end of the Cold War.
The Post-Cold War era, like the previous eras, has also been dominated by party politics. This fact is clear from the election results of both the race between…… [Read More]
Politics of the Common Good
In Justice: hat's the Right Thing to Do? (2009), Michael J. Sandal argues that politics and society require a common moral purpose beyond the assertion of natural rights like life liberty and property or the utilitarian calculus of increasing pleasure and minimizing pain for the greatest number of people. He would move beyond both John Locke and Jeremy Bentham in asserting that "a just society can't be achieved simply by maximizing utility or by securing freedom of choice" (Sandal 261). Justice and morality involve making judgments on a wide variety of issues, including inequality of wealth and incomes, discrimination against women and minorities, CEP pay, government bailouts of banks and public education. Politics should take "moral and spiritual questions seriously" and not only on issues like sexual orientation and abortion, but also "broad economic and civil concerns" (Sandal 262). Robert Kennedy and Martin Luther King…… [Read More]
V. Summary Point: Your State's Core Foreign Policy Position(s).
Estonia as a whole, seeks to maintain its security and promote its national interest through a variety of means. It is now formally part of the European Union, with adoption of the Euro slated for 2011, and it is also a formal and active member of NATO. This allows Estonia to benefit from the technological, economic, and political capital that more powerful nations bring to the table within the organizations that it is a member of. As a small country, with a small population and military force, it has had to do this in order to protect itself against Russian designed against its sovereignty. It is likely to continue this path of esternization and openness to international cooperation for the foreseeable future.
Antonenko, Oksana. "A ar with No inners." Survival: Global Politics and Strategy 50.5 (2008): 23. eb.
Berg,…… [Read More]
There were a few things that changed in American political culture between 2004 and 2012. The political culture became more polarized, as media and political rhetoric escalated significant following the 2008 election. The political landscape was change by the 2008 election, which saw an expansion of red states, and renewed interest in politics from African-Americans and Hispanics, two groups that traditionally vote Democrat. The heightened rhetoric can be seen as something of an extension of culture wars, where conservatives and liberals alike seek to more clearly define their positions on both economic and social issues. Socially, Americans have become more liberal on many issues, but there is still a divide with respect to economic issues.
National security, social issues and the economy were three key issues in 2004 and 2012. While Bush gained among conservatives for his national security policy, he performed miserably among liberals. Obama took the middle…… [Read More]
25). On the other hand, there is often an assumption on the part of the users that evaluations are "an ivory tower process…too late to be useful, too full of jargon to be understood, too lengthy [to read]…, and too likely to be answering a question quite different from the policy question originally posed" (Ibid).
The last user complaint set forth by Chelimsky -- that the question answered is often not the question posed -- points to the problem of what role, if any, the policy makers themselves should have in forming the evaluation criteria. This problem was a source of pointed debate after the publication of the Equality of Educational Opportunity Study (also known as "the Coleman Report") in 1966. This study was commissioned by the United States Department of Health, Education, and elfare to determine the effectiveness of the Civil Rights Act in ensuring equal educational opportunities for…… [Read More]
" (Patterson, 2003)
However, such hypothesis are not scientifically testable unless populations in Malta are surveyed to determine the influence Western political thought has had on their own belief system and on how Malta citizens see their ability to influence political decision-making. According to Bebbington (2009), "The environment has become both a vehicle and an objective of contentious Focus on institutional failures is very much in line with arguments around theories of the resource curse, which have tended to converge on the centrality of institutional quality, governance, and politics in determining the extent to which resource dependence fosters or frustrates development." (Bebbington, 2009)
Ecological economists have brought into the mix, eco-social and economic reason (Little, 2000). According to Little (2000), "The economic imperative of productivity is totally different from the ecological imperative of resource conservation. Ecological rationality consists in satisfying material needs in the best way possible with as small…… [Read More]
Thus, the politics of drugs have impacted the politics of Mexico by forcing the country into inner turmoil and questioning the validity and legitimacy of the ruling government, in addition to giving the military a greater role in politics, along with the problems that this causes.
Thus, Mexico, like other Latin American countries, has seen its share of challenges when it comes to the politics of drugs and their influence on the social, economic, and political constructs. From disturbing Mexican residents' already harsh social problems with violence and funds directed away from social reform and toward the abolition of drug problems to committing human rights abuses, furthering the area's economic problems, and establishing a government that is close to that of a failed state, the politics of drugs have had negative affects that are as far-reaching as their causes. ith the intervention of U.S. President Barack Obama and the freezing…… [Read More]
Politics, Trade and Unregulated Markets
According to Frankline (April 15th, 2008), when a nation increases its public consumption, it reduces the amount of money that companies need to invest in production; therefore, in a way, that nation buys it way out of unemployment. Frankline claims that this is based on a formula devised by John Maynard Keynes nearly a century ago. The formula says that if you increase public consumption, you reduce the amount of money that companies need to invest in production. In a way, you buy your way out of unemployment.
The John Maynard Keynes formula seems to have worked pretty well for America's economy for the past 50 years. However, during the past 10 years we have not been able to keep ourselves out of unemployment by spending, but, instead, we started borrowing to keep up with the pace of our spending. As we borrowed money to…… [Read More]
Politics of Civil Rights
Politics is defined by Dictionary.com as, "The often internally conflicting interrelationships among people in a society" (DI 2005). Politics, then, in many cases, is the cause or the determining factor of civil rights.
Civil rights are those rights developed by citizens over time and sometimes protected by governments. Most notably, or those receiving the most national and international media, are those more generally-based constitutional civil rights "such as the right to vote, the right to personal freedom, the right to life, the right to freedom of movement and anti-discrimination laws" (WI 2005) as described very generally by Wikipedia.com, the Online Encyclopedia. In history, when individuals or groups have found to be in violation of these civil rights, there are many civil rights movements that have sprung up and become quite famous in American history. A prime example of this is the racial politics that swayed American…… [Read More]
He later wrote that their tribute reminded him of the "nation-wide" support he had received in 1913 in his fight against the "reds." (Valkenier, 1978, p. 28).
The ussian evolution also introduced an entirely new art form. It is thought that the period following the Bolshevik evolution until the middle 1920s was progressive and at the forefront of the European avant-garde. Artists believed in the profound influence they could have on individual and social development: The evolution gave them the opportunity to participate meaningfully in the formation of a new way of life (Birnholz, 1972, p. 146)
Lazar "El" Lissitzky was dedicated to new Soviet goals, such as teaching artists to benefit the state and society instead of the individual. He was adamant about renouncing private and elite forms of art-making, such as oil painting, for work that was egalitarian, affordable, and understandable to the masses. For that goal, he…… [Read More]
The poster was central to Lenin's vision of political transformation, and also the easiest way to convey his message to a largely illiterate population which did not care for paintings and monuments. By the year 1918, the new government began to print and distribute posters. "Alexander Apsit was the first great Bolshevik poster artist who developed many distinct oviet symbols" (Foss; Lapides: The Bolshevik Era). In 1919, the Literary-Publishing Department was established by the Bolshevik government; this new department was made up of brilliant cartoonists and artists such as Dimitri Moor and Viktor Deni. The New Economic Policy was the era between 1921 and 1927 when propaganda was aimed at post-war realities such as famine, discontent and freedom. The country was at peace but the economy had collapsed under the enormous weight of the war. Lenin introduced the New Economic Policy which favoured some private enterprises which eventually flourished. It…… [Read More]
Politics and the Internet
Online credibility is often a difficult matter to understand. The written word has unique powers that differ much from interpersonal exchange. Before understanding the meaning of words, context is needed to help give meaning and relationship to those words. The internet, for good or bad, diminishes the ability of the reader to usefully deduce what is being communicated due to this lack of context. Anyone can be heard online, making standard credentials less valuable. Credentials don't always carry an argument but can help refine one. The exposure of the world wide web brings into question what are acceptable and unacceptable forms of credentials. As a result, words are now more important than ever as there stand alone meanings offer the only credibility they can offer.
It is important to realize that the political landscape is very fluid and is always changing. The advent of…… [Read More]
Just as foolish thinking produces sloppy language, orthodoxy in thinking produces dull and unoriginal language.
Political leader defend the indefensible by making vague and cliche connections between the indefensible event/practice/policy and some far vaguer principle or goal. Though the situation has become almost cliche itself, the invasion and occupation of Iraq as a mean of bringing freedom to the region is a solid modern example.
Insincerity by definition creates a gap between true meaning and language, which necessarily leads to muddied thoughts.
Language can corrupt thought by creating laziness; the ready supply of cliche and vague phrases is an insidious and corruptive temptation.
Archaism and the salvaging of obsolete words and/or the standardizing of English are contrary to Orwell's intentions, as is an oversimplification of the language. Orwell is also not concerned with grammar, syntax, or style so long as meaning is clear.…… [Read More]
1, 10.6, respectively 4.5.
Behind these figures however, Haiti remains the poorest country in the western hemisphere. 80% of the total population in the country lives below the poverty line; 54% of them live in abject poverty. Over 60% of the population depends directly on agriculture to ensure food sustainability. Massive deforestations, combined with natural hazards (most commonly tropical storms), harden the living standards of the individuals (Central Intelligence Agency).
While the actual unemployment statistics are not clearly established, it is estimated that half of the Haitian population is not currently employed. Additionally, Haiti is renowned for its high levels of underemployment. The unemployed and the underemployed Haitian are estimated to account for 85% of the entire population (Maps of World, 2009). Throughout history, the international community tried to support the economic revival of Haiti, but was often discouraged by the internal conflicts. Starting with 2005 however, the Haitian economy…… [Read More]
" (Hamilton, 2003) the work entitled: "The Dynamic Culture of the Middle Ages" states that there were differences in opinions among religious groups at this time. The Cathars or Albigensians, and the Waldensians and the Spiritual Franciscans placed an emphasis on spiritual life while at the same time offering criticism to the church for its' materialism and as well challenged the authority of the church. The Roman Catholic church in turn commissioned inquisitors for detection of heretics and rendering punishments for heresy.
IV. ONGOING CONFLICT: THE RELATIONSHIP of CHURCH & STATE
The rulers during the Medieval period did not hold an absolute power but had to demonstrate their competence in the development of strategic relationships "with the aristocracy, the towns, and the churches." (the Dynamic Culture of the Middle Ages, nd) the kings in Europe had traditionally appointed their own archbishops and bishops to serve as royal administrators however under…… [Read More]
In two instances-one at the time of Chicago celebration of the Spanish-American as he alluded to the color-prejudice that is swallowing the creams of the South, and at another while he dined with President Roosevelt- he has the consequential Southern criticism, sufficiently severe to threaten his popularity. In the North the attitude mostly compelled itself into the verbatim that ashington's counsels of submission ignored some elements of true manhood and that his educational policy was irrelevantly narrow. However, such oppositions have normally not found open presentation, irrespective of the fact that the spiritual sons of the Abolitionists have not been equipped to acknowledge that the schools instituted prior to Tuskegee, by men of broad ideals and devoted spirit, were seen to be total failure or worthy of ridicule. (of Mr. Booker T. ashington and Others) He thus became contentious but his legacy continues to remain so presently, because of his…… [Read More]
As has already been alluded to, rationalism takes what is essentially a polar opposite view of reality as constructivist do, believing that knowledge comes from an appeal to reason. Rationalism can best be defined by looking towards Edmund urke, who defined rationalism as the method or theory in which the criterion of truth is not sensory but intellectual and deductive.
Like constructivism, rationalism too finds its roots in ancient Greek philosophy, starting with Plato, the constructivist Aristotle's mentor. According to Plato, the key to finding knowledge was through leading a rational and reasonable life. Chronicling the teachings of Socrates, Plato argues that in order to understand the world, one most first understand themselves. In other words, the truth lies within oneself and not, as constructivists argue, within society. According to Socrates, the only way to accomplish this was through the use of rational thought.
Rational thought, according to Socrates,…… [Read More]
A low dollar for instance increases the competitiveness of the sales, as well as the sales volume, but decreases their value and weakens the positive results in the balance of payments. Subsequently, a high dollar decreases competitiveness within the international market place, but strengthens the balance of payments (Wang, 2009).
Then, aside from the exchange rate, the balance of payments is also influenced by the balance trade in the meaning that this tends to "move markets on release" (FX Words). The same impact is generated by the current account balance, as well as by the net purchases of foreign security (FX Words). All these factors are directly or indirectly generated by the political field and they, as such, represent political causes for changes in the balance of payments.
Finally, Jain, Ohri and Majhi also point out to the existence of several political factors causing changes in the balance of payments.…… [Read More]
Political Campaigns: Incumbents and Fundraising
When conducting a political campaign race, early money is an advantage because it helps to increase visibility and spread the message; however, it is by no means the greatest factor in a campaign’s ability to gain traction. The greatest factor will always be the message. In the 2012 presidential race, Ron Paul gained a great deal of traction with supporters. In the 2016 race, Bernie Sanders did the same. Both were overwhelmed in spending by their respective opponents—Paul by Romney and Sanders by Clinton. The establishment favorites were certainly helped by money, but Paul’s campaign was able to continue to raise funds from supporters throughout the duration of the campaign, as was Sanders’. Establishment politics ultimately blocked both candidates from succeeding—and that calls into question a whole other type of money. But in terms of fundraising, early money certainly does not help; but maintaining…… [Read More]
When Donald Trump launched campaigns for the highest seat in the land, most people – including most political analysts – did not believe he stood a chance. Here was a billionaire known for his brash language and liking for controversy. His role as a reality TV show host made him especially unqualified for politics. Due to the constant need to balance the interests of various stakeholders and ensure that no constituency feels aggrieved, politicians are largely expected to thrive on political correctness. On the other hand, TV show business thrives on controversy and suspense. As a reality TV show host, trump was all business and his direct and no-holds-bared approach endeared him to millions of viewers from across the world. He was uniquely qualified for showbiz, and not politics. In simple terms, here was an individual whose public life revolved around models, buildings, and whose language was for the…… [Read More]
Corruption weakens the strength of a democracy, undermining public trust, and leading to a downward spiral of apathy and discontent. Low voter participation itself becomes a major factor perpetuating the possibility of corruption. A feeling of powerlessness pervades even the most robust of the world’s democracies. If democratic governments are to be responsive to the people they serve, corruption needs to be uprooted whenever it manifests. Reforming corruption and reducing the likelihood of corrupt individuals maintaining their positions of power requires a multifaceted approach taking into account variables like ethical culture and political climate. Public perceptions of the reliability and accountability of government are also important factors, influenced in part by the media but also by social norms, ethics, and values. The importance of exposing corruption and uprooting it through effective dialogue and awareness cannot be underestimated because of the fact that democratic governments depend on transparency, openness, and…… [Read More]
Informed decision-making is an integral part of the government. Without informed decision-making, life-changing policies and laws may be enacted that could negatively impact a country, a state, a municipality because of lack of foresight, lack of statistics, and lack of knowledge on a key issue. So how does Information Technology play a role in informed decision-making? Information Technology allows policy makers and politicians to gain a better perspective on issues and assessing effectiveness of policies by allowing them to see the data available in an easy to digest manner. For example, Information Technology allows quantifiable data to be analyzed with results showing either improvement, no change, or negative change.
According to Milkavoich and Gordon, there is an ongoing push for politicians and elected representatives to place their focus on immediate political decisions instead of long-term policies or values that require thoughtful insight to develop and assess like increased productivity (p.…… [Read More]
Language Culture Society and Politics during the Trump Administration
Political Correctness (PC) in Modern Politics: An Assessment of the Trump Presidency
When Donald Trump launched his campaign for the highest seat in the land, most people – including most political analysts – did not believe he stood a chance. Here was a reality TV show host and real estate billionaire known for his brash language and liking for controversy. He simply did not fit the political mold, which, due to the constant need to balance the interests of various stakeholders and ensure that no constituency feels aggrieved, was created to enable politicians to be politically correct (PC). Yet voters seemed to like that Trump had a non-PC, no-holds-barred approach: it endeared him to millions of viewers of his TV show around the world. Perhaps most surprisingly, this inexperienced, political new-entrant ended up beating seasoned politicians – with the first…… [Read More]
Reuveny, Rafael, and Quan Li. "Economic Openness, Democracy, and Income Inequality: An Empirical Analysis." Comparative Political Studies 36.5 (2003): 575-601. Print.
The period studied was 1960 - 1996 and the analysis included 69 countries. National income inequality is measured from a Gini coefficient data set. The authors established that democracy is able to reduce income inequality, while foreign direct investments increase income inequality. The authors note income inequality declines when there is economic development, which confirms their hypothesis that democracy does reduce income inequality.
Solt, Frederick. "Economic Inequality and Democratic Political Engagement." American Journal of Political Science 52.1 (2008): 48-60. Print.
The study was conducted to establish the effect of economic inequality on political engagement. The authors discovered that higher levels of income inequality will depress political interest and this will result in the individuals continuing being marginalized. Democracy has the potential to reduce this inequality if it embraces these…… [Read More]
Obama vs. Trump
On 7th September, 2018, Barack Obama, our former president, went against a long held tradition whereby former presidents avoid directly criticizing their successors. Amongst other things, Obama blamed the sitting president for taking credit for the nation’s economic advancement when the same had actually stated when he (Obama) was in office. He also voiced his concerns with Trumps occasional criticism of constitutional bodies such as the Justice Department. In addition to criticizing President Trump, Obama also had unkind words for Republicans. He largely blamed the GOP for failure to take decisive punitive actions against Russia for meddling in the U.S. elections in 2016.
It is, however, important to note that President Trump has also in the past criticized his predecessor on numerous occasions. For instance, earlier this year, the current president was critical of his predecessor’s way of handling the Russian hacks. It is important to note…… [Read More]
The media has done a tremendous job when it comes to the coverage of Nancy Pelosi and Donald Trump. There are numerous news articles, opinions, and analysis all focusing on the two. The left-leaning media outlets have been quite upfront and they have not failed to demonstrate their grievances. There is a clear impression being made on the popularity of Nancy Pelosi against that of Donald Trump. Nancy Pelosi is shown as the one person who has stood up to Trump and she has maintained her focus especially in regards to the government shutdown. The State of the Union address had to be postponed to a date that was conducive and acceptable to Nancy Pelosi and the Democrats. This shows how much she was not willing to give in to the demands of the president. While some articles will portray Nancy Pelosi as being a winner, there are others that…… [Read More]
The role of interest groups in democracies presents one of the greatest conundrums in civic affairs. On the one hand, interest groups potentially represent collective power and agency. On the other hand, interest groups can easily become hegemonic and even corrupt. The crux of the problem is that some interest groups can become more endowed financially than others, or have unequal access to the social capital needed to wield power. As Binderkrantz & Beyers (2013) also point out, inequities in power distribution among interest groups can also be traceable to the process of professionalization: to formalizing interest groups until they function like corporations and become equally as formidable.
Interest groups may be inevitable in a society that categorically affirms the right to free assembly. Yet within the liberalist framework of governance, it is still possible to envision ways the power of interest groups can be more equitably distributed. In a…… [Read More]
Joe Biden Presidential Primary
The effective use of free and paid media strategies will be critical in getting Biden through the primaries and into the general election to face off against President Trump. This will include get out the vote plans and polling strategies to obtain a clear idea as to how Biden stands with voters in each of the key demographics. Where Biden will need to impress early on is with core Democrats, both older and younger, the idea being to energize the base early and provide it with legs so that the enthusiasm builds with his lead in the primaries. Voters do not want a candidate they cannot rally behind—and the key message in the primaries will be: What does this person embody? Can this person defeat Donald Trump? Does this person reflect the values of the upcoming generation? Biden comes across as a likeable politician who combines…… [Read More]
AOC’s Zany New Deal: Analysis of a Political Editorial Cartoon
In a cartoon posted on the Washington Times website entitled “The Socialist States of the Green New Deal” by Gary Varvel (2019), freshman representative Alexandrio Ocasio-Cortez (AOC) is depicted, arms outstretched, as standing in the middle of a map of the USA while all around her are highlights of her Green New Deal bill with visualizations of how her proposals would impact America. One can see a U.S. Navy air craft carrier using sails (instead of fuel) for power. There is an arrow pointing away from the States and two large yachts sailing off for other shores with the inscription below signifying that these are “The Rich” leaving the U.S. Large signs read “Free Stuff” and “No Fly Zone,” indicating how different the American landscape is to become were the Green New Deal to be implemented. The argument being presented…… [Read More]
Question 1: Can all non-state actor threats be addressed unilaterally as a non-traditional threat to only one country? Do some of these non-traditional threats span borders and require international cooperation to counter the threat? If so, why? What problems might such cooperation bring?
Of course, it is possible for state actors to unilaterally address non-state actor threats. Whether it is advisable for state actors to unilaterally address non-state actor threats is a matter of debate. While it may be tempting to point out the inherent weaknesses in the United Nations policies as an excuse for state actors to use unilateral responses as part of their national security strategies, doing so will have detrimental effects in the long run. The reasons why unilateral action has detrimental long-term effects include undermining the trust needed for efficient and reliable intelligence sharing and resource pooling. Responses to non-state actors need to be intelligent, strategic,…… [Read More]
Kennedy West Berlin: Ethos, Pathos and Logos
Ethos, pathos and logos are rhetorical modes of persuasion. Ethos appeals to the ethics of listener by reflecting the character of the speaker. Pathos appeals to the emotions. And logos appeals to reason or logic (Sproat, Driscoll & Brizee, 2012). Kennedy employed all three modes of rhetoric in his famous West Berlin speech in 1963, when he highlighted the inhumanity of the Wall, the oppression of the Germans under the Soviet system, and the meaning of freedom, as well as in many other ways. This paper will examine these ways to show how Kennedy applied these rhetorical devices in his West Berlin speech in 1963.
The appeal to ethics through the reflection of his own character was made by Kennedy when he began making the distinction between right and wrong in his speech. He did it not by identifying specifically what…… [Read More]
I think the state should be neutral, and there should be opportunities for everyone, but that is not real life. I think that men mostly run government, but to call states patriarchal seems too extreme for me. I believe that there will be more opportunities for women both in government and the private sector, and that this is a wiser and less volatile outlook than the more radical feminist ideas. I do not have a problem with women or minorities in government, and I believe the state should encourage and make way for more of this type of participation.
As far as economic ideals are concerned, I believe a blend of the Minimalist and the Developmental state is the best alternative. I believe that capitalism is a good thing, but that wealth does not need to be distributed evenly, so I am not a fan of the socio-democratic state. I…… [Read More]
Six Questions & Discussion on American Politics
During the U.S. Constitutional Convention of 1787, two primary plans were forwarded that shaped the development and discussion at the convention that would forever impact the shape of American politics. The first plan, the Virginia Plan, introduced by Governor Randolph, was an effort to simply revise the existing Articles of Confederation. It was characterized by three major points: the structural exclusion of states from elections and representation at the national level, reductions of powers to individual states, and the abandonment of the some national features of republicanism like institutional separation of powers. The Virginia Plan was countered by two alternative plans, and a division at the Convention: the New Jersey Plan that believed the Virginia Plan went too far in affording power to the national government, and the Hamilton Plan that argued the Virginia Plan didn't go far enough (Lloyd).…… [Read More]
Analysis of Theories
The field of international relations is based on many competing and complementary theories. These include realism, liberalism, constructivism, dependency theory, Marxism, etc. The theories are many; the field is expansive. What international relations seek to do is both formulate and analyze international politics, and work concomitantly with world governments, non-governmental organizations, and multi-national corporations. Due to the nature of work in these global affairs, several of the theories mentioned above are utilized to explain various phenomena. This paper will thus focus on a few questions as they relate to international relations and, specifically, to the theories which it employs.
To begin, one must understand that the field of international politics can be segmented into various categories, or levels of analysis. The most famous of these categories are Kenneth Waltz' groups, which include explanations of politics as being driven by individuals, by psychology, by states,…… [Read More]
As was expected, the epublicans took the House and Senate in the 2014 mid-term elections, shifting the balance of power in the United States government. The election was viewed by many as a referendum on President Obama's policies. The President said it (Martosko, 2014), conservative talking heads said it (Krauthammer, 2014), and voters in exit polls said as much, too (aedle, 2014). This argument makes for fine political rhetoric, this ignores the fact that Obama ran for re-election in 2012. The ACA had been passed but nobody had seen its benefits yet, only heard the fearmongering. The economy was going nowhere fast in 2012, versus two strong quarters in 2014, and the unemployment rate has been declining for four straight years. If there was a time when a referendum on Obama's policies was going to cost him, it would have been in 2012, not the 2014 midterms. Unless of…… [Read More]
To resolve these problems the researcher will seek to gather evidence from as large a population sample as possible using randomized selection to help eliminate bias when observing nursing student testimonials.
Exit Plans and Ethical Considerations
To exit the field gracefully and to close out individual interviews, the researcher will ask study participants to fill out a review form. This form will allow students the opportunity to rate the study and the examiner participating in the study. The students will have an opportunity to reflect on their experiences, allowing them the "benefit of the doubt" and ample consideration before the researcher exits the student environment. The researcher may also offer students an opportunity to identify whether they desire copies of the results sent to them, which will often appease students that are hesitant to participate in the study. The researcher in doing so will appear more confident and confident when…… [Read More]
Politics and Lutheranism
The Reformation was as much a political phenomenon as it was a religious phenomenon. Although the Reformation was guided by common basic beliefs in the individual's capacity for salvation, it proceeded according to the political exigencies required in each country or principality it entered. The Reformation was highly flexible and succeeded for a number of reasons. First, there was no influential, well-heeled organization guiding Lutheranism as there was in Roman Catholicism. Second, Protestantism was less international and more local than Roman Catholicism, which was conducive for the development of local political power. Finally, Lutheran doctrines emphasized a more anti-authoritarian way of thinking which was to precede the Enlightenment.
Lutheranism in Germany
Lutheranism succeeded in Germany largely because of the region's political fragmentation, which offered no centralized authority to negotiate a peaceful sharing of power with the Catholic Church. (Gilbert) The centralized governments in Spain, France, and even…… [Read More]
The question of who rules whom in the aster-slave relationships is fairly straightforward. In the case of a natural master and a natural slave (neither of which Aristotle sufficiently explains, presumably assuming that birth or subsequent circumstance rightly assigned these roles), it is the master that rules unequivocally over the slave, though ostensibly to their mutual benefit. The same is true of the man over his wife and children, though with a greater desire for their good than his own. Political rule requires a larger group in order to refrain from despotism; though it comes with many complications, Aristotle insists, "the principle that the multitude ought to be supreme rather than the few best is one that is maintained" (III.11).
The master-slave relationship as described by Aristotle has given modern scholars the most trouble, for there is very little basis for it in Aristotle's logic. He seems to assume that…… [Read More]
But global warming advocates and skeptics have both fallen afoul of scientific facts. The author of an Inconvenient Truth, Al Gore was forced to remove a slideshow from a presentation on global warming "after the Belgian research group that assembled the disaster data said he had misrepresented what was driving the upward trend. The group said a host of factors contributed to the trend with climate change possibly being one of them" (Revkin 2009). Conservative anti-global warming columnist George ill wrote a column that was attacked by the scientists whose research he used to prove the absence of climate change -- they said their data showed the area of the ice shrinking, not expanding, contrary to ill's statements in his column (Revkin 2009).
Reality tends to be more contradictory than slanted political platforms: "Some regions of Antarctica, particularly the peninsula that stretches toward South America, have warmed rapidly in recent…… [Read More]
During the inter-war years, Nazism strengthened its populist support by emphasizing its nationalist ideology, thus drawing on the German traditions of the 19th century and gaining strength from the disillusion that had set in after the defeat in World War I. Hitler's policies for Germany included the resurgence of a Greater Germany, by instilling the German people with a renewed sense of purpose in order to inspire, "the miracle of Germany's emergence as a nation" (Berwick, 20). This rejuvenated nation would also include Austria and the German-speaking people who had been lost to Poland and Czechoslovakia in 1919. Before 1933, Hitler played on the unjustness of the Versailles Treaty and, between 1933 and 1939 repeatedly claimed that he was reasserting the national rights of Germany, which included the publicly popular issue of territorial claims (Payne, 1995). Therefore, the reoccupation of the hineland in 1936, the occupation of…… [Read More]
The Machiavellian Characteristics of President George . Bush
George . Bush has followed in his fathers' footsteps, becoming the 43rd President of the U.S., holding office between 2001 and 2009. He is a president that held power during a notable period, with the 9/11 attacks occurring only a year into his presidency. Like any U.S. president, there will be a number of controversial issues associated with his presidency, including the way action was taken in Iraq. In hindsight it may be argued that President Bush was acting in a very Machiavellian manner, aligned with Machiavelli's ideal Prince.
The alignment between the prince and Bush may not be surprising when it is realized that both a principle adviser to the president; Karl Rove, as well as Republic strategists and friend, Lee Atwater where both avid fans of Machiavelli (Phillips 147). However, to argue the likeness requires an examination of examples…… [Read More]
Superintendents must deal with student populations that change yearly as school choice options alter. These alterations will influence schools that have to present school choice, and schools that do not get Title 1 funds. The child who uses school choice does not have to attend another Title 1 school. They may decide to go to a school that does not get Title 1 funding (Whitney, 2011).
Evaluation of the Effect and Effectiveness of NCLB
Holding schools and school districts responsible for the level of education that they supply is the chief principle of the No Child Left Behind Act. The key to the Act's approach is the make use of measurement tools like standardized tests to be given on a regular schedule, the utilization of benchmarks, and a scheme of encouragements and punishments linked to the generation of higher test scores. On some accounts, the outcomes of this law have…… [Read More]
Advising princes how to rule he states, "You must know, then, that there are two methods of fighting, the one by law, the other by force: the first method is that of men, the second of beasts; but as the first method is often insufficient, one must have recourse to the second. It is therefore necessary for a prince to know well how to use both the beast and the man" (Machiavelli 58). This is extremely telling in the current situation with the executive branch as well, in many ways.
For example, many people disapprove of the methods of security and incarceration since the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. They believe many of the tenets of the Patriot Act, along with the treatment of prisoners in Guantanamo Bay and other facilities are unethical and go against rights granted in the Constitution. However, these methods continue, and it could be…… [Read More]
They are only trying to justify their actions; they are handing excuses, telling the events as they happened. And in the end maybe these characters do find an excuse, the one that they are both human, bound to fail and to be influenced, sharing the same planet and dealing with the same kind of people. The two personages enjoyed having power and realized in the end that having power doesn't necessary make them omniscient.
oth Robert McNamara and Yuri Orlov had the lives of numerous people in their hands. Maybe these characters felt the need to retell all their stories, in order to let all the demons trapped inside their conscious out.
The characters presented in the two movies were able to depict the laws and needs of man and rose above law; they become a sort of demigod. In Yuri's case this was shown during his tramping across west…… [Read More]
Politics, literature and the arts -- Transformation, Totalitarianism, and Modern Capitalist life in Franz Kafka's "Metamorphosis," Fritz Lang's "Metropolis," and Albert Camus' Caligula
At first, the towering heights of the German director Fritz Lang's "Metropolis" may seem to have little to do with the cramped world of the Czech author Franz Kafka's "Metamorphosis." Fritz Lang portrayed a humanity whereby seemingly sleek human beings were dwarfed by towering and modernist structures, where one class of thinking humans were drunk on pleasure while others suffered in pain so that the upper classes or regions of Metropolitan society might prosper. Franz Kafka portrayed a man named Gregor Samsa who became a grotesque creature, increasingly beset upon by his tiny and encloistered environment until he is transformed into a gigantic cockroach. Rather than focusing on the higher echelons of society, Kafka focused on its lower elements immediately.
In Kafka, the transformed Gregor Samsa becomes…… [Read More]
Politics, Literature & the Arts: Modernism has been discussed as a reaction to modernity: from the following works, is this a fair description?
Modernism is often defined as a chaotic, pastiche-style of rendering the difficulties of modern, industrialized life. The attempted regimentation of modernity becomes, in modernism, exposed for the absurdity that it is through the surrealist and other modernist aesthetics, such as the improvised jazz riff. For example, in the 1928 film "The Andalusian Dog" by the surrealist artist Salvador Dali and the surrealist director Louis Bunuel the pace of the film's absurd depiction of life is harsh, fragmented and full of confusion. It seems to exist in no certain time, place, or within a conventionally identifiable range of historical or social images, and thus is coherent with the impersonal nature of modern life. It is like, to cite Ken Burn's documentary on music, a "jazz" riff on the…… [Read More]
As governments look to eradicate deficits, it is often organization that fall under discretionary spending categories that bear the brunt of those cuts. Not only does the productive capacity of these organizations suffer but so, too, does morale. ith declining funding, public sector organizations also often have difficult recruiting top talent into their organizations.
Another issue that arises with public organization decline is that there is a lack of motivation and a lack of innovation. Innovation in particular is a challenge. hen considering Sayre's Model it is not hard to see how excessive bureaucracy can stifle the innovative capabilities of public organizations. Pathak (2007) argues that middle management needs to take a lead role in not only keeping up morale, but encouraging high levels of performance in public organizations as a policy to stem decline.
Cutbacks can be particularly challenging for public organizations. The most important aspect of cutbacks is…… [Read More]
" (Prince: 61)
The second important thing to focus on is the military strength of that person. Does the ruler possess greater military might than the displaced ruler? If yes, then there is no point in rejecting him as the new ruler. This is because with his military weapons, he is likely to prove valuable to the country in the long run. Michaela's views on the art of war and possession of arms make it clear that a well-armed ruler deserves our respect because he can be relied on in difficult times
Liberty is an important concept in this connection. Liberty is the collection of various rights, which must be safeguarded at all costs, or else the public will reject the new ruler. It is thus important to remember that even when the people of a country give up their freedom because of fear of the new ruler, the ruler…… [Read More]
When the military took over the government, it immediately enacted marital law in Thailand. That stayed in effect until February 2007, under the argument that it was necessary to preserve peace. Leaders in the military junta that orchestrated the takeover argued that they had no choice in the coup, that it was the only way to take back control of the government from a power-hungry tycoon (Kampf, 2007). The reality of the situation, however, is that within a democratic government there are other ways to produce political change. Despite any faults that were extant within Shinawatra's government, they should have been addressed and debated through the appropriate democratic channels. Before the coup, Thailand boasted one of the most stable and healthy democracies in the region. There had been no coups since 1991, in a nation once famous for them. A progressive, democratic constitution was adopted in 1997, and Thailand was…… [Read More]
What analytics layers do however is force the issue of performance from just within one organization and shows the impacts (or lack thereof) of collaboration across the organization. Analytics, when used correctly, should be measures of the performance of departments and divisions working on concert with one another, not on their own. While analytics will not single-handedly lead organizations into a more egalitarian like culture of sharing information, analytics will directly affect the depth and quality of information sharing when shared metrics of performance are in place. Simply put, when two or more departments have a shared interest in the impact of their performance on a single measure of performance, the higher the level of cooperation. Organizations need to do this to break down the politicization of information.
Data Quality Standards and ETL Strategies - as an SOA architecture requires a single continuous, and logically interconnected set of databases if…… [Read More]
This also helps indicate the U.S. is indeed a nation and a nation with conflicting goals and ideals for many.
It is interesting that Heywood notes that in nations, there is a growing trend against nationalism and socialism toward religious fundamentalism. This is very clear in the Middle East, but it also seems to be taking place in the U.S. Just last week the national news reported there are a group of disgruntled Republicans who do not like the way the party is becoming more "liberal," and want to form a third, ultra-conservative, Christian Republican party. This seems to fly in the face of the Constitution, which clearly separates church and state, but it also seems to be a natural progression in nationalism as Heywood sees it.
Thus, the United States is indeed a nation; it fits the definition of several forms of nationalism that Heywood discusses. Just like states,…… [Read More]
S. And Mexico as this political issue binds them on common ground, creating the synchronic relationship between them. Mexico must do more to create jobs and economic growth to keep her young people at home, because the implications of emigration on both countries are staggering. Hispanics are now the fastest growing minority in the country, and most of them have come from Mexico. These emigrants are taxing the social systems of the country, especially in order States like California and Texas, and Mexico is losing an entire generation of young men, which can only cripple the country in the long run. Mexico is a land of poor people, and the government must work to create better living conditions, better jobs, and a vibrant economy to turn the country and the people around.
Author not Available. (2005). Zapatista Delegates. Retrieved from the Zapatistas.net Web site: http://zapatistas.net/comandantes/22 July 2005.
Mahler, Gregory…… [Read More]
ecause the Republic was weak, it was open to failure, and open to a takeover by a powerful group such as Hitler's Nazis. asically, the failure of the Republic allowed Hitler to take control of the government, which ultimately led to World War II, the persecution of the Jews, the Holocaust, and millions of deaths. Thus, the fall of the Weimar Republic was extremely significant to world history, and it was because it was created as a weak Republic that it could fall so quickly and have so many weaknesses that Hitler and his party capitalized on. This shows a very diachronic relationship between the Army, the legislative branches, and the Chancellor, because they could not work together harmoniously, and so, they created friction that led to the failure of the Republic. A more synchronic relationship may have created more strength in the Republic, and led to a much different…… [Read More]
Just a year later in 1918, Eugene V. Debs, who was a leader of the Socialist Party in the United States, proffered a speech in Ohio that protested the United State's involvement in World War I. It was during this speech that Debs encouraged socialism and -- more to the point -- he specifically spoke very highly of Americans who had refused to serve in the military as well as praising those individuals who had prevented military recruiting.
The case was similar to that of Schenck v. United States (1919) in which Schenck was arrested and sentenced to 10 years in prison for distributing pamphlets that opposed the draft.
The 1st Amendment is there to protect individuals' freedom of speech and the 1st Amendment does, indeed, give individuals the right to put down certain elements that they might not like about they government or the military, for that matter.…… [Read More]
politics is and what it is not. Some definitions of politics are examined. The applications of politics in society are explored. The paper also looks at some of the things that are not politics, and examines why these things are not politics. The role of politics is distinguished from the role of government, and the reasons for this are looked at more closely.
This is a paper written in Harvard style that is actually three five page essays in one. These three essays all answer specific questions about politics, particularly the theories of elitism and pluralism.
What is Politics?
Many people believe that politics is simply the workings of the government, the ins and outs of the daily process of making, enforcing, and interpreting the laws. This is certainly one aspect of politics. However, politics encompasses so much more than just this. Politics also takes into account the structures of…… [Read More]
On the other hand, diversity also implies an academic diversity, meaning that organizations in general will not promote only a certain type of individual (MA, business-oriented etc.), but will also include individuals with different academic profiles. Again, this is beneficial towards the methodologies of tackling different work-related issues.
On the other hand, diversity will also stimulate the personnel from the perspective of intellectuals who enjoy working in a diverse, stimulating environment. Diversity implies a cultural multilateralism in the office that can only create a motivating workplace, a workplace where the individual likes to go and exchange ideas.
Following Maslow's pyramid, this is also the kind of environment where the individual strives to obtain social recognition and to gain a social status. A diverse workplace is likely to motivate him in this direction and to create the appropriate premises for his individual personality.
Finally, a diverse workplace is obviously fun and…… [Read More]
Politics of age: George Wallace, the Origins of the New Conservatism, and the Transformation of American Politics" by Dan T. Carter and "I've Got the Light of Freedom" by Charles Payne. Specifically, it will contain a comparative book review on the two books. These books reflect a specific time in our society when struggle and oppression were at their height, and both present different viewpoints on the same political time. Together, they are an intimate portrayal of a man, politics, and the power of a movement vs. The power of a man.
Both books cover southern politics in the 1960s and beyond, but from quite different perspectives. "The Politics of age" is an unauthorized biography of southern governor and presidential hopeful George C. Wallace, one of the most outspoken bigots and controversial politicians in our time. "He was the most influential loser in twentieth-century American politics" (Carter 468) and this…… [Read More]