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Sohail believed that because this incident happened -- and because it reflects negatively on the image of Muslims -- "…all the Muslim people in America will be driven out. This has happened in reality," he asserted. "This is obvious. This happened, and it is happening now" (Rousseau, 167). Some of those interviewed in Karachi expressed "intense pain and anger at the injustice of the aftereffects on Pakistanis and Muslims" following 9/11.
The authors expressed some surprise at the substance of the interviews, not so much that the Muslims blamed the U.S. For the attacks, but that the immigrants in Montreal and the more middle class and well-educated Muslims in Karachi shared the same litany. It says a great deal about the anger against the U.S. that was expressed in 2008, and likely remains even today. Needless to say the death of Osama bin Laden had not happened yet, but it…
Baldaccini, Anneliese. "Counter-Terrorism and the EU Strategy for Border Security: Framing
Suspects with Biometric Documents and Databases." European Journal of Migration and Law, 10.1 (2008): 31-49.
Durodie, Bill. "Fear and Terror in a Post-Political Age." Government and Opposition, 42.3
S. commercial airliners; a 1995 plan to kill President Bill Clinton on a visit to the Philippines; and a 1994 plot to kill Pope John Paul II during a visit to Manila.
5. As you consider everything you have learned about international terrorism, in your opinion what are the most important facts or elements of the material that can be instructive for American foreign policy or counterterrorism efforts? Is there anything you have learned or have come to believe (about threats, opportunities, etc.) through this course which you sense is not taken seriously enough or even considered by government officials? What would characterize your approach to terrorism if you were in a position to advise the President or other high-ranking government officials?
The main threat is not to let up on Al-Qaeda, so it cannot set up a base and plot more attacks.
While on the run, they are not…
Anti-Defamation League. (2010). Osama bin Laden. Retrieved on April 14, 2010 from http://www.adl.org/terrorism_america/bin_L.asp
Council on Foreign Relations. (2009). Bankgrounder: Hamas. Retrieved on April 14, 2010 from http://www.cfr.org/publication/8968/
Council on Foreign Relations. (2009). Bankgrounder: Hezbollah. Retrieved on April 14, 2010
The 1993 World Trade Center parking lot bomb was attributed to Al Qaeda, although the terrorist organization denied any connection to it. The 1998 embassy bombings in Kenya and Tanzania, along with a 2000 bomb attack on a U.S. destroyer in Yemen have also been linked to bin Laden. More recently however, the 2004 Madrid train bombings and the 2005 attacks on London's subway and bus system are considered to be the work of Al Qaeda as well.
There is no precise manner to deal with the situation created by Al Qaeda. Any negotiation process would lack any usefulness because there are no common grounds for discussion. The claims of the group stand in total contradiction to all democratic values the western societies share. As terror groups and their proponents categorically refuse any such value, calling for a complete Islamic revolution, it is impossible to reach an agreement on even…
Al Qaeda. The Council on Foreign Relations. 7 July, 2005. 16 Nov. 2007. http://www.cfr.org/publication/9126/
Cerrah, Ibrahim. "The stance of a democratic society against terrorism: Turkey's approach." The Journal of Turkish Weekly. 2006. 11 November 2007 http://www.turkishweekly.net/comments.php?id=2061
Donovan, Michael. "Palestinian Islamic Jihad." Terrorism Project. April 19, 2002. 16 Nov. 2007 http://www.cdi.org/terrorism/pij.cfm
Federation of American Scientists. The Kurds in Turkey. 2007. 16 Nov. 2007 http://www.fas.org/asmp/profiles/turkey_background_kurds.htm
The Kurdish Conflict:
Originally, the PKK was established in the relative absence of any other peaceful alternatives to preventing anti-Kurdish brutality perpetrated by the Turkish government
(Evans, 2007). In principle, the Kurds have a legitimate complaint for human rights
abuses and political suppression by the Turkish government, but the tactics resorted to by the PKK have undermined the credibility of their demands notwithstanding their grounding in recognized concepts of human rights and political autonomy.
However, the PKK became recognized, rightfully, as a terrorist group in the 1980s, by virtue of its affiliation and joint military operations, primarily in Lebanon,
with another terrorist group, the infamous PLO (Evans, 2007; Scheuer, 2004). It is widely believed that the ongoing cycle of violence between the PKK and Turkish military forces have cost more than 35,000 lives since 1984, when the PKK initiated its campaign against Turkey.
The collapse of the Soviet Union significantly…
Dershowitz, a. (2003). The Case for Israel. New York: Wiley & Sons.
Evans, M. (2007). The Final Move Beyond Iraq: The Final Solution While the World
Sleeps. Florida: Frontline.
Larsen, R. (2007). Our Own Worst Enemy: Asking the Right Questions About
Governmental officials knew before the September 11 attacks that we were not fully prepared to either deal with a major terrorist attack or to put effective counterterrorism strategies in place (Haynes, 2004). Experts now realize that most standard investigative techniques used by law enforcement are likely to help us infiltrate and neutralize groups such as cells of Al-Qaeda members. The strategies that show the most promise include using informants or undercover agents to infiltrate them; using surveillance and resulting searches and wire-tapping (including interception of email and cell phone calls) to glean information regarding their plans; detaining suspected terrorists before they can launch an attack: and the use of skilled interrogation of those arrested and/or detained (Taylor, 2003).
Much work has gone into improving organization and communication between agencies, but much more needs to be done, and these changes by themselves will not be enough (Haynes, 2004).…
Cohn, Marjorie. 2002. "Understanding, responding to, and preventing terrorism." Arab Studies Quarterly, March 22. (Cohn, 2002)
Doyle, Charles. 2002. CRS Report for Congress. April 18. Accessed via the Internet 2/27/05. http://188.8.131.52/search?q=cache:VmMti9AI84QJ:www.fas.org/irp/crs/RS21203.pdf+%22Patriot+Act%22&hl=en
Haynes, Wendy. 2004. "Seeing around corners: crafting the new department of homeland security." The Review of Policy Research, May.
Taylor, Stuart, Jr. 2003. "Rights, liberties, and security: recalibrating the balance after September 11." Brookings Review, January.
Terrorist tactics are resorted to because groups think they are effective. eliefs, such as this, are the root cause of terrorism.
The UN must show that these beliefs are wrong. The UN High-Level Panel is also proposing a clear definition of terrorism for the purpose The second main element should make it difficult for terrorist groups to travel, receive financial support or obtain nuclear or radiological materials. In the pursuit of the third main element, the UN has consistently confronted States, which harbor and help terrorists and applied sanctions. The measure has been effective in restraining these States. This hard line should be maintained and made stronger. Under the fourth main element, UN Resolution 1373 requires every member-State to take measures in preventing terrorism in their respective jurisdictions. The Counter-Terrorism Committee oversees the implementation of the Resolution. The new Counter-Terrorism Directorate will provide technical assistance to poor countries without the…
Annan, Kofi. A Global Strategy for Fighting Terrorism. Madrid: International Summit on Democracy, Terrorism and Security, 2005. Available from http://english.safe-democracy.org/keynotes/a-global-strategy-for-fighting-terrorism.html
Bond, Mark et al. Terrorism and the Law. Memorial Institute for the Prevention of Terrorism: MIPT.org, 2008. Available at http://www.terrorisminfo.mipt.org/pdf/Terrorism-and-the-Law-MIPT-Jr.-Fellows-2008.pdf; Internet; accessed 5 Dec 2009
Ehrenfeld, Rachel. Funding Terrorism, Sources and Methods. Los Alamos: Los Alamos
National Laboratory, 2002. Available from http://www.au.af.mil/au/awgate/lanl/funding_terror.pdf; Internet; accessed 5 Dec
For instance, Islamic terrorism completely rejects western values and cultures. Terrorist groups from Africa are also fighting if not the troops of the former colonial powers, at least the cultural reminiscences of their presence on the Black continent. Therefore, it can be said that modern terrorism tends to draw from the cultural and civilization differences present at the moment in the world and predicted by Huntington.
There have been numerous attempts to try to promote the idea of freedom, be it from international or colonial occupation, or from mental and ideological strains. In the late 19th century, the anarchist and socialist movements have tried to induce a certain desire for freedom for a certain kind of oppression. For instance, in Plekhanov's "Anarchism and Socialism" the most important issues are taken into account, while addressing the issue of liberty, from constrains of the social order, as in the case of socialism,…
Huntington, Samuel P. The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order New York: Simon & Schuster, 1996.
Morgan, Matthew J. "The Origins of the New Terrorism." Parameters. Spring 2004
Payne, Carroll. Understanding Terrorism - Definition of Terrorism. May 2007. 16 Nov. http://www.globalterrorism101.com/UTDefinition.html
Plekhanov, Gheorgi. Anarchism and Socialism. Minneapolis: New Times Socialist Publishing, 1895
S. Constitutional law.
The problem with evaluating the motives of the detainees at Gitmo is that the justice process at the prison has become so questionable that automatically any allegations about the status of the prisoners as radical extremists determined to wage jihad against western society seems equally doubtful. There is no doubt that some may be disaffected and confused men and some may indeed be hardened terrorists. However, when the justice process itself is under scrutiny, any findings become suspect. "Many of the FBI accounts came from conscience-stricken agents troubled by what they had witnessed. One agent reported seeing a detainee sitting on the floor of an interrogation cell with an Israeli flag draped around him while he was bombarded by loud music and a strobe light -- almost exactly what Al Qosi had alleged. Another reported seeing detainees chained hand and foot in fetal positions, in barren…
Isikoff, Michael. (17 Jan 2007). "Unanswered Questions." (). Newsweek Retrieved 12 Aug 2007 at http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/6803421/site/newsweek/
Starr, Barbara. (11 Jun 2006). "Admiral: Gitmo suicides a 'planned event'." CNN.com. Retrieved 12 Aug 2007 at www.cnn.com/2006/WORLD/americas/06/10/guantanamo.suicides/index.html
However, the fact that there was an ongoing military conflict between the North and South Vietnamese, and America is viewed as having take a side of support in that action, and because it was officially deemed a "conflict" militarily by the United States, many analysts do not consider it on the scale of international terrorism. However, the Vietnam Conflict (war), did give rise to certain groups within the United States who perpetuated criminal acts of violence against government and military targets with the goal of impacting public opinion and changing the direction of the government's position on the presence of and use of U.S. military forces in that country.
Perhaps more effective than the groups that grew out of the public's protest over American involvement in Vietnam, were the Vietnam war protesters. The non-violent, but nonetheless forcefully vocal groups of anti-war activists who almost daily marched on ashington, DC were…
THE DECADE - 1970s: 1970-1979." The Birmingham Post (England), 1 January 2000, 37. Database online. Available from Questia,
means that these groups, despite their different goals and agendas, are
often left with no choice but to engage in terrorist activities. The
normal course of action has failed and will fail and as marginalized from
the normal institutions that govern, a more direct and violent approach is
necessary. Lacking the political, technological, and popular support to
engage in a real war, terrorism allows for a few who are on the outside to
become increasingly heard and their goals are, at least in the moment,
furthered. But the results are rarely permanent and the popular backlash
may even hurt the cause which would otherwise have had some popular
This analysis, that those who engage in terrorist activities expect
better and when their expectations are not realized they are forced to use
terrorism as an action is effective and relevant in helping to explain the
causes and understanding of…
"Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (Sri Lanka, Separatists)." Council of
Foreign Relations. Aug. 2006. 24 Apr. 2007
"Overview of State-Sponsored Terrorism." Patterns of Global Terrorism.
2006. 24 Apr. 2007
Homegrown extremism threats both in the European Union (EU) as well as the United States (U.S.) have grown since the last decade. Past and present studies along with past and current political leadership have directed their focus and funds to counter global threats of extremism and terrorism whilst ignoring homegrown extremism threats. This paper focuses on the threats posed by domestic terrorist groups or homegrown extremist groups using research data from reputable sources and compares and contrasts transactional and domestic terrorism. The paper recommends that homegrown terrorism or extremism can be reduced and subsequently eliminated by creating functional political and economic societies where equity and justice are for all to enjoy.
Comparison of homegrown and international terrorism
The concept "homegrown" emerged within not only academic but also policy-centered reports following the train bombings in 2005 Britain. However, the precise and accurate meaning of his term and its application is somewhat…
Hoffman, B. (2006). Inside Terrorism. New York: Columbia University Press.
Kirby, A. (2007). The London Bombers as 'Self-Starters': A Case Study in Indigenous Radicalization and the Emergence of Autonomous Cliques. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism 30(5): 415.
Lacey, J. (2008). A Terrorist's Call to Global Jihad: Deciphering Abu Musab Al-Suri's Islamic Jihad Manifesto. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press.
O'Hair, H. Dan, Robert L. Heath, Kevin J. Ayotte, and Gerald R. Ledlow. (2008). Terrorism: Communication and Rhetorical Perspectives. New Jersey: Hampton Press Publications.
Domestic and International Terrorism
The differences between domestic and international terrorism
The Federal Bureau of Investigation in America states that terrorism has been classified into two categories as international terrorism and domestic terrorism. Domestic terrorism is defined as an act planned by a group of individuals of evil intentions against the government or against the citizens of the state without any foreign force. On the other hand, international terrorism is a plan plotted against the government or its citizens by a group of individuals and plans are on a foreign basis, and their motivators are from a foreign country outside the United States or the deeds exceed national boundaries. Examples of domestic terrorism include the Oklahoma city bombing and the Olympic city bombings (Burnett, 2007).
Cases of terrorism in the United States have characterized small rebel groups in its records. These rebel groups use terrorism as their tool to achieve…
Burnett, M. (2007). International terrorism: FBI investigates domestic activities to identify terrorists. S.l.: Diane Pub Co.
Netanyahu, B. (2006). Fighting terrorism: How democracies can defeat the international terrorist network. New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux.
United States. (2009). Legislative initiatives to curb domestic and international terrorism: Hearings before the Subcommittee on Security and Terrorism of the Committee on the Judiciary, United States Senate, Ninety-eighth Congress, second session, on S. 2470 ... S. 2623 ... S. 2624 .. S. 2625 ... S. 2626 ... June 5, 6, and 13, 1984. Washington: U.S.G.P.O.
International Terrorism on Domestic Terrorism-
Domestic terrorism has existed within the United State for a long time. It has influenced the United States' political and social structure to varying degrees. Before, the word "terrorist" and "terrorism" it was being used by the French evolution in a positive way referring to the Jacobins' actions. As time has gone by, these words have turned to be used to refer to array of negative and violent actions which are against the societies as well as governments. According to the definition of the United States Department of Justice, domestic terrorism is unlawful use of force or violence by a group against people or property with intentions of intimidating or coercing a government or civilians to the interest of political or social objectives,( James F. Jarboe, 2012).
Sometimes it become difficult to come up with the difference between terrorist group from extremism when studying domestic…
Resources Committee, Subcommittee on Forests and Forest Health Washington, DC, (2012). Accessed April 20, 2012 from http://www.fbi.gov /news/testimony/the-threat-of-eco-terrorism' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Globalization is melting the territorial differences and boundaries between the countries. There is a need to develop new working relationships, locally and abroad. The evolutionary process of terrorism requires that DHS should incorporate the international dimensions of security, as the economies and are globally interconnected together. To fulfill this purpose, DHS has established an Office of International Affairs (OIA) for its international activities. Despite of bureaucratic layers and turf problems with other intelligence agencies, DHS is still striving to achieve its primary goal that is security provision. Terrorist Screening Center and Terrorist Threat Integration Center established by the former President are providing a platform for FBI, CIA and DHS to share the intelligence and act together, without any distinction regarding the origin of the terrorist threat. (Carafano, Heyman 2004)
DHS has taken a lot of other initiatives against terrorist threats throughout the country. At domestic level, it is training the…
Branan, David W. 2002. The MIPT Terrorism Annual, Oklahoma: National Memorial
Institute for Prevention of Terrorism
Carafano, James Jay., and David Heyman. 2004. Rethinking the Department of Homeland
Security, Washington: Heritage Foundation
War on terrorism took an important place in the foreign policy of eagan's administration, in administration of Bush (father) and in administration of democrat Clinton. First, the war on terrorism was directed against the spread of communism and pro-Soviet tendencies in the developing countries as the U.S.S.. supported and aided Marxist insurgents who fought in Latin America and Arabs in the Middle East (Lebanon and Palestine).
Chomsky gives a clear image of the approach used by the U.S.A. And its NATO allies in description of their militarism: "Intelligent bombs" in Iraq, "humanitarian intervention" in Kosovo. The U.S.A. never used the word "war" to describe that. Now they are talking about war against a nameless enemy. Why? At first the U.S. used the word "crusade," but it was quickly pointed out that if they hope to enlist their allies in the Islamic world, it would be a serious mistake, for obvious…
Mailer, Norman Why Are We At War? New York: Random House Trade Paperbacks 2003
Hallin, Daniel C. (1993). From Vietnam to El Salvador: Hegemony and Ideological Change. In We Keep America on Top of the World. London and New York: Routledge, pp. 58-86.
Chomsky, Noam What Americans Have Learnt --and not Learnt-- Since 9/11 The Age, September 7, 2002
Chomsky, Noam 9-11 Open Media, 2001
Threat -Domestic or International Terrorism?
Terrorism was in other places and globalism was regarded trade- in the old world. But in the new world, if terrorism can occur in a place like New York, it could probably occur anywhere in the world. Post U.S. attack, the biggest change the world faced is that the definition of terrorism has been completely reversed. Of late, terrorism is mainly about attacking the est's global influence on religious, cultural and political level by groups who do not make precise demands or try to obtain concessions. Terrorism, because of the violence- cannot be controlled by civil, educational or societal elements and should be trailed and punished by law enforcement agencies.
Domestic Terrorism: Since the inception of USA, domestic terrorism existed and affected the political and social structure of the United States to varying levels. To know the extent of domestic terrorism and to estimate the…
LCDR Steven Mack Presley, MSC, USN (19, April 1996) "Rise of Domestic Terrorism and Its Relation to United States Armed Forces." Research Paper submitted to the Faculty of the U.S. Marine Corps Command and Staff College
John le Carre (January 15, 2003) "The United States of America has gone mad" Times of London
Patrick Seale (27, June 2003) "Blair is in no-win situation as U.S. plan for Iraq fails."
The lack of political and economic development in the countries where MS-13 operates has also helped to keep the mara entrenched in local culture (Bruneau, 2005). ithout adequate jobs and economic activity, even the most talented of individuals is made vulnerable to outside gang and organization influences. In many towns and villages, MS-13 is the only form of economic and political stability, and therefore is very hard to root out and eliminate. Combined with the fact that many of the economies of Central American countries are built around outside competition and the fact that the political and military elite are often very corrupt, MS-13's continued presence is easily understood. No Central American country has yet developed a strategy for dealing with MS-13 (Bruneau, 2005). The Central American context in which the MS-13 organization thrives is quite easily identified, but very hard to change.
"In sum, the political institutions are new,…
Arana, Ana. (2005). "How the Street Gangs Took Central America." Foreign Affairs Vol 84. pp. 98
Bruneau, Thomas C. (2005). "The Maras and National Security in Central America." Strategic Insights, Volume 4 Issue 5; Dated: May 2005.
Castro, Alvi J. (2005). "Mara Salvatrucha Street Gang: An International Criminal Enterprise with Roots in El Salvador's Civil War." Immigration and Customs Enforcement and Department of Homeland Security Document.
Fishel, John T. And Grizzard, Mary. (2005) "Countering Ideaological Support to Terrorism in the Circum-Caribbean." UCLA Chicano Research Studies Center Journal, Volume 3; Dated: May 2005.
Funding and aiding and abetting terrorist activities are a crime of almost if not equal seriousness as committing the acts themselves. hy South Florida may have become a 'hotbed' for the jihad remains an open question (as does the validity of the indictments, which both men continue to deny).
The analysis of the generation and continued life of the Palestinian Islamic Jihad is a powerful example of the complexities of international terrorism. The facts about the PIJ transcend the usual national and religious stereotypes about different terrorist organizations. The PIJ is Sunni, yet primarily funded by a Shiite state, and has been involved in actions against moderate Arab governments and organizations it opposes, as well as Israel. It has pitted itself against radical Hamas as well as the more moderate PLO in the Palestinian territories. The accused members of the group in America are educated men who deny their connection…
Donovan, Michael. (2001). Palestinian Islamic Jihad. Terrorism Project. Center for Defense
Information. Retrieved September 19, 2009 at http://www.cdi.org/terrorism/pij.cfm
Feds: Professor by day, terror fund-raiser by night. (2003, February 20). CNN. Retrieved
September 20, 2009 at http://www.cnn.com/2003/U.S./South/02/20/professor.background/index.html
Terrorism, destabilization, and the modern global environment
Modern terrorism is often said to have a very unique and particular character, not the least of which is the dominant influence of the Internet in shaping and supporting its activities. Of course, it could be argued that on a very basic level certain aspects of terrorism have remained unchanging across the eras, namely terrorists' desire to inflict fear upon a population by using indiscriminate violence against civilians and the desire to garner publicity for a cause. However, the tools available to terrorists have changed, just as the social and political environment is constantly undergoing shifts and alternations that give rise to new motivations for violence. The decentralization of the 21st century balance of power combined with decentralized methods of communication has created a uniquely toxic environment fertile for terrorism, in contrast to previous eras.
The Internet: A new tool for terrorism
Garrett, B. & Adams, J. (2004). U.S.-China cooperation on the problem of failing states and transnational threats. United States Institute for Peace, 126: 1-16
Denning, D. (2001). "Activism, hacktivism, and cyberterrorism." Networks and netwars: The future of terror, crime, and militancy. Rand, 239-288
The diplomacy of counterterrorism. (2002). United States Institute for Peace, 80: 1-8
Weimann, G. (2004). How modern terrorists use the Internet. United States Institute for Peace,
There is a growing link between organized crime and terrorism; drug trafficking, transnational organized crime, movement of illicit firearms and money laundering have all become integral parts of terrorism in the world today. Organized crime threatens peace and human security; it also violates human rights as well as undermining economic, social, cultural, political and civil development of societies all over the world. Terrorists are now using increasingly diverse modes of operations which are increasingly funded and sustained through proceeds from organized crime. Terrorism poses a serious threat to national security and fundamental democratic values of the society (Albercht, 2008).
Theories of counter terrorism
Counter terrorism entails the practices, tactics, techniques and strategies that governments, militaries, police departments and corporations adopt in making attempts to respond to threats or acts that are real and imputed Counter terrorism is a top priority for most countries following catastrophic events that have…
Albercht, H.J. (2008). Concepts of Terrorism and Organized Crime. Retrieved November 8,
2012 from http://www.etc.-graz.at/cms/fileadmin/user_upload/humsec/SAc_08_PPP/PPP_Hans_J_rg_Albrecht.pdf
Ohr, G.B. (2004). Effective methods to combat transnational Organized crime in criminal justice processes. Retrieved November 8, 2012 from http://www.unafei.or.jp/english/pdf/PDF_rms/no58/58-05.pdf (pg40-57)
Kolodkin, B. (2012).What is Counter terrorism? Retrieved November 8, 2012 from http://usforeignpolicy.about.com/od/defense/a/what-is-counterterrorism.htm
Terrorism has a long and violent history and incidents of terrorism have been recorded from at least 2,000 years ago. Acts of terrorism have included political assassinations, violent political revolutions, hijackings, skyjackings, and bombings intended to attract attention, shock, intimidate and instill fear. Before the 911 terror attacks the threat of terrorism, though always a potential danger, was of an episodic nature, and seemed to be under control. The devastating attacks on the orld Trade Center and the Pentagon on September 11, 2001, however, have brought terrorism to the center stage of world politics and exposed the vulnerability of soft civilian targets to a small but determined group of terrorists. The issue of terrorism and home security now dominates the foreign policy of most countries including the United States. The focus on terrorism has also forced people to think deeply about its root causes, which may have historical, cultural, political,…
Ali, Abdullah Yusuf. "The Holy Qur'an." Translation in English. Wordsworth Classic of World Literature. UK: Wordsworth Edition Limited: 2000
Chomsky, Noam. "Who are the Global Terrorists?" Z-Net. May 19, 2002. April 22, 2005. http://www.zmag.org/content/ForeignPolicy/chomskyglobeterr.cfm
Cohn, Marjorie. "Understanding, Responding to and Preventing Terrorism." Arab Studies Quarterly (ASQ) (2002): 25+.
Hoffman, Bruce. "Terrorism." Article in Encyclopedia Encarta. 2005. April 22, 2005. http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761564344/Terrorism.html
According to the Oxford ibliographies research, there is not one specific definition of "nonstate actors" that fits all situations. Nonstate actors are defined in relation to international law, because they are "…often able to impact legal values and must accordingly be regulated" (Santarelli, 2005). Throughout history, nonstate actors have "impacted international law" and they have also participated in "international legal processes," which is why Santarelli believes there should be more study of nonstate actors. One scholar claims that nonstate actors include "all entities" that are different from states; or are entities that are operating outside the legal jurisdiction of the government. That definition would include think tanks in the U.S. On the one hand and violent, bloodthirsty extremists such as ISIS, the Taliban and al Qaeda on the other hand (Fisher, 2014).
A typical nonstate actor can also be viewed as a nongovernmental organization (NGO); examples of NGOs…
Arquilla, John. "Of Networks and Nations." The Brown Journal of World Affairs. (2009).
XIV (1). Accessed December 27, 2014, from EBSCO.
Axworthy, Thomas, and Dean, Ryan. "A Scan of Existing Arms Control Treaties with Lessons Learned. Interaction Council. (2011). Accessed December 27, 2014, from http://www.interactioncouncil.org .
Federal Bureau of Investigation. "Definitions of Terrorism in the U.S. Code." (2006):
The government has authority to impose a civil penalty on a domestic entity or organization, and may bring charges pursuant to the Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organization Act based on predicate crimes that "include the offenses of providing material support or resources to a foreign terrorist organization, or intentionally or knowingly collecting or providing funds for use in carrying out terrorist activities, as well as money laundering" (Crimn 2004). Moreover, the Internal Revenue Service may suspend the tax-exempt status under the Internal Revenue Code of any organization that is identified or designated as a terrorist organization (Crimn 2004).
The attacks of September 11th were a wake-up call to authorities to the need for cooperation between the various agencies. The Patriot Act provided American local, state and federal agencies an arsenal of tools to investigate, prosecute, and deter terrorist activities.
Bulzomi, Michael J. (2002, July 01). Investigating international terrorism…
Bulzomi, Michael J. (2002, July 01). Investigating international terrorism overseas:
constitutional considerations. The FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin. Retrieved November 10, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
Crimn, Nina J. (2004, March 01). High alert: the government's war on the financing of terrorism and its implications for donors, domestic charitable organizations, and global philanthropy. William and Mary Law Review. Retrieved November 10, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
Donohue, Laura K. (2006, March 22). Anglo-American privacy and surveillance.
According to Stefanie Olson (2001), the Act provides government with increased electronic surveillance, search and data gathering power. Under the guise of tracking down "potential" terrorists, the expansion of Internet eavesdropping technology provides the government with full viewing rights into any private life they choose. In this way, immigrants who enter the country and conduct their business in a perfectly legal manner are now targeted for such surveys (White, 2008).
Local and National Changes in Law Enforcement - the basic mission of law enforcement and foreign/defense policy in the United States has dramatically changed since the events of 9/11 and the subsequent "War on Terrorism." Since 9/11, policies across the United States and abroad have changed from being reactive to being intensely proactive. There, are, however, several challenges faced by law enforcement and the legal issues of defense and foreign policy regarding this new approach to terrorism (Simonson, 2006).
"After 9-11, Security Job Openings Abound," cited in:
Bergen, P. (December 5, 2008). "WMD Terrorism Fears are Overblown." CNN
Politics.Com. Cited in:
Terrorism and Counterterrorism.
M5D1: Winners and Losers
Has a nation ever "won" a struggle against a terrorist organization? Was te victory sort-lived or seemingly permanent? Has a terrorist organization ever "won" in its conflict against a nation?
Peraps te closest example to a 'win' tat as ever been attained by eiter a terrorist group or its victim is tat of te IRA in Great Britain. Britain was terrorized by a series of attacks by tis organization. Te IRA demanded tat England leave Nortern Ireland. "From 1969 troug 1997, te IRA splintered into a number of organizations, all called te IRA… Te IRA began its terrorist attacks on te Britis army and police following a summer of violent rioting between Catolics and Protestants in Nortern Ireland," te most infamous of wic was called 'Bloody Sunday' (Zalman 2006). "For te next generation, te IRA carried out bombings, assassinations and oter terrorist attacks…
M5D2: Combating International Terrorism Do international terrorist organizations or movements, such as Al-Qaeda, that operate across international borders require an international agency to track and combat them? If so, which international agency or body should be responsible for combating cross-border terrorism? If not, how should nations fight these cross-border organizations?
"No state, however powerful, can defend itself unilaterally against transnational terrorism. Terrorist networks move operatives, money and material across borders and through the crevices of the global economy. Only through extensive cooperation on financial flows, intelligence, and police action can the risk of terrorism be reduced" (Policy brief on combatting international terrorism, 2008, The Brookings Institute: 1). Even if international agencies are not the only means by which to police international terrorism, they are surely some of the most effective. Terrorism is so difficult to contain and detect because it is a borderless crime. Increasingly terrorist organizations are non-state actors with relatively vague, undefined missions. Their outreach is international and so are their ambitions. While nations can and
Intenational Peace and Teoism
What changes to existing legal egimes may educe the incentive and make the law moe effective in peseving peace?
Teoist goups can be disupted and destoyed though continuous and diect legal actions. The focus includes the use of national and intenational elements of powe. Immediate focus should be on the teoist oganizations with global each as well as teoists o states sponsoing teoism activities. Thee ae attempts of gaining and using weapons of mass destuction o pecusos. The law defends the national inteests, the native people, and intenational goals. Achievements in this case ae deived though identification and destuction of peace theats pio eaching national bodes. While most govenments continually stive towads enlisting intenational community suppot, they do not hesitate to act alone whee necessay. The goals at stake include execising thei ights to self-defense though peemptive action against teoists. The actions pevent them fom inflicting…
references ultimately tie broader projects leading to generalized legal understandings, the goal is to have central strategies of disseminating such law.
Law promotes equity and respects for people. Law advocates treatment of all human beings as members of the family. Islam, Judaism, and Christianity share this value. Hinduism embraces divine spark for all human beings while Buddhism talks of the human race are having similar distinctions made by humankind from all other animal varieties. There are numerous species across board distinguishing their category based on fundamentalism. The teachings make emphasis on oneness in which people work towards common goals of perish together. International law plays a role in fostering cooperation. Law consists of sets of rules that ensured passive co-existence of nations. Today, the concept of world governance is moving towards active cooperation among all countries. The concerns about matters of human welfare, international travel, outer space, health, the environment, disaster relief, and transport, are addressed by international law. There is facilitation of the external and internal affairs for a given country.
In conclusion, international law promotes economic justice to equality practices. Law elevates conditions for impoverished nations as well as deprived world populations. Critics estimate that in the last five decades, there is more than four times the population of people dying in wars happening in the 20th century. Others die due to poor sanitation and hunger. Part of the underlying numbers did not have to die if their issues were subjected to relevant concentrated attention. The concept relates to the application of international law principles.
And Article 25 of the Charter enjoins all members to "... accept and carry out the decisions of the Security Council (Turner)."
On the other hand, leading lawyers contended that ritain would violate international law if it also used armed force against Iraq like the U.S. (Waugh 2002). Two leading barristers Rabinder Singh QC and Alison MacDonald said that the use of force against Iraq would be justified only if its leaders directly attacked ritain or its allies or an attack was imminent. They added that the attack should not be one that could be averted except with the use of force. They required the UN Security Council to authorize the use of force in concrete and "clear terms." They believed that Security Council resolutions did not authorize such use of force against Iraq. The United Kingdom was not entitled to that last recourse. Another barrister said that the UK…
Bush, G.W. (2002). Statement on signing the authorization for using of military force against Iraq resolution of 2002. 2 pages. Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents: U.S. Government Printing Office
Cook, M.L. (2002). The proper role of professional military advice in contemporary uses of force. 14 pages. Parameters: U.S. Army War College
Krieger, D. (2002). Law vs. force. 2 pages. Humanist: American Humanist Association
Rivkin Jr., D.B. And Casey, L.A. (2000). The rocky shoals of international law. The National Interest: The National Affairs, Inc.
It has given a clear signal to unscrupulous tyrants and murderous dictators around the world that they have no place to hide. Earlier, they could escape prosecution for their crimes by brow-beating or manipulating the judicial system in their own country; the expanding reach of international law has now made it possible for them to be answerable for such universally unacceptable crimes (Kenneth Roth).
The benefits of international law are also recognized by private business. For example the U.S. Apparel Industry Partnership has voluntarily agreed to a standard code of conduct that prohibits forced labor, child labor, and workweeks exceeding 60 hours. This has had a significant effect on the operation of U.S. companies in poor countries and helped to prevent the cruel exploitation of cheap labor (Ratner 71). The signing of the "Sullivan Principles" by more than 100 U.S. companies in 1977 that call for desegregation in the workplace,…
Hathaway, Oona a. "Two Cheers for International Law." The Wilson Quarterly Autumn 2003: 50+.
International law." The Free Dictionary. 2008. January 14, 2008. http://legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/international+law
Kissinger, Henry. "The Pitfalls of Universal Jurisdiction: Risking Judicial Tyranny." Foreign Affairs. July/August 2001. January 14, 2008. http://www.globalpolicy.org/intljustice/general/2001/07kiss.htm
Mcwhinney, Edward. "1. Shifting Paradigms of International Law and World Order in an Era of Historical Transition." International Law in the Post-Cold War World: Essays in Memory of Li Haopei. Ed. Sienho Yee and Wang Tieya. London: Routledge, 2001. 3-17.
In the event the intelligence detailed by the Israeli administration proves to be accurate with respect to nuclear weapons development, this office is reminded of the words of the late President John, F. Kennedy, spoken almost exactly 45 years ago to the day, on October 22, 1962, addressing the Soviet threat in Cuba:
We no longer live in a world where only the actual firing of weapons represents a sufficient challenge to a nation's security to constitute maximum peril. Nuclear weapons are so destructive and ballistic missiles are so swift that any substantially increased possibility of their use or any sudden change in their deployment may well be regarded as a definite threat to peace." (Sorensen, 1965)
Extraordinary risks to national security demand (and justify) extraordinary actions to prevent them from materializing. A military response will be required to participate with Israel in destroying Iranian nuclear facilities either in possession…
Allison, G. (2004) Nuclear Terrorism: The Ultimate Preventable Catastrophe.
Henry Holt: New York
Dershowitz, a. (2002) Why Terrorism Works: Understanding the Threat,
Responding to the Challenge. Yale University Press: New Haven
International Peace and Terrorism
This section discusses the importance of primary data in completing the proposal. Different techniques to be used in collecting the primary data are discussed. The proposal also discusses the strategies that can be used in carrying out the qualitative analysis. The study suggests coding, triangulation and computer assisted program for the analysis of the proposal.
The section provides the importance of primary research in competing the study. The paper also discusses various techniques that the researcher can use to collect the primary data. The primary data are very critical in completing the proposal and the researcher will collect the primary data from various sources. Catino, (2014) argues primary sources are very critical to complete a research in security studies because without using the primary sources, a researcher will not be able to adequately gain an in-depth analysis on the subject. Thus, the proposal will…
Sources Why they are Essential for Security Studies . Henley Putnam University.
Guion, L.A. Diehl, D.C. & McDonald, D.(2011). Triangulation: Establishing the Validity of Qualitative Studies., University of Florida, IFAS Extension.
Rothbauer, P. (2008). Triangulation. In Given, Lisa (Ed.), The SAGE Encyclopedia of Qualitative Research Methods." Sage Publications. pp. 892-894.
Golafshani, N. (2003). Understanding Reliability and Validity in Qualitative Research. The Qualitative Report, 8(4).
Ramraj, V.V., Hor, M., Roach, K. & Williams, G. (2012). Global Anti-Terrorism Law and Policy. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
Tragedies from deadly terrorist attacks have made the international communities to pervasively fear and loath terrorism. Terrorism is undertaken by individual with motivations that are complex for the understanding of security agencies and individuals. Definition according United States statutes states terrorism to be politically motivated, premeditated, violence against noncombatant individuals, private property by clandestine agents or subnational groups, with an intention to obtain audience (Launtenberg, 2011). This definition is adopted for purposes of this paper.
Attempts to shed some light on terrorism highlight the motives of the perpetrators while they give some appropriate measures to resolve the problem. The organizations linked to supporting terrorism by State Department stood at 22 in the year 2001. In three years' time, the list of identified terrorist groups had grown to 36 with more groups being listed as unofficial terrorist organizations. One might mistake terrorism industry for a thriving economic entity or the…
Launtenberg, F. (2011). Homeland Security and Fighting Terrorism. Retrieved 19th October 2013, from http://lautenberg.senate.gov/issues_update/homesec_terror.cfm
McCarthy, Timothy, P., & McMillian, J. (2008). The Radical Reader: A Documentary History of the American Radical Tradition. (Vol. New Press): New York.
Morag, N. (2004). The Economic and Social Effects of Intensive Terrorism: Israel 2000 -- 2004. Retrieved 19th October, 2013, from http://meria.idc.ac.il/journal/2006/issue3/jv10no3a9.html
Ridgeway, J. (1990). Blood in the Face: The Ku Klux Klan, Aryan Nations, Nazi Skinheads, and the Rise of a New White Culture. New York: Thunder's Mouth,.
Another way that terrorism has more of an effect on democracy is because it influences the security of the homeland. Terrorism has made it where most countries ruled by democracy are now running a tight ship when it comes to homeland security (Leahy, 2005). As mentioned earlier it has dropped seeds in the back of people's minds as to whether or no democracy is able to protect its people. Not only has doubts been put in place regarding national homeland security but also the cost of keeping it more secure has sky rocketed the piece. Defense and security spending has really hit the roof by a massive amount in the aftermath of the September 11 attacks. Glen Hodgson, the Deputy Chief Economist for the EDC (Export Development Candada) mentions how the costs were in 2004:
The U.S. By itself has been spending somewhere around U.S. $500 billion every twelve months…
American Heritage Online Dictionary. (2010, May 5). Retrieved from http://education.yahoo.com/reference/dictionary/entry/terrorism
Dantzker, M.L. (2010, March 23). Understanding today's Police. Criminal Justice Press. New York.
Leahy, K. (2005, February 12). Patriot Act has unintended effects. University Wire. Chicago.
Terrorism Linked to Religion These Days?
Although terrorism has been present ever since the beginning of recorded history, defining it may prove to be slightly controversial task. There is no universally shared definition as it's a highly subjective term that depends upon the point-of-view of the observer. However, there are three perspectives from which terrorism can be looked at and then defined. These perspectives include the terrorist's, the victim's and the general publics.
The phrase "one man's terrorist is another man's freedom fighter" is one that even terrorists may re-affirm, thus asserting the controversial nature of the term itself. The following definition released by the United States FBI, can be used to describe the nature of modern day terrorism:
"The unlawful use of force or persons or property to intimidate or coerce a government, the civilian population, or any segment thereof, in furtherance of political or social objectives" (U.S. Department…
Adas, J., 2010. Mazin Qumsiyeh on the History and Practice Of Nonviolent Palestinian Resistance, s.l.: s.n.
Akram, M., 2008. Pakistan, Terrorism and Drugs. [Online]
Available at: http://www.nytimes.com/2008/01/19/opinion/lweb22pakistan.html?_r=1&ref=opinion [Accessed 17 October 2009].
Anon., 1988. Hamas Charter. [Online]
"[D]efeating terrorism must remain one of our intelligence community's core objectives, as widely dispersed terrorist networks will present one of the most serious challenges to U.S. national security interests at home and abroad...."
DCI Porter Goss, testifying before the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence
Nine days after the horrendous bombing of the Trade Towers on September 11, 2001, President George Bush addressed the Joint Session of Congress and the American People told the watching public that "we are a country awakened to danger and called to defend freedom. Our grief has turned to anger, and anger to resolution. Whether we bring our enemies to justice, or bring justice to our enemies, justice will be done ... I will not forget this wound to our country or those who inflicted it. I will not yield; I will not rest; I will not relent in waging this struggle for freedom and…
'An Evening with Noam Chomsky." October, 2001. New War Against Terror.
16 July, 2005. http://www.zmag.org/GlobalWatch/chomskymit.htm
Arnold, Terrell. Is the War on Terrorism Irrelevant? 16 July, 2005. http://www.rense.com/general64/terrd.htm
Gardiner, Beth. Critics ask whether British intelligence missed key clues before
Discussion Questions on International Terrorism
Explain the origins and evolution of long-term separatists and ethnic and nationalistic terrorism. Also, provide group names and their respective parts of the world.
Ethno- separatist/nationalist terrorism is not specifically a modern phenomenon. Historically, two Jewish movements in Judaea that desired to provoke the local population to rise against the oman occupiers used ethno-racial terrorism. However, it was only in 60s and 70s that terrorism came to be associated with ethnic- separatist/nationalist movements (Conser, Paynich & Gingerich, 2013). During that time, terrorism was seen as paying off on the reasons for effective, aggressive campaigns launched and won. The Palestine Liberation Organization's terrorist movement between 1968 and 1980 confirmed to other nationalist groups that internationalizing their cause could be valuable. The variety of ethnic-national/separatist terrorist movements effective worldwide, therefore, increased from three in 1968 to 30 in 1978 (Cassara, 2006).
Psychologists argue that the…
Conser, J.A., Paynich, R., & Gingerich, T. (2013). Law enforcement in the United States. Burlington, Mass: Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Cassara, J.A. (2006). Hide and seek: Intelligence, law enforcement, and the stalled war on terrorist finance. Washington, DC: Potomac Books.
Dintino, J.J., & Martens, F.T. (2003). Police intelligence systems in crime control: Maintaining a delicate balance in a liberal democracy. Springfield, Ill: C.C. Thomas.
Fijnaut, C., & Paoli, L. (2004). Organized crime in Europe: Concepts, patterns, and control policies in the European Union and beyond. The Netherlands: Springer.
Terrorism is a major threat in today's society. Due to that fact, it is imperative that nations have measures in place to combat the threats of terrorists against their worldwide interests. For the United States, those measures include numerous ways and methods that allow the nation to deter and combat terrorism on a local, national, and international level. This paper will outline those measures and methods, and will discuss their impact on the threat of terrorism. In addition, this paper will discuss the use of those methods in relation to the nuclear threat of the Soviet Union during the cold war, and the recent use of those methods as a deterrent against terrorism forces.
While terrorist threats are numerous in today's world, the methods used by the United States to deter those terrorists, help to ensure that, while some terrorism is inevitable, the attacks of those terrorists are kept at…
Encarta. "Sanctions." Microsoft Encarta 97 Encyclopedia. CD-ROM. Microsoft Corporation.
Friedman, Benjamin. "Mini-Nukes, Bunker Busters, and Deterrence: Framing the Debate." Center for Defense Information: Terrorism. 26 Apr 2002. Center for Defense Information. 21 Apr 2004. http://www.cdi.org/terrorism/mininukes-pr.cfm
Glasstone, Samuel. "Nuclear Weapons." Microsoft Encarta 97 Encyclopedia. CD-ROM. Microsoft Corporation.
Keller, Bill. "Missile Defense Is Not About Defense - It's About Offense." New York Times. 31 Dec 2003: C6.
Although many of the figureheads of international terrorism have been exterminated, terrorism remains a pervasive reality. Whether from domestic or foreign sources, terrorism remains a real threat. Even in the absence of an actual attack, fear of terrorism inevitably harms the quality of life of citizens. Members of our organization should feel safe and secure, knowing that at least at work they are protected from all manner of terrorist attack: whether that be a lone gunman, an explosion, a biological or chemical weapon, or cyberterrorism.
esearch into the most effective responses to terrorism shows that terrorism is too diverse and complex a phenomenon to warrant a singular or simple response. We must remain vigilant of multiple types of terrorism, which is why I recommend the creation of a special position in our organization devoted to counterterrorism and internal security. The importance of this new position cannot be underestimated. An…
Henwood, D. (2001). Terrorism and globalization. The Nation. 3 December, 2001. Retrieved online: http://www.thenation.com/article/terrorism-and-globalization
Witkowsky, A. (2010). Preventing Terrorism: Strategies and Policies To Prevent and Combat Transnational Threats. U.S. Department of State. Retrieved online: http://www.state.gov/s/ct/rls/rm/2010/150068.htm
International Crime, Terrorism, And Organized Crime Trends
Comparing contrasting topics international crime, terrorism, organized crime trends
This research has confirmed the possibility of close correlation between money laundering activities, Islamic terrorist fundraising, organized crime, and corruption of public officials throughout Brazilian Hizballah region. The organized crime networks and the Islamic extremists of Brazil must be examined in collaboration because they are connected to wider networks in Latin America zone and across the world. All the organized activities and terrorists in Brazilian Hizballah were facilitated by corrupt officials, which were driven by the benefits of lucrative criminal activities conducted such as business ventures by terrorists and organized crime groups. Consequently, there was a mutually beneficial association among the three sectors. In this study, Brazilian Hizballah will serve as a microcosm.
A number of free-Trade American regions with massive Middle Eastern populations permit organized crime mafias, Islamic terrorist groups, and corrupt…
Almeida, J. (2008). Brazil in focus: Economic, political and social issues. New York: Nova Science Publishers.
Duyan, A., & NATO Emerging Security Challenges Division. (2012). Defence against terrorism: Different dimensions and trends of an emerging threat: [proceedings of the NATO Advanced Training Course on Defence Against Terrorism: Different Dimensions and Trends of the Emerging Threat - Terrorism, Kabul, Afghanistan, 23-27 May 2010]. Amsterdam: Ios Pres in cooperation with NATO Emerging Security Challenges Division.
Friedlander, R.A., Levie, H.S. & Lovelace, D.C. (2009). Terrorism: Documents of international and local control. Dobbs Ferry, N.Y: Oceana Publications.
Giraldo, J.K. (2007). Terrorism financing and state responses: A comparative perspective. Stanford, Calif: Stanford Univ. Press.
What is Terrorism?
Legacy in the 21st century
Based Terrorist Organizations
Ku Klux Klan
Counterterrorism and Prevention
Definitions and Structures
The very nature of terrorism, of course, is to engender fear and panic into the population base. Thus, targets are so numerous that complete protection of all is impossible. Targets could include any of the governmental buildings in Washington, D.C., courthouses or public buildings in major cities, malls, churches, and transportation centers in any town. Unless the materials are manufactured in the United States, though, the most likely targets are those that exist in coastal cities with larger port access (Smith, 2001).
Terrorists tend to target places that are media hyped, affect the lives of citizens, and are usually transportation, entertainment, or financially based in larger urban areas. Indeed, for greater efficacy, targets usually involve places where there are large non-combatant crowds,…
ACLU Lawsuit. (1993). The New York Times. Retrieved from: http://www.nytimes.com/1993/12/16/us/aclu-lawsuit-backs-klan-in-seeking-permit-for-cross.html
Anti-Defamation League. (2013). Ku Klux Klan -- Affiliations. ADL. Retrieved from: http://archive.adl.org/learn/ext_us/kkk/affiliations.html?LEARN_Cat=Extremism&LEARN_SubCat=Extremism_in_America&xpicked=4&item=kkk
Bocstette, C. (2008). Jihadist Terrorist Use of Strategic Communication Management Techniques. George C. Marshall European Center for Security. Retrieved from: http://www.marshallcenter.org/mcpublicweb/MCDocs/files/College/F_Publications/occPapers/occ-paper_20-en.pdf
Department of Homeland Security. (2014). About DHS. Retrieved from: http:.//www/dhs.gov
They now work together in what has become an ideological battle against the U.S. In this vicious battle against the terror outfits, our people have been robbed of their cherished freedom, which has always been the cornerstone of our constitution.
As history has time and again illustrated, 'power corrupts and absolute power corrupts absolutely'. This can be extended to the patriot act, which has given absolute power to the law enforcers at the cost of the freedom and privacy of its citizens. Ethnic profiling and 'speculation without any accountability' have undermined the rule of law and overridden civil and constitutional rights of thousands of citizens. The much-touted 'preventive paradigm' of which the patriot act is an important tool has resulted in much wrongdoing. The former president's acceptance that Iraqi invasion was a 'terrible mistake' is enough proof of the strategic misadventure of a failed intelligence system backed by emergency terror…
1) David Weigel, (Nov 2005), 'When Patriots Dissent: Surprise: Standing up to the Patriot act can be good Politics', Reason, 37(6), pp. 32-38.
2) Ken Olsen, (2007), 'Patriot Act's Wide Net', Nation, p. 8, 2007, September 24
3) Cole D & Lobel J, (2007) ' Why are we Losing the War on Terror', Nation, 285, 11-18.
4) Dalgaard -- Nielsen A (2004),'Civic Liberties and Counter Terrorism: A European Point-of-View', Center for Transatlantic Relations, 2004
In modern terminology, and for foreign policy, political science and international law, crimes against humanity are any atrocious act committed on a large scale. They can be prosecuted in most any Federal Court ystem, depending on where they occurred and which population was part of the criminal activity. The implication for international law is that crimes against humanity are subject to universal jurisdiction, which means that tates can exercise their own jurisdiction regardless of where the crime was committed, and that all tates also have the obligation and duty to assist each other in the defense of these sorts of activities. It is also important to note that no human, regardless of affiliation, is immune from prosecution, even heads of state, and on person can plead a defense as obeying orders.
Part 3 -- Is it legally justified to invade/occupy another country in the name of arresting/hitting terrorists? International cooperation…
Dyson, W. (2012). Terrorism: An Investigator's Handbook. Waltham, MA: Anderson
McCormack, W. (2007). Understanding the Law of Terrorism. New York: Lexis Nexis.
Title of agency, not plagiarized
They are bombarded with information concerning the crimes performed by a certain community and they come to believe that it is important for them to act the respective community regardless of the aftermath.
omen terrorists practically act against the generally accepted belief that women are non-violent. The reality is that many women become terrorists and governments need to take this concept into consideration in order to be able to effectively act against terrorist organizations worldwide.
CNN ire Staff, "Syrian president tells envoy that support of 'terrorists' must stop," Retrieved March 30, 2013, from the CNN ebsite: http://edition.cnn.com/2012/10/21/world/meast/syria-brahimi-assad-meeting
Daly, Sara A., "omen As Terrorists: Mothers, Recruiters, and Martyrs," (ABC-CLIO, 2009)
Harriman, Jake, "Linking Extreme Poverty and Global Terrorism," Retrieved March 30, 2013, from the NY Times ebsite: http://kristof.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/03/13/linking-extreme-poverty-and-global-terrorism/
Khan, Muqtedar, "TERRORISM AND GLOBALIZATION," Retrieved March 30, 2013, from the GlocalEye ebsite: http://www.glocaleye.org/terglo.htm
Malisow, Ben, "Terrorism," (Infobase Publishing, 2008)
CNN Wire Staff, "Syrian president tells envoy that support of 'terrorists' must stop," Retrieved March 30, 2013, from the CNN Website: http://edition.cnn.com/2012/10/21/world/meast/syria-brahimi-assad-meeting
Daly, Sara A., "Women As Terrorists: Mothers, Recruiters, and Martyrs," (ABC-CLIO, 2009)
Harriman, Jake, "Linking Extreme Poverty and Global Terrorism," Retrieved March 30, 2013, from the NY Times Website: http://kristof.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/03/13/linking-extreme-poverty-and-global-terrorism/
Khan, Muqtedar, "TERRORISM AND GLOBALIZATION," Retrieved March 30, 2013, from the GlocalEye Website: http://www.glocaleye.org/terglo.htm
Thousands of individuals employed within the ussian nuclear complex - many of whom have knowledge and access to nuclear materials - receive salaries that are barely at subsistence level, raising the possibility that they might be susceptible to offers from anyone in the market to buy nuclear components" (Deutch, 1997).
5. Economic Consequences
It is generally a habit of the terrorist groups to target international powers in order to make their statement. But these international powers have extremely strong economies, and most importantly, extremely diverse. What this means, is that even if a terrorist attack would affect one economic sector, the large diversity of operations and revenues would be able to support the economic revival of the affected sector and support the country's economic growth (Sandler and Enders, 2005). However, one cannot rely on this premise as it is most applicable at a macroeconomic level. On a microeconomic level, the…
Balkin, K.F., 2004, Antiterrorist Policies Jeopardize Immigrant's Civil Rights, the Lawyers Committee for Human Rights, Greenhaven Press
Bergesen, a.J., Han, Y., 2005, New Directions for Terrorism Research, International Journal of Comparative Sociology, Vol. 46
Deutch, J.M., 1997, Terrorism, Foreign Policy, No. 108
Halwani, R., 2006, Terrorism: Definition, Justification and Applications, Social Theory and Practice, Vol. 32
Terrorism and Democracy
Terrorism is by its very nature is anti-democratic as it seeks to achieve political ends by violence. It has no interest in any of the bedrocks of democracy such as building consensus, stimulating debate or protecting the rights and interests of minorities. In the wake of the 9/11 attacks on the TC twin towers, the 'clear and present' danger to democracy, freedom and liberties has become even more pronounced. There is consensus among all those who cherish democracy that urgent steps are necessary to counter the threat of terrorism. The key question is: how to accomplish this? In this essay we shall examine how terrorism undermines democracy and whether setting up an international committee can help to fight terrorism. e shall also look at short definitions of democracy and terrorism.
Definition of Democracy
Democracy (Greek demos, "the people"; kratein, "to rule") is a political system in which…
Amnesty International's concerns regarding post September 11 detentions in the U.S.A." AI Web-site. April 6, 2003. http://web2.amnesty.org/library/Index/engAMR510442002?OpenDocument&of=COUNTRIESUSA?OpenDocument&of=COUNTRIESUSA
Carothers, Thomas. "Promoting Democracy and Fighting Terror." Source: Foreign Affairs v. 82 no1 (Jan./Feb. 2003) p. 84-97
Hoffmann, Bruce. "Terrorism." Article in Encyclopedia Encarta, CD-ROM Version, 2003
Pious, Richard M. "Democracy." Article in Encyclopedia Encarta, CD-ROM Version, 2003
As reported by the New York Times
How: A Pakistani man accused of aiding Al Qaeda who was imprisoned in his home country for three years, has been released by the government.
Brief Analysis: The connections of Muhammad Naeem Noor Khan to terrorism are debated, as the CIA alleges he has been involved in terrorist activity but Pakistani officials have said that information from Mr. Khan led them to a Tanzanian wanted in connection with the 1998 bombings of American embassies in East Africa, which killed more than 200 people. They say he is not a terrorist, but merely had knowledge of the event, and thus upon gaining this information, he was released. This highlights how the international nature of terrorist organizations and the conflicting policies of nations in dealing with terrorists make it even more difficult to combat this threat.
Baker, Al. (23 Aug 2007). "Critics Say…
Baker, Al. (23 Aug 2007). "Critics Say Lessons from 9/11 Were Not Followed in Deutsche Bank Blaze." The New York Times. Retrieved 21 Aug 2007 at http://www.nytimes.com/2007/08/22/nyregion/22fire.html?n=Top%2fReference%2fTimes%20Topics%2fSubjects%2fT%2fTerrorism
Pakistan Releases a Man Accused of Aiding Al Qaeda." (21 Aug 2007). The New York
Times. Retrieved 21 Aug 2007 at http://www.nytimes.com/2007/08/21/world/asia/21pakistan.html?n=Top%2fReference%2fTimes%20Topics%2fSubjects%2fT%2fTerrorism
Rutenberg, J. (7 Aug 2007). "Bush Still Wields Fear of Terrorism." The New York Times. Retrieved 21 Aug 2007 at http://www.nytimes.com/2007/08/07/washington/07assess.html?ex=1187928000&en=0b077e645f7d8104&ei=5070
Definitions of terrorism
Under the U.S. Government, terrorism has different definitions, not accounting also scholars' own definitions of this concept. In a study by Mark Burgess (2003) for the U.S. Center for Defense Information, he identified five (5) definitions of terrorism, three from the U.S. Government and two from academic scholars. The common factors in each definition, according to Burgess, are the terrorists' motives, identity, and methods.
The Department of Defense defines terrorism as "[t]he calculated use of unlawful violence to inculcate fear… to intimidate governments or societies in the pursuit of goals that are generally political, religious or ideological" (para. 4). The FBI has the same definition, albeit worded differently and includes not only people, but also property as an object of violence. The State Department, meanwhile, has a more specific definition, identifying terrorism as "premeditated" and primarily "politically motivated," and identified terrorists as "subnational groups or clandestine…
Burgess, M. (2003). "Terrorism: the problems of definition." Center for Defense Information. Accessed 23 April 2011. Available at: http://www.cdi.org/program/issue/document.cfm?DocumentID=1564&IssueID=138&StartRow=1&ListRows=10&appendURL=&Orderby=DateLastUpdated&ProgramID=39&issueID=138
Slater, J. (2006). "Tragic choices in the war on terrorism: should we try to regulate and control torture?" Political Science Quarterly, (121)2.
US Army Training and Doctrine Command. (2007). "Terrorist Organizational Models." In A Military Guide to Terrorism in the Twenty-First Century. Available at: www.fas.org/irp/threat/terrorism/guide.pdf
289). Coady (cited in Halwani, 2006) points out that lack of a good definition makes it difficult, if not impossible, to address the moral implications of terrorism. Coady defines terrorism as "the organized use of violence to attack noncombatants ('innocents' in a special sense) or their property for political purposes" (p. 290). This definition focuses on the targets, innocent "noncombatants" and does not consider the goals the terrorists aim to achieve. It does specify for "political purposes" rather than criminal, and does not mention causing fear. There exists some disagreement on whether threats, for example, as opposed to real acts, constitute terrorism. If the goal of inducing fear is part of the definition, then threats would be included, but if terrorist goals are limited to "political purposes," then threats would not qualify as terrorist acts.
Coady (cited in Halwani, 2006) points out that some "acts of political violence may be…
Brock, B.L. (2002). The use and abuse of terrorism. The Michigan Citizen (December 1): http://www.uwosh.edu/faculty_staff/palmeri/commentary/brock1.htm
Halwani, R. (2006). Terrorism: Definition, justification, and applications. Social Theory and Practice, 32 (2), April, 289-308. Retrieved on February 8, 2007 from Academic OneFile database.
Saul, B. (2005). Definition of "terrorism" in the UN Security Council: 1985-2004. Chinese Journal of International Law, 4 (1), 141. Retrieved on Februray 8, 2007 from Academic OneFile database.
Americans' views of terrorism were forever established on September 11, 2001, when terrorists flew two planes into the World Trade Towers in New York, collapsing them both, and one plane into the Pentagon, causing severe damage. A fourth plane crashed into the countryside in Pennsylvania instead of hitting its target, probably in Washington, D.C., only because passengers challenged the hijackers and fought back. Over 3,000 people lost their lives that day.
Until that day, terrorism had been a somewhat distant concept to most Americans. We heard about terrorism in srael, and perhaps some of us had friends or family to worry about, and we heard about .R.A. attacks in Great Britain, but September 11 was the firsts time international terrorists had done major damage on U.S. soil. Virtually everyone in the United States became vocally opposed to terrorism on that day even if they hadn't given it much thought…
In fact, it is difficult to think anything positive about terrorism, especially in the era of smart bombs, when our military is able to bomb with such precision that civilians are rarely killed and injured, and only the target is taken out. The fact that our military is able to conduct war with a precision never before achieved is one reason why terrorism seems more shocking than ever before. There's a jarring difference between warfare and terrorism in 2004. When the United States wages war we go to great lengths to protect the civilian population as much as possible. The opposing forces have taken advantage of that fact in Iraq, storing weapons in mosques and allowing combatants to use them as a staging arena for their efforts.
The truth is that terrorism has changed since its beginnings. The United States was born out of terrorism and revolution. If the American Revolution were taking place today, the British would describe the Boston Tea Party as a terrorist act, and the guerilla-like tactics used by small bands of civilian men against British encampments during that time would be viewed as crimes. In more recent times, many French citizens were outraged at how easily their country gave up and surrendered to the Nazi German army, and even more distressed to see how completely the Vichy government cooperated with those who had defeated them in war. The French resistance movement was one result. Private citizens who were determined to continue to fight for their country. At great risk to themselves and their families, they worked under cover of darkness to blow up bridges so the German army could not use them, snuck British spies into the country and reported troop movements to the Allies. Because the Allies won the war and France was liberated, they are called heroes, but if Germany had won, they would have been terrorists. The victors write history.
However, it's a poor analogy. American revolutionaries of the 18th century never deliberately harmed thousands of civilians to make a point. They did not blow up civilian public transportation. The members of the French resistance, while they dealt swiftly with people who gave away their secrets, worked very hard to avoid any harm to innocent citizens. On September 11, the attackers defined anyone who disagreed with them as the "enemy" and had no problem with the fact that nearly all the people they killed or maimed had no quarrel with them. Comparing today's terrorists to Revolutionary War heroes or the French resistanceis a little like comparing a cobra with a garter snake. The only thing terrorism can accomplish is to draw attention to a group's cause. People so passionate about their causes ought to be able to think up better ways to express it.
esearch Issues on the Topic of Terrorism
Written into the very word, terrorism is a fascinating social problem worth inquiry. The meaning of terrorism is an act of violence or other that paralyses the individual or society with a feeling of terror. That terror can be a product of the relative infrequency and therefore surprise and seeming senselessness associated with the event, such as in the case of large scale and broad violent acts against larger populations (like 9/11, or the Oklahoma City bombing in the U.S.). The form of terror might also grow out of the expectation of debilitating acts against others as a standard operating procedure during certain circumstances (like the support and at the very least complicity of commanders in times of often ethnic war where women of the "enemy" are frequently and violently raped as an act of aggression and show of power).
Ford, J.D., Adams, M.L., & Dailey, W.F. (2007). Psychological and health problems in a geographically proximate population time-sampled continuously for three months after the September 11th, 2001 terrorist incidents. Anxiety, Stress & Coping: An International Journal, 20(2), 126-146. doi:10.1080/10615800701303215
Rothbart, G.S., Fine, M., & Sudman, S. (1982). On finding and interviewing the needles in the haystack: The use of multiplicity sampling. Public Opinion Quarterly, 46(3), 408-421. doi:10.1086/268737
Some rates had even decreased. Maritime shipping rates grew by 5 to 10% on average in the two weeks after the attack, but that rise was soon reversed. Airfreight rates, however, were about 10% higher in late 2001 than before the attacks. Due to the abrupt slowing of cumulative demand starting in 2000 and the decline in fuel costs after the terrorism, there should have been a steeper falling off in freight costs. The stability of freight rates, despite power fuel prices and underused shipping capacity would suggest that transportation costs may have increased as a result of the 9/11 attacks (Looney).
In 2005, Songster looked at the impact that terrorist acts have around the world on the hospitality industry, which has become a prime target in a number of threatening situations. Hotels, restaurants and bars around the globe have increasingly become scenes of terrorist atrocities not enjoyment and relaxation.…
Bruck, T.and Wickstrom, B. (2004) the economic consequences of terror:
guest editor's introduction, the European Journal of Political Economy 20,
Coleman, K. (July 7, 2004) Terrorism Risk Management for Finance and Insurance
Organizations. Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved August 17, 2007. http://www.directionsmag.com/printer.php?article_id=593
At times terrorist succeed and at times they fail. Some times they have larger and long-term goal and some times they have short-term aims. For example, a group hijacking a plane wanted some immediate results like release of the prisoners or financial gain but blowing a plane into a building would definitely mean that terrorists wanted something big out of it. Sometimes terrorists want to just cause panic and fear. They attack to make people realize that they are vulnerable. They just want people to become fearful & terrified to go about their usual and routine activities.
War on Terror
War on Terror' is the phrase that has been used and abused since Americans were attacked on their soil on September 11 in New York's Twin Towers. Today America's foreign policy is defined by the term 'War on Terror'. The attack on twin towers made America vulnerable and they had…
The Washington Times. 2006. Defining Terrorism at the U.N. March 23.
The Washington Times. 2005. Defining Terrorism; Conferences Produce Meager Results. December 2,
Palti, L. December 2004. Combating Terrorism While Protecting Human Rights. UN Chronicle. 41 (4): 27+.
Leader, S. April 1997. The Rise of Terrorism. Security Management. 41(4).
No matter the actual cost of terrorism in terms of the economic damage, the perception that investment is going to incur higher risk will inevitably lead to the conclusion that it will also incur higher costs. Since higher costs are generally an anathema to transnational business, it stands that capital would move away from areas that have experienced terrorism. In fact, this is born out by the numbers. As already mentioned, FDI in the U.S. dropped by a factor of ten following the September 11th terrorist attacks. No one person, business, institution, or government had to organize this shift; rather it occurred organically as a function of the market itself. In the aftermath of the attacks, the U.S. suddenly seemed like a riskier place to do business and capital would have been shifted towards areas of the world that had the perception of being safer.
In fact, surveys conducted among…
Abadie, Alberto and Gardeazabal, Javier. "Terrorism and the World Economy." Aug. 2007. 29 Nov. 2007 http://ksghome.harvard.edu/~.aabadie.academic.ksg/twe.pdf .
Carafano, James Jay. "Global Terrorism and the Global Economy: Unpeaceful Coexistence." Chapter 2 in 2005 Index of Economic Freedom. 2005. 29 Nov. 2007 http://www.heritage.org/research/features/index/chapters/pdfs/Index2005_Chap2.pdf .
Nanto, Dick K. "9/11 Terrorism: Global Economic Costs." CRS Report for Congress. 5 Oct. 2004. 29 Nov. 2007 http://digital.library.unt.edu/govdocs/crs/permalink/meta-crs-7725:1 .
S., have the potential to cause billions of dollars of damage to the U.S. economy" (Threat pp).
Airlines likely to become vocal over security costs - claim.(Brief Article)
Airline Industry Information. December 14, 2004. Retrieved August 14, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library eb site.
Bartlett, Michael. "Only Terrorism Can Derail Continued Growth."
Credit Union Journal. October 03, 2004. Retrieved August 14, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library eb site.
Crutsinger, Martin. "ECONOMISTS RANK TERRORISM GREATEST THREAT
TO ECONOMY; MEMBERS OF THE NATIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR Business ECONOMICS RANK IMMEDIATE THREATS." isconsin State Journal. August 18, 2004. Retrieved August 14, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library eb site.
Definition of Terrorism. Retrieved August 14, 2005 at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Definition_of_terrorism
High oil prices risky for U.S. economy: top Bush adviser.
Agence France Presse English. August 09, 2005. Retrieved August 14, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library eb site.
Raum, Tom. "Approval of Bush's Handling of Economy…
Airlines likely to become vocal over security costs - claim.(Brief Article)
Airline Industry Information. December 14, 2004. Retrieved August 14, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site.
Bartlett, Michael. "Only Terrorism Can Derail Continued Growth."
Credit Union Journal. October 03, 2004. Retrieved August 14, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site.
Even in the absence of a governmental agency, there is another method to control these covert operations, and that is public opinion. As the news of many government atrocities has become known, there has been a great public outcry against these occurrences, and at least some times, this has led to modification of policies and covert actions. For example, when the atrocities at Abu Ghraib prison became known, there was a moral outcry to stop the offensive practices and punish those who had participated in them. Obviously, covert actions are not going to become known overnight. However, as they do, the citizens can make their feelings known and cry out against these types of outrages, encouraging leaders to stop using these covert actions in the future.
Finally, we must enact legislation to ensure these types of covert operations do not occur. While anyone can find loopholes in legislation, without it,…
Kibbe, Jennifer D. "A Loophole for Covert Operations." Brook.edu. 8 Aug. 2004. 23 Feb. 2007. http://www.brook.edu/views/op-ed/fellows/kibbe20040808.htm
Wachtel, Howard A. "Targeting Osama Bin Laden: Examining the Legality of Assassination as a Tool of U.S. Foreign Policy." Duke Law Journal 55, no. 3 (2005): 677+.
Howard A. Wachtel, "Targeting Osama Bin Laden: Examining the Legality of Assassination as a Tool of U.S. Foreign Policy," Duke Law Journal 55, no. 3 (2005).
He had an engineering degree from the university of Swansea in ritain. He too participated in the afghan war and was a friend of in laden since the late eighties. He was the emissary of bin laden in Philippines and trained the Muslim fundamentalists there. He made his way into the U.S. without a visa and continued his stay there by seeking political asylum. He was a skilled expert in making chemical bombs. In 1995, Yousef was arrested by Pakistani authorities and in the next year he was sentenced to 240 years of imprisonment in the U.S. For his role in the WTO bombing.
Rex a. Hudson]
Terrorism has expanded into every nook and corner of the world today. A terrorist today, does not appear with a distinctive personality but rather blends with the society leaving security experts with little clue. While organized crimes are mostly economically motivated, terrorism…
Rex a. Hudson, "The sociology and psychology of terrorism: Who Becomes a terrorist and why?," Sept 1999, Library of Congress, Accessed 19th November 2007, available at http://www.loc.gov/rr/frd/pdf-files/Soc_Psych_of_Terrorism.pdf
BBC, "Profile: Mullah Mohammed Omar," Accessed 19th November 2007, available at http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/1550419.stm
Frank Bovenkerk, "Terrorism and Organized Crime," Accessed 19th November 2007, available at http://igitur-archive.library.uu.nl/law/2006-0803-203003/bovenkerk_05_terrorism_and_organized.doc
There is strength in numbers, and a larger, better funded organization can often accomplish more than a smaller, splinter organization ever could. It seems that there are so many terrorist factions in the world, they are too far divided to ever join forces, and perhaps that is the only thing that is helping keep much of the world relatively free from terrorist activity.
Thus, the partnership makes sense for both parties who are intent on attacking a country or people more effectively. They also make sense for small groups who may not have enough power or influence on their own. Terrorist alliances may become more common in the future, creating more danger for everyone on the planet.
Gardner, Hall. "Aligning for the Future: Assertive Unilateralism or Concert of Powers?" Harvard International eview 24, no. 4 (2003): 56+.
apoport, David C., ed. Inside Terrorist Organizations. New…
Gardner, Hall. "Aligning for the Future: Assertive Unilateralism or Concert of Powers?" Harvard International Review 24, no. 4 (2003): 56+.
Rapoport, David C., ed. Inside Terrorist Organizations. New York: Columbia University Press, 1988.
apan finds itself at a critical point in its historical development. The world's third largest economy, it also has the world's second-highest debt burden in proportional terms and the current triple disaster is going to have dire consequences on the nation's recovery from the current worldwide recession. Economic uncertainty, loss of faith in current political structures and leaders, loss of status in the world, betrayal by corporations that have also been a key stabilizing structure in the nation: This is a potent mixture for resistance against the state and its representatives. This resistance may be peaceful and democratic. Or it may be violent, arising from dark, dank pools of ultranationalism that may well be already feasting on the bodies of the uncollected dead.
It is entirely possible that various ultranationalist right wing groups in apan may produce or support recruitment of terrorists in the coming months. There are currently hundreds…
James Lewis. (1998). Japan's Waco: Aum Shinrikyo and the Eclipse of Freedom in the Land of the Rising Sun.
Motohisa Yamakage. (2007). The Essence of Shinto, Japan's Spiritual Heart. Kodansha International: Tokyo.
Terrorism seems to have taken over the world. No matter how hard the industrialized countries try to find ways to achieve peace and stability in the world but somehow the opposite happens. Today's world is predominantly inhabited by hatred that is visible in the never-ending terror and fear produced by the attacks of September 11th and the military responses undertaken by Super powers. Wars apparently carried out in order to eradicate terrorism are seen by the affected countries as excuses to simply dominate more countries and establish and American hegemony or new colonialism all over the world.
The reasons for escalating terrorism are complex and more than often not understandable. However, some of the reasons are as follows: The growth in the number of terrorist groups is instigated largely by the religious imperative that is greatly funded by the state governments of the Islamic countries; the highly advanced technology and…
he author frequently stresses historical failings, including those he relates to international opinion polls of 'international actions" such as those taken by the U.S. In the invasion of Iraq. he purposes of the article are clearly stated as the author stresses that his work should be seen as a brief though not simplistic summary of the problems and solutions associated with the problem.
As this is not a traditional research-based work the article does not contain a review of literature, though it does pull from appropriate literature, mainly international opinion polls to stress points made by the author. he literature it does use is timely and very current and discusses real application of the validity of the argument that past practices of cooperation and lack there of have resulted in negative overall opinions of those entities in the international community, with regard to past actions.
his work also outlines no…
This work also outlines no particular methodology, as it is a synopsis of an expert opinion on the state of cooperation, at both a micro and macro level. Where research is stated it is in the form of a synopsis of post data from opinion polls. There is no true hypothesis being tested.
The summation of the article can be found in the final point, which is for change to occur in the need for counterterrorism the underlying problems that incite terrorism must be addressed. The author points out throughout the work that the historical failings of cooperation and lack of cooperation are in fact increasing the concerns that incite terrorist activity and feed the extremist ideals that further terrorist activities. Though the work is logical it is also clear that it is the opinion of one very well informed expert on the subject of counterterrorism and therefore there are many interpretations and conclusions that could run contrary to the opinions of this one expert. One possible conclusion is that the expert is seeking to summarize issues that are very complicated and therefore cannot logically draw conclusions about the connections between the growth of negative Middle Eastern opinion of national and international counterterrorism tactics and new terrorism or increased terrorist activities.
Cordesman, Anthony of the Center for Strategic and International Studies (January 18, 2006) "The Lessons of International Cooperation in Counterterrorism: Address to RUSI Conference in Transnational Terrorism, a Global Approach" available at http://www.csis.org/component/option,com_csis_pubs/task , view/id,2707/type,1
Terrorism / Homeland security
Terrorism is a global phenomenon that needs urgent research to address its effects on people. Scholars on terrorism argue that terrorism is a disputed term. These scholars contend that those individuals referred to as terrorists may be guerrilla fighters, resistant fighters, freedom fighters or militants. They further state that terrorism is a tactic employed to pass out propaganda of deeds thus causing psychological and social impacts on individuals. In addition, people in these places feel the direct effects of the violent act of the terrorists group. Experts dispute whether the start of terrorism is in the first century. There is a view that it started in the 11th century during the time of Sicarrii Zealots. Others are of the opinion that Al-Hashshashin's time was the time when terrorism began (Howard, 2002).
Terrorism in Middle East
Terrorism organizations in the Middle East are mostly religious…
Howard, M. (2002). What's in a name? How to fight terrorism. Foreign Affairs, 81 (1), 8-13.
Bruce, R. (2007). Al Qaeda strikes back. Foreign Affairs, 84 (3), 24-70.
Scott, D.M. (2002). Somebody else's civil war. Foreign Affairs, 81 (1), 22-42.
Zachary, A. (2003). Funding terrorism in Southeast Asia: Jemaah Islamiya and Al Qaeda the financial network . Contemporary Southeast Asia, 25 (2), 169-199.