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.. because the self, in this logic, becomes social though acquiring and fulfilling an institutional identity" (Dunne, Kurki, and Smith 181).
6.) What does it mean to say that identities and interests are mutually constituted?
One of the central premises postulated by the constructivist theory of international relations is based on the concept of mutual constitution, a term describing a coexistent social relationship between states in which agency, or the element of independent choice, is partially dependent on the decisions of one another (Dunne, Kurki, and Smith 182). The identity of any actor necessarily determines their interests, with nations based on capitalist economies prioritizing the exploitation of natural resources for material gain, and socialist states vesting authority in a central government structure to mitigate scarcity through forcibly equalized distribution. This is not to say that the interests of a state are irrelevant to the international relations process, but simply to…… [Read More]
The author holds the position that no one tradition is best-suited in maximizing and advancing Australia's national interests in the international platform not just because all three traditions have their innate strengths but more so because these very same traditions have their innate weaknesses which make us believe that following only one line of foreign policy tradition is all but worry-free.
The Evatt tradition has a widely-known pitfall. It is quite popular in the anti-capitalist discourse that international foreign organizations mainly serve the interests of the Western powerful nations, and Conteh-Morgan (n.d., par. 12) notes, 'Key international institutions (the IMF, World Bank, or WTO), a reflection of international law, are the glue for safeguarding the global politico-economic structure that ensures the dominance of the advanced industrial states (powerful Western states)'. As such, the author of this paper argues that allying with supranational institutions just so Australia can strengthen…… [Read More]
S. fails to consider the inmates as war prisoners, and does not allow them to defend themselves against the charges brought, is a complete breach of the Geneva Conventions. At the same time, statements such as Donald Rumsfeld's consideration that the prisoners of Afghanistan are unlawful combatants and do not enter the category of prisoners of war is simply a means of establishing a legal niche that would allow the State Department to increase the number of inmates and to limit the degree under which the practices from Guantanamo must face the international law scrutiny.
All these issues taken into account, it can be said that the matter of the legal status of Guantanamo inmates represents a human rights' issue and it must be considered the degree in which this attitude tends to affect the United States. There is in fact no legal justification or interpretation of the Geneva Conventions…… [Read More]
Over the last several decades, the role of the UN has been constantly evolving. Part of the reason for this is because a host of events would underscore the need for an international institution that could address: the various global, economic and political issues facing the world community. The reason why, is because the 19th century would usher in a new era of technological innovation. This would have a dramatic impact upon, the way various nations would interact with one another. As each country would often engage in actions that would support their own self-interest at the expense of everyone else. This would create rivalries among the major world powers, as every country wanted to be respected. Yet, they felt that they were strong enough militarily and economically to deal with any kind of situation. Over the course of time, these views and the different innovations (from the…… [Read More]
Indeed, NATO is forced to change its attitude towards ussia as the international context is changed dramatically and challenges such as terrorism, Iran, or energy are largely influenced by the ussian state. More precisely, in terms of Iran, ussia has solid influences, as for Afghanistan. As for energy security, ussia is one of the most important players on the market and can thus influence decisively the European energetic security. From this point-of-view, Kupchan suggests that, given history, it is better to have your enemies closer than to isolate them and enable them to eventually strike back.
The prisoner's dilemma is one of the most important game theories applicable to international politics and relations. However, this theory plays differently, depending on the approaches it entangles. In this sense, from the point-of-view of the realist theory, the best choice for the prisoners is to both defect. This is largely due…… [Read More]
(Suarez-Orozco & Qin-Hilliard, 2004, p. 62) Nonetheless, even promoting universal primary education can interfere with the profit-making motives of multinationals and global finance. Achieving universal primary education is a double-edged sword. Though highly conducive to future economic development in low-income nations, it is an extremely expensive proposition for the wealthier nations. The World Bank itself revealed in 2002 that the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals of halving poverty would require, not merely enormous financial aid, but also the full cancellation of all debts of impoverished nations. (Buxton, 2004, p. 76)
As in the past, programs aimed at reducing global poverty continue to run up against problems of cost vs. benefits. Globalism essentially demands that small local - and in the case of developing nations - traditional communities must compete against one another to attract investment from abroad. In many ways, this produces a situation similar to that of the…… [Read More]
By the stipulation that a prince ought to surrender his territories if he altered his faith an obstruction was positioned in the manner of an additional increase of the eformation. The announcement that all objections or rejections by whoever declared ought to be unfounded and annulled delivered a rage at the interference of the oman curia in German dealings. The constitutional alterations set down by the treaty had extensive results. The territorial power of the states of the kingdom was documented. They were authorized to convention agreements with one another and with distant authorities; offer that the emperor and the empire experienced no unfairness. Because of this and other alterations the princes of the empire turned into complete royals in their own commands. Both the emperor and the diet were now just a meager silhouette of their previous authority. The emperor could not declare the veto of the empire lacking…… [Read More]
Instead, they would use the help of various international organizations that they had forged strong alliances with. At which point, many of the changes that the rebels were seeking were implemented. Where, they continue to remain focused on supporting those indigenous organizations that are struggling against the injustices of globalization. This has caused the rebels to offer support to similar anti-globalization causes taking place in: Cuba, olivia and Ecuador.
In this case, the neo-realist approach that was used by Mexican government to negotiate some kind of lasting peace agreement with the rebels, failed. For the PRI, they had to engage in such actions because they did not have popular support. This allowed the rebels to use the media to point out how they are the illegitimate government of the Mexican people. Then, when Fox became President he continued to engage in the same kind of action, the only difference is…… [Read More]
Studies and research programs from inter-disciplinarity of sociology have proved that the society is essential to be protected. Social, political, economic and cultural aspects are evidently vital in promoting development and the improvement of life style, which eventually accounts for societal development. From previous projects, the society is a depiction of human life illuminating facets of social life to coax the modern world systems. Various theories have summed up their relationship to the society in terms of ideologies and propositions that assist human beings to understand the society better. eligion, education, family units, economies and their functions, international security, trade and the role of governments are some of the elements that previous projects have assisted in compiling vital aspects of society.
Veto Power and Security
The United Nations arm that deals with international security works under policies decided upon by the members. The UN Security Council consists of…… [Read More]
This form of ilsonian idealism has been somewhat tempered by a more contemporary reformulation of idealism, social constructivism. " hile is has shed the normative mantle of idealism, social constructivism does emphasize that social actors act not only according to their selfish interest, as in realism…but also in response to shared values and norms. Social constructivism therefore stresses that the creation of international institutions in general and international organizations in particular, depends on whether there is a consensus over values and norms" such as a desire for peace or regional economic development (Blanke 2008). Social constructivists, more so than normative idealists or both schools of realists, stress the need for regional actors to have an influence on international events, as it is more likely they can achieve such a normative consensus of values.
Discuss the provisions of the ar Powers Act of 1973. hy was the Act enacted? In the…… [Read More]
Nations play the international finance game, manipulating the institutions that govern the world economy for their own benefit, and that of the corporations that operation within their borders. The problem of China has been particularly acute given the confluence of public and private as represented by its communistic system, and by the People's Republic's willingness to use the floating dollar to its own considerable economic advantage. By having pegged, or near-pegged its currency to the American dollar for so long, China has benefited by seeing its vast numbers of exports to the United States remain eminently affordable despite the dollar's steep slide. The Asian nation remains a magnet for estern companies eager to find cheap sources of manufactured goods and, as with India, a prime location for the outsourcing that many allege is robbing developed economies of even high-skilled jobs. India is particularly noted for its cultivation of high-tech industries…… [Read More]
Morrow, James. "International onflict: Assessing the Democratic Peace and Offense-Defense Theory." Political Science: State of the Discipline. 2002. Edited by IRA Katznelson and Helen Milner, pages 172-196. Also accessible on the web in revised form at http://www.wcfia.harvard.edu/seminars/pegroup/morrow.pdf.
In his article "International onflict: Assessing the Democratic Peace and Offense-Defense Theory" the political scientist and author James Morrow posits as his central query why different international actors such as states fight when there are peaceful settlements that both states would ideally prefer, as opposed to entering into a conflict. "onflict is costly in material terms for nations and personal terms for leaders," (Bueno de Mesquita and Siverson, cited by Morrow, 1995). Thus, why do states enter into war?
Morrow begins his article with a theoretical overview of the potential reasons states enter into war, and ends with several specific examples, including the nations involved in World War II. Morrow is…… [Read More]
He feels that he last perspective explicitly adopts values that focus on justice and human dignity and strives to shape an emerging order of non-territorial central guidance to serve values associated with humanity as a whole, rather than promote the particular interests of favored religious, ethnic or geographic segments.
Faulk's views of these perspectives are very straightforward and to the point. I think that the last perspective of a global populism based on human solidarity is the best of the four. It is the one that takes into account the fact that the world is becoming more and more global everyday. There is no denying that the world is becoming a smaller place all the time as more companies expand into the global marketplace. Because of this fact there is no longer any room for particular interests based on religion, ethnicity or geography. In order to be successful in the…… [Read More]
International Relations: Answers to Questions
There are two types of actors in international relations -- state and non-state actors. States are the more important actors of the two; however, their activities are influenced to a significant extent by non-state actors. The term 'non-state actors' collectively refers to those individuals, organizations, groups or movements that have substantial influence over a country's international activities although they are not regarded as state institutions[footnoteRef:1]. They include sub-state actors, intergovernmental organizations (IGOs), multinational corporations (MNCs), non-governmental organizations (NGOs), political groups that advocate violence (terrorists), and international criminal groups[footnoteRef:2]. These actors serve a number of crucial roles in IR. One of their key goals is to aid a country in opinion-building. The United Nations Human Rights Council (UNHRC), for instance, gives advice to member states on how proposed international activities are likely to affect other countries' abilities to enjoy their human rights. On a different note,…… [Read More]
Finally, Paris introduces the concept of a matrix-based approach designed to include both military and non-military threats to nation states to address the traditional focus of security threats to the entire spectrum of potential threats to nations from external origin, internal conflict, as well as from nonviolent threats of a more chronic nature that affect individuals rather than whole societies.
Applying International Relations and Security Principles to an Imprecise Concept:
Paris is correct in his observation that the concept of human security is an extremely broad notion that comprises individual components of widely varied significance. Likewise, it is true that different approaches to the issue and the definitions offered by various theorists are mutually contradictory and that even within any single framework, subjective application and arbitrary distinctions render any conclusions susceptible to corruption and diversion for the purposes of justifying internal policies and expenditures of public resources as well as…… [Read More]
It has had the most success in stabilizing regions and winning concessions through idealistic policies. The reason for this is simple: ideas and money travel faster than bullets.
Diplomacy may not always deliver the immediate results that the use of force and intimidation may have, but information, ideas and money have much stronger, lasting results. The Cold ar ended and Eastern Europe was pacified not because Reagan built more bombs (he didn't), but because Eastern Europeans longed for the freedoms and wealth enjoyed by their counterparts in the west.
The United States cannot be an isolationist nation, and indeed the division of isolationist/internationalist barely holds relevance today. Few nations are truly isolationist. The nature of global trade and travel has allowed for economic and ideological spread to penetrate the borders of all but the most determined nations. A United States filled with new immigrants and trading with the world cannot…… [Read More]
To Walsh, the need for international politics remains. Interdependence, he argues, will never be complete. States desire to retain control over key resources that could be denied them in times of war or crisis. There is a certain level of mistrust between states, and that fuels the need for international politics despite increasing interdependence.
Moreover, interdependence also fuels more opportunities before war, because it creates more situations for offense or resentment, especially given that interdependence does not imply an even dependence between nations. That the relationships are often uneven specifically creates the conditions for international politics.
The rise of modern institutions such as the EU and NATO are supposed to smooth the way to peace. Walsh's point is that even an institution such as NATO is beholden to states. "Bureaucracy can help sustain the organization but states determine its fate." Essentially, Walsh views NATO as a tool by which the…… [Read More]
The framework for globalization is set by the stronger nations and their corporations. Even when weaker nations benefit from globalization, they may not be seeing as much benefit as they would have had they had equal bargaining power.
It has also been argued that while it is nation-states that implement globalization, they merely do so at the behest of their corporations. It is the corporations, then, that truly drive the globalization agenda. This occurs to the point where, ultimately, a truly globalized world will be one market, with the relevance of the nation-state greatly reduced (Baker, 2007).
hile it is governments that promote globalization, it is corporations that must execute it. They trade the goods, move the money and hire the people. Ultimately, it is corporate interests that reap the benefits of globalization first. From there, the wealth needs to trickle down through the economy, in the form of wages,…… [Read More]
As stated clearly in the book,
ut in today's world, a nation's form of government, not its 'civilization' or its geographic location, maybe the best predictor of its geopolitical alignment."
For instance, China and Japan both have shared Asian culture, but at the same time one is a democratic country while the other one follows an autocracy. Thus, Japan will have more in general with another democracy, even though it is not racially same, that it will with China.
He further discussed that the dictatorship are unsafe, not only because they have unfair internal policies, in fact they normally experiencing fast economic growth (Dejevsky, 2008). This permit them to support a more authoritative and threatening military with which to pressurize democracies: like, Russia's flourishing oil wealth had conflicts with the European Union and sent nuclear bombers on training trip on Western side, while China on the other hand makes more…… [Read More]
International elations: Nationalism
Author Umut Ozkirimli makes an important point at the outset of his book: though nationalism has been around for more than two hundred years, serious scholarly examinations of the "origins and spread" of nationalism did not begin until the First World War, and began to seriously pick up momentum only after WWII. Why this is a fact is up for discussion, but perhaps, a naive reader might surmise, it could be that the fanatical nationalism put into play by Hitler - to brow-beat his nation into believing Aryan "master race" lies and that the mass slaughter of Jews was justified - stimulated a wealth of academic analysis into the field of nationalism. But a quick glance at the book's Index reveals that the name of "Hitler" does not appear in this book, and "Nazism" appears twice. And thus, one's narrow preconceptions of "nationalism" are severely amended through…… [Read More]
Because of the army's status as Serbs, however, it aided only the rebels, leaving the Croats to fend for themselves.
But the conflict did not stay within the boarders of Croatia. Instead, it pushed past the boundaries of Bosnia Herzegovina and led to one of the most bitter and bloodiest battles of the war, which included the Serbs and Yugoslavian People's Army fighting against the Croats and Muslims of Bosnia. The violence of the conflict would allow Bosnia to take focus as one of the most disastrous sites of the war. The conflict not only caused massive amounts of bloodshed, but also fear that created an international attempt to aid victims and would-be victims on both sides ("Along Ethnic Fault Lines").
The extent of the ethnic conflicts, and the degree to which the violence flourished because of them, has been proved, primarily through the Serbian-Croatian conflict, the preferences of the…… [Read More]
For a brief time after the collapse of the Soviet Union, the United States again stood unchallenged. However, in a clear demonstration of the consequences of a failure to use all elements of the reconstructive philosophy - political, economic, and military - the United States interfered economically in the former Soviet union while neglecting other aspects of Russian development. The result was the growth of Russian antagonism as Russia degenerated into a political free for all and large parts of its military apparatus were sold off to dangerous rogue entities. The result was the empowerment of hostile forces throughout the Muslim world and the eventual re-emergence of Russia as sometime champion of these anti-American elements. At the very least, Russia offers an alternative to America - a fact that is dangerous for American ambitions. Today's disputes can now be solved only through multilateral agreements, or rather, through the application of…… [Read More]
According to Jeff Daniels, American is no longer the greatest nation in the world, yet America was once the greatest nation in the world. Although this might seem to be a very humbling stance to take, it is, in fact, yet another example of the mentality of American exceptionalism. The myth of American exceptionalism suggests that America is a unique and special nation, unparalleled in human history. It also suggests that America must strive to fulfill its destiny to be the greatest nation in the world. This is an extremely dangerous mindset and ultimately alienates America from the world community.
The idea that America is somehow special is perhaps the most ordinary thing about the nation. “The British thought they were bearing the ‘white man’s burden,’ and “even many of the officials of the former Soviet Union genuinely believed they were leading the world toward a socialist utopia despite the…… [Read More]
International elations Theory and United Nations Peace:
International elations (I) field normally focuses on the study of how various state systems can be made to work more efficiently to improve the power of law, maintain order, manage interstate affairs peacefully, and lessen prospects of war. The word relation in this field is used to denote the inclusion of more than political affairs to aspects like conflict and peace. International relations field is closely linked administratively to political science departments (O'Connor, 2010). Actually, the field of international relations traces its origin from various subfields including international law, diplomatic history, and international economics. While it's still early to consider international relations as a sovereign field of study, it has broken from the analytical procedures of economics and law as well as the ongoing process of breaking from political science. Consequently, this field has become an important facet because of the conceptualizations of…… [Read More]
Conciliation seems to be more to the purpose, if opposing bodies are expected to work together to govern a country. Humphrey said in his study on From Victim to Victimhood, "By contrast, trials have played a much smaller role during political transition and thus have addressed far fewer victims. They have, however, been very important in re-establishing the authority of law and the state" (2003 184)
hat division of labor among states, international institutions and non-governmental organizations is likely to prove most effective in meeting the challenges of the post-Cold ar era in the future?
George . Bush, President of the United States of America, appears to believe that the United States must police the world, leading other nations into controlling what he considers dangerous policies in other countries, while taking preemptive action against them on his own. hile Bush knows that the laws of war are different from the…… [Read More]
With their growing industry-based economy, the Chinese are becoming more prosperous, but they are also becoming the most polluting nation on earth. Another writer notes, "The situation continues to deteriorate because even when Beijing sets ambitious targets to protect the environment, local officials generally ignore them, preferring to concentrate on further advancing economic growth" (Economy, 2007). Global warming threatens the entire planet, and with more pollution entering the environment from China, through both industry and automobiles, the global environment is severely threatened. This is a threat that will face many generations to come, and could change the face of the entire planet, and because of this, China is the nation's (and world's) biggest threat.
Economy, E.C. (2007). The great leap backward? etrieved 22 Jan. 2008 from the Foreign Affairs Web site: http://www.foreignaffairs.org/20070901faessay86503/elizabeth-c-economy/the-great-leap-backward.html.
Ikenberry, G.J. (2008). The rise of China and the future of the West: Can the liberal system…… [Read More]
The same access to formerly secret information from the Cold War era also revealed the extent to which Soviet infiltration of the highest level of American military projects had served to further exhaust the American economy by necessitating continual development of strategic and tactical weapon systems to counter escalating technological improvements in Soviet military systems. The first successful test of a Soviet nuclear weapon in 1949 was directly attributable to Soviet infiltration of the top secret Manhattan Project; American pilots flew combat missions against Soviet Mig fighters developed with information stolen from American weapon designs through espionage; and that dynamic persisted virtually throughout the Cold War (Langewiesche 2007).
The financial strain of continuous nuclear deterrence and the perpetual modernization and updating of sophisticated strategic weapon systems was among the principle causes of the eventual collapse of the former Soviet Union. By 1989, the protracted war in Afghanistan had all but…… [Read More]
international relations: idealism vs. realism
The theories of international relations have been seen as a mechanism thru which practitioners in the area of international politics as well as scholars tried to explain the way in which international politics function and how the behavior of states and actors on the international scene can be anticipated.
The beginning of the 20th century was a period of deep consideration for international politics, given the First World War and its aftermath. The idealistic approach on international politics tried to explain the behavior states had after the end of the war and also define the period between the two conflagrations. The realist theory on the other hand appeared as a result of the Second World War and its aftermath and, although it took into account similar elements, the points made in reference to these elements were somewhat in contrast. There are several key issues that…… [Read More]
international relations theory due to their background in agriculture related research and study, including a BSc. degree in agriculture, a master's degree was in agricultural development and a master's degree in sustainable development in agriculture. ith regard to sustainable development this applicant was struck by the number of issues that were purely related to an understanding of the nation state and the crisis that it now faces in the era of neoliberal globalization due to the growth in power and influence of non-state corporate entities that have become more powerful than traditional nation states.
hat is happening to date in globalization challenges all of the areas of international relations theory, whether using the approaches of realism, constructivism, or Marxism and critical theory, feminism, foundationalism, the "English school," functionalism, post-structuralism or post-colonialism. The overall topic of this author's research is ambitious. It will be to fuse the elements of all of…… [Read More]
From this I would take advice from the history of the Swiss -- I would require all children were taught the use of weapons in adolescence, and that upper classes in school coincided with military training. After graduation, every citizen would be required to keep a weapon in the home, and asked to serve in their community guard, which would train a couple times a year. Defense plans would be built on a street-to-street basis, and every large metropolis would also have more advanced weaponry available to civil servants and block commanders in case of invasion. This training would both protect the future democracy of the country, and assure that any nation wishing to invade would face a true quagmire of house-to-house fighting in every city.
I would then focus on making the nation an economic asset to the larger world. I would first work to assure that the country…… [Read More]
In international policy, as in the course of daily human life, self-interested actors must carefully weigh competing and often equally valid choices, and make for themselves some compromise between opposed values. It seems that as often as one is able to solve a problem, one notices that the very solution causes problems of its own. An unmitigated good is difficult to find even in one person's individual life, and it is even harder (if not impossible) to discover a national plan of action which will prove beneficial for every citizen and for the world at large. It seems inevitable that any policy which creates significant benefits somewhere along the line must at another spot be creating significant detriments for at least some subsection of the community. (This is even true with crime control, which benefits most citizens and penalizes those whose selves or families depend on illegal…… [Read More]
political motive should be allowed to exercise within the context of morality otherwise the strongest will flourish at the expense of the weakest. The accommodation of morality within political decision-making is the essence of the central argument presented by Immanuel Kant in his work, "Perpetual Peace." This paper begins by summarizing Kant's "Perpetual Peace" and goes on to identify the realist and liberal aspects of his work. The paper ends by discussing the compatibility of Kant's ideas with classical realism.
KANT: PEPETUAL PEACE
The current international political environment is tilting towards a New World Order. This is due to the visible tension that is a product of interaction between the major world powers along with their national interests and the lesser world powers. This tension stems primarily from the desire to maintain power and protect one's own national interests at the expense of others. Several philosophers have suggested…… [Read More]
Despite the success with a new Iraqi government, elections, a new Constitution etc. The country is still highly unstable and fighting and terrorist attacks occur on a regular basis. Despite continuous fighting and combat, pacification seems to be a long way off at this point and it doesn't seem as if things are likely to improve soon.
Another disadvantage is related to the forces needed for such an action. According to estimates, a force of around 350,000 to 500,000 is needed for a potential success of a pacification action through force. The U.S. And the coalition forces have less than 200,000 people in the field and the pressure is already extremely high to reduce those numbers rather than further increase them. The political and public opinion pressure in the U.S. would be tremendous if the government was to think about increasing the number of troops stationed in Iraq. It just…… [Read More]
International relations studies is the specialization that focuses on the study of foreign affairs and the global events significantly influence the trend of the states that are within the international system. These systems are categorized as governments, countries, organizations and even people who are the main agents of relations and interchange between people within varying geographical locations (WITS University, 2014). There are pertinent issues that are involved in the study of international relations such as war, disease, democracy, poverty, diplomacy, globalization, economics and trade. The significance of continued study of international relations are numerous and important to any organization and governments. From the study of international reactions between two entities in the past, it is possible to predict the future and the significance and possible repercussions of some international decisions that a government or a president or even the organizations may take. International studies a reason geared towards having a…… [Read More]
Realism in International Relations
In the study of politics, the subject of international relations inevitably surfaces, mainly because politics do not only deal with national or domestic affairs, but also international concerns and issues. In the field of international relations, there are two prevailing paradigms: realism and liberalism. Although the focus of this discussion would be on realism, it can be best understood by also identifying and distinguishing it from liberalism.
Liberalism as a political paradigm in international relations posits that conflicts between and among states can be resolved through the help of international institutions like the United Nations and World Trade Organization. As a political ideology, liberalism is idealistic in the sense that its proponents believe that conflicts and even wars can be resolved diplomatically, and effectively through an efficient medium (i.e., international institutions). The Modernist Project of the United States during the Cold War period witnessed…… [Read More]
One of the major issues that have characterized international relations (IR) discourse is the role and significance of gender. Steans (2006) states that gender issues in international relations (IR) are usually very controversial and highly political. The controversy associated with this issue is attributable to the fact that gender IR is an increasingly political issue. This paper focuses on examining the role and significance of gender in international relations given the increased controversy and politics surrounding it. This paper demonstrates that gender is an important issue in IR, especially with the increased role of men and women in world politics. The first part shows that gender relations are crucial in international law and politics. The second part shows that incorporating both genders in IR discourse helps in establishing fair social policies and inclusive peace strategies. The third part will demonstrate that gender plays a major role in formulating policy agenda…… [Read More]
ole of Cyberspace in International elations: A Literature eview
Cyberspace became a household term after it was adopted by computer professionals and popularized in the 1990s (Slater, 2002). Before that, it was used most often in science fiction movies and books. It relates to the environment in which communication occurs over and/or between computer networks. With the growth of the internet, many people began referring to cyberspace as the "place" where everything happened online (Slater, 2002). Technically, of course, cyberspace is not really a physical place. It is just the term chosen to be used by most of the general public when they discuss where something "goes" when it is sent from one computer. For example, an email that failed to reach its destination without explanation may be said to have been "lost in cyberspace." While that is not, technically, accurate, everyone who deals with computers and the internet understands…… [Read More]
By way of introduction to the topic, Legro examines the general presumption that a state's sense of identity defines the parameter of its national interests, thus directing its domestic or international conduct. Rather than subscribing blindly to this fundamental precept of neorealism, Legro offers a competing theory of identity and its influence on international relations, surmising that "states become what they do as much as they do what they are, they desire what they do as much as they do what they desire" (20). It is Legro's contention that a state's distinct set of cultural norms, social values, and other markers of identity can direct governmental actions on the world stage, but that these actions will inevitably influence this identity, thus providing an entirely different contextual framework for international relations as time progresses and circumstances change.
Legro cites the example of America's divergent approaches to participation in each of the…… [Read More]
In international relations theory, realists generally follow the rational choice or national actor with the assumption that states and their leaders make policy on the basis of calculated self-interest. They follow a utilitarian and pragmatic philosophy in which "decision makers set goals, evaluate their relative importance, calculate the costs and benefits of each possible course of action, then choose the one with the highest benefits and lowest costs" (Goldstein and Pevehouse 127). Individual leaders will have their unique personalities, experiences and psychological makeups, and some will be more averse to risk than others, but essentially they all follow a rational model of policymaking. American presidents are generally skilled politicians as well or they would never have achieved such high office in this first place, and this means that their rational calculations will always include public opinion, the needs of their electoral coalitions and the wishes of various interest…… [Read More]
International relations theory refers to the study of the theoretical perspective of international relations. It provides a framework which is conceptual upon which analysis of international relations is done. International relations theories can also act like pairs of colored sunglasses which only allows the person wearing it to see what’s relevant to the theory. There are three most prominent theories available - constructivism, liberalism and realism. International relations theories are divided into rationalist and reflectivist theories. Rationalist theories are those that focus on analysis that is principally of state level. Reflectivist theories incorporate the meanings of security in an expanded manner from post-colonial security, gender to class.
International relations theories have a big role in helping policy-makers produce solutions that are effective instead of being regarded as being too abstract. In policy organizations that are foreign, people are not selected by their theories’ quality but by their quality of…… [Read More]
Rationalist Theories of International Relations
Despite the name, rationalist theories of international relations are anything but, limited as they are by both an almost childlike understanding of human behavior and a catastrophic lack of imagination. Rationalist theories of international relations, like the Objectivism which developed in the same post-orld ar II period, rely on a number of assumptions which have since been shown to be empirically false. Rationalism assumes that the most important, and in fact, the only entities dictating international relations are nation states, and that these nation states are engaged in a zero-sum game of diplomacy and war, in which the goals of every nation state is eventual dominance above all others, so that international relations are dictated almost exclusively through violence or coercion, with diplomacy essentially reduced to the well-spoken threat of force. Thus, rationalist theories of international relations are not only incorrect, but altogether dangerous, as…… [Read More]
U.S. And Int'l. Relations
International Relations Theories and the Role of the U.S. In the Middle East
A Short Analysis of U.S. Culture Theories and Interventions
intervention in the Middle East has had very divergent consequences for both Iraq and the United States, with the lasting outcome being undetermined as of yet. The two countries are polar opposites in many ways, including vastly different cultures, different work ethics, and different histories. The divide between the Western Liberalized world and the world of Muslim dictators has always been troublesome in relations between the two populations. Lessons may be learned from the African Union in how to unite deeply divided states, as the institution has been successful in their attempt to unite states divided by religion, ethnicity, language, and culture. The African Union may also learn lessons from the U.S. intervention in Iraq, as the International Relations Theory pursued by the United…… [Read More]
Analysis of Theories
The field of international relations is based on many competing and complementary theories. These include realism, liberalism, constructivism, dependency theory, Marxism, etc. The theories are many; the field is expansive. What international relations seek to do is both formulate and analyze international politics, and work concomitantly with world governments, non-governmental organizations, and multi-national corporations. Due to the nature of work in these global affairs, several of the theories mentioned above are utilized to explain various phenomena. This paper will thus focus on a few questions as they relate to international relations and, specifically, to the theories which it employs.
To begin, one must understand that the field of international politics can be segmented into various categories, or levels of analysis. The most famous of these categories are Kenneth Waltz' groups, which include explanations of politics as being driven by individuals, by psychology, by states,…… [Read More]
actors in International Relations are the State people. Discuss this statement with reference to International Society theory.
Modern international system is based on state interaction. Therefore, the principle actors in international relations are the state people. The state people make decisions in the international arena; they collaborate, coordinate their activities with other state people, and represent their respective citizens in international bodies. Non-state actors such as non-governmental organizations and corporations can influence state people but they are not the principle actors in international relations, as decisions pertaining to those are made by state people.
As the theory of international society posits, states have their own society where they have established common rules and institutions through dialogue and consent to conduct their relations and acknowledge their common interest in maintaining these agreements. The theory also suggests that the international society is in a state of anarchy, lacking any global ruler or…… [Read More]
More precisely, the sovereignty promoted by the realists acknowledges the fact that the state has the right to accept or refuse to take part in a regime. Therefore, event the regimes promoted by institutionalism still depend on the actual will of the states.
The United Nations represents a valid example in this sense. Therefore, its structure was indeed created on the basis of the idealist line of thought, giving equal representation rights to nations all over the world. However, the Security Council structure is reminiscent of the realist beliefs of the powerful ruling over the weaker ones. In this sense, while the institutional approach was used in creating the idea of a global organization that would discuss war issues and would engage in peaceful resolution of conflicts, the SC is the classical structure of the balance of power situation. This is one of the reasons for which the United Nations…… [Read More]
The Panamanians however, did get the short end of the stick for a really long time.
The Panama Canal Treaty had an astonishing impact on international relations, such an impact, that it is still present today. Panama is the single-most busiest port in the world. With more ships trading there than in any other place, the financial boom that Panama should be receiving is now becoming apparent in Panama City's growth in size. It changed the way that trade was conducted and that travel at the time was made. No longer were ships obligated to go through the south tip of South America, but they could now travel through North and South America in order to get to their destination. Two sides of the World were united through the creation of the Panama Canal, and none of this would have been possible, had it not been for the ratification of…… [Read More]
S. exports, but only reduced them, to increase imports from Mexico, to stimulate the opening of manufacturing plants in Mexico and to lead to the loss of jobs for the American population
Ultimately then, the free market is a beneficial theoretical model, but its practical implementation has only proven profitable for the corporations in the highly developed western economies.
3. Are impediments to economic and financial reconstruction worse in a particular region of the developing world?
The tumultuous world history has impregnated its effects upon all players. And these effects are multiple and depend on various other features. On the other hand, they can be used to explain the contemporaneous stages of economic development presented by each state. While some countries enjoy the benefits of high levels of economic growth and development, others still strive to make do. And the differences are not only obvious among the groups of developed,…… [Read More]
human being is a fickle creature, yet marvelous as well. Many have said in recent times that the human race will die within the next half century. Not of plagues or illness, not from an asteroid hitting the planet. No, rather, people surmise the human race will meet it's end due to international relations and foreign policy. In this world today, thousands of nuclear weapons and bombs exist. More nations have attempted to acquire them. Terrorists have become armed with suicide bombing jackets and vests and thousands end up meeting their fate, appearing on the tragic side of the news.
Along with the terrorist attacks are the bevy of problems experienced by man due to lack of resources and extreme poverty. There are people living in mansions while countless others have no access to clean water. The way the international system works, operates is flawed. In order to potentially fix…… [Read More]
The Central Question
How important is it that IR (International Relations) scholars reflect on the relationship between power and knowledge? From a feminist theory perspective, it is critical for IR scholars to highlight the relationship between power and knowledge in order to uncover the gender dynamics of power and knowledge in an IR setting. Feminism is more than simply a theory about women—it also provides a framework for understanding gender and gender constructs and how these constructs impact international relations.[footnoteRef:2] In order for IR scholars to excel in their work and more fully understand the parameters of IR, they have to be attentive to the socio-political implications of the political structures within which they work. [2: Christine Sylvester, “The Contributions of Feminist Theory to International Relations,” International Theory: positivism and beyond (1996), 254.]
Feminist IR theory proceeds from Critical theory, which is based on past fundamentally disruptive theories…… [Read More]
passion for politics and the government. I believe I can make a change in the world and the country I live in. Therefore, I chose to pursue a degree in International Relations. A degree in International Relations means not just a potential career in government and politics, it also means I will have expanded knowledge in other areas, including non-government job opportunities.
Academically speaking, I'll expand my horizons and learn about the ways of the government. Professionally speaking, I'll prepare myself for a career of my choosing in a field I most desire to be in. Personally, I get to share my knowledge of the world with others and gain knowledge from others learning to apply my knowledge to the real world through research.
How does an International Relations degree affect my academic prospects and change my perspective? This kind of degree enables me to learn about diplomacy and acquire…… [Read More]
Coker's article (published in a very conservative magazine in England) "reflected unease among some of his colleagues" about that new course at LSEP. Moreover, Coker disputes that fact that there is a female alternative to male behavior and Coker insists that "Whether they love or hate humanity, feminists seem unable to look it in the face" (Smith quoting Coker, p. 58).
If feminists are right about the female nature being more peaceful and "less aggressive" than men, then women pose a "far greater danger than men…" to the world and to international relations Coker continued. It was a less aggressive attitude toward international relations that "prevented us from deterring Hitler," Coker went on, referencing (without naming) Neville Chamberlain, England's Prime Minister who reportedly appeased Hitler rather than take a strong stand against the Third Reich.
On page 58 Steve Smith explains that in cases where feminine concerns are being…… [Read More]
However, working for the U.S. Department of State, one would have to subordinate their own political views to the presiding presidential administration's views and protocol. In other words, it would be necessary, at all times, to be support of the foreign and domestic policies of the United States, as held by the president, especially when the duties involve foreign nationals and dignitaries. It is not a matter of assimilating the politics of another; you may vote for whomever you choose, and support, privately, whatever party and philosophy you choose. Your professional poise and demeanor and mission must be that of the administration under whom your work as a professional international relations person is intended to serve, and whose goals and mission you must work towards. This is perhaps another matter to consider in deciding whether to go government, or private sector when pursuing your career opportunities.
To get an idea…… [Read More]
Economists can demonstrate how, in the aggregate, consumers and industry benefit from free trade. In the process of creative destruction, however, some industries and workers are displaced by the changes wrought by free trade.
The measurement of benefit in the case of Volkswagen continues to reverberate today, after over 25 years. When VW entered the Chinese market, it did so over the objections of its local labour unions and politicians. Part of the objection came because the State of Lower Saxony controlled 20% of the shares, and the government was concerned about the loss of jobs in its domestic sector. The managers of VW saw it differently: by creating a successful and growing subsidiary in China, the reasoning went, the company could increase its generated cash and derive strategic benefits from finding a lower-cost supplier of parts.
There were, however, forces to overcome:
Unions threatened to strike in Germany unless…… [Read More]
y using the last two centuries as an excuse to motivate the motive for which their countries are unwilling to make any compromise, the Chinese representative practically expresses his point-of-view regarding the situation. It is difficult to determine whether or not he is right, as one might come across an ethical dilemma in trying to do so. The Chinese and other developing nations are uncertain whether it is more important for them to experience economic progress or whether it is more important for the international public to perform great efforts with the purpose of saving the environment. It all comes down to personal gain in the end, as the Chinese appear to be unsupportive regarding the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions.
China, India, razil and South Africa are more concerned about their own well-being than they are in the well-being of the international public as a whole. Goldstein (p. 340)…… [Read More]
The ICJ made clear that it did not desire and was not trying to expand its jurisdiction and stated that the issues did not "expand its jurisdiction into new areas by stating that the issues did not "concern the entitlement of the federal states w/in the U.S. To resort to the death penalty for the most heinous crimes" and that the function of the ICJ is to resolve international legal disputes not for functions of a criminal appeals court.
Summary and Conclusion
It is the purpose of Article 41 of the VC to allow for an interim period pending trial in which the consular officers of the country involved are enabled to go on with their business in the period between the commission or occurrence and the trial of the crime for which the individual is accused. It is important to note that Under Article 41 of the 1963 Vienna…… [Read More]
For example, Shu-Acquaye (2007) cites the basic differences in the legal systems in various parts of the world as contributing to the different approaches to corporate governance. Likewise, Shu-Acquaye cites these differences and adds, "The American corporate governance system adheres to the idea of shareholder primacy. Because the United Kingdom, Austria, and Canada share a legal system based on English common law and equity principles, they are similar to the United States -- shareholder primacy is the predominant norm in each of these countries."
By sharp contrast, other countries such as Japan and Germany are characterized by stronger protection for their employees, creditors, and other nonshareholder stakeholders in general, representing examples of a stakeholder-orientated system. In their book, the Control of Corporate Europe, Barca and Becht point out that, "Germany has always had a prominent place in the international corporate governance debate. The country is among the largest and richest…… [Read More]
The objective of this work in writing is to examine what it means to 'keep the peace' in the present age and the world facing challenges and threats of unprecedented scope, scale and complexity. The question addressed in this research is that which asks where in such endeavors are the existence of international institutions and legal doctrines likely to suffice and where are international institutions and legal doctrines likely to fall short?
The ole of International Law in the Modern World
In the National Strategy for Homeland Security it is stated that "virtually every community in America is connected to the global transportation network by the seaports, airports, highways pipelines, railroads, and waterways that move people and goods into, within, and out of the Nation. We must therefore promote the efficient and reliable flow of people, goods and services across borders, while preventing terrorists from using transportation conveyances…… [Read More]
The case involving Milosevic was has different sub-plots, as he would claim that the actions he took were to prevent the country from being overrun by terrorists. Yet, at the same time, as some of these atrocities were being committed, NATO would attack Serbia in an effort to halt these violations. In this aspect, one could argue that the actions taken by NATO were in violation of international law. As they were not supported by a UN mandate, instead the actions were NATO countries working in concert with one another to go after Serbia. This is despite the fact that Serbia did not attack any of NATO allied nations.
When you look at the situations from the realist perspective, they would argue that the application of different international standards is an attempt to circumvent the power of the nation state over its people. Where, the ICC is unilaterally determining what…… [Read More]
' (Adams, 1982) Local agencies helped the magistrate, remedied public mores, and also inspected the conduct of the "Hyangni" and served as power base for the local "yangbans. "Yangbans" were dispatched to the province from the capital. Yangbans -- constituted of the class of advantaged / privileged civil and military servicemen. Yangins constituted of middle-level bureaucrats, peasants and merchants, whose children were allowed to sit the exam for governance service. "Chungins" -- were technical personnel and professional specialists composed of the side children of 'Yangbans"
Leonid (2011) points out that 'The literati composed of the dominant social class in Choson Korea. Most of them were the "Yangbans" the members of the two orders of officialdom who served as civil or military officials.' Since it was this yangbans who directed the government, economy and culture of Choson Korea, it may be designated a Yangban society as opposed to the aristocratic society…… [Read More]
For instance, McDonald's has a solid partnership with Starbucks that came as a natural solution to the increased consumption of coffee in its restaurants. Starbucks happens to be the world's leading specialty coffee retailer with a worldwide presence that matches that of the fast food producer.
Other factors affecting decision
Vietnam is an Asian country with strong oriental cooking habits, which might not be very compatible with McDonald's typical menu of cheeseburgers and fries with a Coke on the side. Furthermore, the local food seems to be relatively healthy, which again is not something that cam be said by McDonald's food.
In 1990s, the company tried to enter this market, but didn't due to the lack of suitable business partners. A few years later, KFC and Lotteria entered the market and consolidated their position. Therefore, at this point the restaurant chain would need a couple of strong breakthrough strategies…… [Read More]