Sohail believed that because this incident happened -- and because it reflects negatively on the image of Muslims -- "…all the Muslim people in America will be driven out. This has happened in reality," he asserted. "This is obvious. This happened, and it is happening now" (Rousseau, 167). Some of those interviewed in Karachi expressed "intense pain and anger at the injustice of the aftereffects on Pakistanis and Muslims" following 9/11.
The authors expressed some surprise at the substance of the interviews, not so much that the Muslims blamed the U.S. For the attacks, but that the immigrants in Montreal and the more middle class and well-educated Muslims in Karachi shared the same litany. It says a great deal about the anger against the U.S. that was expressed in 2008, and likely remains even today. Needless to say the death of Osama bin Laden had not happened yet, but it…… [Read More]
S. commercial airliners; a 1995 plan to kill President Bill Clinton on a visit to the Philippines; and a 1994 plot to kill Pope John Paul II during a visit to Manila.
5. As you consider everything you have learned about international terrorism, in your opinion what are the most important facts or elements of the material that can be instructive for American foreign policy or counterterrorism efforts? Is there anything you have learned or have come to believe (about threats, opportunities, etc.) through this course which you sense is not taken seriously enough or even considered by government officials? What would characterize your approach to terrorism if you were in a position to advise the President or other high-ranking government officials?
The main threat is not to let up on Al-Qaeda, so it cannot set up a base and plot more attacks.
While on the run, they are not…… [Read More]
The 1993 World Trade Center parking lot bomb was attributed to Al Qaeda, although the terrorist organization denied any connection to it. The 1998 embassy bombings in Kenya and Tanzania, along with a 2000 bomb attack on a U.S. destroyer in Yemen have also been linked to bin Laden. More recently however, the 2004 Madrid train bombings and the 2005 attacks on London's subway and bus system are considered to be the work of Al Qaeda as well.
There is no precise manner to deal with the situation created by Al Qaeda. Any negotiation process would lack any usefulness because there are no common grounds for discussion. The claims of the group stand in total contradiction to all democratic values the western societies share. As terror groups and their proponents categorically refuse any such value, calling for a complete Islamic revolution, it is impossible to reach an agreement on even…… [Read More]
The Kurdish Conflict:
Originally, the PKK was established in the relative absence of any other peaceful alternatives to preventing anti-Kurdish brutality perpetrated by the Turkish government
(Evans, 2007). In principle, the Kurds have a legitimate complaint for human rights
abuses and political suppression by the Turkish government, but the tactics resorted to by the PKK have undermined the credibility of their demands notwithstanding their grounding in recognized concepts of human rights and political autonomy.
However, the PKK became recognized, rightfully, as a terrorist group in the 1980s, by virtue of its affiliation and joint military operations, primarily in Lebanon,
with another terrorist group, the infamous PLO (Evans, 2007; Scheuer, 2004). It is widely believed that the ongoing cycle of violence between the PKK and Turkish military forces have cost more than 35,000 lives since 1984, when the PKK initiated its campaign against Turkey.
The collapse of the Soviet Union significantly…… [Read More]
Governmental officials knew before the September 11 attacks that we were not fully prepared to either deal with a major terrorist attack or to put effective counterterrorism strategies in place (Haynes, 2004). Experts now realize that most standard investigative techniques used by law enforcement are likely to help us infiltrate and neutralize groups such as cells of Al-Qaeda members. The strategies that show the most promise include using informants or undercover agents to infiltrate them; using surveillance and resulting searches and wire-tapping (including interception of email and cell phone calls) to glean information regarding their plans; detaining suspected terrorists before they can launch an attack: and the use of skilled interrogation of those arrested and/or detained (Taylor, 2003).
Much work has gone into improving organization and communication between agencies, but much more needs to be done, and these changes by themselves will not be enough (Haynes, 2004).…… [Read More]
Terrorist tactics are resorted to because groups think they are effective. eliefs, such as this, are the root cause of terrorism.
The UN must show that these beliefs are wrong. The UN High-Level Panel is also proposing a clear definition of terrorism for the purpose The second main element should make it difficult for terrorist groups to travel, receive financial support or obtain nuclear or radiological materials. In the pursuit of the third main element, the UN has consistently confronted States, which harbor and help terrorists and applied sanctions. The measure has been effective in restraining these States. This hard line should be maintained and made stronger. Under the fourth main element, UN Resolution 1373 requires every member-State to take measures in preventing terrorism in their respective jurisdictions. The Counter-Terrorism Committee oversees the implementation of the Resolution. The new Counter-Terrorism Directorate will provide technical assistance to poor countries without the…… [Read More]
For instance, Islamic terrorism completely rejects western values and cultures. Terrorist groups from Africa are also fighting if not the troops of the former colonial powers, at least the cultural reminiscences of their presence on the Black continent. Therefore, it can be said that modern terrorism tends to draw from the cultural and civilization differences present at the moment in the world and predicted by Huntington.
There have been numerous attempts to try to promote the idea of freedom, be it from international or colonial occupation, or from mental and ideological strains. In the late 19th century, the anarchist and socialist movements have tried to induce a certain desire for freedom for a certain kind of oppression. For instance, in Plekhanov's "Anarchism and Socialism" the most important issues are taken into account, while addressing the issue of liberty, from constrains of the social order, as in the case of socialism,…… [Read More]
S. Constitutional law.
The problem with evaluating the motives of the detainees at Gitmo is that the justice process at the prison has become so questionable that automatically any allegations about the status of the prisoners as radical extremists determined to wage jihad against western society seems equally doubtful. There is no doubt that some may be disaffected and confused men and some may indeed be hardened terrorists. However, when the justice process itself is under scrutiny, any findings become suspect. "Many of the FBI accounts came from conscience-stricken agents troubled by what they had witnessed. One agent reported seeing a detainee sitting on the floor of an interrogation cell with an Israeli flag draped around him while he was bombarded by loud music and a strobe light -- almost exactly what Al Qosi had alleged. Another reported seeing detainees chained hand and foot in fetal positions, in barren…… [Read More]
However, the fact that there was an ongoing military conflict between the North and South Vietnamese, and America is viewed as having take a side of support in that action, and because it was officially deemed a "conflict" militarily by the United States, many analysts do not consider it on the scale of international terrorism. However, the Vietnam Conflict (war), did give rise to certain groups within the United States who perpetuated criminal acts of violence against government and military targets with the goal of impacting public opinion and changing the direction of the government's position on the presence of and use of U.S. military forces in that country.
Perhaps more effective than the groups that grew out of the public's protest over American involvement in Vietnam, were the Vietnam war protesters. The non-violent, but nonetheless forcefully vocal groups of anti-war activists who almost daily marched on ashington, DC were…… [Read More]
means that these groups, despite their different goals and agendas, are
often left with no choice but to engage in terrorist activities. The
normal course of action has failed and will fail and as marginalized from
the normal institutions that govern, a more direct and violent approach is
necessary. Lacking the political, technological, and popular support to
engage in a real war, terrorism allows for a few who are on the outside to
become increasingly heard and their goals are, at least in the moment,
furthered. But the results are rarely permanent and the popular backlash
may even hurt the cause which would otherwise have had some popular
This analysis, that those who engage in terrorist activities expect
better and when their expectations are not realized they are forced to use
terrorism as an action is effective and relevant in helping to explain the
causes and understanding of…… [Read More]
Homegrown extremism threats both in the European Union (EU) as well as the United States (U.S.) have grown since the last decade. Past and present studies along with past and current political leadership have directed their focus and funds to counter global threats of extremism and terrorism whilst ignoring homegrown extremism threats. This paper focuses on the threats posed by domestic terrorist groups or homegrown extremist groups using research data from reputable sources and compares and contrasts transactional and domestic terrorism. The paper recommends that homegrown terrorism or extremism can be reduced and subsequently eliminated by creating functional political and economic societies where equity and justice are for all to enjoy.
Comparison of homegrown and international terrorism
The concept "homegrown" emerged within not only academic but also policy-centered reports following the train bombings in 2005 Britain. However, the precise and accurate meaning of his term and its application is somewhat…… [Read More]
Domestic and International Terrorism
The differences between domestic and international terrorism
The Federal Bureau of Investigation in America states that terrorism has been classified into two categories as international terrorism and domestic terrorism. Domestic terrorism is defined as an act planned by a group of individuals of evil intentions against the government or against the citizens of the state without any foreign force. On the other hand, international terrorism is a plan plotted against the government or its citizens by a group of individuals and plans are on a foreign basis, and their motivators are from a foreign country outside the United States or the deeds exceed national boundaries. Examples of domestic terrorism include the Oklahoma city bombing and the Olympic city bombings (Burnett, 2007).
Cases of terrorism in the United States have characterized small rebel groups in its records. These rebel groups use terrorism as their tool to achieve…… [Read More]
International Terrorism on Domestic Terrorism-
Domestic terrorism has existed within the United State for a long time. It has influenced the United States' political and social structure to varying degrees. Before, the word "terrorist" and "terrorism" it was being used by the French evolution in a positive way referring to the Jacobins' actions. As time has gone by, these words have turned to be used to refer to array of negative and violent actions which are against the societies as well as governments. According to the definition of the United States Department of Justice, domestic terrorism is unlawful use of force or violence by a group against people or property with intentions of intimidating or coercing a government or civilians to the interest of political or social objectives,( James F. Jarboe, 2012).
Sometimes it become difficult to come up with the difference between terrorist group from extremism when studying domestic…… [Read More]
Globalization is melting the territorial differences and boundaries between the countries. There is a need to develop new working relationships, locally and abroad. The evolutionary process of terrorism requires that DHS should incorporate the international dimensions of security, as the economies and are globally interconnected together. To fulfill this purpose, DHS has established an Office of International Affairs (OIA) for its international activities. Despite of bureaucratic layers and turf problems with other intelligence agencies, DHS is still striving to achieve its primary goal that is security provision. Terrorist Screening Center and Terrorist Threat Integration Center established by the former President are providing a platform for FBI, CIA and DHS to share the intelligence and act together, without any distinction regarding the origin of the terrorist threat. (Carafano, Heyman 2004)
DHS has taken a lot of other initiatives against terrorist threats throughout the country. At domestic level, it is training the…… [Read More]
War on terrorism took an important place in the foreign policy of eagan's administration, in administration of Bush (father) and in administration of democrat Clinton. First, the war on terrorism was directed against the spread of communism and pro-Soviet tendencies in the developing countries as the U.S.S.. supported and aided Marxist insurgents who fought in Latin America and Arabs in the Middle East (Lebanon and Palestine).
Chomsky gives a clear image of the approach used by the U.S.A. And its NATO allies in description of their militarism: "Intelligent bombs" in Iraq, "humanitarian intervention" in Kosovo. The U.S.A. never used the word "war" to describe that. Now they are talking about war against a nameless enemy. Why? At first the U.S. used the word "crusade," but it was quickly pointed out that if they hope to enlist their allies in the Islamic world, it would be a serious mistake, for obvious…… [Read More]
Threat -Domestic or International Terrorism?
Terrorism was in other places and globalism was regarded trade- in the old world. But in the new world, if terrorism can occur in a place like New York, it could probably occur anywhere in the world. Post U.S. attack, the biggest change the world faced is that the definition of terrorism has been completely reversed. Of late, terrorism is mainly about attacking the est's global influence on religious, cultural and political level by groups who do not make precise demands or try to obtain concessions. Terrorism, because of the violence- cannot be controlled by civil, educational or societal elements and should be trailed and punished by law enforcement agencies.
Domestic Terrorism: Since the inception of USA, domestic terrorism existed and affected the political and social structure of the United States to varying levels. To know the extent of domestic terrorism and to estimate the…… [Read More]
The lack of political and economic development in the countries where MS-13 operates has also helped to keep the mara entrenched in local culture (Bruneau, 2005). ithout adequate jobs and economic activity, even the most talented of individuals is made vulnerable to outside gang and organization influences. In many towns and villages, MS-13 is the only form of economic and political stability, and therefore is very hard to root out and eliminate. Combined with the fact that many of the economies of Central American countries are built around outside competition and the fact that the political and military elite are often very corrupt, MS-13's continued presence is easily understood. No Central American country has yet developed a strategy for dealing with MS-13 (Bruneau, 2005). The Central American context in which the MS-13 organization thrives is quite easily identified, but very hard to change.
"In sum, the political institutions are new,…… [Read More]
Funding and aiding and abetting terrorist activities are a crime of almost if not equal seriousness as committing the acts themselves. hy South Florida may have become a 'hotbed' for the jihad remains an open question (as does the validity of the indictments, which both men continue to deny).
The analysis of the generation and continued life of the Palestinian Islamic Jihad is a powerful example of the complexities of international terrorism. The facts about the PIJ transcend the usual national and religious stereotypes about different terrorist organizations. The PIJ is Sunni, yet primarily funded by a Shiite state, and has been involved in actions against moderate Arab governments and organizations it opposes, as well as Israel. It has pitted itself against radical Hamas as well as the more moderate PLO in the Palestinian territories. The accused members of the group in America are educated men who deny their connection…… [Read More]
Terrorism, destabilization, and the modern global environment
Modern terrorism is often said to have a very unique and particular character, not the least of which is the dominant influence of the Internet in shaping and supporting its activities. Of course, it could be argued that on a very basic level certain aspects of terrorism have remained unchanging across the eras, namely terrorists' desire to inflict fear upon a population by using indiscriminate violence against civilians and the desire to garner publicity for a cause. However, the tools available to terrorists have changed, just as the social and political environment is constantly undergoing shifts and alternations that give rise to new motivations for violence. The decentralization of the 21st century balance of power combined with decentralized methods of communication has created a uniquely toxic environment fertile for terrorism, in contrast to previous eras.
The Internet: A new tool for terrorism
Many…… [Read More]
There is a growing link between organized crime and terrorism; drug trafficking, transnational organized crime, movement of illicit firearms and money laundering have all become integral parts of terrorism in the world today. Organized crime threatens peace and human security; it also violates human rights as well as undermining economic, social, cultural, political and civil development of societies all over the world. Terrorists are now using increasingly diverse modes of operations which are increasingly funded and sustained through proceeds from organized crime. Terrorism poses a serious threat to national security and fundamental democratic values of the society (Albercht, 2008).
Theories of counter terrorism
Counter terrorism entails the practices, tactics, techniques and strategies that governments, militaries, police departments and corporations adopt in making attempts to respond to threats or acts that are real and imputed Counter terrorism is a top priority for most countries following catastrophic events that have…… [Read More]
Terrorism has a long and violent history and incidents of terrorism have been recorded from at least 2,000 years ago. Acts of terrorism have included political assassinations, violent political revolutions, hijackings, skyjackings, and bombings intended to attract attention, shock, intimidate and instill fear. Before the 911 terror attacks the threat of terrorism, though always a potential danger, was of an episodic nature, and seemed to be under control. The devastating attacks on the orld Trade Center and the Pentagon on September 11, 2001, however, have brought terrorism to the center stage of world politics and exposed the vulnerability of soft civilian targets to a small but determined group of terrorists. The issue of terrorism and home security now dominates the foreign policy of most countries including the United States. The focus on terrorism has also forced people to think deeply about its root causes, which may have historical, cultural, political,…… [Read More]
According to the Oxford ibliographies research, there is not one specific definition of "nonstate actors" that fits all situations. Nonstate actors are defined in relation to international law, because they are "…often able to impact legal values and must accordingly be regulated" (Santarelli, 2005). Throughout history, nonstate actors have "impacted international law" and they have also participated in "international legal processes," which is why Santarelli believes there should be more study of nonstate actors. One scholar claims that nonstate actors include "all entities" that are different from states; or are entities that are operating outside the legal jurisdiction of the government. That definition would include think tanks in the U.S. On the one hand and violent, bloodthirsty extremists such as ISIS, the Taliban and al Qaeda on the other hand (Fisher, 2014).
A typical nonstate actor can also be viewed as a nongovernmental organization (NGO); examples of NGOs…… [Read More]
The government has authority to impose a civil penalty on a domestic entity or organization, and may bring charges pursuant to the Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organization Act based on predicate crimes that "include the offenses of providing material support or resources to a foreign terrorist organization, or intentionally or knowingly collecting or providing funds for use in carrying out terrorist activities, as well as money laundering" (Crimn 2004). Moreover, the Internal Revenue Service may suspend the tax-exempt status under the Internal Revenue Code of any organization that is identified or designated as a terrorist organization (Crimn 2004).
The attacks of September 11th were a wake-up call to authorities to the need for cooperation between the various agencies. The Patriot Act provided American local, state and federal agencies an arsenal of tools to investigate, prosecute, and deter terrorist activities.
Bulzomi, Michael J. (2002, July 01). Investigating international terrorism…… [Read More]
According to Stefanie Olson (2001), the Act provides government with increased electronic surveillance, search and data gathering power. Under the guise of tracking down "potential" terrorists, the expansion of Internet eavesdropping technology provides the government with full viewing rights into any private life they choose. In this way, immigrants who enter the country and conduct their business in a perfectly legal manner are now targeted for such surveys (White, 2008).
Local and National Changes in Law Enforcement - the basic mission of law enforcement and foreign/defense policy in the United States has dramatically changed since the events of 9/11 and the subsequent "War on Terrorism." Since 9/11, policies across the United States and abroad have changed from being reactive to being intensely proactive. There, are, however, several challenges faced by law enforcement and the legal issues of defense and foreign policy regarding this new approach to terrorism (Simonson, 2006).
Even…… [Read More]
Terrorism and Counterterrorism.
M5D1: Winners and Losers
Has a nation ever "won" a struggle against a terrorist organization? Was te victory sort-lived or seemingly permanent? Has a terrorist organization ever "won" in its conflict against a nation?
Peraps te closest example to a 'win' tat as ever been attained by eiter a terrorist group or its victim is tat of te IRA in Great Britain. Britain was terrorized by a series of attacks by tis organization. Te IRA demanded tat England leave Nortern Ireland. "From 1969 troug 1997, te IRA splintered into a number of organizations, all called te IRA… Te IRA began its terrorist attacks on te Britis army and police following a summer of violent rioting between Catolics and Protestants in Nortern Ireland," te most infamous of wic was called 'Bloody Sunday' (Zalman 2006). "For te next generation, te IRA carried out bombings, assassinations and oter terrorist attacks…… [Read More]
Intenational Peace and Teoism
What changes to existing legal egimes may educe the incentive and make the law moe effective in peseving peace?
Teoist goups can be disupted and destoyed though continuous and diect legal actions. The focus includes the use of national and intenational elements of powe. Immediate focus should be on the teoist oganizations with global each as well as teoists o states sponsoing teoism activities. Thee ae attempts of gaining and using weapons of mass destuction o pecusos. The law defends the national inteests, the native people, and intenational goals. Achievements in this case ae deived though identification and destuction of peace theats pio eaching national bodes. While most govenments continually stive towads enlisting intenational community suppot, they do not hesitate to act alone whee necessay. The goals at stake include execising thei ights to self-defense though peemptive action against teoists. The actions pevent them fom inflicting…… [Read More]
And Article 25 of the Charter enjoins all members to "... accept and carry out the decisions of the Security Council (Turner)."
On the other hand, leading lawyers contended that ritain would violate international law if it also used armed force against Iraq like the U.S. (Waugh 2002). Two leading barristers Rabinder Singh QC and Alison MacDonald said that the use of force against Iraq would be justified only if its leaders directly attacked ritain or its allies or an attack was imminent. They added that the attack should not be one that could be averted except with the use of force. They required the UN Security Council to authorize the use of force in concrete and "clear terms." They believed that Security Council resolutions did not authorize such use of force against Iraq. The United Kingdom was not entitled to that last recourse. Another barrister said that the UK…… [Read More]
It has given a clear signal to unscrupulous tyrants and murderous dictators around the world that they have no place to hide. Earlier, they could escape prosecution for their crimes by brow-beating or manipulating the judicial system in their own country; the expanding reach of international law has now made it possible for them to be answerable for such universally unacceptable crimes (Kenneth Roth).
The benefits of international law are also recognized by private business. For example the U.S. Apparel Industry Partnership has voluntarily agreed to a standard code of conduct that prohibits forced labor, child labor, and workweeks exceeding 60 hours. This has had a significant effect on the operation of U.S. companies in poor countries and helped to prevent the cruel exploitation of cheap labor (Ratner 71). The signing of the "Sullivan Principles" by more than 100 U.S. companies in 1977 that call for desegregation in the workplace,…… [Read More]
In the event the intelligence detailed by the Israeli administration proves to be accurate with respect to nuclear weapons development, this office is reminded of the words of the late President John, F. Kennedy, spoken almost exactly 45 years ago to the day, on October 22, 1962, addressing the Soviet threat in Cuba:
We no longer live in a world where only the actual firing of weapons represents a sufficient challenge to a nation's security to constitute maximum peril. Nuclear weapons are so destructive and ballistic missiles are so swift that any substantially increased possibility of their use or any sudden change in their deployment may well be regarded as a definite threat to peace." (Sorensen, 1965)
Extraordinary risks to national security demand (and justify) extraordinary actions to prevent them from materializing. A military response will be required to participate with Israel in destroying Iranian nuclear facilities either in possession…… [Read More]
International Peace and Terrorism
This section discusses the importance of primary data in completing the proposal. Different techniques to be used in collecting the primary data are discussed. The proposal also discusses the strategies that can be used in carrying out the qualitative analysis. The study suggests coding, triangulation and computer assisted program for the analysis of the proposal.
The section provides the importance of primary research in competing the study. The paper also discusses various techniques that the researcher can use to collect the primary data. The primary data are very critical in completing the proposal and the researcher will collect the primary data from various sources. Catino, (2014) argues primary sources are very critical to complete a research in security studies because without using the primary sources, a researcher will not be able to adequately gain an in-depth analysis on the subject. Thus, the proposal will…… [Read More]
Tragedies from deadly terrorist attacks have made the international communities to pervasively fear and loath terrorism. Terrorism is undertaken by individual with motivations that are complex for the understanding of security agencies and individuals. Definition according United States statutes states terrorism to be politically motivated, premeditated, violence against noncombatant individuals, private property by clandestine agents or subnational groups, with an intention to obtain audience (Launtenberg, 2011). This definition is adopted for purposes of this paper.
Attempts to shed some light on terrorism highlight the motives of the perpetrators while they give some appropriate measures to resolve the problem. The organizations linked to supporting terrorism by State Department stood at 22 in the year 2001. In three years' time, the list of identified terrorist groups had grown to 36 with more groups being listed as unofficial terrorist organizations. One might mistake terrorism industry for a thriving economic entity or the…… [Read More]
Another way that terrorism has more of an effect on democracy is because it influences the security of the homeland. Terrorism has made it where most countries ruled by democracy are now running a tight ship when it comes to homeland security (Leahy, 2005). As mentioned earlier it has dropped seeds in the back of people's minds as to whether or no democracy is able to protect its people. Not only has doubts been put in place regarding national homeland security but also the cost of keeping it more secure has sky rocketed the piece. Defense and security spending has really hit the roof by a massive amount in the aftermath of the September 11 attacks. Glen Hodgson, the Deputy Chief Economist for the EDC (Export Development Candada) mentions how the costs were in 2004:
The U.S. By itself has been spending somewhere around U.S. $500 billion every twelve months…… [Read More]
Terrorism Linked to Religion These Days?
Although terrorism has been present ever since the beginning of recorded history, defining it may prove to be slightly controversial task. There is no universally shared definition as it's a highly subjective term that depends upon the point-of-view of the observer. However, there are three perspectives from which terrorism can be looked at and then defined. These perspectives include the terrorist's, the victim's and the general publics.
The phrase "one man's terrorist is another man's freedom fighter" is one that even terrorists may re-affirm, thus asserting the controversial nature of the term itself. The following definition released by the United States FBI, can be used to describe the nature of modern day terrorism:
"The unlawful use of force or persons or property to intimidate or coerce a government, the civilian population, or any segment thereof, in furtherance of political or social objectives" (U.S. Department…… [Read More]
"[D]efeating terrorism must remain one of our intelligence community's core objectives, as widely dispersed terrorist networks will present one of the most serious challenges to U.S. national security interests at home and abroad...."
DCI Porter Goss, testifying before the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence
Nine days after the horrendous bombing of the Trade Towers on September 11, 2001, President George Bush addressed the Joint Session of Congress and the American People told the watching public that "we are a country awakened to danger and called to defend freedom. Our grief has turned to anger, and anger to resolution. Whether we bring our enemies to justice, or bring justice to our enemies, justice will be done ... I will not forget this wound to our country or those who inflicted it. I will not yield; I will not rest; I will not relent in waging this struggle for freedom and…… [Read More]
Discussion Questions on International Terrorism
Explain the origins and evolution of long-term separatists and ethnic and nationalistic terrorism. Also, provide group names and their respective parts of the world.
Ethno- separatist/nationalist terrorism is not specifically a modern phenomenon. Historically, two Jewish movements in Judaea that desired to provoke the local population to rise against the oman occupiers used ethno-racial terrorism. However, it was only in 60s and 70s that terrorism came to be associated with ethnic- separatist/nationalist movements (Conser, Paynich & Gingerich, 2013). During that time, terrorism was seen as paying off on the reasons for effective, aggressive campaigns launched and won. The Palestine Liberation Organization's terrorist movement between 1968 and 1980 confirmed to other nationalist groups that internationalizing their cause could be valuable. The variety of ethnic-national/separatist terrorist movements effective worldwide, therefore, increased from three in 1968 to 30 in 1978 (Cassara, 2006).
Psychologists argue that the…… [Read More]
Terrorism is a major threat in today's society. Due to that fact, it is imperative that nations have measures in place to combat the threats of terrorists against their worldwide interests. For the United States, those measures include numerous ways and methods that allow the nation to deter and combat terrorism on a local, national, and international level. This paper will outline those measures and methods, and will discuss their impact on the threat of terrorism. In addition, this paper will discuss the use of those methods in relation to the nuclear threat of the Soviet Union during the cold war, and the recent use of those methods as a deterrent against terrorism forces.
While terrorist threats are numerous in today's world, the methods used by the United States to deter those terrorists, help to ensure that, while some terrorism is inevitable, the attacks of those terrorists are kept at…… [Read More]
Although many of the figureheads of international terrorism have been exterminated, terrorism remains a pervasive reality. Whether from domestic or foreign sources, terrorism remains a real threat. Even in the absence of an actual attack, fear of terrorism inevitably harms the quality of life of citizens. Members of our organization should feel safe and secure, knowing that at least at work they are protected from all manner of terrorist attack: whether that be a lone gunman, an explosion, a biological or chemical weapon, or cyberterrorism.
esearch into the most effective responses to terrorism shows that terrorism is too diverse and complex a phenomenon to warrant a singular or simple response. We must remain vigilant of multiple types of terrorism, which is why I recommend the creation of a special position in our organization devoted to counterterrorism and internal security. The importance of this new position cannot be underestimated. An…… [Read More]
International Crime, Terrorism, And Organized Crime Trends
Comparing contrasting topics international crime, terrorism, organized crime trends
This research has confirmed the possibility of close correlation between money laundering activities, Islamic terrorist fundraising, organized crime, and corruption of public officials throughout Brazilian Hizballah region. The organized crime networks and the Islamic extremists of Brazil must be examined in collaboration because they are connected to wider networks in Latin America zone and across the world. All the organized activities and terrorists in Brazilian Hizballah were facilitated by corrupt officials, which were driven by the benefits of lucrative criminal activities conducted such as business ventures by terrorists and organized crime groups. Consequently, there was a mutually beneficial association among the three sectors. In this study, Brazilian Hizballah will serve as a microcosm.
A number of free-Trade American regions with massive Middle Eastern populations permit organized crime mafias, Islamic terrorist groups, and corrupt…… [Read More]
What is Terrorism?
Legacy in the 21st century
Based Terrorist Organizations
Ku Klux Klan
Counterterrorism and Prevention
Definitions and Structures
The very nature of terrorism, of course, is to engender fear and panic into the population base. Thus, targets are so numerous that complete protection of all is impossible. Targets could include any of the governmental buildings in Washington, D.C., courthouses or public buildings in major cities, malls, churches, and transportation centers in any town. Unless the materials are manufactured in the United States, though, the most likely targets are those that exist in coastal cities with larger port access (Smith, 2001).
Terrorists tend to target places that are media hyped, affect the lives of citizens, and are usually transportation, entertainment, or financially based in larger urban areas. Indeed, for greater efficacy, targets usually involve places where there are large non-combatant crowds,…… [Read More]
They now work together in what has become an ideological battle against the U.S. In this vicious battle against the terror outfits, our people have been robbed of their cherished freedom, which has always been the cornerstone of our constitution.
As history has time and again illustrated, 'power corrupts and absolute power corrupts absolutely'. This can be extended to the patriot act, which has given absolute power to the law enforcers at the cost of the freedom and privacy of its citizens. Ethnic profiling and 'speculation without any accountability' have undermined the rule of law and overridden civil and constitutional rights of thousands of citizens. The much-touted 'preventive paradigm' of which the patriot act is an important tool has resulted in much wrongdoing. The former president's acceptance that Iraqi invasion was a 'terrible mistake' is enough proof of the strategic misadventure of a failed intelligence system backed by emergency terror…… [Read More]
In modern terminology, and for foreign policy, political science and international law, crimes against humanity are any atrocious act committed on a large scale. They can be prosecuted in most any Federal Court ystem, depending on where they occurred and which population was part of the criminal activity. The implication for international law is that crimes against humanity are subject to universal jurisdiction, which means that tates can exercise their own jurisdiction regardless of where the crime was committed, and that all tates also have the obligation and duty to assist each other in the defense of these sorts of activities. It is also important to note that no human, regardless of affiliation, is immune from prosecution, even heads of state, and on person can plead a defense as obeying orders.
Part 3 -- Is it legally justified to invade/occupy another country in the name of arresting/hitting terrorists? International cooperation…… [Read More]
They are bombarded with information concerning the crimes performed by a certain community and they come to believe that it is important for them to act the respective community regardless of the aftermath.
omen terrorists practically act against the generally accepted belief that women are non-violent. The reality is that many women become terrorists and governments need to take this concept into consideration in order to be able to effectively act against terrorist organizations worldwide.
CNN ire Staff, "Syrian president tells envoy that support of 'terrorists' must stop," Retrieved March 30, 2013, from the CNN ebsite: http://edition.cnn.com/2012/10/21/world/meast/syria-brahimi-assad-meeting
Daly, Sara A., "omen As Terrorists: Mothers, Recruiters, and Martyrs," (ABC-CLIO, 2009)
Harriman, Jake, "Linking Extreme Poverty and Global Terrorism," Retrieved March 30, 2013, from the NY Times ebsite: http://kristof.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/03/13/linking-extreme-poverty-and-global-terrorism/
Khan, Muqtedar, "TERRORISM AND GLOBALIZATION," Retrieved March 30, 2013, from the GlocalEye ebsite: http://www.glocaleye.org/terglo.htm
Malisow, Ben, "Terrorism," (Infobase Publishing, 2008)
"Iratxe…… [Read More]
Thousands of individuals employed within the ussian nuclear complex - many of whom have knowledge and access to nuclear materials - receive salaries that are barely at subsistence level, raising the possibility that they might be susceptible to offers from anyone in the market to buy nuclear components" (Deutch, 1997).
5. Economic Consequences
It is generally a habit of the terrorist groups to target international powers in order to make their statement. But these international powers have extremely strong economies, and most importantly, extremely diverse. What this means, is that even if a terrorist attack would affect one economic sector, the large diversity of operations and revenues would be able to support the economic revival of the affected sector and support the country's economic growth (Sandler and Enders, 2005). However, one cannot rely on this premise as it is most applicable at a macroeconomic level. On a microeconomic level, the…… [Read More]
Terrorism and Democracy
Terrorism is by its very nature is anti-democratic as it seeks to achieve political ends by violence. It has no interest in any of the bedrocks of democracy such as building consensus, stimulating debate or protecting the rights and interests of minorities. In the wake of the 9/11 attacks on the TC twin towers, the 'clear and present' danger to democracy, freedom and liberties has become even more pronounced. There is consensus among all those who cherish democracy that urgent steps are necessary to counter the threat of terrorism. The key question is: how to accomplish this? In this essay we shall examine how terrorism undermines democracy and whether setting up an international committee can help to fight terrorism. e shall also look at short definitions of democracy and terrorism.
Definition of Democracy
Democracy (Greek demos, "the people"; kratein, "to rule") is a political system in which…… [Read More]
As reported by the New York Times
How: A Pakistani man accused of aiding Al Qaeda who was imprisoned in his home country for three years, has been released by the government.
Brief Analysis: The connections of Muhammad Naeem Noor Khan to terrorism are debated, as the CIA alleges he has been involved in terrorist activity but Pakistani officials have said that information from Mr. Khan led them to a Tanzanian wanted in connection with the 1998 bombings of American embassies in East Africa, which killed more than 200 people. They say he is not a terrorist, but merely had knowledge of the event, and thus upon gaining this information, he was released. This highlights how the international nature of terrorist organizations and the conflicting policies of nations in dealing with terrorists make it even more difficult to combat this threat.
Baker, Al. (23 Aug 2007). "Critics Say…… [Read More]
289). Coady (cited in Halwani, 2006) points out that lack of a good definition makes it difficult, if not impossible, to address the moral implications of terrorism. Coady defines terrorism as "the organized use of violence to attack noncombatants ('innocents' in a special sense) or their property for political purposes" (p. 290). This definition focuses on the targets, innocent "noncombatants" and does not consider the goals the terrorists aim to achieve. It does specify for "political purposes" rather than criminal, and does not mention causing fear. There exists some disagreement on whether threats, for example, as opposed to real acts, constitute terrorism. If the goal of inducing fear is part of the definition, then threats would be included, but if terrorist goals are limited to "political purposes," then threats would not qualify as terrorist acts.
Coady (cited in Halwani, 2006) points out that some "acts of political violence may be…… [Read More]
Definitions of terrorism
Under the U.S. Government, terrorism has different definitions, not accounting also scholars' own definitions of this concept. In a study by Mark Burgess (2003) for the U.S. Center for Defense Information, he identified five (5) definitions of terrorism, three from the U.S. Government and two from academic scholars. The common factors in each definition, according to Burgess, are the terrorists' motives, identity, and methods.
The Department of Defense defines terrorism as "[t]he calculated use of unlawful violence to inculcate fear… to intimidate governments or societies in the pursuit of goals that are generally political, religious or ideological" (para. 4). The FBI has the same definition, albeit worded differently and includes not only people, but also property as an object of violence. The State Department, meanwhile, has a more specific definition, identifying terrorism as "premeditated" and primarily "politically motivated," and identified terrorists as "subnational groups or clandestine…… [Read More]
Americans' views of terrorism were forever established on September 11, 2001, when terrorists flew two planes into the World Trade Towers in New York, collapsing them both, and one plane into the Pentagon, causing severe damage. A fourth plane crashed into the countryside in Pennsylvania instead of hitting its target, probably in Washington, D.C., only because passengers challenged the hijackers and fought back. Over 3,000 people lost their lives that day.
Until that day, terrorism had been a somewhat distant concept to most Americans. We heard about terrorism in srael, and perhaps some of us had friends or family to worry about, and we heard about .R.A. attacks in Great Britain, but September 11 was the firsts time international terrorists had done major damage on U.S. soil. Virtually everyone in the United States became vocally opposed to terrorism on that day even if they hadn't given it much thought…… [Read More]
esearch Issues on the Topic of Terrorism
Written into the very word, terrorism is a fascinating social problem worth inquiry. The meaning of terrorism is an act of violence or other that paralyses the individual or society with a feeling of terror. That terror can be a product of the relative infrequency and therefore surprise and seeming senselessness associated with the event, such as in the case of large scale and broad violent acts against larger populations (like 9/11, or the Oklahoma City bombing in the U.S.). The form of terror might also grow out of the expectation of debilitating acts against others as a standard operating procedure during certain circumstances (like the support and at the very least complicity of commanders in times of often ethnic war where women of the "enemy" are frequently and violently raped as an act of aggression and show of power).
Though the…… [Read More]
Some rates had even decreased. Maritime shipping rates grew by 5 to 10% on average in the two weeks after the attack, but that rise was soon reversed. Airfreight rates, however, were about 10% higher in late 2001 than before the attacks. Due to the abrupt slowing of cumulative demand starting in 2000 and the decline in fuel costs after the terrorism, there should have been a steeper falling off in freight costs. The stability of freight rates, despite power fuel prices and underused shipping capacity would suggest that transportation costs may have increased as a result of the 9/11 attacks (Looney).
In 2005, Songster looked at the impact that terrorist acts have around the world on the hospitality industry, which has become a prime target in a number of threatening situations. Hotels, restaurants and bars around the globe have increasingly become scenes of terrorist atrocities not enjoyment and relaxation.…… [Read More]
At times terrorist succeed and at times they fail. Some times they have larger and long-term goal and some times they have short-term aims. For example, a group hijacking a plane wanted some immediate results like release of the prisoners or financial gain but blowing a plane into a building would definitely mean that terrorists wanted something big out of it. Sometimes terrorists want to just cause panic and fear. They attack to make people realize that they are vulnerable. They just want people to become fearful & terrified to go about their usual and routine activities.
War on Terror
War on Terror' is the phrase that has been used and abused since Americans were attacked on their soil on September 11 in New York's Twin Towers. Today America's foreign policy is defined by the term 'War on Terror'. The attack on twin towers made America vulnerable and they had…… [Read More]
No matter the actual cost of terrorism in terms of the economic damage, the perception that investment is going to incur higher risk will inevitably lead to the conclusion that it will also incur higher costs. Since higher costs are generally an anathema to transnational business, it stands that capital would move away from areas that have experienced terrorism. In fact, this is born out by the numbers. As already mentioned, FDI in the U.S. dropped by a factor of ten following the September 11th terrorist attacks. No one person, business, institution, or government had to organize this shift; rather it occurred organically as a function of the market itself. In the aftermath of the attacks, the U.S. suddenly seemed like a riskier place to do business and capital would have been shifted towards areas of the world that had the perception of being safer.
In fact, surveys conducted among…… [Read More]
S., have the potential to cause billions of dollars of damage to the U.S. economy" (Threat pp).
Airlines likely to become vocal over security costs - claim.(Brief Article)
Airline Industry Information. December 14, 2004. Retrieved August 14, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library eb site.
Bartlett, Michael. "Only Terrorism Can Derail Continued Growth."
Credit Union Journal. October 03, 2004. Retrieved August 14, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library eb site.
Crutsinger, Martin. "ECONOMISTS RANK TERRORISM GREATEST THREAT
TO ECONOMY; MEMBERS OF THE NATIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR Business ECONOMICS RANK IMMEDIATE THREATS." isconsin State Journal. August 18, 2004. Retrieved August 14, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library eb site.
Definition of Terrorism. Retrieved August 14, 2005 at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Definition_of_terrorism
High oil prices risky for U.S. economy: top Bush adviser.
Agence France Presse English. August 09, 2005. Retrieved August 14, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library eb site.
Raum, Tom. "Approval of Bush's Handling of Economy…… [Read More]
Even in the absence of a governmental agency, there is another method to control these covert operations, and that is public opinion. As the news of many government atrocities has become known, there has been a great public outcry against these occurrences, and at least some times, this has led to modification of policies and covert actions. For example, when the atrocities at Abu Ghraib prison became known, there was a moral outcry to stop the offensive practices and punish those who had participated in them. Obviously, covert actions are not going to become known overnight. However, as they do, the citizens can make their feelings known and cry out against these types of outrages, encouraging leaders to stop using these covert actions in the future.
Finally, we must enact legislation to ensure these types of covert operations do not occur. While anyone can find loopholes in legislation, without it,…… [Read More]
He had an engineering degree from the university of Swansea in ritain. He too participated in the afghan war and was a friend of in laden since the late eighties. He was the emissary of bin laden in Philippines and trained the Muslim fundamentalists there. He made his way into the U.S. without a visa and continued his stay there by seeking political asylum. He was a skilled expert in making chemical bombs. In 1995, Yousef was arrested by Pakistani authorities and in the next year he was sentenced to 240 years of imprisonment in the U.S. For his role in the WTO bombing.
Rex a. Hudson]
Terrorism has expanded into every nook and corner of the world today. A terrorist today, does not appear with a distinctive personality but rather blends with the society leaving security experts with little clue. While organized crimes are mostly economically motivated, terrorism…… [Read More]
There is strength in numbers, and a larger, better funded organization can often accomplish more than a smaller, splinter organization ever could. It seems that there are so many terrorist factions in the world, they are too far divided to ever join forces, and perhaps that is the only thing that is helping keep much of the world relatively free from terrorist activity.
Thus, the partnership makes sense for both parties who are intent on attacking a country or people more effectively. They also make sense for small groups who may not have enough power or influence on their own. Terrorist alliances may become more common in the future, creating more danger for everyone on the planet.
Gardner, Hall. "Aligning for the Future: Assertive Unilateralism or Concert of Powers?" Harvard International eview 24, no. 4 (2003): 56+.
apoport, David C., ed. Inside Terrorist Organizations. New…… [Read More]
apan finds itself at a critical point in its historical development. The world's third largest economy, it also has the world's second-highest debt burden in proportional terms and the current triple disaster is going to have dire consequences on the nation's recovery from the current worldwide recession. Economic uncertainty, loss of faith in current political structures and leaders, loss of status in the world, betrayal by corporations that have also been a key stabilizing structure in the nation: This is a potent mixture for resistance against the state and its representatives. This resistance may be peaceful and democratic. Or it may be violent, arising from dark, dank pools of ultranationalism that may well be already feasting on the bodies of the uncollected dead.
It is entirely possible that various ultranationalist right wing groups in apan may produce or support recruitment of terrorists in the coming months. There are currently hundreds…… [Read More]
Terrorism seems to have taken over the world. No matter how hard the industrialized countries try to find ways to achieve peace and stability in the world but somehow the opposite happens. Today's world is predominantly inhabited by hatred that is visible in the never-ending terror and fear produced by the attacks of September 11th and the military responses undertaken by Super powers. Wars apparently carried out in order to eradicate terrorism are seen by the affected countries as excuses to simply dominate more countries and establish and American hegemony or new colonialism all over the world.
The reasons for escalating terrorism are complex and more than often not understandable. However, some of the reasons are as follows: The growth in the number of terrorist groups is instigated largely by the religious imperative that is greatly funded by the state governments of the Islamic countries; the highly advanced technology and…… [Read More]
he author frequently stresses historical failings, including those he relates to international opinion polls of 'international actions" such as those taken by the U.S. In the invasion of Iraq. he purposes of the article are clearly stated as the author stresses that his work should be seen as a brief though not simplistic summary of the problems and solutions associated with the problem.
As this is not a traditional research-based work the article does not contain a review of literature, though it does pull from appropriate literature, mainly international opinion polls to stress points made by the author. he literature it does use is timely and very current and discusses real application of the validity of the argument that past practices of cooperation and lack there of have resulted in negative overall opinions of those entities in the international community, with regard to past actions.
his work also outlines no…… [Read More]
Terrorism / Homeland security
Terrorism is a global phenomenon that needs urgent research to address its effects on people. Scholars on terrorism argue that terrorism is a disputed term. These scholars contend that those individuals referred to as terrorists may be guerrilla fighters, resistant fighters, freedom fighters or militants. They further state that terrorism is a tactic employed to pass out propaganda of deeds thus causing psychological and social impacts on individuals. In addition, people in these places feel the direct effects of the violent act of the terrorists group. Experts dispute whether the start of terrorism is in the first century. There is a view that it started in the 11th century during the time of Sicarrii Zealots. Others are of the opinion that Al-Hashshashin's time was the time when terrorism began (Howard, 2002).
Terrorism in Middle East
Terrorism organizations in the Middle East are mostly religious…… [Read More]