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In a bief homage to neo-Maxism, citical theoy highlights the way in which human secuity, typically in the hands of leades, can be used as a global tool to secue economic and political issues, and to justify pe-emptive intevention when the balance is in question (Cox 1992). Being such a boad appoach, and taking into account population geogaphy, economics, histoy, feminist studies, multi-cultual sociology, etc., the theoy is moe of a commitment to the manne in which intenational elations issues can be solved amiably. In fact, it is the potential fo changes that multicultualism holds that fames the most easonable appoach to citical secuity (Bidge and Stevens 2001). Fo example, the dominant tendencies in global elations have thee pincipal pats: 1) the global political economy, 2) an individualized inte-state system, and 3) the biosphee o global ecosystem. It is just ecently that scholas and politicians alike have ealized the complete…
references to economics being the primary cause of international conflict. Views of this hold that all conflict is rooted in either the protection of assets or the desire for additional assets. War is the result of not finding a way to glean those assets without conflict; and finding a propagandistic excuse to justify the conflict. See, for example: Whitcomb, R. 1998, the Cold War in Retrospect. Greenwood; Harrison, M. 2000. The Economics of World War II. Cambridge University Press; Aronson, C. 2005. Rethinking the Economics of War. JHU Press.
opportunities does China's rise imply for international security?
ecently Chinese military history witnessed three ships that were used in war, sailed across the straits of Malacca in the month of December last year on their way to a milestone. Being a part of International maritime force located in Gulf of Aden, China planned to safeguard its economic interest at the international level with the help of military forces. The steps taken are not only limited to Beijing's policy framework with respect to security across the Strait of Taiwan. China is on the verge of rising as a firm military player on in global map with the help of its strategic steps, modernizing techniques along with the efforts in the field of training and development (Holslag, 2009).
Many uncertain indications have been sent about this development from United States. A wide explanation was given to Congress about the international "military engagement"…
Holslag, J. (2009). Embracing Chinese Global Security Ambitions. Center for Strategic and International Studies. The Washington Quarterly: 32:3.
On the other hand, the International Rescue Committee focuses on promoting human rights as one of the core of every innovative programs carried out by the organization. This major focus on human rights through the restoration of safety, hope and dignity to millions of refugees is one of the major relations of this organization with the ISCOR major at San Diego University.
Finally, the third major relation of the organization with the ISCOR major is that it serves as an opportunity where graduates of the program can apply their knowledge in helping IRC to accomplish its mission. This is largely due to the fact that students completing the major are prepared for careers that relate to international security and conflict resolution. Since the International Rescue Committee hits the ground in places with conflicts across the globe, graduates of this program can be used to help provide a way from harm…
Graubart, Jonathan. "Program Information." San Diego State University: International Security and Conflict Resolution. San Diego State University, 27 Oct. 2010. Web. 15 May 2011. .
"History of the International Rescue Committee." International Rescue Committee: From Harm to Home. International Rescue Committee. Web. 15 May 2011. .
"International Rescue Committee." Idealist.org. Action Without Borders, Jan. 2011. Web. 15 May 2011. .
"International Security and Conflict Resolution." San Diego State University: SDSU 2011-2012 Catalog. San Diego State University. Web. 15 May 2011. .
The United States and the rest of the coalition members all argue that there was enough authority in the resolutions that already existed from the Security Council to justify using force for the invasion of Iraq. On the 10th of November of 2002, Secretary of State Colin Powell indicated that the United States believed that there were material breaches in the past, as well as new and current material breaches that necessitated enough authority to take action.
Iraq consistently violated many of the Security Council resolutions created by the United Nations and many of these dealt primarily with inspection of facilities and disarmament. Because Iraq continually violated these resolutions the rationale for military action came about largely from this issue. The fact that the terrorist attacks had taken place and there were possible links between Iraq and Al Qaeda also caused much of the tension. The disregard for these resolutions,…
International elations Theory and United Nations Peace:
International elations (I) field normally focuses on the study of how various state systems can be made to work more efficiently to improve the power of law, maintain order, manage interstate affairs peacefully, and lessen prospects of war. The word relation in this field is used to denote the inclusion of more than political affairs to aspects like conflict and peace. International relations field is closely linked administratively to political science departments (O'Connor, 2010). Actually, the field of international relations traces its origin from various subfields including international law, diplomatic history, and international economics. While it's still early to consider international relations as a sovereign field of study, it has broken from the analytical procedures of economics and law as well as the ongoing process of breaking from political science. Consequently, this field has become an important facet because of the conceptualizations of…
Ahmed, S. Keating P. & Solinas, U (2007), 'Shaping the Future of UN Peace Operations: is there
A Doctrine In the House?' Cambridge Review of International Affairs, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 11-28, viewed 26 November 2011,
Cristol, J (n.d.), International Relations Theory, Oxford Bibliographies Online, viewed 26
S.-USS confrontation ended, the future of the alliance would lie in its role to strike a balance between the new poles of power that would emerge in the coming decades.
Due to the lack of vision concerning the future evolution of the international system, there was little agreement on how to actually proceed in reestablishing and redefining the role and scope of NATO. This is why some scholars considered that the immediate years following the end of the Cold War were marked by a high degree of uncertainty arguing that the aims set forth in 1991 were vague and without a clear determination in time and space (Foster and Williams, 2001). The leaders of the Alliance needed, according to the realist and neorealist vision a new common threat or common goal that would keep the Cold War unity unchanged. In this sense, Europeans considered the cooperation with the U.S. To…
Borawski, J. 1995. Partnership for Peace and beyond. International Affairs (Royal Institute of International Affairs 1944-), Vol. 71, No. 2. pp. 233-246
Boulden, J. NATO and the United Nations during UNPROFOR. N.d.
Calvocoressi, P. 1987. World politics since 1945. Longman, New York.
Cornish, P. 2004. NATO: the practice and politics of transformation. International Affairs 80.
Security Technology in Next Five Years
Globally security concerns have placed great pressure on the survival of human life and had threatened the daily life, confidence and dignity of societies at large. To resolve the security concerns and overcome with this disastrous obstacles, security technological advancements have been made in many facets. Human life is playing its vital role in moving the world to a secure place where families, businesses, trade, educational system, media, governance, art and science thus all fields of life is affected by the security concerns (Sen, 2002). Now the big question here is how technological development can contribute towards the security concerns especially in the areas of biometrics, forensics and physical security.
Although, there has been intensive increase in human security as the consequences of technological development, the historical background of technology has not rooted much confidence in the societies that further technological development will reduce…
Magarinos, C. (2001) Human Security and Science and Technology. Inauguration Statement of the UNIDO Director-General, 10 October, 2001. United Nations Industrial Development Organization.
McGinn, R (1991) Science, Technology and Society. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Paris, R. (2001). Human security: paradigm shift or hot air?,International Security, retrieved July 21, 2011 from http://www.mitpressjournals.org/doi/pdf/10.1162/016228801753191141
Sen, K. (2002). Basic Education and Human Security. Report of the Kolkata Meeting in Commission on Human Security Bangkok, Thailand. Compiled by Center for Social Development Studies, Faculty of Political Science, Chulalongkorn University. Retreived on July 21, 2011 from http://www.mofa.go.jp/policy/human_secu/sympo0007_s.html
International Crime, Terrorism, And Organized Crime Trends
Comparing contrasting topics international crime, terrorism, organized crime trends
This research has confirmed the possibility of close correlation between money laundering activities, Islamic terrorist fundraising, organized crime, and corruption of public officials throughout Brazilian Hizballah region. The organized crime networks and the Islamic extremists of Brazil must be examined in collaboration because they are connected to wider networks in Latin America zone and across the world. All the organized activities and terrorists in Brazilian Hizballah were facilitated by corrupt officials, which were driven by the benefits of lucrative criminal activities conducted such as business ventures by terrorists and organized crime groups. Consequently, there was a mutually beneficial association among the three sectors. In this study, Brazilian Hizballah will serve as a microcosm.
A number of free-Trade American regions with massive Middle Eastern populations permit organized crime mafias, Islamic terrorist groups, and corrupt…
Almeida, J. (2008). Brazil in focus: Economic, political and social issues. New York: Nova Science Publishers.
Duyan, A., & NATO Emerging Security Challenges Division. (2012). Defence against terrorism: Different dimensions and trends of an emerging threat: [proceedings of the NATO Advanced Training Course on Defence Against Terrorism: Different Dimensions and Trends of the Emerging Threat - Terrorism, Kabul, Afghanistan, 23-27 May 2010]. Amsterdam: Ios Pres in cooperation with NATO Emerging Security Challenges Division.
Friedlander, R.A., Levie, H.S. & Lovelace, D.C. (2009). Terrorism: Documents of international and local control. Dobbs Ferry, N.Y: Oceana Publications.
Giraldo, J.K. (2007). Terrorism financing and state responses: A comparative perspective. Stanford, Calif: Stanford Univ. Press.
International Financial Markets and Institutions:
Throughout the globe, today's landscape of international financial market and institutions has continued to experience several changes that require practitioners to examine new models. The need for practitioners to examine new models that are relevant to the state of these markets and institutions has also been necessitated by the recent events that contribute to financial crises, which have been very dramatic. Actually, the recent financial crisis has had significant impacts on the financial institutions and markets resulting in the need for changes. International financial markets and institutions have become an important aspect of economies because they affect daily life. This is primarily because they involve the huge flow of different types of funds in the entire economy that in turn impact the profits of businesses, production of goods and services, and economic well-being of countries. In some cases, the events in these institutions and markets…
Accounting Education (2010), International Capital Market, Accounting Education, viewed 7
Australian Securities Exchange (n.d.), Absolute Return Funds, Australian Securities Exchange,
viewed 7 June 2012,
International HM -- Women on International HM assignments
International HM has gained a lot of importance in the last few years, thanks to globalization and the opening up of many economies. It is more complex than domestic HM and this can be attributed to six factors, namely, the increased number of activities such as taxation, relocation and orientation; need for a broader understanding and perspective of different nations, the higher role of H managers in the personal lives of employees to ensure they are happy and satisfied, dealing with the cultural changes of a diverse workforce, higher risk and extensive influence of factors that are beyond the control of H managers (Dowling, Festing & Engle, 2008).
In the context of such a situation, international assignments have assumed greater importance and more people are traveling to foreign countries as a part of their job. A closer analysis of international assignments would…
Harel, Gedaliahu; Tzafiri, Shay; Baruch, Yehuda. (March 2003). Achieving organizational effectiveness through promotion of women in managerial positions. International Journal of HRM. Vol 14(2). pp 247-263.
Stahl, Gunter; Bjorkman, Ingmar. (2006). Handbook of Research in International Human Resource Management. Cheltenam, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing.
Dowling, Peter; Festing, Marion; Engle. (2008). Allen. International Human Resource Management. London: Thomson Learning.
Harris, Hillary. (2004). Global careers: Work-life issues and adjustment of women international managers. Journal of Management Development. Vol 23(9). pp 818-832.
International Accounting Undergraduate degree Accounting & Finance 1. The Assignment "Several organisations involved efforts harmonise accounting practices rregionally internationally. The important players effort European Union (regionally) International Accounting Standards Committee (IASC) ( IASB) (internationally).
There have been a series of efforts during recent years with the aim of developing a common agenda of accounting standards. The fact that there are several alternatives of accounting practices, for example, contributes to making it difficult for influential bodies to reach common ground concerning the matter. Institutions such as the European Union and the International Accounting Standards Committee (IASC) (currently called the International Accounting Standards Boards -- IASB) have played significant roles with the purpose of emphasizing the importance of international accounting standards.
ith society being composed out of distinct national economies, there has been little need for common accounting practices in the past. However, as the global economy has come to dominate international…
1. Alexander, D., & EBERHARTINGER, E. 2009. 'The True and Fair View in the European Union'. European Accounting Review Vol. 18, No. 3, 571 -- 594
2. Alexander, D. & Nobes, C. 2007. Financial Accounting: An International Introduction. Pearson Education.
3. Cool, K., & Goddard, G.J. 2006. International Business: Theory and Practice. M.E. Sharpe.
4. Fischer, P., Tayler, W., & Cheng, R. 2011. Advanced Accounting. Cengage Learning.
This paper provides further illustration of trade barrier to provide greater understanding on the method barrier to trade hurts economy. Fig 1 reveals the effects of international trade without trade barrier. From the graph, DD refers to domestic demand and DS means domestic supply, and the price of good is found at P, and the world price is found at P. However, domestic consumer will consume at Qw because the home country could only produce Qd. Thus, the home country must import Qw-Qd worth of goods to enhance efficiency in the economy.
Figure 1. Price without Trade Barrier
However, Fig 2 reveals the economy with trade barrier. It is revealed that the economy will not achieve maximum allocation of scarce resources because trade barriers reduce efficiencies because it would allow companies that would not have existed in a more competitive market environment to exist.
Figure 2. Price with the…
Anderson, Kym. Subsidies and Trade Barriers. University of Adelaide. The Centre for International Economic Studies.2004.
Elwell, C.K (2006). Trade, Trade Barriers, and Trade Deficits: Implications for U.S. Economic Welfare. CRS Report for Congress.
Jeffery Frankel and David Romer, Does Trade Cause Growth?, NBER Working Paper No.
5476, June 1999.
International Risk Management
No profit was ever made without taking some financial risk. However, economists such as John Eatwell and Lance Taylor have argued in their text Global Finance at Risk: The Case for International Regulation that international financial markets are intrinsically and particularly apt to pose the threat of risk to potential investors on an individual and a corporate level. Investors in finance base their decisions on guesses, not only about how other investors within a nation will behave, but also about national stability, which affects the stability of the currency. As markets have grown more global in scope, industrialized countries often have pursued a more cautious monetary policy regarding other nations. However, too much caution can be risky too, Ultimately hesitancy in investment results not only in lost opportunities, but a climate of fear that can at its extremes generates international deflation, a depression in economic growth, and…
Eatwell, John & Lance Taylor. (2000) Global Finance at Risk: The Case for International Regulation. New York: New Press.
Kelly, Michael P. (June/July 2001.)"Foreign Currency Risk: Minimizing Transaction Exposure." International Law. http://www.vsb.org/publications/valawyer/june_july01/kelley.pdf
Schnaue, Frank. (2004). "U.S. trade gap widens as production rises." UPI. http://app.quotemedia.com/data/newsItem.htm?storyId=1533543
And Article 25 of the Charter enjoins all members to "... accept and carry out the decisions of the Security Council (Turner)."
On the other hand, leading lawyers contended that ritain would violate international law if it also used armed force against Iraq like the U.S. (Waugh 2002). Two leading barristers Rabinder Singh QC and Alison MacDonald said that the use of force against Iraq would be justified only if its leaders directly attacked ritain or its allies or an attack was imminent. They added that the attack should not be one that could be averted except with the use of force. They required the UN Security Council to authorize the use of force in concrete and "clear terms." They believed that Security Council resolutions did not authorize such use of force against Iraq. The United Kingdom was not entitled to that last recourse. Another barrister said that the UK…
Bush, G.W. (2002). Statement on signing the authorization for using of military force against Iraq resolution of 2002. 2 pages. Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents: U.S. Government Printing Office
Cook, M.L. (2002). The proper role of professional military advice in contemporary uses of force. 14 pages. Parameters: U.S. Army War College
Krieger, D. (2002). Law vs. force. 2 pages. Humanist: American Humanist Association
Rivkin Jr., D.B. And Casey, L.A. (2000). The rocky shoals of international law. The National Interest: The National Affairs, Inc.
In the case of United States, Article 9 of the Uniform Commercial Code provides for practically all types of security agreements for owned property that are both for own use as also for commercial purposes. This type of agreements includes fixtures which mean personal property that is attached to the property, and the ready example can be a water heater. This does not include other liens taken on the property like the lien of a mechanic are not covered by this act, but are covered by the individual laws that govern them. There is also a statute of frauds and that requires a security agreement to be in writing for it to be valid, unless the property has been pledged for getting the loan. This sort of a pledge takes place when the borrowing party shifts the collateral to the lender of money in exchange for the loan that he…
9-203. Attachment and Enforceability of Security Interest; Proceeds: Formal Requisites.
Retrieved at http://www.law.cornell.edu/ucc/9/9-203.html . Accessed 10 November, 2005
Bailey, Sue. PM defensive over election threat. Retrieved at http://cnews.canoe.ca/CNEWS/World/2005/11/03/1291616-cp.html . Accessed 10 November, 2005
Banking: An overview. Retrieved at http://www.law.cornell.edu/topics/banking.html . Accessed 10 November, 2005
The case involving Milosevic was has different sub-plots, as he would claim that the actions he took were to prevent the country from being overrun by terrorists. Yet, at the same time, as some of these atrocities were being committed, NATO would attack Serbia in an effort to halt these violations. In this aspect, one could argue that the actions taken by NATO were in violation of international law. As they were not supported by a UN mandate, instead the actions were NATO countries working in concert with one another to go after Serbia. This is despite the fact that Serbia did not attack any of NATO allied nations.
When you look at the situations from the realist perspective, they would argue that the application of different international standards is an attempt to circumvent the power of the nation state over its people. Where, the ICC is unilaterally determining what…
Franck, Thomas. "What Happens Now?" American Society of International Law. 97, no. 3 (2003): 607 -- 620.
Goldsmith, Jack. "The Limits of Idealism." Daedulus. 132, no. 1. (2003): 47 -- 63.
Higgins, Rosalyn. "Policy and Impartiality." 915 -- 931.
Thomas Franck. "What Happens Now?" American Society of International Law. 97, no. 3 (2003): 607 -- 620.
27-29) This provoked financial demands and awareness of the people in different parts of the world. People and businesses are dissatisfied with the traditional financial systems due to lack of opportunities for investors. Businesses today require more diversified portfolios for investments because this will reduce their investment risks and increase the probability of future capital flows.
Increased capital mobility has increased the importance of exchange rates which is serving as a monetary policy channel in some industrialized economies. In mid 2000s, there was a sharp shift in the flow of international investments and savings (geographic pattern) resulting in the segmentation of current account imbalances. This was also a major contributing factor. Additionally, the domestic financial markets were also affected by the change in regulatory environment. The two important factors for this are as follows:
1. apid growth of OTC (over-the-counter) markets of derivatives in terms of complexity as well as…
Bekaert, G., Harvey, C. And Lundblad, C. 2005. Does financial liberalization spur growth? Journal of Financial Economics 77, 3 -- 55.
Edison, H., Klein, M., Ricci, L. And Slok, T. 2004. Capital account liberalization and economic performance: survey and synthesis. IMF Staff Papers 51, 111 -- 115.
Kaminsky, G. And Reinhart, C. 1999. The twin crises: the causes of banking and balance-of payments problems. American Economic Review 89, 473 -- 500.
Klein, M. 2005. Capital account liberalization, institutional quality and economic growth: theory and evidence. Working Paper No. 11112. Cambridge, MA: NBER, pp.19-21.
This researcher rejects the existence of online communities because computer mediated group discussions cannot possibly meet this definition. Weinreich's view is that anyone with even a basic knowledge of sociology understands that information exchange in no way constitutes a community.
For a cyber-place with an associated computer mediated group to be labeled as a virtual settlement it is necessary for it to meet a minimum set of conditions. These are: (1) a minimum level of interactivity; (2) a variety of communicators; (3) a minimum level of sustained membership; and (4) a virtual common-public-space where a significant portion of interactive computer mediated groups occur (Weinreich, 1997). The notion of interactivity will be shown to be central to virtual settlements. Further, it will be shown that virtual settlements can be defined as a cyber-place that is symbolically delineated by topic of interest and within which a significant proportion of interrelated interactive computer…
Al-Saggaf, Y. & Williamson, K. Online Communities in Saudi Arabia: Evaluating the Impact on Culture Through Online Semi-Structured Interviews. Volume 5,
No. 3, Art. 24 - September 2004
AnchorDesk Staff. (2000). Sign of Trouble: The Problem with E-Signatures.
Retrieved April 9, 2005, from ZDNet AnchorDesk Web site: http://reivews- zdnet.com.com/AnchorDesk/4630-6033_4204767.html?tag=print
International Information System
Security of a Global Enterprise IT Network
Managing the security for an international network that supports key enterprise applications including marketing, sales, human resources, finance and administration across four continents must be coordinated with a strategic security information systems plan. The intent of this analysis is to show what some of the potential security threats are to managing a diverse IT network across diverse geographic locations, and what strategies or tools can be used to mitigate and even in some cases eliminate these threats altogether.
Analysis of Global IT Strategic Planning
There are a myriad of potential threats that could impact a global IT infrastructure, especially one distributed across four nations, supporting several key enterprise applications. The most common and potentially lethal threat is the network's perimeter is compromised through access of a corporate server at a firewall location. Hacking through authentication proxy servers has become commonplace…
Chang, K., & Wang, C. (2011). Information systems resources and information security. Information Systems Frontiers, 13(4), 579-593.
Gillies, A. (2011). Improving the quality of information security management systems with ISO27000. TQM Journal, 23(4), 367-376.
Pernul, G. (1995). Information systems security: Scope, state-of-the-art, and evaluation of techniques. International Journal of Information Management, 15(3), 165-165.
International accounting - Evaluate research theories and methodologies to classify accounting systems internationally
The necessity of accounting standards is given by the fact that financial statements should describe financial performance in a fair and consistent manner. Lacking standards, users of financial statements would be required to master the accounting rules of each company, and any comparison between companies' performances would be almost impossible.
Accounting standards are essential to the healthy development of an international financial reporting structure. Around the world several accounting traditions have been developed as a response to the needs of users who are in need of the financial information. Some countries, for instance, chose to build the structure of accounting standards around the needs of private creditors, while other countries were more concerned with the needs of tax authorities or central planners. As a characteristic of the United States, the needs of participants in the capital markets…
1. SEC Concept Release: International Accounting Standards
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
17 CFR PARTS 230 and 240
RELEASE NOS. 33-7801, 34-42430; INTERNATIONAL SERIES NO. 1215]
International Equity Markets
esidential investment property performed better than all investments in the last decade. Australian bonds were the second best performing asset class returning 6.4% p.a. Australian shares were the third highest with 6.1% p.a (Australian Securities Exchange, 2012). Within the same period, the Global eal Estate Investment Trust (EITS) outperformed the Australian EITs. Unhedged oversea shares achieved the lowest return of any asset class over the 10-year period. Had any investor hedged his overseas shares investment he would have received 3.7% p.a. And 6.7% p.a. over the past 10 and 20 years (Australian Securities Exchange, 2012). These were the results before tax but after costs. The results after tax and after costs for the past decade indicated that the residential property outperformed all other asset classes at the lowest and highest marginal tax rates with returns of 7.2% and 5.8% p.a. respectively (Australian Securities Exchange, 2012). Within that…
Australian Securities Exchange (2012). Long-Term Investing Report. Retrieved from http://www.asx.com.au/documents/products/ASX_Report_2012.pdf
Dwinnel, T. (2007). Self-Directed Portfolio Advantages/Disadvantages. Retrieved from http://selfinvestors.com/tradingstocks/news/self-directed-portfolio-advantagesdisadvantages/
Piotrowski, T. (2013). Australian Stock Market. Retrieved from http://www.comsec.com.au/Public/NewsAndResearch/AusStockMarketreports.aspx
Security Manager Leadership
Analysis & Assessment of Main Management Skills of Security Managers
The role of security managers and their progression to Chief Information Security Officers (CISO) in their careers is often delineated by a very broad base of experiences, expertise, skills and the continual development of management and leadership skills. The intent of this analysis and assessment is to define the most critically important management skills for security managers, including those most critical to their setting a solid foundation for attaining a senior management as a CISO in an enterprise (Whitten, 2008). What most differentiates those who progress in their careers as security managers to CISOs is the ability to interpret situations, conditions, relative levels of risk while continually learning new techniques, technologies and concepts pertaining to security and leadership. Those that attain CISO roles progress beyond management and become transformational leaders of the professionals in their department. It…
Beugr, C.D., Acar, W. & Braun, W. 2006, "Transformational leadership in organizations: an environment-induced model," International Journal of Manpower, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 52-62.
Francis, D. 2003, "Essentials of International Management: A Cross-cultural Perspective," Technovation, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 85-86.
Krishnan, V.R. 2004, "Impact of transformational leadership on followers' influence strategies," Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 58-72.
Purvanova, R.K. & Bono, J.E. 2009, "Transformational leadership in context: Face-to-face and virtual teams," Leadership Quarterly, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 343.
International Criminal Organizations
Over time, Mexico has experienced significant growth in crime levels -- something that has led to an increase in criminal activity not only in Mexico but also across the entire region as well. In this text, I concern myself with the rise of international criminal organizations in Mexico. In so doing, I will amongst other things explain the role poverty and/or corruption has played in the creation of fertile ground for organized gangs and how the Mexican government has responded to the rise in criminal activity. Further, in addition to evaluating the effect of the said criminal organizations on the stability of the nation as a whole, I will also speculate over what the situation in Mexico means to the United States from a national security perspective. ecommendations with regard to how the government of Mexico should respond to the situation will be offered at the end…
Barkan, S. & Bryjak, G. (2011). Fundamentals of Criminal Justice: A Sociological View (2nd ed.). Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett.
Center for International Cooperation -- CIC (2013). Organized Crime. Retrieved from http://cic.nyu.edu/content/organized-crime
CNN Library. (2013). Mexico Drug War Fast Facts. CNN. Retrieved from http://edition.cnn.com/2013/09/02/world/americas/mexico-drug-war-fast-facts/
Edmonds-Poli, E. & Shirk, D.A. (2012). Contemporary Mexican Politics (2nd ed.). Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield.
In the present day, organizations are reliant on information in order to continue being relevant and not become obsolete. To be specific, organizations are reliant on the controls and systems that have been instituted in place, which provide the continuing privacy, veracity, and accessibility of their data and information (Lomprey, 2008). There is an increase and rise in threats to information contained within organizations and information systems (Lomprey, 2008). There is also a rise in the intricacy of such systems and information, which places emphasis on the importance for organizations to understand and gain an understanding of how to better safeguard their information as well as information systems. As stated by Briggs (2005), globalization has instigated the world to become a global village. This, in turn, has increased the level of complexity and intricacy of the information security aspect of the organizations across the world. There is greater…
Alfawaz, S. M. (2011). Information security management: a case study of an information security culture (Doctoral dissertation, Queensland University of Technology).
Ashenden, D. (2008). Information Security management: A human challenge? Information security technical report, 13(4), 195-201.
Briggs, R. (2005). Joining Forces From national security to networked security. DEMOS.
Chang, S. E., Ho, C. B. (2006). Organizational factors to the effectiveness of implementing information security management. Industrial Management and Data Systems, 106 (3): 345-361.
This is because it was not officially ratified by the U.S. Senate. The reason why, was due to the underlying fears of the damage that it could cause to the economy. This would create the atmosphere that various provisions were unfair for the U.S., leading to its eventual withdrawal from Kyoto. (U.S. Withdraws from Kyoto Protocol 2001) When such a large country will no longer follow these different provisions, it creates an atmosphere of voluntary compliance. At which point, the other signatories will not follow the different provision of the treaty as strictly. Once this takes place, it means that any kind of efforts to address the problem is the equivalent of having no agreement at all. This will cause the various environmental issues to become worse, as the constant finger pointing and debate are only creating more problems. Evidence of this can be by looking at the total number…
Effects of Global Warming are Everywhere, 2007, National Geographic. Available from: . [27 September 2010].
Future Effects, n.d. UNFCC, Available from: . [27 September 2010].
Hurricane Katrina. 2010, Hurricane Katrina. Available from: . [27 September 2010].
NOAA Raises 2005 Hurricane Season Outlook, 2005, NOAA. Available from: . [27 September 2010].
For the C-level executive team at Oasis the most critical strategic decision with regard to Web 2.0 technologies is processes, systems and functional areas can take the greatest advantage of their benefits. It is clear that the globally-based distributed order management process could be much more collaborative given its breadth of activity across so many manufacturing centers. The need for creating a collaborative distributed order management system globally is what differentiates best-in-class manufacturers from those that struggle to stay profitable (Alt, Gizanis, Legner, 2005). The use of Web 2.0-based applications for enabling greater levels of collaboration globally in the Oasis product development teams is also a high priority, as this specific process is essential for the new product development and introduction (NPDI) process to be effective. The rapid adoption of collaborative new product development processes has continued to revolutionize the development of new products and services, and has been particularly…
Adel M. Aladwani. 2001. Change management strategies for successful ERP implementation. Business Process Management Journal 7, no. 3, (January 1): 266-275.
Rainer Alt, Dimitrios Gizanis, and Christine Legner. 2005. Collaborative order management: toward standard solutions for interorganisational order management. International Journal of Technology Management 31, no. 1,2, (January 1): 78-97.
Bernoff, J., and C. Li. 2008. Harnessing the Power of the Oh-So-Social Web. MIT Sloan Management Review 49, no. 3, (April 1): 36-42.
(Brown, He, 2007)
Given the high degree to which AIDS impedes global economic integration, in particular of sub-Saharan Africa, it would be reasonable to think that such a transnational issue would bring nations and institutions together to a much higher degree than we see.
Overall, the various aspects of the international system have enabled the expansion of global economic integration. Regimes, institutions, and regional interests bring nations together to meet common objectives. As rational actors, nations sometimes impede global integration, be it over a domestic issue or a transnational one. No aspect of the current international system, however, specifically impedes global economic integration. Only when a nation takes itself out of the international system, as has occurred in North Korea, Cuba, Zimbabwe and a handful of other countries, does economic integration become fully impeded. Therefore we can reasonably conclude that the international system, on balance and with a modicum of cooperation on the…
Goldstein, Judith; Rivers, Douglas & Tomz, Michael. (2003). How does the Trade Regime Affect International Trade? Stanford University. Retrieved December 21, 2008 at http://www.allacademic.com//meta/p_mla_apa_research_citation/0/6/4/3/7/pages64379/p64379-1.php
Wayne, E. Anthony. (2004). NAFTA: Ten Years After. U.S. Department of State. Retrieved December 21, 2008 at http://www.state.gov/e/eeb/rls/rm/31645.htm
No author. (2003). Trade Reforms and Food Security: Conceptualizing the Linkages United Nations. Retrieved December 21, 2008 at http://www.fao.org/docrep/005/y4671e/y4671e00.htm#Contents
Capdevila, Gustavo. (2008). The Death of Doha. Asia Times. Retrieved December 21, 2008 at http://www.atimes.com/atimes/Global_Economy/JG31Dj02.html
Over the course of time, assertive laws are evolving which are supposed to deal with any issues quickly. This means that all financial firms will face higher costs and greater amounts of time in complying with these new guidelines. ("Dodd Frank")
Clearly, the Bernard Madoff scandal reshaped investor confidence and the regulatory environment. This is because many of his clients suffered tremendously from the firm's activities. In some cases, individuals were forced to sell their homes. While at other times, many nonprofits were forced into bankruptcy from being overly exposed. This resulted in the trustee utilizing aggressive tactics in recovering assets.
These actions set the stage for regulators, actuaries and fiduciaries to begin taking a more assertive stance when protecting the interests of the public. As a result, much stricter guidelines are being imposed. These areas are impacting the operating procedures of firms and how they are accounting for…
"$2.48 Billion." Daily Mail, 2012. Web. 4 Dec. 2012
"Dodd Frank." SEC, 2012. Web. 4 Dec. 2012
"The Securities and Exchange Commission." SEC, 2012. Web. 4 Dec. 2012
Kirtzman, Andrew. Betrayal. New York: Harper, 2010. Print.
International egulation of Tourism in Antarctica
Since the mid-1980s, Antarctica has been an increasingly popular tourist destination, despite the relative danger of visiting the largest, least explored -- and arguably least understood -- continent on earth. Beginning with the 1959 treaty establishing Antarctica as an international zone free of claims of sovereignty by nation's that had been instrumental in establishing research stations there, there has been almost constant negotiation about how to administer regulations pertaining to the preservation of life forms on the continent, what those regulations should be, and what sanctions should be applied and by whom.
To understand the depths of the negotiations, and the potential for discord, it is necessary to understand what the continent offer the 65% of global nations that are party to the 1959 and all subsequent treaties. To understand the possible future of Antarctica, it is necessary to outline treaty attempts to minimize…
Antarctica. Siyabona Africa Web site. Retrieved September 28, 2004 at http://balule.krugerpark.co.za/africa_antarctica.html
Chile Web site. Retrieved September 17, 2004 at http://www.visit-chile.org/antartica/antartica.phtml
Australia urges regulation as tourism to Antarctica escalates. (2004, March 24) Agence France Presse English. Retrieved September 14, 2004 at http://www.highbeam.com .
Bulgaria in Antarctica. Retrieved September 15, 2004 at http://www.bluelink.net/antarctic/ant_en/BGant.htm
hat information would you require to assess the options which are open to ABH Electronic (15 Marks)
In order to properly assess the options that are available to ABH electronics I would need additional information pertaining to the economic conditions of the three countries seeking to attract ABH. Specifically I would need to know the Gross Domestic Product, the overall market index, the consumer price index (inflation), the annual per capita income of residents and the overall economic viability of the various countries. I would need to assess this information because knowing the economic condition of a country will enable the chief financial officer to create a strategy that is beneficial to ABH electronics. It will also allow the CFO to examine the risks associated with doing business in that particular country. I would also need to know the size of the market, the demographics, social issues and…
About Hedge Funds. http://www.magnum.com/hedgefunds/strategies.asp
How Partnerships Work. National Council for Public-Private Partnership. http://ncppp.org/howpart/index.html
Mitigating Risks for Foreign Investments in Least developed countries" 2000. Ministry for Foreign Affairs.
What is hedging? Why do companies hedge?. http://www.finpipe.com/hedge.htm
There is a growing link between organized crime and terrorism; drug trafficking, transnational organized crime, movement of illicit firearms and money laundering have all become integral parts of terrorism in the world today. Organized crime threatens peace and human security; it also violates human rights as well as undermining economic, social, cultural, political and civil development of societies all over the world. Terrorists are now using increasingly diverse modes of operations which are increasingly funded and sustained through proceeds from organized crime. Terrorism poses a serious threat to national security and fundamental democratic values of the society (Albercht, 2008).
Theories of counter terrorism
Counter terrorism entails the practices, tactics, techniques and strategies that governments, militaries, police departments and corporations adopt in making attempts to respond to threats or acts that are real and imputed Counter terrorism is a top priority for most countries following catastrophic events that have…
Albercht, H.J. (2008). Concepts of Terrorism and Organized Crime. Retrieved November 8,
2012 from http://www.etc.-graz.at/cms/fileadmin/user_upload/humsec/SAc_08_PPP/PPP_Hans_J_rg_Albrecht.pdf
Ohr, G.B. (2004). Effective methods to combat transnational Organized crime in criminal justice processes. Retrieved November 8, 2012 from http://www.unafei.or.jp/english/pdf/PDF_rms/no58/58-05.pdf (pg40-57)
Kolodkin, B. (2012).What is Counter terrorism? Retrieved November 8, 2012 from http://usforeignpolicy.about.com/od/defense/a/what-is-counterterrorism.htm
International Equity Markets
Advantages and disadvantages of cross listing on stock exchanges
When a company lists its stock exchange on many stock exchanges in different countries, it is referred to as cross listing. It entails exchanging in more than one country. However, a company can list its stocks on two stock exchanges in the same country. The administration is likely to be widened besides the generation of great pool of possible investors. In most cases, companies employ the common form of cross listing whereby they launch a primary listing in the country of origin before initiating a secondary listing in a foreign country. This happens when a business is pursuing to go global. For instance, an Australian firm expanding in the U.S. And seeks to reflect this in the best way (Dobbs & Goedhart, 2010).
The major reason of cross listing is to avail stock to many people across the…
Rubery, S. (2007). Corporates spread their wings on international exchanges. Corporate Finance, London, U.K.
McDowall, L. (2010). Publicly listing a company - the advantages and disadvantages. Retrieved from http://ezinearticles.com/?Publicly-Listing-A-Company-The-Advantages-And-Disadvantages&id=835976
Dobbs, R. & Goedhart, M.H. (2010). Why cross-listing shares doesn't create value. Retrieved from http://www.bnet.com/2403-13239_23-255550.html
Youxing, L. (2009). Comparison of the legal institutions of enterprise financing in China and the United States. Retrieved from http://www.indiana.edu/~rccpb/uschinacooperation/papers/P10%20Li%20Youxing.pdf
To offer an information security awareness training curriculum framework to promote consistency across government (15).
Security awareness is needed to ensure the overall security of the information infrastructure. Security awareness programs is the can help organizations communicate their security information policies, as well as tips for users, to help keep systems secure, and the practices the entire organization should be utilizing. However, as Kolb and Abdullah reiterate, "security awareness is not about training but rather designed to change employee behavior" (105).
A program concerning security awareness should work in conjunction with the information technology software and hardware JCS utilizes. In this way, it mitigates the risks and threats to the organization. Security awareness is a defensive layer to the information system's overall security structure. Although not a training program, per se, security awareness does provide education to the end users at JCS, regarding the information security threats the organization faces,…
"An Introduction to Computer Security: The NIST Handbook." National Institute of Standards and Technology, SP 800-12, (Oct 1995). Web. 24 Oct 2010.
Anti-virus Guidelines. The SANS Institute, 2006. Web. 24 Oct, 2010.
Culnan, M., Foxman, E., & Ray, A. "Why IT Executives Should Help Employees Secure their Home Computers." MIS Quarterly Executive 7.1 (2008): 49-56. Print.
Desktop Security Policies. The SANS Institute, 2006. Web. 24 Oct, 2010.
For example, Shu-Acquaye (2007) cites the basic differences in the legal systems in various parts of the world as contributing to the different approaches to corporate governance. Likewise, Shu-Acquaye cites these differences and adds, "The American corporate governance system adheres to the idea of shareholder primacy. Because the United Kingdom, Austria, and Canada share a legal system based on English common law and equity principles, they are similar to the United States -- shareholder primacy is the predominant norm in each of these countries."
By sharp contrast, other countries such as Japan and Germany are characterized by stronger protection for their employees, creditors, and other nonshareholder stakeholders in general, representing examples of a stakeholder-orientated system. In their book, the Control of Corporate Europe, Barca and Becht point out that, "Germany has always had a prominent place in the international corporate governance debate. The country is among the largest and richest…
Aaronson, Susan Ariel, 2002 (Fall), "Broadening Corporate Responsibility: Is Maximizing Shareholder Value Alone a Good Enough Long-Term Strategy?," the International Economy 16(4): 46
Ashby, Meredith D. And Stephen a. Miles, Leaders Talk Leadership: Top Executives Speak Their Minds (New York: Oxford University Press, 2002)
Barca, Fabrizio and Marco Becht, the Control of Corporate Europe (New York: Oxford University Press, 2002).
Brada, Josef C., Saul Estrin, Josef C. Brada et al. (eds.). Corporate Governance in Central Eastern Europe: Case Studies of Firms in Transition (Armonk, NY M.E. Sharpe, 1999).
Liquidity shocks on the international arena can have a strong negative impact on less developed countries whose access to funding sources is already reduced.
The clearing risk is a specific risk, which combines credit risk, in the sense that it results from a counterparty's inability to meet its liabilities, market risk in the sense that it is caused by market shifts (general and specific market risk) between the time a transaction is executed and the time it is cleared, as well as liquidity and systemic risk." (Casanova, 2000). The clearing risk is assumed by clearing houses, which guarantee the proper settlement of transactions done by the members. These institutions engage themselves to bear potential replacement costs if either one of the trade counterparties can't fulfill its obligations. In international markets this risk is increased as the international arena as mentioned before it more dynamic and volatile and the chance of…
Casanova, J - F. 2000 - Role Played by Risk Management and Clearing Systems in the Economy of Future Exchanges and ECNs. UNCTAD, www.unctad.org
Eichengreen, B. 1990a. Trends and Cycles in Foreign Lending. CEPR - Center for Economic Policy Research. Working Paper N"451.
Eichengreen, B. 1990b, Economic Policy - International Lending, Center for Economic Policy Research. Working Paper N"452.
Investopedia, Accessed October 2008, www.investopedia.com
Intenational Peace and Teoism
What changes to existing legal egimes may educe the incentive and make the law moe effective in peseving peace?
Teoist goups can be disupted and destoyed though continuous and diect legal actions. The focus includes the use of national and intenational elements of powe. Immediate focus should be on the teoist oganizations with global each as well as teoists o states sponsoing teoism activities. Thee ae attempts of gaining and using weapons of mass destuction o pecusos. The law defends the national inteests, the native people, and intenational goals. Achievements in this case ae deived though identification and destuction of peace theats pio eaching national bodes. While most govenments continually stive towads enlisting intenational community suppot, they do not hesitate to act alone whee necessay. The goals at stake include execising thei ights to self-defense though peemptive action against teoists. The actions pevent them fom inflicting…
references ultimately tie broader projects leading to generalized legal understandings, the goal is to have central strategies of disseminating such law.
Law promotes equity and respects for people. Law advocates treatment of all human beings as members of the family. Islam, Judaism, and Christianity share this value. Hinduism embraces divine spark for all human beings while Buddhism talks of the human race are having similar distinctions made by humankind from all other animal varieties. There are numerous species across board distinguishing their category based on fundamentalism. The teachings make emphasis on oneness in which people work towards common goals of perish together. International law plays a role in fostering cooperation. Law consists of sets of rules that ensured passive co-existence of nations. Today, the concept of world governance is moving towards active cooperation among all countries. The concerns about matters of human welfare, international travel, outer space, health, the environment, disaster relief, and transport, are addressed by international law. There is facilitation of the external and internal affairs for a given country.
In conclusion, international law promotes economic justice to equality practices. Law elevates conditions for impoverished nations as well as deprived world populations. Critics estimate that in the last five decades, there is more than four times the population of people dying in wars happening in the 20th century. Others die due to poor sanitation and hunger. Part of the underlying numbers did not have to die if their issues were subjected to relevant concentrated attention. The concept relates to the application of international law principles.
International Cooperation During Disasters
Discuss how leaders of nations and the international community can strengthen the framework for international cooperation and collaboration in response to disasters
In the contemporary world, there seem be increasing trends of the global weather events or scenarios. This makes it critical for governments to focus significantly on activities that can provide a lasting solution to the problem at hand. This would involve majoring in activities that aid disaster management within the nation. In order to tackle the prospective disasters facing the globe, it is essential to have measures in place to enable organizations to be ready in case of any hit. This notion calls for crucial involvement of leaders of the nations and international communities to strengthen the framework for international cooperation and collaboration in response to disasters.
The first approach by the leaders of the nation to strengthen the framework for international cooperation and…
Asimakopoulou, E. (2010). Advanced ICTs for disaster management and threat detection:
Collaborative and distributed frameworks. Hershey, PA: Information Science Reference.
Murphy, R. (2009). Leadership in disaster: Learning for a future with global climate change.
Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press.
Best practices in encryption. (2008). nuBridges.com. [Online]. Available: http://www.nubridges.com/keymanagement1/.
Bryan, H. (2001). eply to David Scott and C. Scott Shafer, recreational specialization: AC critical look at the construct. Journal of Leisure esearch, 33(3), 344.
By the numbers. (2008). Bass Pro-Shops. [Online]. Available: http://vocuspr.vocus.com/vocuspr30/Newsroom/ViewAttachment.aspx?SiteName=basspro&Entity=PAsset&Atta chmentType=F&EntityID=112488&AttachmentID=7f9f9eb0-2281-4066-b382- c00619b835c8.
Company overview. (2008). Bass Pro-Shops. [Online]. Available: http://www.onlinepressroom.net/basspro/.
Gerstein, D.M. (2005). Securing America's future: National strategy in the information age. Westport, CT: Praeger Security International.
Hepner, . (2001, July 6). A surge in growth for county. The Washington Times, 8.
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Mueller, G. (1998, December 2). it's easy to find the right gift - Just read on. The Washington Times, 5.
Privacy and security statement. (2008). Bass Pro-Shops. [Online]. Available: http://www.basspro.com/webapp/wcs/stores/servlet/PageDisplayView?langId=-1&storeId=10151 & cataloged=x§ion=MyAccount&pagename=PrivacyPolicySummaryDisplay.
Schlosser, E. (1998). The bomb squad: A visit…
Best practices in encryption. (2008). nuBridges.com. [Online]. Available: http://www.nubridges.com/keymanagement1/.
Bryan, H. (2001). Reply to David Scott and C. Scott Shafer, recreational specialization: AC critical look at the construct. Journal of Leisure Research, 33(3), 344.
By the numbers. (2008). Bass Pro-Shops. [Online]. Available: http://vocuspr.vocus.com/vocuspr30/Newsroom/ViewAttachment.aspx?SiteName=basspro&Entity=PRAsset&Atta chmentType=F&EntityID=112488&AttachmentID=7f9f9eb0-2281-4066-b382- c00619b835c8.
Company overview. (2008). Bass Pro-Shops. [Online]. Available: http://www.onlinepressroom.net/basspro/ .
" (Harman, Flite, and ond, 2012) the key to the preservation of confidentiality is "making sure that only authorized individuals have access to that information. The process of controlling access -- limiting who can see what -- begins with authorizing users." (Harman, Flite, and ond, 2012) Employers are held accountable under the HIPAA Privacy and Security Rules for their employee's actions. The federal agency that holds responsibility for the development of information security guidelines is the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). NIST further defines information security as "the preservation of data confidentiality, integrity, availability" stated to be commonly referred to as "the CIA triad." (Harman, Flite, and ond, 2012)
III. Risk Reduction Strategies
Strategies for addressing barriers and overcoming these barriers are inclusive of keeping clear communication at all organizational levels throughout the process and acknowledging the impact of the organization's culture as well as capitalizing on all…
Harman, LB, Flite, CA, and Bond, K. (2012) Electronic Health Records: Privacy, Confidentiality, and Security. State of the Art and Science. Virtual Mentor. Sept. 2012, Vol. 14 No. 9. Retrieved from: http://virtualmentor.ama-assn.org/2012/09/stas1-1209.html
Kopala, B. And Mitchell, ME (2011) Use of Digital health Records Raises Ethical Concerns. JONA's Healthcare Law, Ethics, and Regulation. Jul/Sep 2011. Lippincott's Nursing Center. Retrieved from: http://www.nursingcenter.com/lnc/cearticle?tid=1238212#P77 P85 P86 P87
In health care, the protection of confidential patient information is an important key in to addressing critical issues and safeguarding the privacy of the individual. To provide more guidance are federal guidelines such as: the Health Care Insurance Affordability and Accountability Act (HIPPA). On the surface, all facilities are supposed to have procedures in place for discarding these kinds of materials. ("Summary of HIPPA Privacy ule," 2102)
In the case of St. John's Hospital, they have become known for establishing practices of innovation (which go above and beyond traditional safety standards). Yet, at the same time, there are no critical internal controls governing how this information is thrown away. What most executives are concentrating on: is meeting these objectives from an external stakeholder perspective.
This is creating problems inside the facility, as the custodial staff able to go through the garbage and read this information. The reason why,…
Summary of HIPPA Privacy Rule. (2012). HHS. Retrieved from: http://www.hhs.gov/ocr/privacy/hipaa/understanding/summary/index.html
Alguire, P. (2009). The International Medical Graduate's Guide. Philadelphia, PA: ACP Press.
Johnston, A. (2012). State Hospitals become more Transparent. Times Record News. Retrieved from: http://www.timesrecordnews.com/news/2012/jan/13/state-hospitals-become-more-transparent/
Kilipi, H. (2000). Patient's Autonomy. Amsterdam: ISO Press.
This is an important issue and a number of commentators and critics have decried this loss of respect for international law. One commentator refers to the words of the politician and sociologist, Daniel Patrick Moynihan, who said that, "...there is nothing quite to compare with the falling from the American mind of the idea of the law of nations" (Kinsley). He also stated that,
At the beginning of Gulf ar II, we forgot... international law. e forgot international law once again. hen the U.N. Security Council would not play ball, we declared that our own invasion of Iraq was justified as a sovereign act of long-term self-defense against potential weapons of mass destruction, by the human rights situation within Iraq,
Therefore, this is a cardinal area of international law that is in danger in the present age.
On the other hand, there are areas of international law that have…
Horton, Scott. A Decent Respect: What does international law mean to us today
January 20, 2008. http://www.harpers.org/archive/2007/04/horton-20070428vgjt
Kinsley M. Today We Obey. Invoking international law -- when it suits us.2003.
January 20, 2008 http://www.slate.com/id/2080777/
S. policymakers about the international consensus on questions and issues. The U.S. thus uses international law in its foreign policy and also contributes to its formation and development. This is why it formally recognizes and respects fundamental rules and principles as guide to its foreign policy (Joyner).
However, American foreign policy has not focused very much on international law (Rivkin and Casey 2000). Since the end of the Cold War, many international organization have struggled to modify the traditional law of nations governing the relationships between States into an international regulatory code. This intended and new international law would also govern the relationship between citizens and their government. It would regulate primary domestic issues, such as environmental protection and the rights of children. It would also virtually eradicate the use of military force, avoid all civilian casualties during combat, promote the equitable criminal prosecution of individual state leaders or officials…
Joyner, Christopher C. International Law. Encyclopedia of American Foreign Policy, 2002. Retrieved on January 1, 2008 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qx5215/is_2002/ai_n19132421
Mitchell, Paul Andrew. Citizenship is a Term of Municipal Law. Supreme Law Firm:
Supreme Law Library, 2005. Retrieved on January 1, 2008 at http://www.supremelaw.org/rsrc/privlaw.htm
Rivkin, David. B., Jr. And Lee a. Casey. The Shoals of International Law. The National
The objective of this work in writing is to examine what it means to 'keep the peace' in the present age and the world facing challenges and threats of unprecedented scope, scale and complexity. The question addressed in this research is that which asks where in such endeavors are the existence of international institutions and legal doctrines likely to suffice and where are international institutions and legal doctrines likely to fall short?
The ole of International Law in the Modern World
In the National Strategy for Homeland Security it is stated that "virtually every community in America is connected to the global transportation network by the seaports, airports, highways pipelines, railroads, and waterways that move people and goods into, within, and out of the Nation. We must therefore promote the efficient and reliable flow of people, goods and services across borders, while preventing terrorists from using transportation conveyances…
Besson. S. And Tasioulas, J. (2010) The Philosophy of International Law. Oxford University Press. 2010.
Cassels, A. (1996) Ideology and International Relations in the Modern World. London and New York. Retrieved from; http://m.friendfeed-media.com/16091f1cfb5c64ee8145abc0116d37a065575b7d
Coleman, Katharina P. (2007) International Organizations and Peace Enforcement Operations: The Politics of International Legitimacy. Cambridge University Press 2007. Retrieved from: http://www.au.af.mil/au/ssq/bookreviews/coleman.pdfBrunnee, Jutta (2005) Enforcement Mechanisms in International Law and International Environmental Law. Ulrich Beyerlin et al., eds. Ensuring Compliance with Multilateral Environmental Agreements: A Dialogue Between Practitioners and Academia (2005) Environmental Law Network International Review 3-14]. Retrieved from: http://www.law.utoronto.ca/documents/brunnee/BrunneeEnforcementMechanismsInt_lLaw.pdf
Hathaway, Oona A. (2005) Between Power and Principle: An Integrated Theory of International Law. Chicago Law Review 2005.
Only a few decades ago, China was a struggling economy. It is much newer in the free market economy system as compared to the already established economical giants, given the country's communist history. China, a country with an extremely high population, put its resources to its best possible advantage and that was something which contributed towards the country's rapid growth. China has one of the cheapest labor and energy and power resources available for its production. As a result, the industries can achieve economies of scale and thus can cut down on their cost of production. As a result, China enjoys a greater absolute advantage over its competitors. Importers around the world have realized the fact that importing goods from China is relatively much cheaper as compared to imports from other developed economies. These cheaper imports allow them a greater profit margin. Moreover, given the fragile economic conditions and declining…
Kreh, W. (2008). Money, Debt and Wealth of Nations. Canada: COMER publications
Lipsey, R. & Chrystal, K. (1997). An Introduction to Positive Economics. London: Oxford University Press.
Zweig, D. & Jianhai, B. (2005). China's global hunt for energy. Foreign Affairs, 84(5), 25-38.
Hale, D. & Hale, L. (2003). China takes off. Foreign Affairs, 82(36).
International Court of Justice
The action of international states as actors has precipitated the need to have measures that can function beyond the limits of a single country. The action of states in their relationships with other states at times requires external intervention for the resolution of problems. Laws and treaties that govern the relationship between states as it relates to maritime sovereignty and other issues may be breached and a mechanism is required to address this breech without military action. This scenario requires that an international body that can function as a neutral arbiter between states. The International Court of Justice provides such a facility to the international community.
The International Court of Justice (ICJ) is also known as the world court. It is the main judicial arm of the United Nations. The ICJ was not the first world court as it replaced the Permanent Court of International Justice.…
Germain's International Court of Justice Research Guide. (2010). Retrieved from http://library.lawschool.cornell.edu/WhatWeDo/ResearchGuides/ICJ.cfm
Posner, E.A. & de Figueiredo, M.F.P. (2005) Is the International Court of Justice
Biased? The Journal of Legal Studies 34(2): 599-630.
The international court of justice. (2010) Retrieved from http://www.icj-
Articles 6 to 15 of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural ights recognize the rights of people to work under decent conditions, join and form trade unions, collect social security, and enjoy a decent standard of living (Office for the High Commission of Human ights, 1996). International laws also aim to provide protection and assistance for the family, especially mothers, children and young people.
Further, articles 6 to 27 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political ights protect the right to life and prohibit torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment (Office for the High Commission of Human ights, 1996). In addition, they hold that no one is to be subjected to arbitrary arrest or detention and that all persons have the right to be treated with humanity. The provides for the establishment of a Human ights Committee responsible for supervising implementation of…
The UN in Brief. (2004). What the UN Does for Justice, Human Rights and International Law. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.un.org/Overview/brief3.html .
Office for the High Commission of Human Rights. (June, 1996). Fact Sheet No.2 (Rev.1), the International Bill of Human Rights. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.unhchr.ch/html/menu6/2/fs2.htm.
Joychild, F. Roche, M. (February 13, 1997). Human Rights Law from Domestic and International Sources. Auckland District Law Society.
International Labor Organization: History And Feasibility of Standards
When it comes to the promotion of social justice and the enhancement of labor rights, the relevance of the International Labor Organization (ILO) cannot be overstated.
This text will concern itself with the history of this crucial organization and the feasibility of international labor standards. Further, the paper will address not only the advantages but also the disadvantages of standards.
The ILO describes itself as "the international organization responsible for drawing up and overseeing international labor standards" (ILO, 2012). On its Website, the ILO clearly defines its history from the time it was formed/created to its earlier days and recent times. Formed in 1919, the ILO was originally "part of the Treaty of Versailles that ended World War 1" (ILO, 2012). According to the organization, a number of considerations at the time led to its formation. These considerations were largely of a…
Budd, J.W. (2004). Employment with a Human Face: Balancing Efficiency, Equity, and Voice. New York: Cornell University Press.
McElrath, R.G. (Ed.). (2003). Monitoring International Labor Standards: Summary of Domestic Forums. Washington, DC: National Academic Press.
The International Labor Organization -- ILO (2012). International Labor Organization: Promoting Jobs, Protecting People. Retrieved July 19, 2012, from the International Labor Organization website: http://www.ilo.org/global/lang -- en/index.htm
In my opinion, there is no excuse for them not accomplishing the objectives they have been created to attain.
6. egarding the economic situation and the context of the current financial and economic crises, things are not as clear as they are about environmental issues. In my opinion, the policies that must be implemented in the following period of time should take into consideration economic stagnation, and not economic evolution.
The crisis currently affects the real estate market. Then, it will affect the energy market. Eventually, it will affect the food market. In my opinion, the bailouts that everyone complaints about are not such a negative action.
Even if it does not seem fair to pay for other people's mistakes and greed, these bailouts will probably be responsible for saving thousands of jobs domestically and internationally. However, if the bailouts will be used for bonuses, than this measure will obviously…
1. Thoumrungroje et al. (2007). Globalization Effects and Firm Performance. Journal of International Business Research. Retrieved March 30, 2009 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa5539/is_200707/ai_n25417659 .
2. Raphaeli, N. (2008). Saudi Arabia's Waning Influence on the Oil Market. The Middle East Media Research Institute. Inquiry and Analysis, No. 452. Retrieved March 30, 2009 from http://www.memri.org/bin/articles.cgi?Page=archives&Area=ia&ID=IA45208 .
3. Urbanization and Globalization (2001). The United Nations. Retrieved March 30, 2009 from http://unpan1.un.org/intradoc/groups/public/documents/APCITY/UNPAN002543.pdf.
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Thus, free trade keeps costs lower for consumers and leads to more efficient production. However, there are exceptions to unabated free trade. Most notably, national security dictates restrictions on the sale of military goods to unfriendly countries. Also, one needs to consider appropriate responses to other countries who do not engage in fair trading policies. Recently, the U.S. has seen huge losses of jobs and a redistribution of wealth to Asian countries such as China and India. Perhaps some form of protectionism might be useful to give time for the U.S. time to make plans to deal with the situation.
Comparative advantage and absolute advantage. EconomicsInteractive.com. Retrieved at http://www.unc.edu/depts/econ/byrns_web/Economicae/Essays/AS_Comp_Adv.htm
Wallenius, H. International economics. http://www.tuta.hut.fi/studies/Courses_and_schedules/Isib/TU-91.2011/lecturenotes/Lecture_4.ppt#256,1,3INTERNATIONAL TRADE POLICY
Comparative advantage and absolute advantage. EconomicsInteractive.com. Retrieved at http://www.unc.edu/depts/econ/byrns_web/Economicae/Essays/ABS_Comp_Adv.htm
Wallenius, H. International economics. http://www.tuta.hut.fi/studies/Courses_and_schedules/Isib/TU-91.2011/lecturenotes/Lecture_4.ppt#256,1,3INTERNATIONAL TRADE POLICY
International Criminal Court has not handled a lot of cases but the ones they have dealt with have been big ones. The assignment being completed within this report asks the author of this response to summarize whether the International Court is handling and discharging its duties properly per its charter and the other question asks the author to provide a sample case/situation and what the outcome of that case was.
The basic charter of the International Criminal Court is pretty basic and to the point. The one main kvetch the author of this paper would offer is that one a criminal proceeding is delegated to an international body like the United Nations (which can refer cases to the court) or anything else like it, the bureaucratic morass that can ensue is ridiculous but the political games that can ensue are even crazier. While not applicable to the criminal…
ICC. (2013, February 25). Situations and cases. ICC - CPI. Retrieved February 25, 2013, from http://www.icc-cpi.int/en_menus/icc/situations%20and%20cases/Pages/situations%20and%20cases.aspx
ICC. (2013, February 25). ICC - About the Court. ICC - CPI. Retrieved February 25, 2013, from http://www.icc-cpi.int/en_menus/icc/about%20the%20court/Pages/about%20the%20court.aspx
ICC. (2013, February 25). ICC - ICC At a Glance. ICC - CPI. Retrieved February 25, 2013, from http://www.icc-cpi.int/en_menus/icc/about%20the%20court/icc%20at%20a%20glance/Pages/icc%20at%20a%20glance.aspx
The structural issues that underlie the crisis remain unresolved. The austerity measures that have been implemented have failed miserably to restore business confidence -- they are crippling any economic recovery and have not given investors any reason to be confident about resolving the long-run debt problems faced by any of the peripheral Eurozone nations. The specter of increased Eurozone interest rates to meet the needs of Germany will only hurt the recovery of the peripheral economies further. As a result, a resolution of the sovereign debt crisis in the Eurozone does not appear to be on the horizon. Economists have made a number of proposals for the resolution of the crisis, none of which appear to have any political traction: a single Eurobond (De Grauwe & Moesen, 2009); addressing the divergence between Euro-level monetary policy and sovereign-level fiscal policy…
Arezki, R.; Amadou, N. & Candelon, B. (2010). Bad news spreads. Finance & Development. Retrieved March 22, 2011 from http://www.perjacobsson.org/external/pubs/ft/fandd/2010/12/pdf/arezki.pdf
BBC. (2011). Greece debt rating cut further by Moody's. British Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved March 22, 2011 from http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/business-12664681
CIA World Factbook. (2011). Greece: Economy. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved March 22, 2011 from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/gr.html
De Grauwe, P. (2010). The Greek crisis and the future of the Eurozone. U. Leuven. Retrieved March 22, 2011 from http://www.econ.kuleuven.be/ew/academic/intecon/Degrauwe/PDG-papers/Discussion_papers/EuroIntelligence-March-2010.pdf
al.); (Rahman, 136- 138) (Dasgupta)
From the segmentation analysis and mobile content revenues forecast, the need for launching the low-cost and ultra-low cost mobile cellular phone business in India based on value-added services that can be incrementally added to consumers' accounts is preferable to concentrating only on price alone. Creating the unique value proposition for the service based on mobile content also is attractive to potential partners who are necessary for the nationwide success of the company across India's broad geographic regions. This concentration on value-added services is also critical when the competitors to the proposed company are also taken into account. The following section provides insights into the competitive landscape in India for cellular and telecommunications.
Competitive Landscape and Analysis
The following is an analysis of the competitive landscape of providers that the proposed company will need to partner with in some cases, and compete with in others. Clearly…
AMR Research Study. Research Alert on Cellular Phone Costing and Forecast Alert. August 2005. Boston, MA. ABI/INFORM Trade & Industry. ProQuest.
Mike Clendenin. "Tale of two cell phone markets: INDIA and CHINA. " Electronic Engineering Times 4 Jun 2007: 33-34. ABI/INFORM Trade & Industry. ProQuest.
Nibedita Das. "Technology, efficiency and sustainability of competition in the Indian telecommunications sector. " Information Economics and Policy 12.2 (2000): 133-154. ABI/INFORM Global. ProQuest. 6 May. 2008
Anjan Dasgupta. Competition Policy in Telecommunications - a Case Study of India. 2005. ABI/INFORM Global. ProQuest. 8 May. 2008
Other tools frequently used in this approach are positioning surveys and moving-average trend following trading rules. Fund managers regularly use these patterns to take informed decisions for short-term investments (Exchange ate Forecast, 2010).
Exchange rate risk affects both revenues and costs, which in turn affects a company's marketing, production, and financial decisions (Shapiro, n.d.). If a company's revenues are down then they might find themselves with less money to produce and market their product or service. If a company cannot produce or market their product or service they will probably not remain in business for very long. This is why it is so important to make financial decisions based upon a good model for forecasting exchange rates. A company's bottom line and ultimately their continued success rely heavily on their capability to have enough money to produce products and market them. A company that has no money to manufacture and…
2011 New design solar water heater. (2011). Retreived from http://www.alibaba.com/product -
Boyabatl, O. & Toktay, L.B. (2004). Operational Hedging: A Review with Discussion.
Retrieved from http://www.prism.gatech.edu/~bt71/articles/pompaper.pdf
Moreover, it is highly unlikely that such a clause would apply in the case of a tort dispute, because the likely plaintiffs in a tort lawsuit would be people who were injured by a misuse of the Technology, rather than any party involved in the contract negotiations. When there is no choice of law provision, the courts look at several different factors to determine which law to apply and whether a court has jurisdiction. In contract disputes, the courts look at the place of contracting, the place where the negotiating took place, where the contract will be performed, the location of the subject matter, and the citizenship and place of business of the parties. In tort cases, the courts look at where the injury occurred, where the conduct causing the injury occurred, citizenship and place of business of the parties, and the place where the relationship between the parties occurred.…
Counsel Journal 71 (Oct. 2004): 402.
Office of Domestic Fianance. "Overview." Terrorism Risk Insurance Program. 2008. Department of the Treasury. 18 Aug. 2008 http://www.ustreas.gov/offices/domestic-finance/financial-institution/terrorism-insurance/ .
Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, 42 U.S.C.S. 2000e.
International Capital Movements
In accordance to Milton Friedman, one of the downsides of activist monetary policy was the transmission of lengthy and variable lags. What is more, Friedman considered the effects of this monetary policy to be unpredictable. On the other hand, contemporary consensus is that the effective conduct of monetary policy ought to be done because of the perspective that the integrity of the central bank is essential and pivotal. This is for the reason that solely methodical central bank behavior in line with an interpretable imperative that exemplifies a dedication to price stability can offer a dependable security for private sector prospects. The article by Mishra et al. (2012) examines the manner in which the different conventional channels of monetary transmission are expected to operate in the financial setting that is disposed to portray low-income countries.
The emphasis of the article lies on the impact of the financial…
Adam, A. (2012, February). New approaches for monetary policy.
Curdia, V. (2009). Optimal monetary policy under sudden stops. FRB of New York Staff Report, (323).
Genetski, R. (2014). Monetary Policy and the Financial Crisis of 2007-2008. Classical Principles.
These decisions of business model structure are predicated in part on the cultural variations of the foreign country to an organizations' home nation as well. Cultural variations between regions also lead more to distrust than trust and this is especially true when work is accelerated, assuming no cultural differences exist (Yeung, Selen, Zhang, Huo, 2009). While globalization is often seen as flattening the world from a common set of business processes, cultural variations, and within these cultural differences, deeply held religious values in Muslim nations for example, are far from as homogenous as the flat world mentality would have one believe. Instead there are significant gaps culturally that are actually catalysts of greater, albeit more attuned and focused, efforts at strategic growth globally.
The misconception that manufacturing is outsourced purely for cost reduction can be seen in the many uses and roles of factories within global manufacturing networks (Fedrows,…
Susan Christopherson. 2007. Barriers to 'U.S. style' lean retailing: the case of Wal-Mart's failure in Germany. Journal of Economic Geography: Transnational Retail, Supply Networks, and the Global 7, no. 4, (July 1): 451-469.
Jeffrey H. Dyer and Kentaro Nobeoka. 2000. Creating and managing a high-performance knowledge-sharing network: The Toyota case. Strategic Management Journal: Special Issue: Strategic Networks 21, no. 3,
(March 1): 345-367.
Ferdows, Kasra. 2006. Transfer of Changing Production Know-How. Production and Operations Management 15, no. 1, (April 1): 1-9.
However, this still relatively young application of internet technology does come with a wide array of security concerns that highlight the ethical and legal responsibilities facing these handlers of sensitive information.
ith identify theft and hacking of open source network activities real threats in the internet age, it is increasingly important for online shoppers bankers to be aware of the risks and for online financial institutions to be armed to protect against them.
For the banking industry, which has gone to considerable lengths to continually upgrade security measures, this presents a demand which is simultaneously economic and ethical. Indeed, the transition of users from traditional to online banking methods will be a shift "resulting in considerable savings in operating costs for banks." (Sathye, 325) This highlights the nature of it risks for all companies, which must balance security concerns with the financial optimization often associated with such change.
CMU. 2003. Risk Management. Carnegie Mellon University: Software Engineering Institute. Online at http://www.sei.cmu.edu/risk/index.html
Comptroller of the Current, Administrator of National Banks (CoC). (2005). Authentication in an Internet Banking Environment. Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council. Online at .
Sathye, M. (1999). Adoption of Internet Banking by Australian Consumers: An Empirical Investigation. International Journal of Bank Marketing, 17(7), 324-334.
Stoneburner, G; Goguen, a. & Feringa, a. (2002). Risk Management Guide for Information Technology Systems. NIST 800-30.
A logical starting point for analysis however, is the unremarkable yet important espy that cross-listing entities are existing firms or new ventures seeking capital. New companies attracting capital often view cross-listing as a crucial way to increase global visibility and provide financial stability. "IPOs that go public abroad are an important source of new capital for firms. From 1995 to 2007, 6% of all IPOs go public outside their country of origin and this activity accounts for a fifth of all IPO proceeds. (Caglio, C. Hanley, K. & Marietta-Westberg, J. March 2011. PP. 3).
Equally compelling though are the stream of large existing global Fortune 1000 names that cross-list in order to secure the benefits of reduced capital cost and access: BP and Boeing as a short list of the who's-who. Because of the diversity of the global equity exchanges, firms have a range of options on which platforms to…
185). Components for these products may be manufactured and put together in branches in various countries throughout the world. Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, and Hong Kong were involved in the earliest types of production sharing, which included assembling electronic components manufactured in other countries. Production sharing, one World Bank study determined, currently contributes to approximately 30% of manufacturers' total global trade. Foreign affiliates' international exports approach over 7% of global GDP, approximately $2 trillion.
The World Trade Organization (WTO), which came into being in 1995, the only worldwide international organization that deals with rules of trade between countries, maintains their goal to be to assist producers and manufacturers of services; goods; exporters; importers in carry out business. ("What..., 2006, para. 1) "One of the youngest of the international organizations, the WTO is the successor to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) established in the wake of the Second…
Andrews, R., Biggs M., & Seidel, et al. M. (Eds.). (1996). The Columbia World of Quotations.
New York: Columbia University Press. Retrieved on June 7, 2006 at http://www.bartleby.com/66/50/1950.html& ;
Barrera, A. (2004). "Who Benefits from Outsourcing?" Retrieved on June 7, 2006 at http://www.religion-online.org/showarticle.asp?title=3115.
States like Bangladesh, Egypt, and Indonesia have severe challenges due to the risks of flooding, drought, and deforestation. Recently Bangladesh was hit by a powerful Typhoon (same as a hurricane), which caused thousands of deaths and was so severe it was beyond the capability of its weak government to deal with the disaster.
The U.S. Department of State (DOS) has been working for many years to try and help with a solution for the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict. The violence between these two states has been going on for many years, and numerous previous attempts to find a lasting peaceful solution have failed. In a document called "A Performance-Based roadmap to a Permanent Two-State Solution to the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict," the DOS plan includes three phases. The first is the most crucial and pivotal - an end to the "terror and violence" and an attempt to normalize Palestinian life - in conjunction with…
Textbook Chapter 8 "Post-War Reconstruction."
Dixon, Robyn. (2007, Dec. 15). Zimbabwe may shatter, but Mugabe holds firm. The Los
Angeles Times, p. a-1 - a-5.
Foreign Policy. (2007). Failed States Index 2007. The Fund for Peace and Carnegie